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FORM AND SPACE
Solids and Voids Exterior and Interior
PERCEPTION AND TIME
Approach, Movement, Functioning of activities within spaces, Quality of light, color, texture etc. light color texture etc
Ordered and disordered relationships among elements and systems
Images, patterns, signs, symbols, context etc.
STYLE Represents a response to CULTURE
Fashion or Popular trend Also referred to as “ISMS”
Also referred to as ISMS Also referred to as “ISMS”
GEOMETRY GEOMETRY SYMMETRY
Appreciation of the affect of each ISM on succeeding styles is important.
All design comes from the understanding of precedent‐ Historical, Cultural or Social Parameters Aesthetic A th ti Functional F ti l
Appropriateness: Relates to the Contemporary Culture Architectural concepts and Ideas have to be accommodative to changing CULTURES, USERS p g g , and FUNCTIONS.
Art Nouveau A style of d l f decorative art, architecture and h d Design prominent in western Europe and the U.S. from 1890 until world war‐I and characterized b i t i t li h t i d by intricate linear d i designs and d flowing curves based on natural forms. Developed principally i F D l d i i ll in France and B l i d Belgium Art Nouveau is seen primarily as the bridge from stuffy classicism to modernism
Museum of Applied Arts, Budapest
Key Elements Aesthetic based on natural forms Organic and dynamic forms Curving design C i d i Writhing plant forms Strict avoidance of historical traits
Beaux Arts A very rich lavish and heavily ornamented rich, classical style taught at L'Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris in the 19th century. Influenced the last phase of Neoclassicism in the United States The style was popularized during the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. p g
Symmetrical facade Roofs: flat, low‐pitched Wall surfaces with decorative garlands, floral patterns, or cartouches dripping with sculptural ornament Facades with quoins, pilasters, or columns (usually paired with Ionic or Corinthian capitals) Walls of masonry (usually smooth, light‐colored stone) Palais Garnier is a cornerpiece of Beaux‐Arts architecture
First story may be rusticated Large and grandiose compositions Exuberance of detail and variety of stone finishes Projecting facades or pavilions Paired colossal columns and Enriched moldings Free‐sanding statuary, Windows: framed by freestanding columns, balustraded sill, and pedimented entablature on top Pronounced cornices and enriched entablatures are topped with San Francisco War Memorial Opera House, completed 1932 a tall parapet, balustrade, or attic story
Art Deco The predominant decorative art style of the 1990’s and 1930’s characterized by smooth swirls, swirls curves and high gloss finishes precise high‐gloss finishes, and boldly delineated geometric shapes and strong colors and used most notably in household objects and Architecture Architecture.
Bombay Art Deco
Key Elements Flat roofs and smooth walls The walls of art deco homes are often made of Flat roofs and smooth walls‐The walls of art deco homes are often made of smooth stucco and have rounded corners. Bold exterior decorations‐Buildings in the style were often decorated with zigzags, swans, lilies and sunrise motifs. Experimentation with interior materials‐Art deco designers used "new" materials such as glass block, neon, chrome, mirrors and opaque glass panels. such as glass block, neon, chrome, mirrors and opaque glass panels.
Modernism Europe nurtured the seeds of the modern movement in Architecture through a well known sequence of events and manifestos that q came about to answer Beaux‐Arts attitude.
Modern Architecture Evolved to reconcile an idealized vision of society with f i t ith forces of I d t i l R l ti f Industrial Revolution. It was an Attitude Division of Labour – Design of a product is seperated from its meaning. An Utopian Socialism World can be improved Socialism– and should be made a better place for all. Standardization– Set of styles and ways of solving problems using set of patterns.
Seagram Building, NewYork
Modern Architecture Modernist architecture emphasizes function. It attempts to provide for specific needs rather than imitate nature. The roots of Modernism may be found in the i th work of B th ld L b ki (1901 1990) a k f Berthold Luberkin (1901‐1990), Russian architect.
Reform of the materialist city and its replacement by a supposedly more Humane and harmonious order enriched through contact with nature.
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art at Cornell University by I.M.Pie y y
Simplication of FORM Elimination of ornament Form follows Function Less is more (Louis Sullivan)
Melnikov House near Arbat Street in Moscow by Konstantin Melnikov.
Bauhaus Style Flat roofs, smooth f d Fl f h facades and cubic shapes d bi h characterize the Bauhaus style.
Bauhaus is a German expression meaning house for building. In 1919, the economy in Germany was collapsing after a crushing war Architect Walter Gropius was appointed to war. head a new institution that would help rebuild the country and form a new social order. Called the Bauhaus, the Institution called for a new "rational" social housing for the workers.
New Unity between ART and Technology Bauhaus architects rejected "bourgeois" details such as cornices eaves and cornices, eaves, decorative details. They wanted to use principles of Classical architecture in their most pure form: without ornamentation of any kind.
ART Art earlier was referred to any skill or mastery. Art is A t i a SELF EXPRESSION To make A STATEMENT of some kind Communicating an IDEA, an EMOTION or a PURPOSE Provides a creative platform for discussions and creates opportunity for change in thought or Appreciation of the expression in Art Art.
ART and ARCHITECTURE are integral to each other and often the forms and meanings of one collapses into the other.
AESTHETICS Aesthetics is the study of beauty and taste. Immanuel Kant, the German philosopher saw aesthetics as a unitary and self‐sufficient type of human experience. Architectural Aesthetics relates to History, Culture and Religion.
Proportion is harmonious relation of one part to another or to the whole. • • • Materialistic Proportion Materialistic Proportion Structural proportion Manufactured proportion
Scale is the size of something compared to a reference standard or to the size of something. Scale refers to PERCEPTION or JUDGEMENT of the size of something in relation to something th i f thi i l ti t thi else. VISUAL SCALE HUMAN SCALE
Proportioning systems go beyond functional and p g y g y f technical determinants to provide aesthetic rationale . Consistent set of visual relationships
PROPORTION AND SCALE
Phi= 0.618034 Phi appears throughout natural world at all sizes. Golden rectangle 1 : 1.618 i.e 1 : 1+ phi a/b = b/a+b=1.618 b/a+b 1.618
Fibonacci series 0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,………… Each successive number is determined by adding the two previous numbers. Ironically Fibonacci series is very close to the golden ratio.
PROPORTION AND SCALE
The MODULOR: A Harmonious measure to the Human scale universally applicable to Architecture and Mechanics HUMAN SCALE
PROPORTION AND SCALE
EXPRESSIONISM The art form that distorts reality to produce a highly emotional effect , exhibited in painting, literature, film, architecture and music. It focussed on Expressive character and mode of communication, use of distortion and exaggeration for emotional effect. for emotional effect It emerged as the avant‐garde movement in poetry and painting before the First World War. and painting before the First World War Depicts not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions and responses. j p Characterized by symbolic colours, distorted forms, a two‐dimensional careless manner and larger‐ than‐life imagery.
The Scream Expressionism oil on canvas 1893 by Edward Munch
Erich Mendelsohn's Einstein Tower in Potsdam, Germany completed in 1921
DE STIJL ( The Style) Dutch Artistic movement found in 1917 Also known as NEOPLASTICISM‐ The new plastic Art. People who propagated the philosophy philosophy‐ Designer, writer, and critic Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931) (1883 1931), Painters et o d a ( 8 9 ), Piet Mondrian (1872–1944), Vilmos Huszár (1884–1960), and Bart van der Leck (1876–1958), Architects Gerrit Rietveld (1888–1964), Robert van 't Hoff (1887–1979), and J.J.P. Oud (1890–1963)
CONSTRUCTIVIST ARCHITECTURE Emerged from the wider constructivist art movement, which grew out of Russian Futurism in 1919. It was not strictly an art movement but rather a trend in the arts that was closely linked with industry and manufacturing, architecture and the applied arts. The term constructivism was first coined by the movements leading artists Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevsner. Constructivist architecture was a form of modern architecture which involved advance technology and engineering with a Communist Social Purpose.
Main features • Acceptance of modernity • Abstract art • Emphasis on geometric experimentation • Optimistic and Objective
Collective housing Design by Nikolai Ladovsky, 1920
Tatlin tower by Russian artist and architect Vladimir Tatlin
METABOLIST MOVEMENT Future vision for Cities inhabited by a Mass society were characterized by Large scale Flexible d Fl ibl and Expandable structures that facilitate an organic growth process
Kisho Kurokawa is one of the founders of the Metabolism and others who demonstrated the philosophy were Kenzo Tango, Kisho Kikutake, Takashi Asada, Noboru Kawazoe, Fumihiko Maki Peter Cookand Moshe Safdie Maki, Safdie. Often called Technocratic also. Clusters in the Air in 1960‐62 for Tokyo by Arata Isozaki.
Capsule tower by Kisho Capsule tower by Kisho Kurokawa Graphic Arts Centre by Paul Rudolph
POP ART Pop art was a visual artistic movement that emerged towards the end of the 1950's in England and the United States. Artistic techniques and themes are drawn from mass culture such as advertising and culture, comic books and mundane cultural objects . Pop Art employs images of popular culture in art. Pop P removes th material f the t i l from it context and i l t its t t d isolates the object. Origin in North America and Great Britain g
Eduardo Paolozzi. I was a Rich Man's Plaything (1947) is considered the initial standard bearer of "pop art" and first to display the word "pop“.
Drowning Girl by Roy Lichtenstein, 1963
Two important painters in the establishment of Two important painters in the establishment of America's pop art vocabulary were Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg.
SURREALISM Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s.
Surrealism "emphasizes the imaginative faculties of the emphasizes unconscious mind". It attempts to "liberate" the mind from every day reality, to simulate a "dream‐like" state that is truer than our own reality element of surprise and unexpected juxtapositions.
The Persistence of Memory (1931) by Salvador Dali The Persistence of Memory (1931) by Salvador Dali
Many significant literary movements in the later half of the Many significant literary movements in the later half of the 20th century were directly or indirectly influenced by Surrealism. Dali and Magritte created the most widely recognized images of the movement.
Magritte's Voice of Space (La Voix des airs)
ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM Abstract expressionism was an American post‐ World War II art movement. The movement gets its name because it is seen as combining the emotional intensity and self‐ expression of the German Expressionists with the anti‐figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism.
Jane Frank (1918‐1986): Crags and Crevices, 1961
Additionally, it has an image of being rebellious and anarchic. anarchic An important predecessor is surrealism, with its emphasis on spontaneous spontaneous, automatic or subconscious creation
Mark di Suvero, Aurora, 1992‐1993
CUBISM Cubism was a 20th century avant‐garde art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. In "cubist" artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re‐assembled in an abstracted form. re assembled Often there is no coherent sense of depth in these works, as the surfaces often intersect at seemingly , gy random angles. A "cubist" work usually has the background and object planes "interpenetrate" one another, creating the ambiguous shallow space that is characteristic of cubism.
Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910, oil on canvas, Centre Georges Pompidou,Paris. An example of Analytic Cubism
CUBISM Le Corbusier created Purism, an extension of Cubism, which emphasized the beauty of mass‐ produced objects
The Pavillion of the New Spirit at the Paris p Exhibition of 1925 offered Le Corbusier a change to introduce his ideas to the general public.
Corbusier’s white, cubist dwelling unit consisted of standardized elements, except that a tree grew inside it and painting of Braque, Juan Gris, Picasso, and others hang from the walls.
LE CORBUSIERS –five points of architecture
Herzog and Meuron
Le Corbusier pp f David Chipperfield