Feasibility Study for

Wind Power at SAB
Newlands







Author:
Walter Brosius

2009


The author wishes to thank the following for contributing to this
project:

At Stellenbosch University:
• Professor Van Niekerk for offering me a study
position and this project as thesis subject.
• Professor Von Backstrom for supervising me during
this project and for his guidance and patience.
• The team of lecturers affiliated with the Centre for
Renewable Energy Studies
• Mr. Francis Jackson for his clear lecturing on the topic
of wind energy.
At SAB:
• Mr. Tony Cole for his interest and support in this
project.
• Mr. Josiah Mpofu for his great support at the SAB
Newlands plant.
And last but not least my loving parents for their everlasting
support.
1. ABSTRACT
This paper describes a MEng thesis project for a MEng in
Renewable Energy Systems program at the Centre for Renewable
Energy Studies at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. The
aim of this paper was to offer to SAB (South African Breweries), in
Cape Town, a feasibility study for the possibilities of the usage of
wind energy on site.

The small scale wind power technology has a long history
and has been in South Africa for more than a hundred years in the
form of water pump wind mills. All wind mills have an absolute
maximum power output defined by the Betz limit. The choice of a
wind turbine depends not only on this, but also on the wind speed
distribution, the power curve, the location and financing. The small
scale turbines have many different design which are predominantly
grouped in horizontal axis (HAWT) and vertical axis (VAWT)
machines.
The choice of turbine for SAB depends on the available wind
energy, the available budget, the available space and the
application. The aim of the measurements on site was threefold;
find a correlation with existing weather stations in the area like at
Cape Town International Airport, propose a turbine for SAB’s
budget and research the possibility for installing the turbine on one
of the buildings. This is also known as building integrated wind
turbines.
Wind speeds can increase over buildings due to venturi
effects and it could therefore be viable to locate these acceleration
zones and install a turbine there. The data analysis shows that the
wind above the brewery is very well correlated with the wind at the
airport. We can therefore use the average speed values of this
station to predict average power production. This leads to the
proposal of a 1kW or 3kW turbine from a South African
manufacturer: Kestrel. Building integration is however not a good
idea. The wind is too turbulent and can therefore not be used. This
is mainly caused by the fact that the surroundings of the brewery
are too high and irregularly shaped. This makes it difficult for the
wind to “lower” in between the buildings and accelerate.
The wind turbine for SAB is proposed to be installed on the
highest point of the roof and based on the neighbouring average
wind speed values. The wind turbine should be connected directly
to the brewery’s grid with an inverter and would then solely
function as an energy saver. Another important aspect is the
promotional value in the energy efficiency strategy of SAB.

Table of Contents

1. Abstract ........................................................................................ iii
2. Introduction ................................................................................... 7
3. Theory and background ................................................................ 8
Introduction ................................................................................... 8
History ........................................................................................... 8
Wind Energy ................................................................................. 9
Betz Law ..................................................................................... 10
The Power Curve of a Wind Turbine ......................................... 10
The Variability of Wind. ............................................................. 11
Wind Speed Distribution .................................................. 11
Variation over long periods .............................................. 13
Local obstructions and wind shear ................................... 13
Wind Maps .................................................................................. 16
Annual Energy Production ......................................................... 18
Capacity factor ............................................................................ 19
Capacity Credit ........................................................................... 20
Electricity Generation ................................................................. 21
Voltage ............................................................................ 21
Current ............................................................................ 21
Three Phase Alternating Current ...................................... 22
Generation ......................................................................... 22
4. Small-scale wind power .............................................................. 24
Introduction ................................................................................. 24
Definition and types .................................................................... 24
Definition .......................................................................... 24
Horizontal axis wind turbines ........................................... 24
Vertical-axis wind turbines............................................... 25
Systems ....................................................................................... 26
Stand alone wind power ................................................... 26
Grid tied wind power ........................................................ 27
Hybrid wind power ........................................................... 28
Inverter ............................................................................ 29
Site assessment for small scale systems ..................................... 30
Wind measurement ........................................................... 30
Consumption monitoring .................................................. 31
Batteries ............................................................................ 32
Charge controller .............................................................. 34
Market research ........................................................................... 34
5. Building Integrated Wind Turbines ............................................ 35
Building Integrated Wind ........................................................... 35
Examples: (large and small) ....................................................... 36
The Swift ........................................................................... 36
The Bahrain World Trade Centre ..................................... 36
The Aeroturbine ................................................................ 38
The Windpods ................................................................... 40
Feedback ..................................................................................... 43
6. SAB Brewery Cape town ............................................................ 44
Introduction: a feasibility study .................................................. 44
Problem Formulation ........................................................ 44
Proposed Approach ........................................................... 44
Results ......................................................................................... 45
Location Analysis ............................................................. 45
Graphs ............................................................................ 49
Calculations ...................................................................... 54
Wind roses ........................................................................ 57
Difficulties .................................................................................. 62
Conclusion .................................................................................. 63
7. Main Conclusion ......................................................................... 64
Summary ..................................................................................... 64
Recommendations ....................................................................... 64
8. Bibliography ............................................................................... 65
9. APPENDIX ................................................................................. 66




7

2. INTRODUCTION

Cape Town has a reputation of a very windy city. It is
therefore logical to investigate the potential of this wind power for
harvesting it in the form of electric power by use of wind turbines.
The dominating winds in the region are the infamous south eastern
wind and the north western wind. These are seasonal and are
responsible for the reputation of Cape Town as a good wind sports
site.
Since several years, the effects of climate change have been
increasing and the general interest in renewable energy
technologies has been growing steadily. Wind energy in particular
seems to be the fastest growing energy technology at the moment.
European countries like Germany are aiming at a penetration level
of 20% and higher. The main objective there is to use wind energy
as a fuel saver and for replacing a percentage of conventional
energy technology.
In South Africa, the interest in wind energy is not less than
elsewhere although the legislative mechanisms are lagging behind.
Many private investors like companies and households don’t wish
to wait for this and are prepared to take the initiative to invest in
wind energy. However, the knowledge of wind turbines is still
quite low. SAB is one of the companies that would like to invest in
wind turbines to be placed on the premises of its factories. The
question arises then where to place the turbine, which system to
choose and how big it should be. The purpose of this report is to
answer these questions.
The first half of this report includes a history, summary and
description of existing technologies, types and more.
The second half comprises a feasibility study for SAB Cape
Town. The site was surveyed by measuring the wind speeds and
directions with two measuring devices. Based on that and other
limitations, a list of recommendations will be made in order to
provide a clear conclusion to SAB.
8

3. THEORY AND BACKGROUND
Introduction
The theory and background described in this chapter
contains a general overview of wind energy systems. First the
history of wind energy and turbines is briefly described. After that,
the topic of wind energy is described by starting from the definition
of wind energy and its limitation by the Betz law. The latter
influences directly the power curve and performance of a wind
turbine. Then, the variability of wind energy is discussed because
this is probably the most important topic to understand. The next
paragraphs discuss how to calculate the annual energy production
(AEP) of wind turbines and the related capacity factor and capacity
credit. The main objective of wind turbines is electricity generation
and we have added a paragraph regarding this subject which
touches on electricity and generators.
History
Throughout the human history the wind has been used to
power sailboats and sail ships and to ventilate buildings or houses.
The applications where wind power is used to generate mechanical
power or shaft power are relatively young. As early as the 17
th

century BC, in Babylon, there are traces of the use of wind mills to
power irrigation systems. The oldest practical wind mills have been
found in Afghanistan dating back to the 7
th
century. These were
vertical-axis windmills, which had long vertical drive shafts with
rectangular blades. The materials used were wood, reed matting,
cloth and limestone. These windmills were used to grind corn and
draw up water. Horizontal-axis windmills were later used
extensively in North-western Europe and Greece to grind flour. The
most famous are found in The Netherlands which date back to the
1180s.
During the 1800s there was a major boom in the
development and distribution of the well known multi-bladed
turbine which was mounted on a wooden structure. These were
used by farms and railroads to pump ground water used for
irrigation, cattle and steam locomotives and were rapidly
distributed all over the world.
The first modern wind turbines were built in the early 1980s,
and have been subject to increasingly efficient design.
9

Wind Energy
Wind is generated by atmospheric pressure differences. The
solar energy that falls upon the earth warms the surface by
radiation. The surface warms up and transmits a large part of the
heat back to the air by convection and this causes the air to rise in
the warmer regions near the equator. This mechanism causes the
major wind systems that govern global wind patterns. They are
quite well understood, but on the more local level there are many
parameters still unknown. Most of the energy stored in these wind
movements can be found at high altitudes where continuous wind
speeds of over 160 km/h occur. Eventually, the wind energy is
converted back through friction into diffuse heat throughout the
earth's surface and the atmosphere. A good example of local wind
patterns occurs in high altitude mountain ranges like the Alps in
Europe. Here, aside from the meteorological wind, there is also a
wind force generated by the difference in temperature of the
mountain flanks and valleys. This wind is also known as a valley
breeze. Another example of local wind force is the acceleration of
wind between buildings in built-up areas in cities or between
funnel shaped hills.


Figure 1: Global wind systems; trade winds
(http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu)
The total wind power that is present in the earth’s
atmosphere is estimated to be considerably more that the present
total human power usage. Of this total power, it is estimated that
about 72 TW can be commercially exploited compared to the 15
TW average global power consumption. This number is incentive
enough to allow investments and research to continue.
10


Betz Law
The Betz law allows us to calculate the maximum energy that
can be converted by a wind turbine. It was developed in 1919 by
German physicist Albert Betz (Jackson, 2009).
The essence of the Betz law the power extracted from the
wind by the rotor is proportional to the product of the wind speed
times the pressure drop across the rotor.

Figure 2: A rotor in a wind stream (Jackson, 2009)
If the rotor has a higher flow resistance, the pressure drop is
increased, but less flow goes through the disc and more goes
around it. The Betz law shows that there is a maximum efficiency
for the extraction of power which is at 59.3%. See Appendix A for
a derivation of the Betz law.
Based on the law, it is common practice to say that a turbine
can’t capture more than 59.3 % of the kinetic energy in wind.
Because some modern wind turbines approach this potential
maximum efficiency, once practical engineering obstacles are
considered, the Betz law shows a limiting factor for this form of
renewable energy. Engineering constraints, energy storage
limitations and transmission losses cause for even the best modern
turbines to operate at efficiencies substantially below the Betz
limit.

The Power Curve of a Wind Turbine
The power curve of a wind turbine is a graph that indicates
how large the electrical power output will be for the turbine at
different wind speeds. Usually, wind turbines are designed to start
generating at wind speeds somewhere around 3 to 5 metres per
11

second. This is called the cut-in wind speed. The wind turbine will
be programmed or designed to stop at high wind speeds in order to
avoid damaging the turbine or its surroundings. This speed is called
the cut-out wind speed. In Figure 3 this speed is 10, 5 m/s.


Figure 3: Example of a power curve (Kestrel Wind)
The Variability of Wind
Wind Speed Distribution
The limitation stated by the Betz law is not the only factor
that counters the easy implementation of wind turbines. Another
important one is the non-consistency of wind speed regardless of
location. Common practice these days is to measure wind speeds
continuously and map these data on graphs and analyze these
statistically with the Weibull distribution formulas. These give us a
good graphical representation of the behaviour of the wind at a
certain location. An example is given underneath.
Figure 4 shows two Weibull curves with the same mean
wind speed, but different shape factors. When the shape factor is 2,
the distribution is called a Raleigh distribution.
This wind speed distribution is a very accurate display of the
shortcoming of wind energy: the energy is not reliably available
when needed and not constant. Unlike fossil fuel plants which can
run 24 hrs regardless of weather conditions.

12


Figure 4: Two Weibull curves with different shape
factors but same mean wind speed. (Jackson, 2009)

13


Variation over long periods

The effects of day and night, of seasonal differences and
annual variation trends are all visible when wind speeds are plotted
versus a time scale. The wind speed at a certain location can differ
between night and day for instance when a daily sea breeze exists.
When data of many years is available, one can also detect
trends over the years. In Europe, the wind has been monitored for
more than a hundred years which has enabled to find certain trends.
One can for example find that the average annual wind speed
differs with a standard mean deviation of 6% between the years.
Local obstructions and wind shear

Wind is air in motion. The air behaves like a fluid and its
flow path is not only defined by a pressure difference and a flow
rate, but also by the obstructions it meets. When air flows over or
around an obstruction, there is always a certain amount of
turbulence in the vicinity of this obstruction. The turbulence
depends on the wind speed and can affect a wind turbine
performance negatively. This can be understood from the fact that
the force on the blades is a result of a smooth well ordered laminar
flow over them. The lift that is generated by the blade results in a
displacement or rotation of the rotor. When the incoming airflow is
turbulent, the flow around the blade is disturbed and this causes a
‘stall’ of the blade resulting in very little to no lift force. There are
two ways to stall a blade. One is to increase the angle of attack α
(Fig 7) too much and the second one is to vary α too fast and
irregularly which is the case with turbulent flow.
14


Figure 5: Laminar flow and stalling due to turbulence
(Jackson, 2009)
The positioning of a wind turbine will be heavily influenced
by its surrounding characteristics as is shown in the next figure.
The reader can understand that the placement of a turbine in an
open field is much different from the placement in a built up area
where the turbulences are very difficult to predict.


Figure 6: turbulence effect due to building (Jackson,
2009)
Another variation due to obstructions is the variation of the
wind speed between the ground level and higher up in the air. At
any location, a shear profile can be measured which shows the
effect of the ground on the wind speed. Like any normal fluid, air is
sensitive to the roughness of its surroundings. This roughness
creates a shear effect depending on its speed and viscosity. When
measurements are made at a location, the best thing to do is to
measure the wind shear profile by using wind vanes at different
heights. This profile tends to be an exponential function with
following relationship:
15


Where the velocities U
(x)
are related to the heights z
x
. (See
Fig 7)

Figure 7: wind shear profile (Jackson, 2009)
It is clear that the wind speeds are generally higher at greater
elevation from the surface where the measurement was taken. This
is why commercial wind farms reach for higher wind speeds by
using higher turbines. There is of course a maximum to this which
is a balance between cost and benefit.

16

Wind Maps
The effects of geography and pressure zones and the
previously mentioned disturbances cause an average variability
between regions. This is easily shown in the next figures which are
wind maps for South Africa. These windmaps show the average
wind speeds in all the areas in South Africa. Although this should
not be the only decisive indicator for the choice of a wind farm
location, this certainly indicates where the best regions will be
found. These windmaps show for example that the coastal regions
of the Western Cape have a higher mean annual wind speed than
the more inland regions of for example the Northern Cape. (Fig 8
and 9)



Figure 8: wind speed variation with region (DME)
17


Figure 9: Another wind map (Hageman, 2008)

18

Annual Energy Production
The total maximum energy that a wind turbine can produce
in a year is calculated by multiplying the nominal capacity by the
number of hours in a year. The total annual energy production
(AEP) of a wind turbine is never as high because of the varying
wind speed.
The easiest way to explain how to find the AEP is by using
the following graphs:


Figure 10: wind speed distribution vs. power curve
(Jackson, 2009)
Figure 10 shows the effect of the available power from a
certain wind speed distribution in combination with a certain
turbine’s power curve. When overlapping these, one can see the
available power underneath the intersection of the curves for each
wind speed window.
19


Figure 11: wind speed, power and AEP (Jackson, 2009)
This available power is then used to calculate the AEP for
each window which results in a graph like figure 11. The total AEP
is then the sum of each speed window’s AEP.
• For each wind speed bin (u) a certain number of hours
per year occur t
u
[h]
• The turbine puts out power for that bin P
u
according to
the power curve. P
u
[W]
• Energy captured in that bin is the number of hours
times

Eu = P
u
x t
u
[WH] (1)

• Total energy captured is sum of all bins

AEP = ΣE
u
[WH] (2)

Capacity factor
The ratio of actual productivity in a year to the theoretical
maximum is called the capacity factor. Typical capacity factors are
20–40%, with values at the upper end of the range in particularly
favourable sites.
For example: a 1MW turbine with a capacity factor of 35%
will not produce 8,760 MWh in a year (1 × 24 × 365), but only 1 ×
0.35 × 24 × 365 = 3,066 MWh, averaging to 0.35 MW.

(3)
20

In comparison, the capacity factors of conventional plants
can be as high as 90% if they are used to provide base load. Some
expensive plants that run on natural gas are mostly used for peak
load production and therefore have capacity factors of around 5 to
25 %.

Capacity Credit
Due to the intermittency of wind energy, the grid will never
be supplied with wind power only. That is the reason why wind
energy is mostly seen as a conventional fuel saver and a
greenhouse gas reducer. However, there is always a certain amount
of conventional capacity that can be displaced by wind and this is
expressed as a percentage of the installed wind capacity.

[ ]
[ ] MW Capacity Wind Installed
MW Capacity al Convention le Displaceab
Credit Capacity = (4)

This capacity credit can also be expressed in GW capacity,
meaning the exact displaceable capacity. This so-called
shortcoming of wind power is often used as an argument to say that
for each wind farm, one needs to build as much conventional
capacity. This statement has been found incorrect by recent studies.
In the UK for example, history suggests that the capacity credit
should be about 30% at low wind penetrations. (Marsh, 2009)
At low penetration this capacity credit is usually equal to the
capacity credit. (Jackson, 2009) At higher penetration, this relation
is not correct and the capacity credit follows a square root curve
like in following figure:

Figure 12: wind capacity in the UK related to the
national grid (Boyle, 2007)

21

Electricity Generation
Wind turbines can generate mechanical power which can
either be used directly in pumping applications or for running a
generator to create electric power. Wind turbines that feed the
national grid are usually grouped in a wind farm and generate
electrical power of several kVolts and are connected to the grid
through a transmission system. The small scale wind turbines that
are discussed further in this report operate at a much lower voltage
of around 12 to 200 V. On large wind turbines (above 100-150 kW)
the voltage generated by the turbine is usually 690 V three-phase
alternating. Turbines usually produce alternating current or AC
since they are mostly directly coupled to the generator. With the
small turbines this is not always the case as will be seen later.
Following paragraphs are a summary of the theory of
electricity generation since it is important for understanding the
basic characteristics of wind turbines.
Voltage
A voltage is the same as a potential difference between two
ends of any electrical circuit or conducting material. The voltage is
like the driving force for the current and is comparable to water
pressure. This pressure is needed to overcome resistances in the
circuits that can be compared to the electrical loads. The power that
can be delivered increases directly with voltage. Voltage is
expressed as number with unit Volt and has typical values of 220 V
or 110 V in household networks. Lower values are typically 12 V
or 24 V for battery applications. The grid networks operate at
extremely high voltages ranging between 10 kV to 400 kV.
Current
The electricity that comes out of a battery is direct current
(DC), i.e. the electrons flow in one direction only. Most electrical
grids in the world are alternating current (AC) grids, however. One
reason for using alternating current is that it is possible to directly
transform the electricity up and down to different voltages. This is
needed because the transport of electricity over long distances
requires a high voltage to minimize losses. Once delivered, the
voltage has to be reduced to household values.
22


Three Phase Alternating Current
The AC networks mentioned above consist normally of three
phases. This means that the electricity is generated and transported
in three different lines at the same time in parallel which is shown
on figure 13. We will not go into details since that is not the scope
of this paper. Important to mention is the frequency of the
alternating voltage which is usually 50 or 60 Hz.


Figure 13: Three phase electricity (DWTMA)
Generation
All electrical generation from a mechanical source like a
wind turbine uses electromagnetic induction. Basically, the turbine
axis rotates a set of copper windings in a static magnetic field. This
causes an electric field across these windings and if these windings
are connected to a load in a circuit, a current will flow. The voltage
across the windings is therefore dependent of the rotor speed and is
also alternating or AC. In common generators that are run by steady
speed turbines, the voltage are controlled by the speed of the
turbine. When the load increases, the turbine must deliver more
torque at the same speed and therefore consume more fuel. With a
wind turbine, the speed of the generator varies continuously so in
order to produce a useable voltage which is constant, the turbine
needs a voltage control.
There are two basic types of generators used on wind
turbines: induction generators and alternators. The induction
generators are basically the same as induction motors. They create
electrical energy in a rotor which is carrying a set of copper
windings while rotating in a changing magnetic field exerted by the
stator. The conversion from AC to DC is done by a commutator on
the rotor. This commutator is connected by brushes to the outer
electrical circuit. The consequence of this system is that the rotor
23

becomes quite heavy and the generator is not efficient at low rotor
speeds. Also, the brushes need preventive maintenance. This is why
this type of generator is used mainly in larger turbines.
The one that is used mostly in small scale turbines is based
on the alternator type. This is also the generator type that is used in
automobiles. The difference here is that the magnetic field is
exerted by the rotor while the electrical power is generated in the
stator. This makes the rotor much lighter and enables power
generation in much lower rotor speeds. The magnetic field can be
created by electromagnets which require a small electric field
provided to the shaft by brushes. Another option is the use of
permanent magnets which eliminated the use of brushes. This is
very favorable for small scale wind turbines since it reduces
maintenance a lot. The rectification of the AC to the DC is done in
this case by diode bridges.



Figure 14: a typical wind turbine: propeller, gearbox,
synchronous generator, transformer connected to the grid
(Jackson, 2009)

24

4. SMALL-SCALE WIND POWER
Introduction
The reason for choosing small scale turbines is because both
the budget and site surface size don’t allow for large turbines. This
chapter reviews the small scale wind turbines that are in use today
all over the world. The different types are discussed as well as their
advantages and disadvantages. In most cases, the turbines
themselves are part of an integral system. Stand alone, grid tied or
hybrid systems are integral systems that include wind turbines,
batteries, inverters, other power generators etc.
In order to be able to assess the wind conditions at a certain
site for small scale wind turbines, there are a few recommendations
at the end of this chapter along with a short market research report
for South Africa.

Definition and types
Definition
With small scale wind power we understand those systems
that have a nominal electrical power below 50 kW. These are
typically turbines with rotor diameter from 1m to 3m and are used
in small local electrical networks. There are many types and
applications for these turbines and we will try to give an overview
of these in a generalized way with examples.
Horizontal axis wind turbines
The most well known windmill has a horizontal axis. These
horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) have the main rotor shaft
and electricity generator at the top of a tower and must be pointed
into the wind. Small turbines use a wind vane while large ones are
turned by a servomotor. Most have a gearbox to increase the rotor
speed to suitable generation speed. The turbine is usually mounted
upwind of the tower since the tower creates turbulence behind it.
This requires very stiff rotor blades so that they can’t be bent too
far and hit the tower. Additionally, the blades are placed a
considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted
up a small amount. The downwind types don’t need additional
systems to correct for wind direction and to increase stiffness but
common practice has taught that cyclic turbulence may lead to
25

early fatigue problems and that’s why most HAWT turbines are
upwind machines.

As shown; the Energy Ball V100 by Home Energy, the
Proven100 by Proven Wind and the AirX from Windenergy.
Vertical-axis wind turbines
In contrast to the HAWT, these turbines have a vertical main
rotor shaft. The main advantage of this arrangement is that the
turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective.
This is an advantage on sites where the wind direction is highly
variable. VAWTs can utilize winds from varying directions.
Although the advantages seem substantial, this type of machine
hasn’t become a major player on the market. There has been
development on a few types like the Darrieus wind turbine, the
Savonius and the giromill wind turbine (beneath from left to right).



The Darrieus or sometimes called “eggbeaters” have a good
efficiency, but produce large torque ripple and the cyclic stress on
the tower contributes to poor reliability. They generally need some
external power source, or an additional Savonius rotor, to start
turning, because of the low starting torque. The torque ripple is
reduced by using three or more blades which results in a higher
solidity for the rotor. Solidity is measured by blade area over the
rotor area. The giro mills are a subtype of the Darrieus turbine.
They have straight blades and can have variable pitch to reduce the
torque pulsation and to increase the starting torque. This also
results in a wide, relatively flat torque curve; a lower blade speed
26

ratio; a higher coefficient of performance; more efficient operation
in turbulent winds.
The Savonius turbines are drag-type devices with two (or
more) sails or fins. They are used in anemometers, Flettner vents
(commonly seen on bus and van roofs), and in some high-reliability
low-efficiency power turbines. They are always self-starting if
there are at least three scoops and they sometimes have long helical
scoops to give a smooth torque.


Figure 15: how the Darrieus turbine works (Jackson,
2009)

Systems
Stand alone wind power
As shown in the figure above the stand alone system is using
the wind turbine for electricity generation directly. The basic
system has a voltage limiter and an inverter connected to the
network preferably through a kWh meter. Of course, the problem of
energy storage comes up immediately and the most used storage
technology is batteries. Others are hydrogen storage, compressed
air, pumped water and other less investigated systems. The voltage
limiter takes care of over-speed situations from the wind turbine in
case of high winds. The inverter can transform DC or AC input at
low voltage into the usual network voltage of 110V or 220V. Of
course, one can also design the local network for lower voltages of
27

for example 48V since a lot of electronics actually use low voltage
DC, but in case of larger consumers, the cost of the wiring will be
higher since these will need to be thicker because of the higher
currents. For the batteries one should use a charge controller in
order to optimize the lifetime of the batteries.

Figure 16: stand alone wind power system

Grid tied wind power
The grid tied systems look a lot like stand alone but differ in
a way that the turbine supplies energy to a grid tied electrical
network. When installed near a house that is connected to the street
grid for example. The turbine can then be used to feed the house
appliances directly in parallel to the grid in order to reduce the
electricity bill. There can be a battery array that can be charged by
the turbine and be used as a standby in case of power cuts. Another
option is to feed the power of the turbine back into the grid. When
the consumption is low for example and the turbine is producing,
the excess in production could be sold back to the grid operator or
be used to rotate the kWh meter in the opposite direction. In
Europe there are already several different schemes active for small
scale wind energy in order to promote and facilitate the spreading
of renewable energy systems.

28


Figure 17: a grid tied proposal by Kestrel Winds
Hybrid wind power
The best solution is to combine the wind turbine with other
renewable energy sources like solar PV especially for stand-alone
systems. The reason for that is quite obvious since the wind energy
is too unpredictable and one cannot rely on that only for its
electricity generation. Companies like SMA from Germany
specialise in the design of hybrid stand alone systems for local
grids like in rural villages. They have state-of-the-art inverter
systems that can regulate the voltages and frequencies of all
incoming power sources and distribute this to the consumers and
battery storages. An example is the Sunny Island inverter shown in
the next figure.

Figure 18: hybrid systems use different energy sources
(Jackson, 2009)
29


Inverter
Inverters are necessary as an interface between a renewable
power source and a network. Mostly all renewable energy sources
produce unstable electrical signals which need to be modified
before being fed into any network. A very nice example is the
Windy Boy from SMA which has efficiency between 91 and 94%.
It requires a DC input with an overvoltage protection of 500V.


Figure 19: the Windy Boy inverter from SMA
The Windy Boy converts the rectified DC voltage from a
wind turbine, which varies with speed, into grid-compliant AC
voltage. If tied to a grid, the Windy Boy can measure the voltage,
frequency and phase of the current of the grid signal and transform
the turbine’s input to the same frequency and phase. It will then
inject the turbine’s electricity in the grid at a slightly higher voltage
in order to create a net current.
30

Site assessment for small scale systems
Wind measurement
Weather stations are the easiest way for home owners to
assess the wind and other properties at their location. The cost is
around R7, 000 for a versatile weather station which measures solar
intensity, wind speed and direction, humidity, rainfall and others
and is able to log this in a database. The station typically comes
with one sensor for each but is designed for up to 8 extra sensors.
Of course, for a wind turbine, the main properties are wind speed
and direction, but the advantage of a weather station is that it is a
cheaply available device compared to separate wind anemometers
which are not that easily available. Another advantage is that it
allows assessing the feasibility of hybrid systems since it also
measures solar intensity.

Figure 20: a weather station (Lacrosse)
The latest addition to the market of weather stations is the
Power Predictor from Better Generation in the UK. This is a
simplified weather station that monitors wind and solar energy and
can calculate energy savings, payback times and carbon footprints
with the data measured at your location. It uses a data logger and an
internet connection to produce a monthly power report. The cost
for this device is about R1, 400 which is far cheaper than the above
weather station but it is not readily available yet.
31


Figure 21: the Power Predictor on a mast

Consumption monitoring
The best thing one can do before purchasing a rather
expensive tool like a wind turbine is to assess its own power
consumption and try to record it. A tool that can help with that is
the e2 from Efergy (www.efergy.com).


Figure 22: the e2 power monitor (Efergy)
32


Figure 23: the Power Report (Efergy)
This device uses a battery powered wireless display unit, a
battery powered wireless transmitter and a current transformer clip.
The cost of this instrument is approximately R800.
Batteries
The most used storage systems for small scale renewable
energy are battery arrays. They can be wired in parallel for higher
capacity and in series to increase the voltage. Batteries usually
come in 12V units and by coupling them in series one can reach
24V or 48V. Higher then that is not recommended for safety
reasons. Above 48V, the batteries must be electrically insulated to
prevent direct contact.
There are two groups of rechargeable batteries on the market
for heavy duty service: deep-cycle batteries and starter batteries
(most automotive batteries). A deep-cycle lead-acid battery is
designed for delivering a consistent voltage when the battery
discharges over a load. Starter batteries however are designed to
deliver sporadic current spikes and can deliver much higher peak
currents for the same size and therefore a better option for cars,
although with the modern electronics in vehicles these days, the
deep-cycle batteries are sometimes preferred. Another advantage is
that deep cycle batteries need a lower recharging current.
The key structural difference between deep cycle batteries
and conventional batteries are the lead plates, which are solid in
deep-cycle batteries and composed of porous sponge-like plates in
starting batteries. Some batteries that are labelled "deep-cycle" do
not possess these solid lead plates, however, and are actually
"hybrid" batteries. While a deep-cycle battery is designed to
discharge down to as much as 20% of its charge capacity over
several cycles, companies recommend that a hybrid battery not be
discharged beyond 50% of its capacity.
Lead acid batteries designed for starting automotive engines
are not designed for deep discharge. They have a large number of
thin plates designed for maximum surface area, and therefore
33

maximum current output, but which can easily be damaged by deep
discharge. Repeated deep discharges will result in capacity loss and
ultimately in premature failure, as the electrodes disintegrate due to
mechanical stresses that arise from cycling. A common
misconception is that starting batteries should always be kept on
float charge. In reality, this practice will encourage corrosion in the
electrodes and result in premature failure. Starting batteries should
be kept open-circuit but charged regularly (at least once every two
weeks) to prevent sulphating.
As already mentioned before, the batteries of a wind power
system should be connected to a good charge controller and that is
for the following reasons. When a lead-acid battery is overcharged,
meaning that the charging voltage remains on fully charged poles,
the battery will emit hydrogen and oxygen from each cell, as some
of the water of the electrolyte is broken down by electrolysis. This
process is known as "gassing". These gasses are released into the
environment or vented into neighbouring cells in case of a VRLA
battery (valve-regulated lead acid). Wet cells have open vents to
release any gas produced, and VRLA batteries rely on valves fitted
to each cell. A VRLA cell will normally recombine any hydrogen
and oxygen produced into water inside the cell, but malfunction or
overheating may cause gas to build up. If this happens (e.g. by
overcharging the cell) the valve is designed to vent the gas and
thereby normalize the pressure, resulting in a characteristic acid
smell around the battery. Valves can sometimes fail however, if dirt
and debris accumulate in the device, so pressure can build up inside
the affected cell.
When the gases are ignited by any type of spark, they can
explode and spread acid and debris around the battery. In case of
VLRA batteries, when there are deformations of cells visible from
the outside, these batteries need to be discarded immediately.
In renewable energy systems and UPS systems, the most
used type of battery is the VLRA type. This is because of the lower
electrolyte content, a higher ratio of power to "floor space" and a
high peak power capacity, though of relatively short duration.

34


Charge controller
A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is
added to or drawn from electric batteries. It basically prevents
overcharging and may prevent against overvoltage which can be
dangerous as explained in the previous paragraph. It may also
prevent deep discharging of a battery and perform controlled
discharges, depending on the battery technology, to protect battery
life.

Figure 24: an example of a charge controller (Kestrel
Wind)
Market research
In order to propose a wind turbine to SAB a market search
has been done both domestically and internationally. A long list of
possible manufacturers was developed. A selection of these
candidates was listed in Appendix C. From this list, one
recommendation was selected being the e400 from Kestrel Winds
(ref Appendix B)
This manufacturer is based in South Africa and the biggest in
the country. They seem to provide the most professional service at
a very competitive price. The proposed system includes a turbine
with voltage limiter and a mast. The inverter is not included.
This wind turbine specification for its power curve and
annual estimated produced energy was used further in this report.
(Ref Appendix B)
35

5. BUILDING INTEGRATED WIND
TURBINES
Building Integrated Wind
Much discussion and controversy is generated on the topic of
building integrated wind turbines. The idea here is simply to install
wind turbines in a built-up area and to try to harvest more power
than usual from accelerated winds. This comes from following
arguments:
1. The wind power increases with height, so it makes
sense to use high buildings to reach for more wind
power
2. The generation of electricity locally reduces the
transmission costs and could reduce the electricity bill
if efficient enough.
3. The geometry of buildings could help to increase the
wind speed and thus the wind power.
4. The use of wind turbines can be promotionally
interesting in a sense that it shows a green image.
A European study published in 2005 examined the potential
for such building-integrated wind turbines in the United Kingdom.
The study has recommended further research on the wind regime in
urban areas and around isolated buildings; the structural and noise
implications of mounting wind turbines onto a building; and the
optimal design for building-integrated wind turbines. (Dutton,
Halliday, Blanch, 2005)
36

Examples: (large and small)
The Swift
A good example of a wind turbine used in building
integration is the Swift made by Renewable Devices in the UK.


Figure 25: The Swift by Renewable Devices.
The manufacturer of this turbine has patented its design for a
“diffuser (the circle around the rotor) which prevents air being
thrown at high speed off the ends of the blades. This is the source
of the ethereal din and inefficiency common to all previous wind
turbines. Also, at high speed, the sculpted rim acts like the inlet of
a jet engine, speeding the flow of air through the rotor plane,
boosting its overall efficiency and allowing it to generate up to
1.5kW of electric power. Meanwhile, the twin fins at the back hold
the turbine into the wind like a weather vane.”
The Bahrain World Trade Centre
Another famous example is the Bahrain World Trade Centre
which was built with three large wind turbines incorporated in its
structure.

37


Figure 26: Bahrain WTC

Figure 27: Bahrain World Trade Centre
The three massive wind turbines, measuring 29 meter in
diameter, are supported by bridges spanning between the BWTC’s
two 240-meter high towers. Through its positioning and the unique
aerodynamic design of the towers, the prevailing on-shore Gulf
breeze is funnelled into the path of the turbines, helping to create
even greater power generation efficiency. Once operational, the
38

wind turbines will deliver approximately 11-15% of the BWTC
tower’s energy needs


Figure 28: Bahrain WTC wind turbine
Tim Askew, Regional Managing Director for the engineering
company, states that the company’s goal is to “raise awareness of
sustainability within the psyche of our architects and engineers.
This project serves to highlight how with determination and
willingness on behalf of responsive clients we can actually turn
these ideas into reality”.
The Aeroturbine
Another example is the Aeroturbine made by Aerotecture
International Inc. from Chicago, USA. This company produces
turbines specifically for the integration in buildings and custom
designs each project. They have already completed several projects
in the USA and keep expanding their expertise.

39


Figure 29: Aeroturbine (Aerotecture Int.)


Figure 30: Aeroturbines on a roof (Aerotecture Int.)
40


Figure 31: the Aeroturbine 610V (Aerotecture Int.)
Although they design the turbines for building integration
they do use a rule of thumb to estimate the desired location of
installation. On their website they state: “In order to operate
efficiently, Aeroturbines must be installed at least 40 ft. above the
ground (because every 40 ft. the wind speeds tend to double), roof
mounted or building attached, above or away from surrounding
trees and other obstruction, and in an area with average wind
speeds of at least 10 mph.” (www.aerotecture.com)
The beauty of this design is that these turbines can easily be
installed as horizontal or vertical and are relatively silent and
vibration free. They can operate in relative turbulent conditions and
fluctuating wind directions. The disadvantage is that they require
expensive base structures once they need to be lifted a height for
efficiency purposes.
The Windpods
A similar design is done by Windpods from Australia. They
also advertise as being the best solution for urban installations and
41

they present very nice conceptual designs but the company is still
very young and looking for first investors.


Figure 32: The Windpod (www.windpods.com)

Figure 33: a concept for Windpods
The windpods are meant to use both lift and drag to for
propulsion. These two principles were already discussed briefly in
previous paragraphs. However, in order to avoid confusion, these
were again summarized in the next figures.
In very light winds, the blades catch the wind in the same
way as a drag-type Savonius rotor and provide easy starting.
However, once the turbine gains sufficient RPM, the rotor starts to
act as a lift type device (spins faster than wind speed) with the TSR
(Tip Speed Ratio) typically running between 1.5 and 2.


42


Figure 34: drag principle (Jackson, 2009)

Figure 35: lift principle (Jackson, 2009)
The manufacturer claims that these devices can revolutionize
the wind power generation in urban environments since they can
harvest the power from rooftops specifically. They are also easily
installed and integrated in a building.

43

Feedback
It is not easy to find accurate data on actual performances of
installed wind turbines in urban installations. The reason for this is
probably because the turbines seriously underperform. The most
detailed report was found on the website www.greenbuilding.com
on which Alex Wilson has published an article with the title: “The
Folly of Building-Integrated Wind”. This title shows the position of
Wilson towards building integrated wind turbines immediately. He
uses the following arguments. First of all, the testing of wind
turbine performance is always done in smooth flow conditions.
Turbulence however reduces efficiency radically regardless the
design of the blades or the speed of the wind and the wind in built-
up areas is mostly turbulent. Secondly, turbines create noise and
vibration and these can reduce the living quality in a building. At
the same time, this vibration can cause a safety issue. Imagine a
turbine blade failure above a crowded area. Wilson refers to some
examples of which he did get data and these show that the capacity
factors of the installed wind turbines were usually hugely
overestimated. Instead of 15%, the capacity factors would often be
below 1%! One could then argue maybe that building integrated
turbines can have a green promotional effect, but does it really
make sense to show turbines that are not rotating?
The question whether it makes sense to use wind turbines in
buildings is difficult to answer. Wilson favours solar PV in
buildings instead of wind turbines (www.greenbuilding.com). The
scientific papers on the subject are limited and encourage further
research. However the installation of wind turbines in or between
buildings is generally not a good idea. In order to make it
economically viable and technologically possible, each site and
project requires a thorough analysis. Currently, the knowledge,
tools and the available data are insufficient in order to make a
correct assessment.
44

6. SAB BREWERY CAPE TOWN
Introduction: a feasibility study
The brewery of SAB in Newlands, Cape Town has recently
developed an interest in renewable energy sources in line with its
energy efficiency strategy. The brewery has specifically an interest
in energy saving in the area of process heating and electricity. For
the process heating, the study of solar water heaters and insulation
is ongoing, but not part of this project. The electricity generation
from wind power has caught the attention of SAB’s Technical
Management in view of the global developments in the field. It was
requested to do a feasibility study for the brewery in Newlands.
This study is incorporated in this paper as a feasibility study.
Problem Formulation
The main objective of this project was twofold: to propose a
wind turbine which is suitable for the location and to investigate
the best location for this turbine between or on top of the buildings.
Proposed Approach
The project was therefore conducted in two parts. First, a
theoretical study was done in order to present a useful background
report to SAB. Second, a practical part included the monitoring of
the wind speed at the site with two separate weather stations of the
type as in the next figure.

Figure 36: weather station (La Crosse)
One station remained stationary on the highest building at
the site while the second one was displaced weekly and installed
between the buildings. This approach allowed us to compare the
45

wind above the brewery with the wind behaviour lower to the
ground between the buildings and with neighbouring weather
stations like the one at the airport of Cape Town.
An analysis of the data which were collected over two
months in a spreadsheet format has led to the study results
presented herewith. All the data were downloaded to a laptop and
analyzed with Excel and WRPLOT VIEW, a freeware software
package from Lakes Environmental (www.weblakes.com). This
software offered an easy platform from which the wind roses could
be generated into a useable format for this project.
A correlation analysis between the wind at Cape Town
International Airport and the wind at SAB was done.

Results
Location Analysis

Any feasibility study for a wind power project starts with a
site study. In the following paragraphs we show the location of the
brewery with Google Earth (Google). This enables us to give an
overview of the site and the orientation of the buildings in more
detail. This is important because the Cape region is dominated by
two wind directions: northwest and southeast. These winds are
generated by the trade wind system and lead to a fairly predictable
average wind direction for each season. AS already mentioned in
the paragraph about the wind maps, the prevailing wind directions
in Cape Town are northwest and southeast. It is therefore easily
understandable that the weather station was installed on the roof in
a way that it faces the north south axis in the best way.
From figure 39 it is clear that the general orientation of the
buildings is north-south. What is less clear is that the surrounding
buildings are of similar heights. This has a negative effect on the
wind both above the buildings as in between them which will be
shown with the measurements.
The positions of the two weather stations were as shown in
Fig 40. The fixed unit was installed on the highest rooftop with the
easiest access. This is the roof above the General Management
floor. The station was installed on the edge of the old water
reservoir as can be seen on Fig 41. The mobile unit was installed in
different positions and the choice of these positions was based on
the following:


46



• No obstruction of work flow
• A clear possibility for a venturi between buildings.
This means that there was a narrow passage between
two buildings that were high enough.
• No safety issues due to installing the station
• Not too far from an office in which the data receiver
could safely be installed indoors. The maximum
distance for this seemed to be about 50 m (although
the manufacturer states 100m).




Figure 37: SAB in Cape Town, the airport and Molteno
Reservoir
47


Figure 38: SAB, the airport and Molteno Reservoir




Figure 39: Overview of the buildings of SAB with the
orientation

48


Figure 40: Overview of SAB with measuring positions

Figure 41: The weather station on the rooftop on the
water reservoir.
49


Graphs

The measurement of the wind conditions at a certain site is
not as simple as it seems. The effects of turbulence and wake losses
and other negative effects are not easy to either measure nor
visualize graphically.
The data show different patterns when measured at different
intervals. When the measurements are taken every 5 minutes, the
variations of speed and direction are much greater than when
measured at hour intervals.
Figures 42 and 43 show the wind speed and direction at
position 1 for every 5 minutes during 24 hours (on Oct 2nd).
Figures 44 and 45 show the same measurements for every hour
during the same period. When comparing these, one can see that
the measurements at 5 minutes intervals show the turbulent
behaviour of the wind much better then when measuring every hour
only.


Figure 42: Position 1: wind speed: 02 Oct, 5 minutes intervals
50


Figure 43: Position 1: wind direction: 02 Oct; 5 min intervals


Figure 44: Position 1: wind speed: 02 Oct, hour intervals
51


Figure 45: Position 1: wind direction: 02 Oct, hour intervals
When comparing the behaviour of the wind between the
fixed unit on the rooftop and the mobile unit on the other positions
during a day with half hour intervals, one can see that the mobile
unit is much more variable than the fixed unit.
Figure 46 shows the wind speed measured every half hour
during 24 hours at position 3 and Figure 47 shows the wind
direction at that same spot. One can see the “swinging” of the wind
in both graphs very clearly. In Figures 48 and 49, the wind speed
and direction for the same period are shown, measured at the
rooftop position. The latter show that both the wind speed and
direction don’t show the “swinging” as is the case in the previous.
Although the measurements in both positions show very
strong wind speeds (November was in general a very windy
month), the quality of the wind at position 3 is much less
favourable than on the rooftop for the use as an energy source.





52


Figure 46: Position 3: wind speed: 02 Nov, half hour intervals




Figure 47: Position 3: wind direction: 02 Nov, half hour
intervals
53


Figure 48: Rooftop wind speed: 02 Nov, half hour intervals




Figure 49: Rooftop wind direction; 02 Nov: half hour intervals





54


Calculations

Based on the data, the following values were calculated for
each measuring position:

1. The average wind speed
2. The average wind direction
3. The standard deviation of the speed and direction
4. The estimated energy production based on the e400 turbine
(Ref Appendix B)
5. The annual energy production, AEP based on (2) page 18:
this was calculated by extrapolating the energy production
during the measurement period to a whole year by using the
average speed of the measurements. Here, we assumed this
average to be constant during the year. This is however not
realistic but on the other hand this enables comparing the
cost savings on a yearly basis for different average wind
speeds.
6. The capacity factor (CF): this was calculated by using the
previous AEP in formula (3) page 18.
7. The difference with the predicted energy production from
the manufacturer (Kestrel). For each row in table 1, the
average speed of the measurements was used to determine
the predicted annual energy production based on the graph
in Appendix B.

Note that the capacity credit was not calculated since this is
irrelevant for the size of the project and since the electric power is
used for in-house application only.
The calculated values don’t show a very clear result. We can
however conclude the following:
• The capacity factor is a good indicator of the amount of
annual savings that can be achieved.
• The calculation of the AEP doesn’t take turbulence into
account.
• In general, the predictions of the manufacturer for the annual
energy production seem always lower than the actual
performance. This can be seen in table 1 in the “difference”
column. In all cases, the actual produced energy was higher
than predicted by the manufacturer. This is especially true in
periods of strong winds.
55



56

Position Average
wind speed


(m/s)
Average
wind
direction

°
Average
wind
compass
direction


Standard
deviation
wind speed

(m/s)
Standard
deviation
wind
direction
°
Calculated
AEP


(kWh)
Estimated
AEP by
manufacturer

(kWh)
Difference



(kWh)
Difference



(%)
Capacity
factor


(%)
Yearly
savings
@ R0,3/kWh

(R)
Airport
October

5.8 212 SW 3.25 95 7824 614 1680 21.47 28.80 2,347.20
Airport
November

6.58 227 WSW 3.56 83 Na Na Na Na Na Na
Molteno
October
2.9 176 S 2.07 103.61 1641 1200 441 21.47 6.04 492.00
Molteno
November
2.7 119 SE 2.57 105.03
Rooftop
October
1.68 42.60 ENE 4.60 86.27 20785 14500 12656 30.24 76.54 6,235.74

Rooftop
November
12.69 224.61 WSW 6.18 94.92

Mobile
position
1&2 (Oct)

2.50 204.11 SW 2.48 90.32 1179.66 800 380 32.00 4.34 353.89
Mobile
position
3&4 (Nov)
8.18 190.54 SSW 6.57 103.78
Table 1: The calculations based on the measurements.




57

Wind roses

Wind roses show the distribution of the wind direction with
the wind speed at a certain location. These are very useful graphic
representation of measured data and can be used to assess the
behaviour of the wind at SAB.
Figure 50 shows the wind rose of the measurements on the
rooftop of SAB during the period of November 1
st
until November
17
th
. Figure 51 shows the wind rose for Cape Town International
Airport for the same period. When comparing these wind roses one
can see a good correlation between the two. It is therefore safe to
say that SAB can expect the same wind directions and speeds than
at the airport. This is very convenient since there is an abundance
of data available from this site at the South African Weather
Service.

NORTH
SOUTH
WEST EAST
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
WIND SPEED
(Knots)
>= 22
17 - 21
11 - 17
7 - 11
4 - 7
1 - 4
Calms: 5.74%

Figure 50: SAB rooftop Nov 1 until Nov 17
58

NORTH
SOUTH
WEST EAST
4%
8%
12%
16%
20%
WIND SPEED
(m/s)
>= 11.1
8.8 - 11.1
5.7 - 8.8
3.6 - 5.7
2.1 - 3.6
0.5 - 2.1
Calms: 4.40%

Figure 51: Airport Nov 1 until Nov 17
59

Figures 52 and 53 show the wind roses for the airport and the
Molteno Reservoir during the same period (October). The wind
behaves differently at the airport then at the Molteno Reservoir
although these locations are not far apart. Clearly the influence of
Table Mountain is important here. This proves that it is worth and
necessary comparing the wind between neighbouring locations.

NORTH
SOUTH
WEST EAST
4%
8%
12%
16%
20%
WIND SPEED
(m/s)
>= 11.1
8.8 - 11.1
5.7 - 8.8
3.6 - 5.7
2.1 - 3.6
0.5 - 2.1
Calms: 1.88%

Figure 52: CT Airport October




60

NORTH
SOUTH
WEST EAST
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
WIND SPEED
(m/s)
>= 11.1
8.8 - 11.1
5.7 - 8.8
3.6 - 5.7
2.1 - 3.6
0.5 - 2.1
Calms: 41.59%

Figure 53: Molteno Reservoir, October

61

Figures 54 and 55 show the wind roses for the measuring
positions 1, 2, 3 and 4 between the buildings.
The wind quality in all the mobile measuring positions was
not good. It was in all cases too variable and not strong enough or
too strong. This is because the wind roses show wind directions
distributions that are very random.


NORTH
SOUTH
WEST EAST
3%
6%
9%
12%
15%
WIND SPEED
(m/s)
>= 11.1
8.8 - 11.1
5.7 - 8.8
3.6 - 5.7
2.1 - 3.6
0.5 - 2.1
Calms: 16.42%

Figure 54: Positions 1&2
62


NORTH
SOUTH
WEST EAST
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
WIND SPEED
(m/s)
>= 11.1
8.8 - 11.1
5.7 - 8.8
3.6 - 5.7
2.1 - 3.6
0.5 - 2.1
Calms: 30.54%

Figure 55: Positions 3&4

Difficulties
The difficulties that were met during the measurements were:
• The measuring sensors transmit their data through a wireless
radio signal that has limited reach. This makes it difficult to
place the sensors at any desired place.
• The available time for measuring was limited to two months.
For a real close correlation, a minimum of one year’s data are
required (Jackson, 2009).
63

Conclusion
The wind at SAB shows a good correlation with the wind at
Cape Town Airport. The data from the airport can therefore be used
for the prediction of the wind energy production at SAB.
According to Table 1, the average wind at SAB might be little
stronger than at the airport. It seems that the Table Mountain
doesn’t affect the wind at SAB much.
The best position for installing a wind turbine at SAB
Newlands is on the highest available rooftop. The roof on which
the fixed unit was installed seems the most appropriate. The annual
energy savings for SAB with one turbine like the e400 can be
estimated at 6.500 kWh which would allow a saving of R1.950 at
an electricity cost of R0,3/ kWh. The payback time of a turbine like
the e400 would then be longer than 30 years.
The option of installing a turbine between the buildings is
not viable. The measured wind quality at certain selected spots
confirms this. Other possible locations are not favourable because
at those locations, any wind turbine would disturb the work flow
and might cause safety issues.
64

7. MAIN CONCLUSION
Summary
The theory and background of wind energy and small scale
wind turbines was summarized in the first chapters of this report.
This is a comprehensive summary that can assist SAB in its future
projects regarding wind power at its facilities.
The market research done for this project helped to propose
the e400 wind turbine from Kestrel, a South African manufacturer,
which can be installed on the rooftop of the brewery without any
major concerns. The installation procedure requires little
investment and can be done without any special assistance from the
supplier. This turbine could generate around 6.500 kWh per year.
This investment will however not be paid back when taking into
account the very low electricity price of R0, 3 / kWh.
Building integration is an interesting topic, but the available
knowledge and research publications are extremely limited. It is
generally not a good idea to install wind turbines between buildings
as part of a refurbishment. However, when the turbines are
included in the basic design of the building from the start, then the
potential is much more favourable.
The best position for the proposed wind turbine at the
Newlands site is on the highest rooftop available above the General
Management floor. The option of installing a turbine between the
buildings is not viable because the wind quality is too turbulent at
those locations.

Recommendations
A further investigation of the area by using computational
fluid dynamics software packages is not recommended.
The continuation of measurements on site is recommended
during another year in order to get a better prediction of the
potential energy production and cost savings.
The most suitable system for SAB is one or more wind
turbines to be installed on the rooftop and connected through
voltage limiters and inverters directly to the brewery’s main grid
without any batteries or other. This will help the brewery in
reducing its electricity bill.
65

8. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Ackermann Thomas Wind Power in Power Systems - Stockholm,
Sweden : Royal Institute of Technology, 2005.
Betz Wind Energie - 1926.
Boyle Renewable Electricity and the Grid - London : Earthscan,
2007.
Cape Town Weather Office - [s.l.] : www.weathersa.co.za, 2009.
Cernea Michael M. Social Impacts and Social Risks in
Hydropower Programs:Preemptive Planning and Counter-risk
Measures - 2004.
CSIR Eskom, DME - 2003.
Diab RD Wind Atlas of South Africa - [s.l.] : Department of
Mineral and Energy Affairs, 1995.
DNV Guidelines for Design of Wind Turbines - Copenhagen :
DNV/Riso, 2002. - ISBN 87-550-2870-5.
Eskom Electricity costs fact sheet - 2007.
European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) WInd Energy -
The Facts - 2004.
Hageman Kilian Mesoscale Wind Atlas for South Africa - PhD
Thesis - [s.l.] : UCT, 2008.
Jackson Francis Wind Energy course - 2009.
Joseph Wilde-Ramsing Brian Potter Blazing the Green Path:
Renewable Energy and State-society in Costa Rica - [s.l.] : The
journal of energy and development,Vol. 32, No. 1, 2008.
Marsh George From intermittent to variable; can we manage the
wind? - [s.l.] : Renewable Energy Focus, 2009.
RWE AG World Energy Report - 2005.
Swanepoel R. Renewable Energy Systems - Stellenbosch : Centre
for Renewable Energy Systems, 2007.
Wilson Alex The Folly of Building Integrated Wind - [s.l.] :
www.greenbuilding.com.
66

9. APPENDIX
A: The Betz law


The mathematical model is based on the calculation of the
maximum theoretical efficiency of a thin rotor disc. To model this,
the rotor is replaced by a disc that is perpendicular to a tubular
flow. The disc withdraws energy from the fluid passing through the
tube. At a certain distance behind this disc the fluid flows with a
reduced velocity. A few assumptions were made. There is no
traction, the flow is axial to the rotor and the flow is
incompressible.


Figure 56: The Betz tube
Let us assume that the average wind speed through the rotor
area is the average of the undisturbed wind speed before the wind
turbine, v
1
, and the wind speed after the passage through the rotor
plane, v
2
, i.e. (v
1
+v
2
)/2. Betz offers a proof of this (Betz, 1926).



( )
2
2 1
v v
v
ave
+
= (A.1)

67


Figure 57: a wind turbine in a Betz tube
(www.windpower.org)

The mass of the air streaming through the rotor during one
second is:

( )
2
2 1
v v
S m
+
⋅ ⋅ =

ρ (A.2)

With:

m = mass flow
= density of air
S = the swept rotor area
( )
2
2 1
v v +
= the average wind speed through the rotor area
The power extracted from the wind by the rotor is equal to
the mass flow times the drop in kinetic energy per unit mass:

( )
2
2
2
2
1
v v
m P

⋅ =

(A.3)

Substituting

m from A.2 into A.3 we get:

( )
) (
4
2 1
2
2
2
1
v v
v v
S P + ⋅

⋅ ⋅ = ρ (A.4)

The total power P
0
in the undisturbed wind that is streaming
through exactly the same area S, without rotor disc is:

68

S v P ⋅ ⋅ |
¹
|

\
|
=
3
1 0
2
ρ
(A.5)

The ratio between the power we extract from the wind and
the power in the undisturbed wind is then:

2
1 1
1
2
2
1
2
0

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ ⋅

|
|
¹
|

\
|

=
v
v
v
v
P
P
(A.6)


The function reaches its maximum for
1
2
v
v
=1/3, and from this
can be deducted that the maximum value for the power extracted
from the wind is:

2
3
2
1
3
1
1
2
max
0
|
¹
|

\
|
+ •
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|

=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
P
P
(A.7)

2
3
4
9
8
|
¹
|

\
|
⋅ |
¹
|

\
|
=
% 3 , 59
27
16
= =

69

B: The e400 from Kestrel Wind



70

71

C: Wind turbine examples


Windmax hybrid
wind generators
WindMax
Green Energy

HAWT 500 W –
2000 W
www.magnet4less.com

ARI ARI
Renewable
Energy Co.

HAWT

750 W –
2500 W
www.arigreenenergy.com

Energy Ball
V100
Home Energy HAWT

500 W www.home-emergy.com

Swift Renewable
Devices
HAWT 1500 W www.renewabledevices.
com

Sirocco Eoltec HAWT

6000 W www.eoltec.com

Whisper Windenergy HAWT

500 W –
3000 W
www.windenergy.com

Fortis Montana,
Passaat, Espada
Fortis Wind HAWT

800 W –
5800 W
www.fortiswindenergy.c
om

Tulipo Tulipo HAWT

2500 W www.tulipower.nl






72




10 kW MVAWT
Enviro
Energies
VAWT
10 kW www.enviro-energies.com

Windpod
Windpods
Design
Licensing
International
Pty Ltd
HAWT
na www.windpods.com

OWN Urban
Windmill

Donqi

HAWT
na www.donqi.eu

STATOEOLIEN
GSE 4
STATOEOLIEN
GSE 8

Gual Industrie

VAWT
1300 -
6000
www.gual-industrie.com

AR-200W
AR-500W
AR-1000W
AR-5000W

Vaigunth Ener
Tek (P) Ltd

HAWT
200 W-
5000 W
www.v-enertek.com

Inclin 250
Inclin 600
Inclin 1500 neo
Inclin 3000 neo
Inclin 6000 neo

Bornay

HAWT
250 W–
6000 W
www.bornay.com

e150
e220
e300
e400

Kestrel Wind
Turbines

HAWT
600 W-
3000 W
www.kestrelwind.co.za
73

The author wishes to thank the following for contributing to this project: At Stellenbosch University: • Professor Van Niekerk for offering me a study position and this project as thesis subject. • Professor Von Backstrom for supervising me during this project and for his guidance and patience. • The team of lecturers affiliated with the Centre for Renewable Energy Studies • Mr. Francis Jackson for his clear lecturing on the topic of wind energy. At SAB: • Mr. Tony Cole for his interest and support in this project. • Mr. Josiah Mpofu for his great support at the SAB Newlands plant. And last but not least my loving parents for their everlasting support.

1.

ABSTRACT
This paper describes a MEng thesis project for a MEng in Renewable Energy Systems program at the Centre for Renewable Energy Studies at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. The aim of this paper was to offer to SAB (South African Breweries), in Cape Town, a feasibility study for the possibilities of the usage of wind energy on site. The small scale wind power technology has a long history and has been in South Africa for more than a hundred years in the form of water pump wind mills. All wind mills have an absolute maximum power output defined by the Betz limit. The choice of a wind turbine depends not only on this, but also on the wind speed distribution, the power curve, the location and financing. The small scale turbines have many different design which are predominantly grouped in horizontal axis (HAWT) and vertical axis (VAWT) machines. The choice of turbine for SAB depends on the available wind energy, the available budget, the available space and the application. The aim of the measurements on site was threefold; find a correlation with existing weather stations in the area like at Cape Town International Airport, propose a turbine for SAB’s budget and research the possibility for installing the turbine on one of the buildings. This is also known as building integrated wind turbines. Wind speeds can increase over buildings due to venturi effects and it could therefore be viable to locate these acceleration zones and install a turbine there. The data analysis shows that the wind above the brewery is very well correlated with the wind at the airport. We can therefore use the average speed values of this station to predict average power production. This leads to the proposal of a 1kW or 3kW turbine from a South African manufacturer: Kestrel. Building integration is however not a good idea. The wind is too turbulent and can therefore not be used. This is mainly caused by the fact that the surroundings of the brewery are too high and irregularly shaped. This makes it difficult for the wind to “lower” in between the buildings and accelerate.

The wind turbine for SAB is proposed to be installed on the highest point of the roof and based on the neighbouring average wind speed values. Another important aspect is the promotional value in the energy efficiency strategy of SAB. . The wind turbine should be connected directly to the brewery’s grid with an inverter and would then solely function as an energy saver.

. 26 Grid tied wind power .................................Table of Contents 1.......................................................................................................................................................... 21 Three Phase Alternating Current ... 21 Current ......... 16 Annual Energy Production .......... 32 4........................................................................................................................ 22 Generation ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................... 28 Inverter ..................................................................................................... 20 Electricity Generation .............. iii Introduction .............. 3................................ 24 Vertical-axis wind turbines............... 22 Small-scale wind power ................................................................................................................. 11 Wind Speed Distribution ................................................................. 29 Site assessment for small scale systems ........................................ 2............................................................................................................................................................. 24 Definition and types ................................................................ 11 Variation over long periods .......... 24 Horizontal axis wind turbines............ 19 Capacity Credit ..................................... 27 Hybrid wind power .......... 7 Theory and background ..................................... Abstract ........................................................................................................ 8 Introduction ......... 8 History ................................................................................................ 10 The Variability of Wind..... 31 Batteries .......................... ................................................... 8 Wind Energy ..................................... 24 Definition ............................................................................................................................................. 10 The Power Curve of a Wind Turbine ...................................................................................... 21 Voltage ..................................................................... 30 Wind measurement ............ 30 Consumption monitoring ............................................................................................. 13 Local obstructions and wind shear ........................ 13 Wind Maps ............... 18 Capacity factor ............... 26 Stand alone wind power ................ 24 Introduction ...... 25 Systems .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Betz Law ...................................................................................................................................

..... 40 Feedback .................................................... Charge controller ......... 63 Main Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 62 Conclusion .... 7............................................................................................... 34 Building Integrated Wind Turbines ......5.............................................................. 64 Summary .................................................................................... 65 APPENDIX ...................................................................................................................................................................... 57 Difficulties .......... 35 Examples: (large and small) ............ 9................ 64 Bibliography ..................... 64 Recommendations ... 66 ................................................................. 44 Proposed Approach......................................................... 36 The Aeroturbine ........................................................................ 43 SAB Brewery Cape town .................. 49 Calculations ........................................................... 6............................................................................... 36 The Bahrain World Trade Centre .............. 44 Problem Formulation ........................................................................................................................... 35 Building Integrated Wind ........................... 45 Graphs ...... 36 The Swift................................................................................ 38 The Windpods ................................................................................... 45 Location Analysis ..... 44 Introduction: a feasibility study .......................... 54 Wind roses .................................................... 8.......................................... 44 Results ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 34 Market research ....................................................................................

The dominating winds in the region are the infamous south eastern wind and the north western wind. The main objective there is to use wind energy as a fuel saver and for replacing a percentage of conventional energy technology. The question arises then where to place the turbine. The first half of this report includes a history. However. 7 . In South Africa. the effects of climate change have been increasing and the general interest in renewable energy technologies has been growing steadily. Wind energy in particular seems to be the fastest growing energy technology at the moment. The second half comprises a feasibility study for SAB Cape Town. European countries like Germany are aiming at a penetration level of 20% and higher. These are seasonal and are responsible for the reputation of Cape Town as a good wind sports site. It is therefore logical to investigate the potential of this wind power for harvesting it in the form of electric power by use of wind turbines. which system to choose and how big it should be. a list of recommendations will be made in order to provide a clear conclusion to SAB. The site was surveyed by measuring the wind speeds and directions with two measuring devices. Many private investors like companies and households don’t wish to wait for this and are prepared to take the initiative to invest in wind energy. the interest in wind energy is not less than elsewhere although the legislative mechanisms are lagging behind. the knowledge of wind turbines is still quite low. Since several years. types and more. Based on that and other limitations. summary and description of existing technologies. SAB is one of the companies that would like to invest in wind turbines to be placed on the premises of its factories.2. The purpose of this report is to answer these questions. INTRODUCTION Cape Town has a reputation of a very windy city.

in Babylon. cloth and limestone. reed matting. Horizontal-axis windmills were later used extensively in North-western Europe and Greece to grind flour. the variability of wind energy is discussed because this is probably the most important topic to understand. 8 . The latter influences directly the power curve and performance of a wind turbine. History Throughout the human history the wind has been used to power sailboats and sail ships and to ventilate buildings or houses. The most famous are found in The Netherlands which date back to the 1180s. After that. which had long vertical drive shafts with rectangular blades. As early as the 17th century BC. These windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water. These were vertical-axis windmills. THEORY AND BACKGROUND Introduction The theory and background described in this chapter contains a general overview of wind energy systems.3. the topic of wind energy is described by starting from the definition of wind energy and its limitation by the Betz law. The first modern wind turbines were built in the early 1980s. These were used by farms and railroads to pump ground water used for irrigation. cattle and steam locomotives and were rapidly distributed all over the world. During the 1800s there was a major boom in the development and distribution of the well known multi-bladed turbine which was mounted on a wooden structure. The next paragraphs discuss how to calculate the annual energy production (AEP) of wind turbines and the related capacity factor and capacity credit. Then. First the history of wind energy and turbines is briefly described. The materials used were wood. and have been subject to increasingly efficient design. The main objective of wind turbines is electricity generation and we have added a paragraph regarding this subject which touches on electricity and generators. The oldest practical wind mills have been found in Afghanistan dating back to the 7th century. The applications where wind power is used to generate mechanical power or shaft power are relatively young. there are traces of the use of wind mills to power irrigation systems.

trade winds (http://ww2010.atmos.edu) The total wind power that is present in the earth’s atmosphere is estimated to be considerably more that the present total human power usage. 9 . They are quite well understood. This mechanism causes the major wind systems that govern global wind patterns. Another example of local wind force is the acceleration of wind between buildings in built-up areas in cities or between funnel shaped hills. it is estimated that about 72 TW can be commercially exploited compared to the 15 TW average global power consumption. Figure 1: Global wind systems. there is also a wind force generated by the difference in temperature of the mountain flanks and valleys. The solar energy that falls upon the earth warms the surface by radiation.Wind Energy Wind is generated by atmospheric pressure differences. the wind energy is converted back through friction into diffuse heat throughout the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The surface warms up and transmits a large part of the heat back to the air by convection and this causes the air to rise in the warmer regions near the equator.uiuc. Here. A good example of local wind patterns occurs in high altitude mountain ranges like the Alps in Europe. Most of the energy stored in these wind movements can be found at high altitudes where continuous wind speeds of over 160 km/h occur. Eventually. This wind is also known as a valley breeze. Of this total power. This number is incentive enough to allow investments and research to continue. but on the more local level there are many parameters still unknown. aside from the meteorological wind.

Betz Law The Betz law allows us to calculate the maximum energy that can be converted by a wind turbine. Because some modern wind turbines approach this potential maximum efficiency. energy storage limitations and transmission losses cause for even the best modern turbines to operate at efficiencies substantially below the Betz limit. 2009). it is common practice to say that a turbine can’t capture more than 59. The Power Curve of a Wind Turbine The power curve of a wind turbine is a graph that indicates how large the electrical power output will be for the turbine at different wind speeds. The Betz law shows that there is a maximum efficiency for the extraction of power which is at 59. Based on the law. Engineering constraints. once practical engineering obstacles are considered. The essence of the Betz law the power extracted from the wind by the rotor is proportional to the product of the wind speed times the pressure drop across the rotor. See Appendix A for a derivation of the Betz law. 2009) If the rotor has a higher flow resistance. It was developed in 1919 by German physicist Albert Betz (Jackson. the pressure drop is increased. Usually. wind turbines are designed to start generating at wind speeds somewhere around 3 to 5 metres per 10 .3 % of the kinetic energy in wind. but less flow goes through the disc and more goes around it. the Betz law shows a limiting factor for this form of renewable energy.3%. Figure 2: A rotor in a wind stream (Jackson.

When the shape factor is 2. Another important one is the non-consistency of wind speed regardless of location. 11 . the distribution is called a Raleigh distribution. but different shape factors. This is called the cut-in wind speed. Figure 4 shows two Weibull curves with the same mean wind speed. Common practice these days is to measure wind speeds continuously and map these data on graphs and analyze these statistically with the Weibull distribution formulas. Figure 3: Example of a power curve (Kestrel Wind) The Variability of Wind Wind Speed Distribution The limitation stated by the Betz law is not the only factor that counters the easy implementation of wind turbines. These give us a good graphical representation of the behaviour of the wind at a certain location. The wind turbine will be programmed or designed to stop at high wind speeds in order to avoid damaging the turbine or its surroundings. In Figure 3 this speed is 10.second. 5 m/s. This speed is called the cut-out wind speed. This wind speed distribution is a very accurate display of the shortcoming of wind energy: the energy is not reliably available when needed and not constant. An example is given underneath. Unlike fossil fuel plants which can run 24 hrs regardless of weather conditions.

Figure 4: Two Weibull curves with different shape factors but same mean wind speed. 2009) 12 . (Jackson.

Local obstructions and wind shear Wind is air in motion. When the incoming airflow is turbulent. One is to increase the angle of attack α (Fig 7) too much and the second one is to vary α too fast and irregularly which is the case with turbulent flow. there is always a certain amount of turbulence in the vicinity of this obstruction. one can also detect trends over the years. of seasonal differences and annual variation trends are all visible when wind speeds are plotted versus a time scale.Variation over long periods The effects of day and night. The turbulence depends on the wind speed and can affect a wind turbine performance negatively. When air flows over or around an obstruction. When data of many years is available. This can be understood from the fact that the force on the blades is a result of a smooth well ordered laminar flow over them. The lift that is generated by the blade results in a displacement or rotation of the rotor. but also by the obstructions it meets. the flow around the blade is disturbed and this causes a ‘stall’ of the blade resulting in very little to no lift force. In Europe. The wind speed at a certain location can differ between night and day for instance when a daily sea breeze exists. There are two ways to stall a blade. the wind has been monitored for more than a hundred years which has enabled to find certain trends. The air behaves like a fluid and its flow path is not only defined by a pressure difference and a flow rate. 13 . One can for example find that the average annual wind speed differs with a standard mean deviation of 6% between the years.

When measurements are made at a location. 2009) Another variation due to obstructions is the variation of the wind speed between the ground level and higher up in the air.Figure 5: Laminar flow and stalling due to turbulence (Jackson. This roughness creates a shear effect depending on its speed and viscosity. 2009) The positioning of a wind turbine will be heavily influenced by its surrounding characteristics as is shown in the next figure. a shear profile can be measured which shows the effect of the ground on the wind speed. At any location. the best thing to do is to measure the wind shear profile by using wind vanes at different heights. Figure 6: turbulence effect due to building (Jackson. air is sensitive to the roughness of its surroundings. The reader can understand that the placement of a turbine in an open field is much different from the placement in a built up area where the turbulences are very difficult to predict. Like any normal fluid. This profile tends to be an exponential function with following relationship: 14 .

2009) It is clear that the wind speeds are generally higher at greater elevation from the surface where the measurement was taken. (See Fig 7) Figure 7: wind shear profile (Jackson. This is why commercial wind farms reach for higher wind speeds by using higher turbines. 15 .Where the velocities U(x) are related to the heights zx. There is of course a maximum to this which is a balance between cost and benefit.

This is easily shown in the next figures which are wind maps for South Africa. this certainly indicates where the best regions will be found. These windmaps show for example that the coastal regions of the Western Cape have a higher mean annual wind speed than the more inland regions of for example the Northern Cape. Although this should not be the only decisive indicator for the choice of a wind farm location. (Fig 8 and 9) Figure 8: wind speed variation with region (DME) 16 . These windmaps show the average wind speeds in all the areas in South Africa.Wind Maps The effects of geography and pressure zones and the previously mentioned disturbances cause an average variability between regions.

Figure 9: Another wind map (Hageman. 2008) 17 .

one can see the available power underneath the intersection of the curves for each wind speed window. power curve (Jackson. The easiest way to explain how to find the AEP is by using the following graphs: Figure 10: wind speed distribution vs. The total annual energy production (AEP) of a wind turbine is never as high because of the varying wind speed. When overlapping these. 2009) Figure 10 shows the effect of the available power from a certain wind speed distribution in combination with a certain turbine’s power curve. 18 .Annual Energy Production The total maximum energy that a wind turbine can produce in a year is calculated by multiplying the nominal capacity by the number of hours in a year.

The total AEP is then the sum of each speed window’s AEP. but only 1 × 0.760 MWh in a year (1 × 24 × 365). (3) 19 . Typical capacity factors are 20–40%. • For each wind speed bin (u) a certain number of hours per year occur tu [h] • The turbine puts out power for that bin Pu according to the power curve.35 × 24 × 365 = 3. Pu [W] • Energy captured in that bin is the number of hours times Eu = Pu x tu [WH] • Total energy captured is sum of all bins AEP = ΣEu [WH] (2) (1) Capacity factor The ratio of actual productivity in a year to the theoretical maximum is called the capacity factor. with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favourable sites. power and AEP (Jackson. 2009) This available power is then used to calculate the AEP for each window which results in a graph like figure 11. For example: a 1MW turbine with a capacity factor of 35% will not produce 8. averaging to 0.Figure 11: wind speed.35 MW.066 MWh.

(Jackson. In the UK for example. Capacity Credit Due to the intermittency of wind energy. That is the reason why wind energy is mostly seen as a conventional fuel saver and a greenhouse gas reducer. the capacity factors of conventional plants can be as high as 90% if they are used to provide base load. meaning the exact displaceable capacity. (Marsh. However. Capacity Credit = Displaceable Conventional Capacity[MW ] Installed Wind Capacity[MW ] (4) This capacity credit can also be expressed in GW capacity. one needs to build as much conventional capacity. history suggests that the capacity credit should be about 30% at low wind penetrations. This statement has been found incorrect by recent studies. 2007) 20 . the grid will never be supplied with wind power only.In comparison. 2009) At higher penetration. there is always a certain amount of conventional capacity that can be displaced by wind and this is expressed as a percentage of the installed wind capacity. This so-called shortcoming of wind power is often used as an argument to say that for each wind farm. this relation is not correct and the capacity credit follows a square root curve like in following figure: Figure 12: wind capacity in the UK related to the national grid (Boyle. Some expensive plants that run on natural gas are mostly used for peak load production and therefore have capacity factors of around 5 to 25 %. 2009) At low penetration this capacity credit is usually equal to the capacity credit.

however. This pressure is needed to overcome resistances in the circuits that can be compared to the electrical loads. 21 . Once delivered. the electrons flow in one direction only. Voltage A voltage is the same as a potential difference between two ends of any electrical circuit or conducting material. Following paragraphs are a summary of the theory of electricity generation since it is important for understanding the basic characteristics of wind turbines. the voltage has to be reduced to household values. Lower values are typically 12 V or 24 V for battery applications. Most electrical grids in the world are alternating current (AC) grids. Current The electricity that comes out of a battery is direct current (DC).e. The voltage is like the driving force for the current and is comparable to water pressure. The small scale wind turbines that are discussed further in this report operate at a much lower voltage of around 12 to 200 V. Voltage is expressed as number with unit Volt and has typical values of 220 V or 110 V in household networks. Wind turbines that feed the national grid are usually grouped in a wind farm and generate electrical power of several kVolts and are connected to the grid through a transmission system. Turbines usually produce alternating current or AC since they are mostly directly coupled to the generator. i. This is needed because the transport of electricity over long distances requires a high voltage to minimize losses. On large wind turbines (above 100-150 kW) the voltage generated by the turbine is usually 690 V three-phase alternating. With the small turbines this is not always the case as will be seen later. One reason for using alternating current is that it is possible to directly transform the electricity up and down to different voltages. The power that can be delivered increases directly with voltage. The grid networks operate at extremely high voltages ranging between 10 kV to 400 kV.Electricity Generation Wind turbines can generate mechanical power which can either be used directly in pumping applications or for running a generator to create electric power.

The induction generators are basically the same as induction motors. the speed of the generator varies continuously so in order to produce a useable voltage which is constant.Three Phase Alternating Current The AC networks mentioned above consist normally of three phases. They create electrical energy in a rotor which is carrying a set of copper windings while rotating in a changing magnetic field exerted by the stator. Basically. When the load increases. This means that the electricity is generated and transported in three different lines at the same time in parallel which is shown on figure 13. We will not go into details since that is not the scope of this paper. In common generators that are run by steady speed turbines. The voltage across the windings is therefore dependent of the rotor speed and is also alternating or AC. the turbine needs a voltage control. The consequence of this system is that the rotor 22 . the voltage are controlled by the speed of the turbine. a current will flow. With a wind turbine. the turbine must deliver more torque at the same speed and therefore consume more fuel. Figure 13: Three phase electricity (DWTMA) Generation All electrical generation from a mechanical source like a wind turbine uses electromagnetic induction. There are two basic types of generators used on wind turbines: induction generators and alternators. This causes an electric field across these windings and if these windings are connected to a load in a circuit. Important to mention is the frequency of the alternating voltage which is usually 50 or 60 Hz. This commutator is connected by brushes to the outer electrical circuit. the turbine axis rotates a set of copper windings in a static magnetic field. The conversion from AC to DC is done by a commutator on the rotor.

This is very favorable for small scale wind turbines since it reduces maintenance a lot. Another option is the use of permanent magnets which eliminated the use of brushes. The difference here is that the magnetic field is exerted by the rotor while the electrical power is generated in the stator. transformer connected to the grid (Jackson. This makes the rotor much lighter and enables power generation in much lower rotor speeds. gearbox. The one that is used mostly in small scale turbines is based on the alternator type. The rectification of the AC to the DC is done in this case by diode bridges. the brushes need preventive maintenance.becomes quite heavy and the generator is not efficient at low rotor speeds. synchronous generator. This is why this type of generator is used mainly in larger turbines. This is also the generator type that is used in automobiles. Also. Figure 14: a typical wind turbine: propeller. The magnetic field can be created by electromagnets which require a small electric field provided to the shaft by brushes. 2009) 23 .

This chapter reviews the small scale wind turbines that are in use today all over the world. grid tied or hybrid systems are integral systems that include wind turbines. Stand alone. Small turbines use a wind vane while large ones are turned by a servomotor. The different types are discussed as well as their advantages and disadvantages. inverters. There are many types and applications for these turbines and we will try to give an overview of these in a generalized way with examples. In most cases. The turbine is usually mounted upwind of the tower since the tower creates turbulence behind it. other power generators etc. Additionally. These horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) have the main rotor shaft and electricity generator at the top of a tower and must be pointed into the wind. the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted up a small amount. Definition and types Definition With small scale wind power we understand those systems that have a nominal electrical power below 50 kW. SMALL-SCALE WIND POWER Introduction The reason for choosing small scale turbines is because both the budget and site surface size don’t allow for large turbines. Horizontal axis wind turbines The most well known windmill has a horizontal axis. These are typically turbines with rotor diameter from 1m to 3m and are used in small local electrical networks. batteries. This requires very stiff rotor blades so that they can’t be bent too far and hit the tower.4. the turbines themselves are part of an integral system. The downwind types don’t need additional systems to correct for wind direction and to increase stiffness but common practice has taught that cyclic turbulence may lead to 24 . Most have a gearbox to increase the rotor speed to suitable generation speed. there are a few recommendations at the end of this chapter along with a short market research report for South Africa. In order to be able to assess the wind conditions at a certain site for small scale wind turbines.

Although the advantages seem substantial. This also results in a wide. The main advantage of this arrangement is that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective.early fatigue problems and that’s why most HAWT turbines are upwind machines. to start turning. The torque ripple is reduced by using three or more blades which results in a higher solidity for the rotor. the Energy Ball V100 by Home Energy. The Darrieus or sometimes called “eggbeaters” have a good efficiency. They have straight blades and can have variable pitch to reduce the torque pulsation and to increase the starting torque. these turbines have a vertical main rotor shaft. a lower blade speed 25 . the Proven100 by Proven Wind and the AirX from Windenergy. relatively flat torque curve. They generally need some external power source. This is an advantage on sites where the wind direction is highly variable. the Savonius and the giromill wind turbine (beneath from left to right). Solidity is measured by blade area over the rotor area. There has been development on a few types like the Darrieus wind turbine. or an additional Savonius rotor. because of the low starting torque. The giro mills are a subtype of the Darrieus turbine. but produce large torque ripple and the cyclic stress on the tower contributes to poor reliability. As shown. VAWTs can utilize winds from varying directions. Vertical-axis wind turbines In contrast to the HAWT. this type of machine hasn’t become a major player on the market.

ratio; a higher coefficient of performance; more efficient operation in turbulent winds. The Savonius turbines are drag-type devices with two (or more) sails or fins. They are used in anemometers, Flettner vents (commonly seen on bus and van roofs), and in some high-reliability low-efficiency power turbines. They are always self-starting if there are at least three scoops and they sometimes have long helical scoops to give a smooth torque.

Figure 15: how the Darrieus turbine works (Jackson, 2009)

Systems
Stand alone wind power As shown in the figure above the stand alone system is using the wind turbine for electricity generation directly. The basic system has a voltage limiter and an inverter connected to the network preferably through a kWh meter. Of course, the problem of energy storage comes up immediately and the most used storage technology is batteries. Others are hydrogen storage, compressed air, pumped water and other less investigated systems. The voltage limiter takes care of over-speed situations from the wind turbine in case of high winds. The inverter can transform DC or AC input at low voltage into the usual network voltage of 110V or 220V. Of course, one can also design the local network for lower voltages of 26

for example 48V since a lot of electronics actually use low voltage DC, but in case of larger consumers, the cost of the wiring will be higher since these will need to be thicker because of the higher currents. For the batteries one should use a charge controller in order to optimize the lifetime of the batteries.

Figure 16: stand alone wind power system

Grid tied wind power The grid tied systems look a lot like stand alone but differ in a way that the turbine supplies energy to a grid tied electrical network. When installed near a house that is connected to the street grid for example. The turbine can then be used to feed the house appliances directly in parallel to the grid in order to reduce the electricity bill. There can be a battery array that can be charged by the turbine and be used as a standby in case of power cuts. Another option is to feed the power of the turbine back into the grid. When the consumption is low for example and the turbine is producing, the excess in production could be sold back to the grid operator or be used to rotate the kWh meter in the opposite direction. In Europe there are already several different schemes active for small scale wind energy in order to promote and facilitate the spreading of renewable energy systems.

27

Figure 17: a grid tied proposal by Kestrel Winds Hybrid wind power The best solution is to combine the wind turbine with other renewable energy sources like solar PV especially for stand-alone systems. The reason for that is quite obvious since the wind energy is too unpredictable and one cannot rely on that only for its electricity generation. Companies like SMA from Germany specialise in the design of hybrid stand alone systems for local grids like in rural villages. They have state-of-the-art inverter systems that can regulate the voltages and frequencies of all incoming power sources and distribute this to the consumers and battery storages. An example is the Sunny Island inverter shown in the next figure.

Figure 18: hybrid systems use different energy sources (Jackson, 2009) 28

A very nice example is the Windy Boy from SMA which has efficiency between 91 and 94%. Figure 19: the Windy Boy inverter from SMA The Windy Boy converts the rectified DC voltage from a wind turbine. Mostly all renewable energy sources produce unstable electrical signals which need to be modified before being fed into any network. It requires a DC input with an overvoltage protection of 500V. frequency and phase of the current of the grid signal and transform the turbine’s input to the same frequency and phase. If tied to a grid. into grid-compliant AC voltage. the Windy Boy can measure the voltage. which varies with speed. 29 .Inverter Inverters are necessary as an interface between a renewable power source and a network. It will then inject the turbine’s electricity in the grid at a slightly higher voltage in order to create a net current.

The cost for this device is about R1. the main properties are wind speed and direction. wind speed and direction. The cost is around R7. It uses a data logger and an internet connection to produce a monthly power report. but the advantage of a weather station is that it is a cheaply available device compared to separate wind anemometers which are not that easily available. rainfall and others and is able to log this in a database.Site assessment for small scale systems Wind measurement Weather stations are the easiest way for home owners to assess the wind and other properties at their location. humidity. The station typically comes with one sensor for each but is designed for up to 8 extra sensors. Figure 20: a weather station (Lacrosse) The latest addition to the market of weather stations is the Power Predictor from Better Generation in the UK. Of course. payback times and carbon footprints with the data measured at your location. This is a simplified weather station that monitors wind and solar energy and can calculate energy savings. 000 for a versatile weather station which measures solar intensity. 30 . 400 which is far cheaper than the above weather station but it is not readily available yet. Another advantage is that it allows assessing the feasibility of hybrid systems since it also measures solar intensity. for a wind turbine.

com). Figure 22: the e2 power monitor (Efergy) 31 .efergy.Figure 21: the Power Predictor on a mast Consumption monitoring The best thing one can do before purchasing a rather expensive tool like a wind turbine is to assess its own power consumption and try to record it. A tool that can help with that is the e2 from Efergy (www.

the deep-cycle batteries are sometimes preferred. Lead acid batteries designed for starting automotive engines are not designed for deep discharge. There are two groups of rechargeable batteries on the market for heavy duty service: deep-cycle batteries and starter batteries (most automotive batteries). a battery powered wireless transmitter and a current transformer clip. however. The key structural difference between deep cycle batteries and conventional batteries are the lead plates. A deep-cycle lead-acid battery is designed for delivering a consistent voltage when the battery discharges over a load. The cost of this instrument is approximately R800. Batteries usually come in 12V units and by coupling them in series one can reach 24V or 48V. companies recommend that a hybrid battery not be discharged beyond 50% of its capacity. While a deep-cycle battery is designed to discharge down to as much as 20% of its charge capacity over several cycles. Above 48V. and therefore 32 . They have a large number of thin plates designed for maximum surface area. Starter batteries however are designed to deliver sporadic current spikes and can deliver much higher peak currents for the same size and therefore a better option for cars. although with the modern electronics in vehicles these days. which are solid in deep-cycle batteries and composed of porous sponge-like plates in starting batteries. Some batteries that are labelled "deep-cycle" do not possess these solid lead plates. Batteries The most used storage systems for small scale renewable energy are battery arrays. They can be wired in parallel for higher capacity and in series to increase the voltage. Another advantage is that deep cycle batteries need a lower recharging current. the batteries must be electrically insulated to prevent direct contact.Figure 23: the Power Report (Efergy) This device uses a battery powered wireless display unit. Higher then that is not recommended for safety reasons. and are actually "hybrid" batteries.

A VRLA cell will normally recombine any hydrogen and oxygen produced into water inside the cell. they can explode and spread acid and debris around the battery. As already mentioned before. When a lead-acid battery is overcharged. the batteries of a wind power system should be connected to a good charge controller and that is for the following reasons. this practice will encourage corrosion in the electrodes and result in premature failure. the most used type of battery is the VLRA type.maximum current output. resulting in a characteristic acid smell around the battery. When the gases are ignited by any type of spark. These gasses are released into the environment or vented into neighbouring cells in case of a VRLA battery (valve-regulated lead acid). A common misconception is that starting batteries should always be kept on float charge. In reality. if dirt and debris accumulate in the device. 33 . Valves can sometimes fail however. and VRLA batteries rely on valves fitted to each cell. This process is known as "gassing". In renewable energy systems and UPS systems. but malfunction or overheating may cause gas to build up. meaning that the charging voltage remains on fully charged poles. In case of VLRA batteries. these batteries need to be discarded immediately.g. If this happens (e. so pressure can build up inside the affected cell. but which can easily be damaged by deep discharge. Repeated deep discharges will result in capacity loss and ultimately in premature failure. This is because of the lower electrolyte content. by overcharging the cell) the valve is designed to vent the gas and thereby normalize the pressure. Starting batteries should be kept open-circuit but charged regularly (at least once every two weeks) to prevent sulphating. though of relatively short duration. when there are deformations of cells visible from the outside. the battery will emit hydrogen and oxygen from each cell. Wet cells have open vents to release any gas produced. as some of the water of the electrolyte is broken down by electrolysis. a higher ratio of power to "floor space" and a high peak power capacity. as the electrodes disintegrate due to mechanical stresses that arise from cycling.

From this list. A long list of possible manufacturers was developed. The inverter is not included. Figure 24: an example of a charge controller (Kestrel Wind) Market research In order to propose a wind turbine to SAB a market search has been done both domestically and internationally. A selection of these candidates was listed in Appendix C. to protect battery life. The proposed system includes a turbine with voltage limiter and a mast. depending on the battery technology. They seem to provide the most professional service at a very competitive price. one recommendation was selected being the e400 from Kestrel Winds (ref Appendix B) This manufacturer is based in South Africa and the biggest in the country. (Ref Appendix B) 34 . It basically prevents overcharging and may prevent against overvoltage which can be dangerous as explained in the previous paragraph. It may also prevent deep discharging of a battery and perform controlled discharges.Charge controller A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This wind turbine specification for its power curve and annual estimated produced energy was used further in this report.

The use of wind turbines can be promotionally interesting in a sense that it shows a green image. and the optimal design for building-integrated wind turbines. Blanch. 4. The study has recommended further research on the wind regime in urban areas and around isolated buildings.5. Halliday. the structural and noise implications of mounting wind turbines onto a building. 2005) 35 . A European study published in 2005 examined the potential for such building-integrated wind turbines in the United Kingdom. BUILDING INTEGRATED WIND TURBINES Building Integrated Wind Much discussion and controversy is generated on the topic of building integrated wind turbines. so it makes sense to use high buildings to reach for more wind power 2. The wind power increases with height. The idea here is simply to install wind turbines in a built-up area and to try to harvest more power than usual from accelerated winds. This comes from following arguments: 1. (Dutton. The geometry of buildings could help to increase the wind speed and thus the wind power. The generation of electricity locally reduces the transmission costs and could reduce the electricity bill if efficient enough. 3.

The manufacturer of this turbine has patented its design for a “diffuser (the circle around the rotor) which prevents air being thrown at high speed off the ends of the blades.5kW of electric power.Examples: (large and small) The Swift A good example of a wind turbine used in building integration is the Swift made by Renewable Devices in the UK. speeding the flow of air through the rotor plane. the twin fins at the back hold the turbine into the wind like a weather vane. 36 . This is the source of the ethereal din and inefficiency common to all previous wind turbines. boosting its overall efficiency and allowing it to generate up to 1. Meanwhile.” The Bahrain World Trade Centre Another famous example is the Bahrain World Trade Centre which was built with three large wind turbines incorporated in its structure. Figure 25: The Swift by Renewable Devices. Also. at high speed. the sculpted rim acts like the inlet of a jet engine.

the prevailing on-shore Gulf breeze is funnelled into the path of the turbines. the 37 . helping to create even greater power generation efficiency. measuring 29 meter in diameter. are supported by bridges spanning between the BWTC’s two 240-meter high towers. Once operational. Through its positioning and the unique aerodynamic design of the towers.Figure 26: Bahrain WTC Figure 27: Bahrain World Trade Centre The three massive wind turbines.

This project serves to highlight how with determination and willingness on behalf of responsive clients we can actually turn these ideas into reality”. states that the company’s goal is to “raise awareness of sustainability within the psyche of our architects and engineers. from Chicago. The Aeroturbine Another example is the Aeroturbine made by Aerotecture International Inc. They have already completed several projects in the USA and keep expanding their expertise. USA.wind turbines will deliver approximately 11-15% of the BWTC tower’s energy needs Figure 28: Bahrain WTC wind turbine Tim Askew. This company produces turbines specifically for the integration in buildings and custom designs each project. Regional Managing Director for the engineering company. 38 .

Figure 29: Aeroturbine (Aerotecture Int.) Figure 30: Aeroturbines on a roof (Aerotecture Int.) 39 .

Aeroturbines must be installed at least 40 ft. The Windpods A similar design is done by Windpods from Australia.” (www.) Although they design the turbines for building integration they do use a rule of thumb to estimate the desired location of installation. the wind speeds tend to double). above the ground (because every 40 ft. roof mounted or building attached. On their website they state: “In order to operate efficiently.aerotecture. The disadvantage is that they require expensive base structures once they need to be lifted a height for efficiency purposes. above or away from surrounding trees and other obstruction. They can operate in relative turbulent conditions and fluctuating wind directions. They also advertise as being the best solution for urban installations and 40 . and in an area with average wind speeds of at least 10 mph.com) The beauty of this design is that these turbines can easily be installed as horizontal or vertical and are relatively silent and vibration free.Figure 31: the Aeroturbine 610V (Aerotecture Int.

once the turbine gains sufficient RPM. in order to avoid confusion.windpods. However. the blades catch the wind in the same way as a drag-type Savonius rotor and provide easy starting. Figure 32: The Windpod (www.com) Figure 33: a concept for Windpods The windpods are meant to use both lift and drag to for propulsion. these were again summarized in the next figures.5 and 2. 41 . However. These two principles were already discussed briefly in previous paragraphs. the rotor starts to act as a lift type device (spins faster than wind speed) with the TSR (Tip Speed Ratio) typically running between 1.they present very nice conceptual designs but the company is still very young and looking for first investors. In very light winds.

Figure 34: drag principle (Jackson. They are also easily installed and integrated in a building. 2009) The manufacturer claims that these devices can revolutionize the wind power generation in urban environments since they can harvest the power from rooftops specifically. 42 . 2009) Figure 35: lift principle (Jackson.

each site and project requires a thorough analysis. However the installation of wind turbines in or between buildings is generally not a good idea. At the same time.greenbuilding. 43 . turbines create noise and vibration and these can reduce the living quality in a building. tools and the available data are insufficient in order to make a correct assessment.com on which Alex Wilson has published an article with the title: “The Folly of Building-Integrated Wind”. this vibration can cause a safety issue. The most detailed report was found on the website www.Feedback It is not easy to find accurate data on actual performances of installed wind turbines in urban installations. First of all. the testing of wind turbine performance is always done in smooth flow conditions. but does it really make sense to show turbines that are not rotating? The question whether it makes sense to use wind turbines in buildings is difficult to answer. Wilson favours solar PV in buildings instead of wind turbines (www. Imagine a turbine blade failure above a crowded area. In order to make it economically viable and technologically possible. Currently. Instead of 15%. the knowledge.greenbuilding. the capacity factors would often be below 1%! One could then argue maybe that building integrated turbines can have a green promotional effect. Wilson refers to some examples of which he did get data and these show that the capacity factors of the installed wind turbines were usually hugely overestimated. The scientific papers on the subject are limited and encourage further research.com). Turbulence however reduces efficiency radically regardless the design of the blades or the speed of the wind and the wind in builtup areas is mostly turbulent. This title shows the position of Wilson towards building integrated wind turbines immediately. The reason for this is probably because the turbines seriously underperform. He uses the following arguments. Secondly.

Figure 36: weather station (La Crosse) One station remained stationary on the highest building at the site while the second one was displaced weekly and installed between the buildings. the study of solar water heaters and insulation is ongoing. SAB BREWERY CAPE TOWN Introduction: a feasibility study The brewery of SAB in Newlands. Cape Town has recently developed an interest in renewable energy sources in line with its energy efficiency strategy. Problem Formulation The main objective of this project was twofold: to propose a wind turbine which is suitable for the location and to investigate the best location for this turbine between or on top of the buildings. The electricity generation from wind power has caught the attention of SAB’s Technical Management in view of the global developments in the field. a practical part included the monitoring of the wind speed at the site with two separate weather stations of the type as in the next figure. This study is incorporated in this paper as a feasibility study. a theoretical study was done in order to present a useful background report to SAB. For the process heating.6. Proposed Approach The project was therefore conducted in two parts. This approach allowed us to compare the 44 . Second. The brewery has specifically an interest in energy saving in the area of process heating and electricity. First. but not part of this project. It was requested to do a feasibility study for the brewery in Newlands.

An analysis of the data which were collected over two months in a spreadsheet format has led to the study results presented herewith. This has a negative effect on the wind both above the buildings as in between them which will be shown with the measurements. This software offered an easy platform from which the wind roses could be generated into a useable format for this project. The station was installed on the edge of the old water reservoir as can be seen on Fig 41. a freeware software package from Lakes Environmental (www. In the following paragraphs we show the location of the brewery with Google Earth (Google). This is the roof above the General Management floor. Results Location Analysis Any feasibility study for a wind power project starts with a site study. A correlation analysis between the wind at Cape Town International Airport and the wind at SAB was done. All the data were downloaded to a laptop and analyzed with Excel and WRPLOT VIEW.wind above the brewery with the wind behaviour lower to the ground between the buildings and with neighbouring weather stations like the one at the airport of Cape Town. This enables us to give an overview of the site and the orientation of the buildings in more detail. The positions of the two weather stations were as shown in Fig 40. The mobile unit was installed in different positions and the choice of these positions was based on the following: 45 . This is important because the Cape region is dominated by two wind directions: northwest and southeast. These winds are generated by the trade wind system and lead to a fairly predictable average wind direction for each season.com). From figure 39 it is clear that the general orientation of the buildings is north-south. AS already mentioned in the paragraph about the wind maps. the prevailing wind directions in Cape Town are northwest and southeast. What is less clear is that the surrounding buildings are of similar heights.weblakes. It is therefore easily understandable that the weather station was installed on the roof in a way that it faces the north south axis in the best way. The fixed unit was installed on the highest rooftop with the easiest access.

the airport and Molteno Reservoir 46 . The maximum distance for this seemed to be about 50 m (although the manufacturer states 100m). This means that there was a narrow passage between two buildings that were high enough. Figure 37: SAB in Cape Town. • No safety issues due to installing the station • Not too far from an office in which the data receiver could safely be installed indoors.• No obstruction of work flow • A clear possibility for a venturi between buildings.

Figure 38: SAB. the airport and Molteno Reservoir Figure 39: Overview of the buildings of SAB with the orientation 47 .

Figure 40: Overview of SAB with measuring positions Figure 41: The weather station on the rooftop on the water reservoir. 48 .

The data show different patterns when measured at different intervals. When comparing these. Figures 42 and 43 show the wind speed and direction at position 1 for every 5 minutes during 24 hours (on Oct 2nd). 5 minutes intervals 49 . When the measurements are taken every 5 minutes. the variations of speed and direction are much greater than when measured at hour intervals. one can see that the measurements at 5 minutes intervals show the turbulent behaviour of the wind much better then when measuring every hour only. Figures 44 and 45 show the same measurements for every hour during the same period.Graphs The measurement of the wind conditions at a certain site is not as simple as it seems. Figure 42: Position 1: wind speed: 02 Oct. The effects of turbulence and wake losses and other negative effects are not easy to either measure nor visualize graphically.

Figure 43: Position 1: wind direction: 02 Oct. hour intervals 50 . 5 min intervals Figure 44: Position 1: wind speed: 02 Oct.

One can see the “swinging” of the wind in both graphs very clearly. hour intervals When comparing the behaviour of the wind between the fixed unit on the rooftop and the mobile unit on the other positions during a day with half hour intervals. 51 . The latter show that both the wind speed and direction don’t show the “swinging” as is the case in the previous. Figure 46 shows the wind speed measured every half hour during 24 hours at position 3 and Figure 47 shows the wind direction at that same spot. In Figures 48 and 49. measured at the rooftop position. the quality of the wind at position 3 is much less favourable than on the rooftop for the use as an energy source. one can see that the mobile unit is much more variable than the fixed unit. Although the measurements in both positions show very strong wind speeds (November was in general a very windy month). the wind speed and direction for the same period are shown.Figure 45: Position 1: wind direction: 02 Oct.

half hour intervals Figure 47: Position 3: wind direction: 02 Nov. half hour intervals 52 .Figure 46: Position 3: wind speed: 02 Nov.

half hour intervals Figure 49: Rooftop wind direction. 02 Nov: half hour intervals 53 .Figure 48: Rooftop wind speed: 02 Nov.

the following values were calculated for each measuring position: 1. The annual energy production. the predictions of the manufacturer for the annual energy production seem always lower than the actual performance. This is especially true in periods of strong winds.Calculations Based on the data. We can however conclude the following: • The capacity factor is a good indicator of the amount of annual savings that can be achieved. This is however not realistic but on the other hand this enables comparing the cost savings on a yearly basis for different average wind speeds. we assumed this average to be constant during the year. Here. The capacity factor (CF): this was calculated by using the previous AEP in formula (3) page 18. The difference with the predicted energy production from the manufacturer (Kestrel). 4. The calculated values don’t show a very clear result. the average speed of the measurements was used to determine the predicted annual energy production based on the graph in Appendix B. This can be seen in table 1 in the “difference” column. Note that the capacity credit was not calculated since this is irrelevant for the size of the project and since the electric power is used for in-house application only. In all cases. • In general. 6. For each row in table 1. 54 . • The calculation of the AEP doesn’t take turbulence into account. AEP based on (2) page 18: this was calculated by extrapolating the energy production during the measurement period to a whole year by using the average speed of the measurements. 2. the actual produced energy was higher than predicted by the manufacturer. 3. The average wind speed The average wind direction The standard deviation of the speed and direction The estimated energy production based on the e400 turbine (Ref Appendix B) 5. 7.

55 .

89 8.92 90.61 105.47 28.54 6.18 2.48 95 83 103.11 SW WSW S SE ENE WSW SW 3.47 Na 21.04 2.57 103.54 SSW 6.00 4.78 Table 1: The calculations based on the measurements.32 7824 Na 1641 614 Na 1200 1680 Na 441 21.7 1.80 Na 6.3/kWh (R) (kWh) (kWh) (%) (%) 5.66 800 380 32.20 Na 492.03 86.8 6.69 2.60 6.235.24 76.25 3.9 2. 56 .57 4.347.58 2.60 224.18 190.56 2.34 353.07 2.68 12.00 20785 14500 12656 30.Position Average wind speed Average wind direction ° Average wind compass direction Standard deviation wind speed (m/s) (m/s) Airport October Airport November Molteno October Molteno November Rooftop October Rooftop November Mobile position 1&2 (Oct) Mobile position 3&4 (Nov) Standard deviation wind direction ° Calculated AEP Estimated AEP by manufacturer (kWh) Difference Difference Capacity factor Yearly savings @ R0.61 204.74 1179.50 212 227 176 119 42.27 94.

Wind roses Wind roses show the distribution of the wind direction with the wind speed at a certain location.11 4-7 1-4 Calms: 5. These are very useful graphic representation of measured data and can be used to assess the behaviour of the wind at SAB. NORTH 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% WEST EAST WIND SPEED (Knots) >= 22 17 .17 7 .74% Figure 50: SAB rooftop Nov 1 until Nov 17 57 . Figure 50 shows the wind rose of the measurements on the rooftop of SAB during the period of November 1st until November 17th. This is very convenient since there is an abundance of data available from this site at the South African Weather Service.21 SOUTH 11 . It is therefore safe to say that SAB can expect the same wind directions and speeds than at the airport. When comparing these wind roses one can see a good correlation between the two. Figure 51 shows the wind rose for Cape Town International Airport for the same period.

1 SOUTH 5.8 3.1 Calms: 4.11.7 2.8.8 .5.6 .1 .1 8.NORTH 20% 16% 12% 8% 4% WEST EAST WIND SPEED (m/s) >= 11.7 .3.40% Figure 51: Airport Nov 1 until Nov 17 58 .2.5 .6 0.

This proves that it is worth and necessary comparing the wind between neighbouring locations.3.1 Calms: 1.Figures 52 and 53 show the wind roses for the airport and the Molteno Reservoir during the same period (October).1 . NORTH 20% 16% 12% 8% 4% WEST EAST WIND SPEED (m/s) >= 11.1 8.6 .88% Figure 52: CT Airport October 59 .8 3.5 .1 SOUTH 5.7 2.2. The wind behaves differently at the airport then at the Molteno Reservoir although these locations are not far apart.11.8.5.7 .8 .6 0. Clearly the influence of Table Mountain is important here.

6 0.8 .7 2.6 .2.NORTH 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% WEST EAST WIND SPEED (m/s) >= 11.1 SOUTH 5.1 8.7 .5.5 .3.8 3. October 60 .11.1 .1 Calms: 41.8.59% Figure 53: Molteno Reservoir.

7 . The wind quality in all the mobile measuring positions was not good. NORTH 15% 12% 9% 6% 3% WEST EAST WIND SPEED (m/s) >= 11.6 . 3 and 4 between the buildings.5 . 2.8.3.1 8.42% Figure 54: Positions 1&2 61 .8 3. This is because the wind roses show wind directions distributions that are very random.5.8 .6 0.7 2.1 .2.1 Calms: 16.Figures 54 and 55 show the wind roses for the measuring positions 1.11.1 SOUTH 5. It was in all cases too variable and not strong enough or too strong.

1 SOUTH 5.3. • The available time for measuring was limited to two months.2. 2009).54% Figure 55: Positions 3&4 Difficulties The difficulties that were met during the measurements were: • The measuring sensors transmit their data through a wireless radio signal that has limited reach.1 Calms: 30.NORTH 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% WEST EAST WIND SPEED (m/s) >= 11. For a real close correlation.8.1 8.6 0.7 .11.8 3.7 2.5 .8 .1 .5. This makes it difficult to place the sensors at any desired place. a minimum of one year’s data are required (Jackson. 62 .6 .

500 kWh which would allow a saving of R1. the average wind at SAB might be little stronger than at the airport. 63 .Conclusion The wind at SAB shows a good correlation with the wind at Cape Town Airport.3/ kWh.950 at an electricity cost of R0. The payback time of a turbine like the e400 would then be longer than 30 years. The option of installing a turbine between the buildings is not viable. any wind turbine would disturb the work flow and might cause safety issues. It seems that the Table Mountain doesn’t affect the wind at SAB much. Other possible locations are not favourable because at those locations. The best position for installing a wind turbine at SAB Newlands is on the highest available rooftop. The measured wind quality at certain selected spots confirms this. The data from the airport can therefore be used for the prediction of the wind energy production at SAB. The roof on which the fixed unit was installed seems the most appropriate. According to Table 1. The annual energy savings for SAB with one turbine like the e400 can be estimated at 6.

500 kWh per year. The option of installing a turbine between the buildings is not viable because the wind quality is too turbulent at those locations. MAIN CONCLUSION Summary The theory and background of wind energy and small scale wind turbines was summarized in the first chapters of this report. However. when the turbines are included in the basic design of the building from the start. but the available knowledge and research publications are extremely limited. This investment will however not be paid back when taking into account the very low electricity price of R0. This turbine could generate around 6. then the potential is much more favourable. The market research done for this project helped to propose the e400 wind turbine from Kestrel. The installation procedure requires little investment and can be done without any special assistance from the supplier. which can be installed on the rooftop of the brewery without any major concerns. The best position for the proposed wind turbine at the Newlands site is on the highest rooftop available above the General Management floor. 64 . Recommendations A further investigation of the area by using computational fluid dynamics software packages is not recommended. Building integration is an interesting topic. This will help the brewery in reducing its electricity bill. This is a comprehensive summary that can assist SAB in its future projects regarding wind power at its facilities. The most suitable system for SAB is one or more wind turbines to be installed on the rooftop and connected through voltage limiters and inverters directly to the brewery’s main grid without any batteries or other. It is generally not a good idea to install wind turbines between buildings as part of a refurbishment. The continuation of measurements on site is recommended during another year in order to get a better prediction of the potential energy production and cost savings. 3 / kWh. a South African manufacturer.7.

greenbuilding.Stellenbosch : Centre for Renewable Energy Systems. Social Impacts and Social Risks in Hydropower Programs:Preemptive Planning and Counter-risk Measures .co.Vol.ISBN 87-550-2870-5.Copenhagen : DNV/Riso. 65 . 2007.[s. Jackson Francis Wind Energy course . . can we manage the wind? .2009.2004. Wilson Alex The Folly of Building Integrated Wind .2005.London : Earthscan.2003.l.PhD Thesis . 2008. Boyle Renewable Electricity and the Grid . Eskom Electricity costs fact sheet . Hageman Kilian Mesoscale Wind Atlas for South Africa . Renewable Energy Systems . Cernea Michael M.2007. Betz Wind Energie . European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) WInd Energy The Facts .[s.l.2004.weathersa. 2009.com.[s.l. CSIR Eskom.1926. Joseph Wilde-Ramsing Brian Potter Blazing the Green Path: Renewable Energy and State-society in Costa Rica .8.] : Renewable Energy Focus.[s.l. 2002. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackermann Thomas Wind Power in Power Systems . DME .za.] : www. Diab RD Wind Atlas of South Africa . 2007. 2008. 2005. 32. 1995. 1. RWE AG World Energy Report .] : Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs.] : www.] : UCT. Cape Town Weather Office . No. DNV Guidelines for Design of Wind Turbines .l. 2009.[s. Swanepoel R.Stockholm.l. Marsh George From intermittent to variable.[s.] : The journal of energy and development. Sweden : Royal Institute of Technology.

v 1 . v 2 . i. To model this. the rotor is replaced by a disc that is perpendicular to a tubular flow. 1926). (v 1 +v 2 )/2. APPENDIX A: The Betz law The mathematical model is based on the calculation of the maximum theoretical efficiency of a thin rotor disc. A few assumptions were made. vave = (v1 + v2 ) 2 (A.e.9. At a certain distance behind this disc the fluid flows with a reduced velocity. the flow is axial to the rotor and the flow is incompressible.1) 66 . There is no traction. The disc withdraws energy from the fluid passing through the tube. and the wind speed after the passage through the rotor plane. Betz offers a proof of this (Betz. Figure 56: The Betz tube Let us assume that the average wind speed through the rotor area is the average of the undisturbed wind speed before the wind turbine.

2) With: m = mass flow • = density of air S = the swept rotor area (v1 + v2 ) = the average wind speed through the rotor area 2 The power extracted from the wind by the rotor is equal to the mass flow times the drop in kinetic energy per unit mass: • P = m⋅ (v 2 1 2 − v2 2 ) • (A. without rotor disc is: 67 .org) wind turbine in a Betz tube The mass of the air streaming through the rotor during one second is: • m = ρ ⋅S ⋅ (v1 + v2 ) 2 (A.4) The total power P0 in the undisturbed wind that is streaming through exactly the same area S.2 into A.3) Substituting m from A.windpower.Figure 57: a (www.3 we get: P = ρ ⋅S ⋅ (v 2 1 2 − v2 ⋅ (v1 + v 2 ) 4 ) (A.

6) The function reaches its maximum for v2 =1/3.ρ P0 =   ⋅ v13 ⋅ S 2 (A. and from this v1 can be deducted that the maximum value for the power extracted from the wind is:   1 2   2  1 −    •  1 +    3   3  = 2 P   P   0  max (A.5) The ratio between the power we extract from the wind and the power in the undisturbed wind is then:   v  2    v  1 −  2   ⋅ 1 +  2         v1     v1     2 P = P0 (A.3% 27 68 .7) 8 4   ⋅  9 3 =    2 16 = = 59.

B: The e400 from Kestrel Wind 69 .

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