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SECRE ~ AFii A DE: ESTAJJl1 VA E["IUC,A:~ AU Ave.Iil(~ a Mu~ V,~ tie.

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o material 'q uS' v'Qce esta. rsesb endo a fruto de U M',a !P~IJC"B rua e:rrtr'B 12'JJ Sacreta;ria ail 'Esta.dol 'da Edu ca~ao do PaJBfla. s 0 P'r''D;Q]fsma: E'ure ~:a" v9icu lado Jl8h3l. TV ParaJla :5duc:athr,a. ~:'esd8 2Q£}3.

Tr,~taJ ... se"""oo um m·~terhtll eern ca.r:aJclerfstth:.a:s, especr'filcas1 uma vez qu'a· In:ao sa," destlna an ensino r-egular~ mas dlrretamente a voe~. estudante de terceho ano, in~eressadio no concu rso 'V'esli'tJ,Ular para 0 i ng:resso no e nlsinc! s Upe,rior~

A, Secretari"a d@ E:stado da EohJGa~io, atrav'BS db Depart~me'fJ1~o Ch3 IEduCB,91a10 Bas~,cs. e da TV P:i3l.ulo Frei're~ :sm aterld i manto a esaa de man da 'B~pB)GmCal a_,ssUnlau a pa~~" 8.dm~ nilistrativ8" cu hj~8JtH];Q (jl~ t3JD ttorn'o.~o,~ h:n:pfJles,S-EW.O~ dfist;nlb ui'Qao: do· mlat€frial.~ 9 ra,va~a,o de au lias e da contrataeao d~e' ,P'r,of,esscn3s," eem .e~eri!ncias ,s,ign ~~:c,atlva.s em CU.iS()S pf1e .. ves.tibu~aj'e<5" 'f1!U e s9, response II ~mriam pe~[a pir:radu~i"c.l pee ago.g~'c a do material ~

It r],fiodu~ao de: 100 ,tuJla.s I 'qu 8 5isrio "tmnsmUidels' ,p'e:~a TV Paw tel Fre.~ra 'e peJa TV ,Ed ucathla,f. co,rup.1 emerdam,' ssta a~io e' aii]cUJI:am 0 ,m,a~91~i\~.~ Impressa· a 1~,r~gUJ agQm ~011Ievislva'l I~HJSsibi'llitaJn(b) ,8 V\OGB" ap,rofurnd aj'm~nto nos eonte'~d;o\$ diiscipUnares.

NClssa e.xpecta~;rv,a. E' q,u,Ie., :~endo acesso :21 !~OdCM;, "estes, ,ma,1e,r~a.is\J" i'ene 19 seus coleg',as se '0 rganil'e~m J unto a d i'feQio esoo~ ar e a .SI~UaJ: pmfe:sspres, pa ria ra~nza!~ao ~,C1S l!sitJudos"

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GiOVE:~;NO IDO' P,A.RAN,A

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DIRETDRIA G-E,RA,l,

,R i ca rda F e rna IInde 5 B ezerra

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C:DiQ{RDENA,GA,o :P:EDAGOGICA,

11'!i1I'''iirU il ili~' H I nnberto G' <il'I;[I!"O n~ e,("!·...,. !f~ll"~.1 ~ us .:__ 1...:11 l_ lu~-'"_ ~ "_', .I~!r ,,"_, "'I~,~~y

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INTKODUCA10 A. B.JiOLOGIA

A BIOLOGJA. ·ttab~ de '~Q ~p~' d}ke~ (MJ, tJi1lE.:h~~t:.e I~t~a I~RacioD.:l.do :ffi ~~l1:cia, do fe:n'mu~flO vidilli e dUt:] seres vivus-" e1IlJJ ger.!lli].

Eff@le .estudto, ae pm~a. d~~ 10 myel

...:... ...... t_ . .,._~ ~ -- .... t.; ,d.,.., ".. ..... 'MiliIIIf'Rci;,.1 n;, ........ ,.rnn."' ..... ~ ~ ...... iI'7I". ,""'" .""",rPJj,., WJJ.LL~lU.W-:: ·£11,'0 ~_JJl:I J!.IW~!U!~ '~H'O !I2I..!J.L,.,.,VJL'!I;I~ .~ ~~~.JiJ~

vivos elllke .si 'i! ~@1,~ rom 0 S~lI!. :m~o'",

A.lgl;u'iIi~'a., D.i'irJ.;[siieB dfJ,. -BiQ,logia.

1!!Ii' 'C:ibljlogia_ ._. lestttd~ ~!jcltl .qli1e' se relaeiena

,8 ,teh:~la,~, .

!!!J }~I~o·IQ. - ,~~ 'do~: '~do~~

~ -E'nill.rilo,lmg!J8- estuda a fm:ma¢§!'o e 0 des e:nv'Ollv~lilw, do embrlia.

~ 1f.!isiJo].;a _. ·el;;,tUJriI.:l. ·0 flittLCi.ouameI:tw de ,celul8:9. tec[d.,os~ 61'}5;ooa, 00 ~1i8temas.

" A__IUlljWmi~, - t.~S1hJ.'da a IMtrutl!lt~, 1-" ,~, 'fom:!! ~ de ~l~~ :fuemnM-. 6"~_QS ~t1. S~tein2ST

I, ,Z'oo;'togia -, I~_Q os animais;

.. :Sot;hiiic'a (fitubl,gia) - ~51~li.lda, .~ V\efS'!e~ ws~

iii nttoJlollnil~ (skt~mQ!t.iilct,d ~ ,~t1JLd"~ ~ '~l,bsffi(:al~~o .[ii)s, $e~~' 'ri,vt):i3~-

• 'C~'t['ca _ estuda iEIL heremt.a.:ri~radade e suas 'VQIDilfOes;

1!Ii' _ElV\olllil!~i,o -, I~bl:ll,da:si: 38 'f£fiLudarl!~a!5iI, qUEr.O"~. seres vj,ms so.fJr:\en1. fUJ 10;D~Q IMs :te::m.11fiS e .SUa8- 'C~JtU$~g ~

1!Ii' _Eoologila ~ e~tnd.a ill!S .i:"eliB:poo~ des ~erfe~ 'vjvos elnre ·m, 'ei d!e:['eB junto a:o sen m'EllWI,

ll ... Compos,ipiio, It]lUllfmli~,

0$ elle~lumtJUs tImtti'icoo '~is :~blHJI.d~~n'l;es ·d a, mHteEi:a "l?iV.a:, B.~.o erau:·bC!ool.JIW!r:'Og~niill~ O:dgelliD er Nib"O~Bmn~, na Ii:t9J.b:hia m'lL]m~ IO.ri.._~TI.io~ 8iJj,cio ~

,AI:W'iI,lEIniiO'., .

AB um~ru::: nr,gjiu;emJ ap:~esentffi]] ~lt:o p~1 nJ,nl@t.ul~?!l ~ml !I;,,(mi'Ii_:p~:n:~~t~o ~, ~ii:not,g'ni~&~_ Esistem 'tamb~m, moleeulas innf]§:futiJC'aS! OD~, seres "riv~$.

J\, p~opol"~ao t'e;bati'va. 1m€(:Hi3i. BU,~'e as ;5lllbsta;n~iM q:lIJe mo:s'Litme:m 0' '~o:a:pij dB tum ser 'vivol ~'i ,a~~x'ilm~:d~'mm'r~~ dc, .:,D% 'iie ,~gn~:; 1% de sais

min~,a~~:;. 1,4% ttl!'; pro.ooin4ts,~ 3;% d..e l[ipl,cli]osr ~ d~ c:n'baldr,SL~fl·e 1 (~ d~ ,jttcid.~oo nLH:~ll~.k~DS, .

2 .. !Or.gmdz9~ii!l1 ,~e;l'ullar

08. se:r.'HS, 'V:kVta~ 3]p(l:"eaen.m.. oom,<t] In.l~LdHde €iEtru.t~ 'e fu.ncWnal It 'eel. IDa. Excettta-se, por' ('t;~~~empro, Os rimS'- qu,~ sio i\lI_(rru:u]~t~i~S,

Os S-~E:as. lC'J:aLmtmcl,o~ [pm- MUll, S~i e~lUlla. sio (l6' u[;J~l:o~llitar~8' (~os' :fb;"rtrUld()~ prij~ van i:IJs c'&hi:alas, p,iurlce]1!.lI,a][es au muH:fu(:eh;l~e$.

.il]! M' iJ, ... 1!.. .... 'iI~:~, d~, :.' !!Ei~IDutulbWO

E' 0 CQ,nj'm'iL'tQ das ,fI~al~Eiefjg, flulm:ucas, Icl~ ~a celi1J;tL~ eu de um Ql'giBnffimQ" Es~as ]'e~o~ p~tte~:] ~,'rnnSrQnJ.ljSi~[jJJ;ru u.ti1i~~~~o ,a~ ~1;(hi~l e' fl.~ eti!j~:r-g[a.

8~io dojs: 08 pn~.oo~~or=; OO-'ri~8 au, metab61]8]JJd)~ iii ADaJ<jWtiiswo _ ·cm::iJ~YlI.1.l_Q de rEaM~· de sHll~ '&ese' d.~, uma ~']uI~, 0111 ,de W11l ~tpmsnlQo" o~~~ 'p~od'tl~'1lJO de 'rr.~oJ'~("1Jla.s ~ aemasen:~'[nen:m d~,fj~ emLe1It'gi~

III 'Catabolis_o _ tlm'JjUlnW das rea~eE!l de m'1~li:se' f,lllebr.:l:!J de "ID,Ql~1l1~;3! de UlU a l~ lula "ou arrg:aJ.nism.@. O~ ~e8trni~i(j dem1l!']~{ltiliM ecm libe.r.S]~1 d,~ ellw,gia .

~, ~Jlf~Q'd'U:f#a'

1$ a CH:pamdaDe tle-ge:r.:ar ll!iiVimS;Se.l"BS d~ mesma ~~cl~ .. A, ~rodT,:l\--ag pt.~1Ltk i~. ~,ehl~]t~~ d~ e~¢,cle~. ge;[)Jimj .poo;:l:a:n:~ij btti~p~y~1 par.a:. a

mesma, me :nl§D :pstra G inclill.Viclurt .

5'~ ,Cr.'0SCDDGDoto

,P.roces~o que :~rnrite (D, .~mnmro duo tamanho nsijJ~)' dD otgFlLmsmo-

o ~s(l:irU.GnWI 1110'S· ,SBt'ef; WVIf)S :(DoGie O'OO.D';B~: pe10 ,allmailtv do \l"1l")lulm ~, 'ull~oo'lul~'s O'D ~olo all.men'l.'.O· do VOIlll:li.e e d.~ fitime'l'D de eel·ulas.· nos p']miCEhtlaLTi'e.~""

.14... materia, hruta ffiIDhrutl :P[!{le' C].'~eeri mmo-

.. - t' .iYn"" • ;r.;".':.t, 'if 1',.'I-.l......,.

:Eii:C~fl' - ~ OOl,,!) OE ·er16~Di' r; S, :rea l'CWJaiiB i ~:s:e

cr-e,~(1b[ooD'to 0 con:~ clle fora p;1l",~ a d~ntJ[')I) { :SLLperp~~a,O)j il~t de.pfi'$il~~(J 1M m;3tMrla e~. sua sll~dicil~. .N.Ba. Ita Q:H~t;E[bo]]s'[u.'t}! ·"to:daviia.

.A fl18,t&ia, :!{iva. cresce comQ eonseq Ri!.[l~iSL, de sua ati'vidade· met,~11"dliclill (J:oa f.e:suLlt~ tla inotJ;r:Por,~~oo d0 lrn~wriaJ ,EiIlO, sen COl'po. LogA ... cte£:i'Ce1Dm d~: ,dia;lltM :PJw.a. £0[;",3;. , ~tu..,_.;fgus~·p(f~ll

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u~ eF'eIi;Uj~-.Il,eUH!u~e

E ,a .ea:p;:il'Cidad!e de.. 'b,rul$lUi:tff- _m:fbr:Ina\{6·es.

:g~eti~BI 80S ~llB' ,de5C:e'n~n.'l;ies. ' .

7". Evol'~co

_ Mli}ditll.,tia~~ ~l\m:daLl.l p~~ 80"r~S· viw~ aq IDt3':i:l.go d,o ten:~:pOI 3."lrt-a 1Il,e:s de -pr:cJeeS;~lfJi:a q ij[) e posslbilitam UIUa, maier .a~1]l't~l~O 80. me.-ro~. '

A. :m[tlt~~io ~ e fetl,&n,enD qtae p~H:;dhill1,ta, o~ Sl1rrgilrr:"Hmto ilia nOVIQ6 ~1reJ:;:; laJlterimd~\ :pm1;a]]w" q ·info'l'm.f",lj~ii~ b~(J:~6gi~ da ~g]l~ci,w. Pede $e't' '~,pi.)fi't@J:rJea Oitil. ;h"lrluzJ,~, pOi" ag;,e:h'ites ftsit:os- iClU QuimJCO:@i ,00 TIt]ei'Ii) .•

8 .. I.a,a~

Capacld.a!de' Iqua os seres vlV1iJ'B tern d,s .~~'eb~r' ,~ de 'ooa.gl,]'" ~ estrmulos do 'WQID,

Danemlnames irti"ta:Wb1dacle ia capa.cidEtd_el de ~~~IP;tHlde~- ~ ~stintu] os P:l"OVGl']ienw~1 tdlc meio, cO,mO ro.l!1~~M de 't:e.!m_!~·atm~a'l UD:[~:rl~(tai p~e£sa,o~ lPH~, !5a1iJriidad.el etc.

Quan.do as ~Sp'ost~. SM nwni.tora.d.as pelo ~istgID a 1!JJBII'V~i chamames d,~ Sl0'llTsibilidadeffi

10 'D''''''D''ICII'I'''''p:''n ""., ~'II!!!! ..... IJ-i!j::!!,.,.i;,I~1

~, ~iJ:"8S vivcs ~~.Q CELP~Z:@~ d~ ra,gt~.1ruF' Sll,H ,~'tivi:da..d.es "kn.'~m~r~ eil~, r-nri~fi d;,t~, cOit!i,[I:il~e~' do roeto em q11le wvem.. Cil3lpaciJdad:e, essa ehamada de:

Ihametti'staw' eq1J!jlb:ilrJ dli:nuL1II1.;]OO ,en:~ 0 ~~r e 0

'~iot '

01S, ;~i~.~ns hID'm-tl'OO;tii:~~a' lQper,EnJtil. '~;t urn ~e3nism,~1 de ~:fe~d"':h~~ 1J,~tiv~.

:j[.o .. :M~o

OotiJ~~de:r~;:se' pu.r,' ~me~m. a v~.I®.!t~o. d!a. t~os1~M cle um t'"Ol~ n~ d.eeOO"el' do ,temp~ em 1JflaL~~D a 11m pGRW; di@ re[G~mj:1a.

_ N,ps animaia '8 ,~'8U.z:aruOJ Ellt~·;a v~~~, do'

{i~J.~:ri:l:cnl"O II! nm~· v~g~mis~, :iMl ~u",~m.~.as ~ Il:.r."o[iJSm.o~ e' :iliaii!l,ti£m,~ t

C, -J!; .a;i!oifii "\' , ' ",.(;;".0".,=]1..-;., -, 'lD:~o jjcti!H ~, , _: ' ."[~"!i!I'''''!Io'C: ~ y;u i[;;I;'Y'I, !Qil!&il I!;;.'!!J, 'Ylilll;'"~

Os' Eliliste!:ma~ d.6 clami.fi~~a,1i'I dOE! seres \l',hrM 'So-frG.D): :~p.(n"'fid~o~e:nte 8'~mp,r;~ que os ~o;l1b~cim1,eOrb~::s hi(li;]'gic~l~" "~n:~';€m.. OUIT.I, "i~Ui! ~ rU):~Q~:iD.tie'J~~e.s do. mUl1d,rj 'WV@ 'tmn, wudadQ.

Tlma 'da.,s cla~~m,e~ijeSl r[[~JS~ aceli.ta~, 'd,'Oi$, ~e;s"ViWBIL em ID:eI,a~aiQ' 8QiS 'N[ItO;3'" :fOj, plropa5i;a pm; Wld vta:k__~'r !!3:m ~9B~'. 8uim-;r. WIJ_ ,~s vivos 'fuI'i!I~' agru:pa:d~ :e'tlt letrne~J f~eitILfi':" Mcme.ra; P.mtJifl!'I!a.,

F- ,..,~ '~~'I,= ""~ A e , ~::~ L"

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ji' 'I;J!,~:..;;.,.,.., 'lI.iI '"'1'"'''''''_' __ " ~I!!I' ~V' .Jj_~~iA,g·!

~1ont~, ~el'l11Em'~I~ SJem p1rurt~ :e" sem 'm~wm~:]dllirui ~'Urtoh-mQS! (r,@~jii'.am' 'f~bo®3jltm~~ lQU q.nim:ioss\rrJf:r.fe~~ ~j 'OOm, ap'~ini;;la,ru'Jj!en,~ TO ·m.i1 espeeie~ desc:ni:tas .. ;SlijQ(8J5 'ba.cte~;~ ~ cianroThceas t~s, ~OO Q'lJ' ci~b~[ii;s)"

~2:. 'Re:ino PD.-"otm!ta,;

EllcarLonEMi ,wlleeil~-e8j ,oElllftnll'TIiHl'9J, (f3zetn futo_$Hfure2~~~ rum pThfllSt~ at1J. b.m-.e:rlJb'Of~ ,800' a;s

o:!io'lI~, '1· .]- ',[""-Do' -~-t)--' ~"":;~e.:if"i. - )11'9:'- rnl-;; -~ .•. -

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3~~ .lU~' FIl1~g;i;:

Eud¢onwsJ ooi~hll~s i)1!;:Il. P:liuli~J:ul~H"@'8 ( II!]]~ai{n-jaJl' :~pei~ h~·~f.Q'biii¥fi}$l P0ir. - alb~~aia ·S.e;nit iC.1otop til st:(nll sem eal ule iEhe::; sern - am ~"cl.if!! • IComp.D3eJJid.e o5'fuJQgt~_S- ,OOJ]:f;~ rom Gl} mil '~spec,ies-

4b ~, PIanta!@ Udem:plhyit;a):

E'(wiEtf'i:Glinj'~! 'I?h_m~lma.re~ Ie £tu!,&Mx,dFos-. ,Apl.-esm,tem] (Celulla.-a 'OO:ID P~~I@' d~ .eeiimlfjs..a~

;1 -- '1 ,i~.. - I -",,1 ., fiU ]. - i!:;...1, ... - '-" . I', 4-!_.-.......L-... iil1.:!~~-

!C.JfJI'OIJ,! asms eem t:I:O"-LiLt~" t~ W!.!l.j~m ~!.4~.I!_~ mID,

as ~ ,:pIW"iceltll:ll(\~, hrir6.]itas! l:l!l~.6.n'!;"aa,~ ,ghnn~:aal e ~pmntaE. Com 290,n~, !~pecl.e~,

,!]-,. :Beino, ,Am hn aj[lja, awjetamaJI~

:EU.~ri{iii]:'It.eS;. phlJ:i~.m~re-:$. hereM:~1't'ifos pn,j" mge1Hfuao. TOOQfiii oa _arhlcmMS~ ,rlaE '8SPOnjaS' :a_'te' o homem, Oom ee~'cii de 'llmTJ. 'mill-lriil), e ~ILfXJI e Qi~l.1.'t~. :m.j] ~cle~: e1~~(iril~g\o

.M~it~rlolagitJ Ci,'n,tiHca

[]"~niil !!~rn,r;t~futijca, l~i~a do Set' humane 'G Q p{bD:~ ~.e pai~ldda: de, k'3~f) ~ab~lb.Q ',ciJEn'tl15(lo;" a.. eu~,~:~drade .. ' ;Q l:l€;n'~$ta t.mb.aLba '1U,~ a eenstanta 'busca dos i"IlR(P'ltlfl iiced~ e !lIS 1'i"'r.tm'llfiS'" ~, ,moo

llf '~.

que 'no81 eerca.

0" iazet den,ciiEJ. ~ge 'U.'Dlla1S, dlo q11.e: ,a. ,B.imp']ei3 IQ_ttge:rva~.'o d® i.11Jtos~ 'bu;SC(I, D B.X.plica~_jj dB sua

- -_. ;::;t:" - _,;~ "'" -m"" ~ -- - ifII~""""r ""f3 - "" - "";:.;(1i " • .l-t'l!'iiif';'\<lj"" Ai.c, "" . "" le'XI,"; ~iPL"'lll1 I ~ =9' re.~ ~-'" ' :~..., O.;)U~"",,~.U.!;i.'cU;!j<>La II;,:I!..... ~U.1:3

Oe(ai['l~,n~]a. 0 ci,el1J.tism :5Ll~nl. de· aeumular mfortml.a!~e1;i~ ind;Ellga as' ~~~5~ ~nt:li3 .-IOS t]artt,ots iuh$t."1FVadA)~ p~~. :pO'fi!rihili,~t· a cgnJJ;p-g'"dl!eu~~jbJ da natueesa e; ,8 ,ap,Jic~h,iU~tai[,e' ,de ,iSL~a.1:II -de~-JJ~en-a;s.

A, ~;j§]]cia:. QI,'lme~'UIt'h,:i_ t;fl!1r.~~t~: ua E'I.!iT01=UllJ~ t;::tl.t-oo' os sicwos' XV' e XV1.1., dU.ralilte 0 Blenascim!elIiJo,

A. ci.!mcia ~1110]_~ .rOtttl~ da ICOriliecime1il.'Lo! ,que: uaa H1etod!Js J::igOl"fjiSUS' PaJEai. exp:~ie:e:~ 63 ie.ri;4)';mf!nGs f:u~m]'OO:S~

P'Ddemn,Sj ,dli:BI' "8S ~eguin,WI et.3,pa.s. dtil mit..ud.Oi Icje.ntffi,OO::

:1. 'OhSel'V,8~O

',0 ciftD:tt~ -nOO cl'eve !ipgrn~ observar de, for.ma ,o~I\l'temp;l~tiv~ 10"'" :E~l;il;,o~~ ~8i de rmm.iffil ~,eB,iti"&a,~-~., ~m e u in-lei. QtJ Fa,zo~ cieiIld~'(j' iohaerv~,~.dQ c:ritica:~.il e1i te- os fatQ.s j' f~~'e.ndn' ,~~r.gwlt8S ,l5ohocE! '~les na.tentativa de enten~los.

2. [dC'rntwca~ao d'!J' ilUmt :plrl~b!elJ1ltl

_Atr,aLves, d.el i;.Ii!l1]B obae:nr8Jr:EJ.o 'er:itica liB' de :p~rgu1JjfIt:~~, p~mJi~l 'es ,~ _pos<sf'v~~ iSlOlar 'U:Dl problema I~ru~; e:~pe:ra, piU' ~oIUf'~lth

a I1nahD~-H'l?iD' Ide '1l1J1 brjlj6~ese

Ap6s ,3. reuniaa de im~g~es :8~bm urn' feno:mJ~TII!o, elas rIQO ri~®1l1lentB pil18d]seuiEJJ~ H ~nteqJ:reitad.aI$' i:flVimdo 0, ,cw:n:t1!&ta: ,iiJj :OOtmul~r 1;auum hlpot \'!~ cj~tifll~(I,. A 1d,:putE:s~ ;-'j.CDt'(fi,ca S'e IconstiItm 'nun_ 'wft&tirvill . .all:- ~~l'j,c".j!;i.o dJ1liJ1 fmOlJilillllQ.

Evldentel'ue;r:Lts, '1!I~, 11iJj~_l~tes;~ d~lfJtm'm, ilia ~ . urn s~~"Pl!G~~ P$lJJlI':,roo,_,. ,m ~~ t~n51, (,"(rJ,mo b:;]8E]l mffli,~rnl~Q!e;9 J,{l eenheeides sobre 0 assuato, Dunm.w a ·mta t~ltn'li.ruJl~aQ1r Q eientista ~Si:];~, ·mnt~rp.]~~:t:~ ,~ '1f']jl!'!5l no ~oda3 as i n:f{rrm~~~O;~~ disp(}tdvei~t' p"ro~~o ,oom]lu~ru([u Ci]'mfi !~Oldl~lo~~.

4", Detd.~i"o

Urns h~pdtla~' S;®lm~nJi@ 'p'{~d.eni ,!:\lei:" aeeita 8~ fi~lf" p;_.:!~v,d. de 't€i5te,

o eientista, Gnw@I' i~[I. a ~p,~_hilid~~l~ da hipdteH e" se fot" '~:r:e<rd~aLd.e i ra ~ e ~ 1Ll i:IJ,$, '~Quseqll@;nciiiH]\. ~.im ,el~'. far~t uma ,d.educao. 'p~'1,i'\MldQ ~ 'lJt1le ir~ ,a~liltec'g.ll;'i

,So .'EXperi.m:ellilaQ3o C:ia1Jtifi1J9

MiuJ:tas, il>reJ~tea,~ ,~:s clentistas ger.ar~ c~~,mr:_oos OOIl!bol~(jjas 'P~, testar ,~lJ]a$. hlp6~M~, m.etrulo cilama,d.o e'.1'[[il~'rime.ntrl'~io. IQlL~jO ,pI"QC~8am!Q~i um ~1?e::rim.ettflo ~ie:utrfi'o!il CQIfQ;par,BLmflr:!l, duo .si ,. u~~Des ~ufr cl.ife:l'mn: ,en:ba '15,i ptKr' 'iJIl1.1, w:[i,e~ ~ecto~. Q'~r;;I.ih:11111!~nt~ '~UC'~~ ij~~ des -ti~~:mo~ 'm8:bru:'~

o '~pl3'.cinJl'!:n!l'bo cl.e.n.trnt'\Q; :c~r~eIJts~ d@vie e.$tar ~d~~ttad~ J ;~, :U;:ti:p6te~e; q:iJLe' §~ de$e]~ 'ItE~~;Ul"'.

IG. ConelillS:fi,o

Apjs 0 te&1t.Et da d.edu,f;fl,jj atraves Ide novas ~'bg;lH9~aJQ5C8 ou 0X~rim,e;nt.Qs~ ~ possivel 'gJr(l-r ,eC!L)r:lt;m(jes' ,~ ~~i'lQ qa 'me.lSm~. -

'd'_.. ;:r: ~ ii!' .J oJ: ,., L ,Ji,

ee nan 1I-!.iE" 'IOO:i:'J:llj:mIa,!i.l~.~ :reJ~~,~a'Ula I~ l~:!)tl'3!~

d!l:!&~e~ Slio fm:mu:18dla~ l~M;a 'SerraTo. 'testad.aliu Se pollllim1ad~, e]a ~Hr8;, ,tJlreH:.a;.

'71,. NblU~~lo

M d.esooll.el~ e ro~ch.tsaes ~:iien.t.ulC$ ,ii3M ~blic:Fi:das lent revistas cla'1LUi.ea't3. nas quais (0 Ci.'e:tlti:S~~ cl~~cr'0V1~' em detal hes a P(lh8lqlJJ sa '~~a1iJz~GI:a~ c;.m:tl~ eJ.aba,~ e 'te'~h)'UJ ,:;w, h]p6t~g~ e, eom.'~ dl!l:igou 8i 5JL~, ~(rtlcll16jOOa.

TIm 'tiI.-.-ibMb~ ~i~ntrui:eo deve ~e:t clam 10 .1i1iufic:ie:mte pam que .'qUWqLW<Jr PeBElO8.! ~ 105 -~rn63EruJ5, rccm'so~ GJO a;u;l:Q~l'iI' ~SiBn rspcrti·'[D e ~o:m,pNT'!I'Wi" Stil:l ve,r:,acidade~

':bidc ~~.Jr:l:hed:mmto ,al'a. ~er' . cmH,rid~i!l',ad 0 'cien,tJfioo d.eve· ,Sier 'bom!~dijj .InihLioo~ p.ara q.ue aej_3.

RCeSSl\r,et ~ todes, .

. - .

"tlPQrton;te' .

',Dr]','tgdo~, e 0 camiu'ho ~ ~['. hiTh:rJl!d.u ,Pfi1JQ~' pesqlilig~rlOf:'leS. _Iq;@! bnsea do (:Gw..1JtiJ~(:j;m,enoo"

Hiipo,te s,~ l!3o'u8l1s't,@ na '~l'I~ativa de ec_~li,ci;lia!tJ;. de' ''tUn r.erJl~~]!e:n'c) j~l ~a,u;

Lei: e' a. OOfitp'l'Qlr,a~. eie~,tf.llca da Wlelacio IC:~ ,e meijU), ~)BIv:jgtR pets.. hlp6be.se.

'-J1e~,ria;' {: 'lltlQ' ,~t:mj:~l11,b; I df: '11~ Inhe~lIn~~'~~ :0]:8" i:;t ,snrrrn)]J~~ qus pr()(!:I.1r;A e~p'Ur:a:r fe~m:etio~, :~b:r,~;ej}tes: da natm~u~ ,A. tern.'i§!! ou sis~ e ,~ 5i~'OO5e' dl~~ei~, :p(]m(,'"Ul~ro5 ] ira,d~6, por. uma

,~p]ie:~:~8fiJ, '[J(nU,lillimm~ ,

gl!J;pcmhga" ,ql1~~ 'V'o~e HQ:~ja. em ali] 3.1 113 sua

~1 ~ """" • . t ,~ IL A·~~

:Si!lIJ..ijl" _ e, ,.u.'~,[JIe:1:ll'in;fl!ffmen ,!? , v'Oce perceue .l1L11.J1J1.iaC8i:

!~b~ndo. V~]n ,~.[1t.o Ida. j'm1Bi~ar virndQ do ~dor~ A. j:~:ne']a ~. (Ifl:;~:e 'v~ii' i1 ~~.l c~JtJlsegUe cb3'~t"do Oli!' rO' b~~o. tumo ~oi)~ j!iv,e~tlgwaess:e £ato,~ u.ti1ig~: tndas M e:tap:.a~; ~o mE!,oodJQl cieirlitifi,elJ?

'.l~EX'ro PA.L1A ei\&\' .:

----_._----------------

A P~SI·,u,istl" ei~n'l;tfi,c" ,tkll'e it'er ,Ie us' riJJlJi:t~8f

. E,n,q~iillmw, ,ill ,gen~]na 'h,uman .. o re~,ela 'pme, i~

.8eu~ ~gre®e:;, t13, It!i.lie!J. eN.p]o(ll;e ,3 pt:Jl~mica ~cibt'e

,~ p~ms~ de[1j~tl'(!~.. .

. Um<ft'pG1ll~:miea de yarias E~,·,CQIU, DS Vel;TIe,g tP.~00"'IticlQ3J I~' 0' twimstt·,j) P~OOl'al"O' Sl'llaui!J ijllnf eoloearu ,~_ p~blew~' dU,3, liimU~.e~j da' ci:etJlcia p1:.i!t:l;C'1.p.a.lm,e.rrte, ne terrane des ,aH.mA~HitCN~~ tran s;gen'h;~~~ enqnm:ruto ns 'Glen ristae, piBblJ pri,m~;ir~ ¥~:t::;, 'v,~ as P~oli~S p~aID.ao 'll]]Jais '~~~~} e. tn aM, ,]"·ec.u:r,sof:;i: p8r~ UUl '[feooit"' q_n.e ~9. l~t:l1I1'1O p~1JlC_G!;ih~ Cf.gr,~]{ d\e d.i.-1ljjz~,~if~' e de de.s~TIiv.ot-~w, de Urn lJlg:. qu~~, a 'uos 'pa~jje s~r 'bj";a'!In:sty;r,ooo.

Amt51nido ~mb~ul TIm Jll'obl~ma ,~e:riD d~\ '~'ktQ~ 1(;: '(iooJlb:llva ~;Ij:tii'l!i a cl-eoclia. ~ p(iattl~ .• E 'tfw:i.bem d~ re1a~ao. OO<Ut a. igl'eja.~, 3, !~UaJ, ,M'tll:tipUcit i08 ~b.lS i:iIJter"ve:mo~ sohre e tem.a da hlomc.S!l..

1emEl~ <~~qu~t~· ,e O!Ji\mp:]~i3 ,tJ:_·(ls,l€!'v..am ;a'. (~faz'Cr ~ur COflt[i~ ~ eom a's ~8p~:r~'I'iJ;~~S moo s· :p:rofilndm e com as miEid,o[t mai~ ,e_'iCf}]].riiidns I1lo ]jnme:rtl:. 'lhUtSIS q~Ul! 'p,a~~a'm.O!i;i ,r3iO~ .:o.oii1l~(]iS ,~e.it.m~!E!;S. ~ j~to. :pQr '~imit~ a pe1Ei~8a·? E :88 ~~im, ,([tlffi1~

•• .) 'im'i .. il. '1 ..]

'~JJ:pr)~, :It!\!, JtL9'IiO qUt~ 10 "JU1TH~Jn PlvttlEOO 'r;eSCl',~,V.e'r'

r~tra ves da :[l1Lani.,p!Ul~Q te;~etieaJ das p,3fttaa I~ de animais, ptitobl@'m;j;:t~ OQ,mo a. fon:)l,e. e 8 mude? Vcis. d~, :m,'8do a ~transgen61'biica:l" ou, votes ~'Pilm.s~m ,nlil~' as: mub~aeSl ~azetn P~. e- es~i;Q, ·ll.g~d'()8. COn'll. ,at 'hlsmria d.G D.G!lID<em?' 'Cmllo, gar,antir re~-m:f!~B e ~ i h~tm~dJ~ aQ[5, cie]1t~·~tas?. 0 'q;ll;o' ''L!'OD~S pensam dos '~.o,~'~~e.nbi~ :~~~&1e ~~un1m d.~ i'gr::~:~J~?:

(r..ij(fjL'~i d;l)l~iI!l, ~h, ~1~!bJiu'!,~ ,2iD01'<I ,&alia) •.

O·,·,'W·,····G··-'E,.··M'·'· DA-" 'VID! c··· ""-A-'

. . .' <.'., " r.,·.··; . ".... .' .. " '. ',. ,

Abiogi.De5~ E lJi.ogep.e1ie.' JriltJr.D'U~'<(ji

Um dos m51~FUnbo~ mais ~5tim:tillantea· ~8 biQ\l{lJ~~~~ ~a-jn (ffiu:tida, 6 ,~ [JFi~ da vid~~.

S~to deis monl\~Jl'tjj)a muite dtmtit1ftos :irlLa. cli~cu~ao do oo.mu; '(ftiimiU ap3r€CtllJr.am. la.!i5 pID.~D:J;e-i1lf'._ tf:b:~ iLl.:: vidiil ilO P.1.aneta. Th.:rra e eomo :eler~s ~~i'vC!~~ fDOf rums mmnh~5 quo pfJ[I;~~f.tml' S!!u,~I@In ·~'1Utl~, d~~~·mini'l .. ~:lo '[Lwment~j ltlt;rl;tbi~,t;)"

Ate 0 :~w d.p .s~P1Jliil XVIDJ m ngll~'m ·d:my]d.~nf,[Jj ,tell1b.re· a O'l.~gemJ de d,et·.&.i.":fi.dnado:~· sel~S, 'vU. ~.O$. 'CQ;n]'~ OGi5 .. III 1.;mf.ai:u]s, luil" ,ex:em pil~. foram, l:ru.:d:t.is. d~vidas' I~~ sobra a forma ,q::iOO11[~i aiP~cirun. ~)ut .. 'tt~),S~ '&in. u1l'iH:1! ·t;:;o;p~i'caC'iiiol viive'] a~ ~~eS~{iliii!:i de~. ~ha a im3Jgima~:u.:· mm.WiS gr[Jlrgt.arm. ~l1!tmlemltl:en:t~· It. 'parti:lt d~ 'nmt~ri~, bntta~

d· .. .......Ji ." ~I! a, .~, ]1 ~'''''''''

'""W:T'1DJTI~O~ pmm~Jl~ pOwam S1Jt'gj.~ u~ :PJta_(!;~;

OOttl"fj dlelbe~1:l'!I~"ulag. p~.an,i;~ pomaJm, £!;1l:F~m:r de' animaia, Perceba que .ni D\g !;hem e stava a. .QUI!~tii))nar ~~ ori\gonlJl. daa 'prin'Wir,as r'o:~"U'lliM vhr~6' :n.o ~Pw.n.e:ta 'mli~ ~im:p]e~:rnem.'ft.e::? :O,UDl de,itenm:b:l~dD 0] om ettto I eomo _mtu ~tr"'u:tw.1:tS v.i~, ,s-ao ~]uradels.

-n ; ..' ~ - ';J!_ .;.'1.;:' ._ ..

,r~JS.., Q!' pnmen."(l; rojllli~o..~ . .l]c~~, ws~, e

axilt~i!flinBnm' 0' q'!J~s-tio\lli';l.m@ffiltt~ da m~~lI: d!tt "riilla Q:ilitQI d.acl.o -mom .. e!ltlu lUSl'lIDt[co.

TeJl:rio: ita 'Ge'm~ao ,B~p6ntible,a (Ill) &'bi'o'll{jJi~ese"

D~flinl;.e. m.w:to lIe:r.tl:pG a-e aJaedi.1:iou qne a -mnatffi.iBL brnta, em oo[lC]:l~oes '~eciafs!, f.~iS8e ~8[lPBlrZ d,~ origh'1rar m ~tGria '"iv~j' de f,ij-~;. efJpnn biJi[¢~, '[d@,i~ ~uc" o"fi;gililml: a 'cha1Iil;;JLdla .. te~na. dai ,gu.~~io '~ont'b£a, DU ,~,bj!D~in~~ ~a hi~~5e. ~a pt~ e~p(lntitle!!ll :fen d[~gelil,wol\'ida :p~"-a terltl:t" 'e:x[jl~e~l.' 0 slu~gimL~nto., ,ar;P8Fer.r.1Iil~m,e.nt.e subritLJ,:\ d,e

R[iL'anlaW ~, plantago .

A ahiog,fuleEie .Cei mu]w,' difundtd,31lentro!E' ~v~t1 nnti\gQ8 d&l. Iridial Chima (3' Egito-., Amfl:!JLe-ueia:d~a

11-... • . ·'2. ;L' ~ b . .11'

'[!;CU!11,al :n~, .p..tnl'fli~. o~liweJ1!.Li~~J$ ~J;O(];'l:'J"eUi. "IfIa. ~~.ira ne

.A.d~t6];eil,'~~, :fll]6S10fu g1;'eg,o :nd ~ee:ulo IV ·,B.lG •. A '~JDJhmn;ci~: de J\ri..guotruei3;· c.h!3~"oo t.e-1IlaE~fm·~ e ~~llelllcja. '1l~t.m:tis:tM ~p_j,port~ntesi . W(iiIOI a~re Desearues (1.59'6=:16,5,0" e Iaaae N'eW·tolil ( 1'642-17:271.

A, 'hipa:l:eae p1"{jipOg,ta.. [)Olf ,Aris,t6fQi].e~, _-t.inha '0.0,1110 batBe :a ,emt&1im, de, unl. ee.rto fjPli.ft~Pii.ol

O!>;,~"~,,".,,,, .... " .""n ...... ..", - -"'" ,;:m.",.. --.,. ..... ,,j;, .... ,..;!' ... '" ,--,Tn ;-'''''''''.'"",n· "'* .. ;;,,~.,."" ,,1 "" D,L_~·~,'Uf !lC' ... l~':n,'.a.L[]UI flLu ,~l1.Ji~'.Ii..1UlL Uc [~~:-lU.cJ~l rWJLC"FU-..:;a 1l.1I}~

mate-list", E.5sa :lli~ cchan'\ada l~inci~m ;a:t.i:Y\f!i p.ri'a ,~rigji1lRJ" tlIm .~il2!'r ¥ii:VO ~ 'tmrl.il~ d~' m~\tGrijj[ bnrJE3.,. deBd~ ql~ em. eil[1~~~e:S :aJ.m.:pl~mel1.'1;1!' fa:wrr:r,:tveia-; ObJB_~:nre ,que o. :p~-.iri,clpmf atiYjj!' nao l~ um,a slIlb.etan ci~,1."11M, -oomente 'UfJ]),a fht9!!' l~.ad!or~~

uma. eapaeldade para 'raze~' de-tenni:l1rDIWL C016.B! loontidirJ, em ,fl]~ tiP~f¥ ,de '1Jj];®roorias_ '0 Driucipfio

"' • •• j, • .,,".:!l!]' 1· ].

,~.t1vo: an~wtil;' .1(Xl'-'~:pl.JlCia.~ :p:o]~ e:<'em:p . .o'i pCU'iJq1te' um

1000fI). tee:mldladJo ,om8li 'Be: -desenvo,1.ver e (!Irigina:r lIJmj IlJOV~ set vi[vJ]. ,Affi:mI['JilJ, que' ~:M ~v~I'~o.nti~ JLml' ',rill' ~{pW ~ijv~ ~'F~tftl, patti-C'w:xfj ~I qu;@ exllH~a ,~ im:p.~tbiUdade I~le naiscew UItD, !;i.pc, a.e, animal a. pmtir' do avo de outm tipo de' 91lifmal.

Arist¢1"lieles ,aerednl-avSj, qu~"arnfihtQ,s e oop~ma" podiam 'mil1ooir dOl Tho;a:O_O-Ig~~Q "ijQ fuOO;e. Id.o~: l~g~s;, lilt,.'~ptm'~'FIief1tn(~·:ntre:;,

,No, ~~n XI: 11k&vi~ a. ,to"l"ru1f't dB q~:m gnm:os fOSfSeti\ ICI,tiglna~ a. j!l@l:rtit,' de Cet,'k~ ~a..tv~ qttt·

• ,:.. h' ., ''lIiT"' to..,..".,:-.-.i:' ",",;,~,,,,,~;:,; =~~ ,

!~:9lmi a: ·ffi'ffi.~mu. ''it 18Js.n,~ O'JLJ!l±h.~!b.ru~ o::u.iJ,'1tl1:B1.va::m.

q'lJJe cmt~a· ~Q~,\es. 'tinh3!lml mttDs oontmldo ~, pm:fu~.tarrJ;~.nW: iTa-'! na.d~ em ~w interiiot.

, ['11 famos.o m'~mc~J d@ ~c",']jJl(l. X\1"Ir P~.nle0i3lo5Q. i~;:ilqe\fell.1!i. f!j(m.~. loih~iI;!lrV'a~ue~ ~:Q'Iy.re· .. ~;t g~iI:"',~:tiao (esp~]ltihl.e8,.em. rates, ~jms~' enguias ~ tartarugas, ·t~TIdn ~}i}mII!I pon~, ds pm.1ida a a.,gnal :P ~r~ It '~.u~Ih~ e a, 'W.ad~.irm l~:od;~,~ entee QUl1i:.ms ICl}ii$~'.

N~ s~lo xv;. I,. Q' 'medico. 'belp J~.iUl Bta;ptbtt{i!' ~ IF!~.f,m.t 0:.577-1644)1 w'~g.o'~. uma J[":C;r..e&:ta ;~ra pr-,od.U2ilr" r.iffilkRSl ,I)tl.l" ahi!Cl,gf:.De-.!HB":. i •••• ~:C!l,QoSJ~bejl n:'IJlm' canto sossegado re peuee ihl1l11in~.d~; ea:m]S(:j\]aJ~ S'ujaJ:e' Sll3.daS·, ,es:p;aJhM.dio-se: ~a~ dH t:dgp SGbre ~l:a'9\o Sw~a~ c:am,u:mrlillfigo,Si

.-.. +, ~11I _1'='. ;~ I[;'i ..l.~

le5pallltEru!llle~'ll~e em ~,J; ~a5.,..· iW~g!llItU!!JI1 'i/aill

Jlelmuru" ~ 0 ']lml.cipiQI i1\)~VO 'Gf;~, litJ SU.JJW ];;U,1I]il!ii_1H'J\

Os dBfe'mrores cla, ,S!hi'~n~ .11~O ,~ pe-5$,'if, a;!'$. ~i-B}~.11c:rj esta-va:Jn' $mp'ilfle ,en,klli~ es ~~~k l[i,e.s', aJ.eruT.i.ci,S· in:ce]echl~. Mia ~'pr}~a. 'Thdas! QQ eonelu sfies, fb,:rall't baseadas ~m Ifjbs~va£.oe'Ei .diretas I® JJa .~ ~Hlp'nsi,ad dill ~JjQ a g:0~tID~i\Q: e-s,o:ntiin~01Ii, 'fo9~e :[1;#hne-nte ~(3_Y,el.

,BlitJ;genes>e

:0 te:ma 'mi~ da 'Vida, mmeQou a ::i~; b:u:t:tat inJter,e,Ssa;l:we ~ pilll"t:iF d.~ :sSeW.JJ ,XVII.. . MuLiAtOg, Im.'e~ti:stM, pusaJ:;,imI, a ~1ie_s'tif!;naE .a gern,~a~ 1@~pmo;mn0a. FOl ']1'l'-oposta 9 ~ria' d,e .qu.e . wao ser 'V:iivo if;:.'-r~, for:m,::adn a, p-:;lI"~iil: de: urn ~ ~1[Jlt..-n '- :alE!iI' 'i.i'i'IfQ ~.,e_rist~lttt!~!, . ~nd.D- "Ch:am~.d~! :par,a. ,~roo.'1J.tr:8.por ~ ;ge.r-apa ,~po\!1.t:§]le}a~, '11R-oria Hal. _Bjfig@ne.S£i~

.Bl'o~&r~es£ VE.f'5:fl:Si Abiogef.M!'lSliB' t\"a;q~SOO Redi- 'Il' O(lml$~O

=~

Em. nU~A:dos 'do ,~C,WI!Ji X:\nl'~ F.r911JCe\sC(;j1 'Boo·~

1(' It)21~""lS971! b~:(.~'n.go ,~ m,~dicti, de' Flflt"(2:n~a'i '[t'1eaHzou run. oos· .,~e.i.tioa I~~ti.menros lSo-b]'\e ,aJ, ori~~m d.~ s~ v1v~. 0 offiljie.ti;v;o dQ ,~~rlm.trDW' 'fui:lnve~tjp:r; a ou~ dn: ~l~S, 've~.nri'~; ,qn~~. ~w.gw:g::n Oca, ~n~"'m ~fu.'~io ..

A~J['\~c IVbiV:El"'8e, q.].;]e t~i:s: !fVID7D-~~~'~ S:Wrgi~m' ~o.:n.taneafitetite da .'p."llp1.'i3. earne leD:1 pmre900 d~e:

apmire:rJ.meIr)bj,. -

Pela Obse':r.v:H~O' ~di ~tl [lLm£l 'hip5'u:;se: '~'Qs '~l--el:l' ·venir1lW,nne~. qbJfI· '~Wi'lr---et;e:m' n~, ttJim~' em prI];tre:t~tio :re.pre'MUl:~aJnl lIm est:3)gi6i na vff.la das meseas, 811'0 ~ a:n-r,iaj;;:t, tEe acl~aitav~ Q,I!lC' as 'm~st";~_s' ·eol~'Vam .. ews ~b~'e a e~~ :'tle .~~~ ~ uMci1.II!en:t~

de!' '._~ '~~iI~ co·roo ]'1~n1t~u:1(l1. _

~P.rervi.D_ BeClli: se 3, :m.:pdrtie.se fo~~e v~de·~ 'C8l!ll'eJ .pl'iO·legjda Iii,!} ,~6e-d;iLo ~ tD.oS'eRS 'nao origina~. larvas>J

&Iilin, reallzou vmo.s ~er-im1B!ll'tQS em que eoleeeu C~0 dB voFirm anim:ai~ mnA~ws d!3 b~c~.: '~l'ga. Algt;l!nS .IDh:rrllirn:. \'f,ed.ad;~. Calm. tilt·a gaze· e eutros l"JJi6. Nos . itasCO:1ii· veaados: pela gaz:.® nenhnma larva a·n_a:-FeQ;;;;,u----: ... ~fill., nos al;~erl""s

. 'Q - - -. _ .~~' _ iii'" - • • E;l: , :p.... _. - .• _ '" - - ""'. . _.... ~,

enda as moscas 'tinham livlWe aeesse, logo ,S1~. Jarvss apru;"cc0ram ..

Ob~H~irv.~~' a '2'V,olu'~M ~ ']~]"v~. vcrifirolJl q .. ue is'e b',:Ei;nmrru~'Vat"!il ~ mll~ identmlci3iS jlqu_ei'u 'c;rU1e rod~,ilJ.'Va:m (l_B- cfUne!5' quca I~'Vam ~PL!st8S_ .PO'l" ~,em:pLo- em ~'~ffllgu.eii.t.

'Ontin as ,~)j;-pc:JriiIUl~]j~ de, .t,:;]]R~~00 ~il fie:o~l C'O-Hlptov;;11Id[o I!!IU,e :;}q:u 'll!i1s ,- ic:r~s v~ifo~s. qu,¢ '~:paw~'i~, 'nil! ~;,tme ~, .pu.~aJ~i~' :nio ~ fJri~l,QjS, pO-l'" g~.a-fiJ:) I~~gt~,e~, . ~:il)1 ,~i);D:tw.;mm~ fsj~i;aIllIi!. .~~ dnl_ 'mcl!D de \l1Id,a il:tas ~~, ,~am ape:ttaB' lat'V~.

A nb~Dgene"~e IQ(RlG :QDl1:0 fiJI£lI'O'

O~ ex.]#,eir'im~·n'llio9 d~ F.I!:'_aD.ce£HJOr )R[i;d.i ahalaram a ~redJhU]ihtde. ila 'mmi_§![ da 9bio~J[lese-Ma~ ·'lIIttta. .¥.Ii~~v·a descjf)l~~rta. ·'Ir..-rtfU}tt'JLlrml .]_~t]~J' ~T..a p~l--a es de:reilBo~~ da ge:r.iii~id, .espOtlttlnea, 'Q hO'[;li_ndt1Js: A:n.bm.l@ 'van lA&cU;~nhoolt. n.a32·]' 129} Binda 00 secmQ :xv.illL usando 'tlh:m!:il des D'licrot3c-6pios Q U Q ,~1:8 mes me 1f~ILb.,rj,~,~r fl. des co bt'l 'Ill . 0 ~ mi~"Q~m.~ (hact&r.i,~,.~

O~ def~l](i!'es Bra .. abiil~e~e a'Q~i'ItJtl",~ qUIE! miu,OO~~'I' ·tao 'psqueno:;;e tEi,~, simpleB~, 'nan podie:ri~lIJi:t'l. :Qm'" dn·fu:.ldJog: dil. ~~ p3C'ic]ade· GEi'

~~p:rm;l\liy~.. ~gicRU1L~~nJte" it;lJe~er.rn-m SUlI"gilir.' pai ig~f'.:l3;t:ij], .~il1'tane~.

A. esb~ .31'tutil .!lIl. ~~i(~,gbr.u~ae!fl' j.6. eU!ftt~ eem it!lm ndmern' rumor ~. ad.ept~, ~.!t -est~ Q;ieTl~tas; ~~sa]l'~m a in;ves~i~~ ~,it P'l!~J'!i'cW'" ~:1JI:e ~ ;b~,~\tJO' Ie s:p Orl~it.l a:n:e ~ I'D. 8 Q ·~:uIo·n t,e e i. 81L iIlil e ere lll,ew :~.~ClBi, 'mj~,oorgai:Ji]sn1os~

iIi'~~. -- -. - '.'J '~,- Ji" ,j.., ....,.., . -. l-"

IIU' m ~Vt:i! ·e~-e,_ ~~ _:elnt~ uma 1U),t1,u. _In

E'JD 17·U1·.Q :pooquig~r ft,~~f Louis .Jab-lot I( If:ht5 ~ 17.2"3 ~ I:r.U_[[['~~U um experimen tt.u para 'V,eriHrcar' a wlgem dog tnicr.o'C~,rus.m~. F:eI"veu. 'tmm "ealdo :n.1l.ttiti~n'j_o te~jJd~ 'POt hase (] c:iddio de .. IC,a:rme e. eoJ)OOQ'u. em. v,m.-]o.~ -fraacifis ]:meviallre:nt;e li m])es. AXguJ']~. ·ferron 1I:."oijhel~8 'CO'Jl'l1 pmcg·~IDho e onteos permaneeeram abertoa

.E:m. 21J~t~ diu ~"i,\I'OU qr.rL1J.e-' es f1:al.fi!LCfl~: ,~~S' ICO~ mWto8"~m'pDj$iliIlIQ8' ~"08'

I]' dad' - u. .. ita •

que : ieam ve . , .,M; :i!U) c~m.U.- n(!.J.~ e~:"' !ta.m. ,1i1~e.!i:l'.W~·

de ·llil&Cl:OOrg.ifJJ],is.TI.lll~~

·'C,on'--'l~u. e:n:c:{i.o, Joh,~.ot qill,~ Irn,~, :n1: i CrOQFgaRiiSlwiuS surg'eUIL ,iI.. "'H'Ur de rti~e:nn~n't~. :lIDicl"'OSoopilea1fJ!' ol .. hHIi,~! do· ,M; lei

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Ic-onru,da DITIII CaJdo .Dlut~J't.hl~i'

.A ~i'et1c~ia, ,~m ,debal:e.

o n.8.'l:;uraH~'t8 1,:cgl~g. Joh.n NE!Hdh.,:ELD I(]. 7MB-l ~8]( ~r em 1 'f45~ espalhou ealdo nuui.tii!,.:liQ em ''9'a.r10$ fra~c~9 e @gr~eu..p(}1" t~.t~ m,In.ll'tos, vedando-oe a ~egu]r com rolhas, Es~g3. su.c'Q8. 'nuc~ri.'ti·vIO:ij ft~irolT~. fe:[to5 a base de ,c~dn d@ ~~ .... :S18!f.'-O de 'vegemi~' e ,onUQE I".quido quLe ,[fOl1t.Inb,i!am ·~.rti~]a:\i ,~dimmlil;4i'~"\~~. I?garoa. dfia.s ~}~O:[8: O~. I~a;lid.@s: ICC! n tin.l~.:iftm gl~~~] de' q 1LI,:±ttl iii ~Jad.e de·

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1J'n·~·'mr'~qJm::J!irsmfJ8.

,CollSidel'mllk~ qw al ferm~, cle:\tGti~, '~r dieauw:dJl' todGs· ,~ :m](:.]:'Q~r:-g~.]lisrrln~ ,Pc:]I~~e'i:iLtffs. ~n(} frasees 'e. 'q.'Ui;iB1 .. , uma ve:z veda des nenhurn 'roitl!!1oo'lMit'9n;~,sm,{j' de:veri.iJ. b:tI';r ,a:Jt~:Vles:t;flatl q.U.aj1:1UCr raJb.iffiJ. OOIWD 'explWiB;X a ad·gem. des mesmos?

'C'oD"mtthu Q.ue ~:6 lLavi'a. 'hlml~ e1i.':.p\lli:,ei3:,~io::

S1!fi:'lgir,am, p6F g:e.T.i3'9oi6 e~p'oli'~ea ..

U:imiI ~riga, 'pnrriictdwr":: SipaUtlnlZiin.e G' N~bMII

'.' m padre ~it.Wi.EJJ;rw", ]:"-a~Z;i:tlfO SpaU.anz:~;rl] C] 72'9-179~)~. ·iio.te e cin~o ~nQ!:iI'i1l]-aW ~Ti'dB··~.·~IU~t['U. ·'Va.rj_:i!i~ 've:zet]i expe~i1me.]]WB ~ame~l'.u:[[)jtea. ,~Oi5 de N~~dHr[~.m~ ])~mj ilbtern'dn, ·~"£u.]tu!t1o~ d:i.fey,~nt~$,· 'CO~DCOU_'S1JjCO ,riie vir~p~ "1l1eg.et:ei~· em l~i f.rasQJs ql1,€,. 'lli~'~m vl~"tlado~ (~ 'f~a(J5 rchn-ru::MW L11la hera, O~ ·P:~.Pill"~,dqffii Ide S.p~]a.DZIDli man.tive.~l~l]l.~~e._ lli.vres, de: i[]icT.~or~fJJ~n~lo" Ple~\ulq: -vd'ri C!'P cl.ia,~ depm:s.,

A1;grWH1. 'est~ ,~.dIJ. 1Q-q19(IT(?

:Sp~ ooaelmhl. q,IIe :hovimn. !drmas, .~tivas .~ '0' mTO' de .N\@dlnm: ,ttIJlL @ -t.ein(p& ,de, m~ mIo :mrn 0 :~cleD.te ,para 'I"es~rinz~' 0 ealdo nutrith~o~, on;!li, VeilSy90 'Dim . fhra, eficienE'~' im,pedir ,9. ,oo~\1io ,dla

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_mim~~~o p:~tes, 00' Hi!

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R,~.$J]'Q.ma"91t N'~edh;~'m '(lUG n. f~Jl~·vurr~. p.rol{[(])g.1i':!Jd~ cl~!5:tJ:1Jifl G ,,&etpio ativo do, ealdo ~l:u:b:',i:tivu~. n~~) 'PQ~ieDdc ~se ·ro~~:I\e.'\!litar.· 'ErQ 'Vi1!;Lud:,~ d~s .nmdmca~tks SQ'fiiMB' pelo' M' 10.0([11 (ii, .csJDtI." dra: f'e! li":V'!Jll'a.

No'l}'O., .-g~ii)lJif!ri!~ nfjVo: oo~ta,MO'

,N'o final rl~ -!5et::uUn :X:V::UJ' r.Ofl[Ve- uma dilEiS'OOhct!'rt~ ~1J@ ~EL]U flODlQ i!J'm!t bomba DID :nJClra:W dJft W5Ciil&~l~ "~b~O'.~:,, '~~. hiog;ene:;;e; a do O'X1i,g~ru.io (O~) e 'Wtilfi I) sell gt09.U!. d·~' iln.pnrl:ancia· p!WnI, a manQ;teJLJ~io, da ·,':ida.,

Os, det"eru;Oi1~ de ,3hi-CJg,@n~~ ~gnstBdD~~, tamrum ·~:: u ;nlO' "EO le gfo. 'Co-l'lc'1nit'~m eJ~s' que 0 aqtle~ta dem;a..~.acl:Q· £103 cald.as, iiutti,ti.';foo. ,e a pr6p.ria. V,ed.ac,sLO lller!m:e'tk.;a j. PI]:'OPO.s:~Q~· pi 00;' Spal ],a:nz.iflJlli~ impe-diitlJ.m 0 ,::;w'gim~n'to dos. '~"!l'Iijt:rol)qg;~;trd~l'uys; s]:mp]e:S.ID~m'l'w pel~ ;aluse'lIlti:a do ~~ifi~ ~~ .~:~; :~. ~ob~'e!m'Wtnc-ia de q1t:l.iUqu~ loor-mH d~ vlidiDl.

01 .pPelltj(J

Em. 1800 a Aea~at Pr-an~~a. de C:i)enci~ ofe~u um, p.r€ulio pmn qIlie-m 'l'eMU~B um ~Frimifilnw que 'fOase deJ1-niti'\J1~J' :8ci,~~· a qu-e-sU.'o

ab~og&lese \~€1mu;s biiogble8~, -

.F.l.Qal·lI.ten;t.e~ ~5' e..l.-1leri~l~itosr .' .PQ-:&t~'fl/r

.LotIi;]s P~t®Uf '18~~,.1', i9~)~ ciwttiata :fhiurJb. que ja se ·dedi'c3.VIi so IMS1ll1:~li!H' antes lU.e~)(} que ,8 ~m.de:m1S!J ofewiE!~:S8a' [J 'premiifi - 8lpt"BSle:ntOu. cs 17,-,.'sglbJdoB d~ ~~~_S ~p~jmm:~tl5) bliciadds PW

volta dt:: t8£O_' -

P~lJ!:r ool~ooib1i caldo :[u.1'b'i:t.tvQ ,~ :al~ m1Scn~ e es ~oom_eteu .3 farvura :sen.do, que a ~gti:U~ dsrreteu os .gar~s ,ac f'Qgo~ ·f{ed:and(H)~. Em, ibtta-n.'EJ~$, 31t~'burl!as~ !Il{'jl A1pg;'~1 P~~LIl!." :~hci:L1J. tIS . fraSQP.s e· ~&l·elJq!l~~. ,~.o at' das .rl'iIflDitarihasz Logo~ .em

~,egu:idal deITe~e;l~ o~, gargalus :tE! 08 vedo1il. '[1 OV'8m:~'1il te:'. A [·g~IT1.8 d-il~~ a,~:p oi !ll] '~:m 8~TI IDa'b@[',:3i.'!t6:r!tJ. [iJDilt.(l'll (ffi-U~ (].t~s ·V:m.'~ ':fI::UcuS! ,e.'k~ _ ,~ ae 8]."1 da m,mdsnJul5:!; apenas urn. eatava ©nutaDl:j-mado '~fO-r rirlJzroorgEmisrn;as-.

Concllill.1l.1. q[Ue.:[']HO e.;tt':l!I[ a re1"~ qu.e!:.de~a !1 ~riLn'C$pig, ativo. !E~ll a fa I t.a, ,d~, ar q;gJ~ "!ilia·

""·b'1·'·... ] 1>0 ~'i' ~;- ,>,1

1P~@1'::!11:l [11,.·~"ra ,0_ iEi.le.<'!iiE!·J]:W.[)l .. 'Vll:rnen'tw uos,

m:lGroorga.mS;DlO. Couvence1i1:·,sE!! qJ.l'I!e 0 .m~ d:as montwihE!;s oo[]tinl.iJQ '~rn{!'n01r qn!fllJl ti.dade: ,d ~ i3emle~tes'~ d,o~ wiCol1l~·~O'lDS .q~.a' 1£' ,;1t" clIa -ddmie-~

Pa f.ltei!J~r. alJtr.e:s_cn.'~_Qu ·~U.;ll CC!i:WJj.'~l1!l~,aol ,~ ,,~d~nti~ Fr..8JJ.u::ega d~ C.l~nd8S. onde (l11Jl_ebrnu 0 @ID:""Si~.~o de alguns .I'hts-c-os pm.',i5lJ. quB' P caJdo n-1J(trilj-~ [i~S8ili' ~~ppgtQ. ~o ar ii@ cidnoo POl' ,algl1lTI!~, :mil'!J;JIJIII~~.. Ved;oo:~al'~ nova.mente~ ~o fn~ . ApOiS iI',ea miffil'S lOS Ii:~s, esta."tam comp1.'etam.e:rcr.te 'b:nn@jd~5l :~(l(E' ·mi:cr,~~l!]tg.nli~s.

0\5 membres da he Rd.anna!, 'e])tir~1:tiJ!

IWL~Pi::""""'m' ''''_';'''''''''Ifa.-'!l! 'rn ""']"' .. ,:"'.,....~ .... 1"lI ..l-..i.:ll'it,,,,,,,_ !!oI'!!!'"~r!'J,!-.~~ I p:!J'U' _ _ _~,~ ~..iIJi~'~'~~~-~;1!1! _.-~.

l?,~'~~. 4~~t~O~ !~~~ 11.<1]U8 IDtltra' ide-~; ':par~ '[!r13f~ 0, ·~p~mfd:n:b@l, f~p~jo:u:. ,g,ll~tllJ £f'aS~M dfd '\fidf-o ~ ~el1etiu. .a :exp¢rlencia~ .Det]llA V-e2., ,p'~em,. ;1!lllJJ,ole'ce~ os ·f-ru:g·ru,o;s 80 f;ogo., estic[nt-os 'P.l"'(JV'QC~Tli do umna eWtv~d;UIrn ;;u~- q.~~ :oo'Jna;g~~m a 'fm~m a de um pes(.~~o de· c~.'~. r-a:~io pela 'quiBJ 'n'e1;!l.J."$!ni ,eQnhJEH.::i,dJ[)~ ,ClOfi'O.O OSl-. &~iHjS,' com. :p,egOO~O ide !(::~~~. O~. ~~~ ~lil '~QW 'rum [O.ltgo e' ',e~'O tm~o~ f~(['a:m {a1vfdrrs ate '~lI1e Q v,apo[' ~ pela abertnra,

Qual",(1 ti;.ip,jl~e'~ 0 ,fllj, Be1l,do· apaBS,mOj,. 11-od~' ,{wii;IJiJiiteme' ,;;b.-~g.f:lr {f1O' lCalda. NU:tntiPQ., P~l~~. ~ ~~.e.~.nt~:!I; de ,"t~C'fVQ\'WtlIJli.8~:

PlYJtr6v·elJ.'i.iJe~ :lic.aJ.um .~~t:i~' 0i0 -l(rr~lf.n ,do, g~r'g.al~' ,fli1\U~O:~, ,q.ut! d~;ue fUit.wiQ"'tflr' .OO_ji)' (m'I tf,ltru.

,0 l:eQ·uHado·? Ne-n.l1.'il.if.r.l l~'a~"co se centaminara. Qtlie.b(l1)u" ·enit.:a;Qi~ -0 garga~'o\ de.alguna 'fra~s I~ '~m, 'O(J;llCGS ,ata!iJ. 0 ealdo n1iJlm~w ,qiv',;I~wn!J

." !t~ . 01,' •• ~ • ~.m. ~1It

'~[)'nt~dQ '];1)01r'" '[Q1U.f1[)Omar.!M3mOS;

E~t~ 'G~p~rllll~nto 'MlI1~C@ll' 0 p:rinllo d~. ~d:~fuia Fr~oces.a: de Ciencias 3. Ptu'~enr an, 'rne.m-Jj,f,) tieTn~1 qt~,e' d,eJn.tit[v8l111MltegtllUl1T;'OllJ. 8. jld,e~~· d.iii ,~h)~~~.

Co.n_(]IUiWaliili~ to:do,~ ".i·"In, ~ ~[~:U:rll3.do :pm,F, 'tim !Jet '\'i;· 0, pl:e·ewi'ste:tii.'~e;

11npurN!l.~€)~(' ,d(;t bilJg~;n.ese

A. ap1ica'~i~ pt~:~bi.'3 de lifj'l'le' ~s, oll'gitnm..nlP~ MO. 880 Ibrnl~itos '~sPO'Jllt~neame1'1l:~' 8 '~arl]:r' d.a!. m-u;'lJin~. ·:naO· YE\'a, j~ IOOJIH~·~t~ ,~:rr~' -!I11eSmo dos IffiFpem-ne['j.ms; de .Fast~ -

'T~aodl) .P'Olt ~. I ~ u!lbd")lus d~ S]llaJU~iU1J_~am a co:m.eitetro ~rmJ;ffig~ Er~s Appert, ~!llnciLu:hl que ,atnm~ IOOZID.®J5 ~ fur\.ido's '~ ser ~~]l)dadris sob '\f~da'Q~ h,eJf.-fn~Iti~ .~e:m se ~.ga_r;. __ ~:ug ~j [) Si~me:tlm dla. :bJjd1t~i& dLe eu;lat-aoos .

'lma;gtne a, vi:t1~ a·pr]s.. 'W:aEft.eut";. A htgi~llta

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pessoa -s-: a ·es~.I . .II.llifJaqan e. a. i:l;Si!le'pS1:@!. em. n._Q'SPJ~i£llS..'!

~i]"" ecJt-emph). Ante',~ d~ 'PMteu'f' em hDfi!Ilil~S'

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Wa~·r:es ~~ em, ~~~ faJzllml l~ooSl ~1ll.13:vm:" iSla ll1aos. Muims Inunter~~ e-videml.:e IIi!. e nite' l fah~f~·~1 .:ptIt' mEe~~3.o :p6B-'p~rtQ ... /\ h]gi:~llt~ nmj.· :~e~/EaJ.1tll"arii~a :~ode·:atQS~ 0 pd:"6tprlo :~(lr) cria,do pO:\f" :P.aBteur e dtfim~didQ' a·Q ,1.'Em_gf)' ,da. tmn.po~ ,9J. 'pasb;HDiza~i.o:(, '~aa Ou.trml eH_mplo8 ]u:atioos q)L1e: itliisul~;_-r.E3_njj W:D8 ~p-ru:imenms lGOtUl :015 &ascos. iPeico~Q de cisne.

Ori,gem, das prim!e,ua.S cruuluJS lnJ"oo'r;reoo,

..

lima ve~ -m~Dl~da ~, j~.'uestllW tlu fgn~;~,Q \oivaa, ,M, a:tllla..llld:Bite q;,ue :mm.e1il'te :~:I!1~ln ,8 psr[ir die seres pre-emwn'i,;iEis. I"e8ulw.'ill uma .d;li'~d~:' 'ai U ,PD:i'm~i[",~, fm'Tn~ 'yJ.vas, I]llJi Planeta '~rt',~- ~a'mo a.pru:te~erl!'Htti.?

Pa:r,a, 1C}1!,ie s~ :pf~ssa (I~f,:ufil'" a~J.~:e :aL~&Ul,!it_@., dev:emos. f:",e:visar a pr'lopr.ia ~rigeJl~ e a d'~D,\:!\~1 v1m.e.nm ido 'P'lonC3tEll "t~rra. Um~ ]_nrli'~~Q $"n~s, b~~J).s d~' i:m~di~'~(lj 0, 'fu~g de q,~' ~l h~~ 00$ ~E:lJS .·,'i,V10£!l da sl~rn91hlad,e e do. p.:~l!~5adoll s~m.aS· ntt,f'{"-!es dBE! fdi5~ . e ' a 'DeJ.U[a,· Sa at . m:OO;a:i[!9 'p~dr:fuJ' d~ 'VidiQ e a c~lula,.I' dig,(;'U:~it' a mi~m b rid ~ ~a. - t\~J!~'a.~ em the~e" ~ IlilL~~!ll,tir (.~tno ~WI!:g[Fi.m~ l"J,IQ 11iij!an ei8J, as pnm.e'ITas ~]W~SI:. Se 'Pfli~' e8:tr.rutmG ~]vaSe sUlil-~j]".t'J ~iI:lI ~'li pa5&~rnnl' pur a~'i ~ difel 'n.tes ,d~~ c:B.ttl:a~\J1 MQ- .[((!',am, ' 'e]~c:[o.(:ha(m, pas,) liVa..r.tbi~l:'Le e 118lD POga.u1:n:lOO l\e:gfutro algum dassa ~tt.e',ll1U.i;EL. tog:o~' volt.t~ ,~@ mesmo ponrw: a oriigem das wdtirl~ir,a~; ~-elu]a$'.

U·~ 'lftiIJotB8Q 'mri~,Ela pOI' 1 ,m;rJ <iJlftru' ~' G:a,mQw. a maia ~ltal ·at5:ii:"m,~ que uma .gl;aJlili~te bola d,e, w~:terial p.l.imitj'vot om, plasma a ~t~m,ernte t'lO"[[JI'pri_mjdoJ~ ~!lJfrmJ . lITH~' ~1lo8io hci: nl~ iO'llJ

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em loodi9Js, ma, Id~ae.s! .G1{f,igD:\imd~t '8 partir da:(~ qs. @orp015' Clii8!5teB a:t~JLa]s;. E.st~ vl~m'~ sltami!L!tnt:e ofmlprimido OrigJi.ri);l'Ll a 'mat6;ri a, '~3 $1,i!;3 es;trntitliT:'a . atG),i:fn,,~~. E5~ 'b:ip;6.i;eBe,· Ie cQ~:hlee·id.a. I~im - ~

:bi,pme:SJe da U'3!DLdi.e lexpln.,o ;(~U dol .:ig :n\anlfJ!~

o £~'bo uot~daJI1'E:::'J]teimp~~rltm,l~ P:~l'~ ~ '~'~] b..ip6te.s;a, :i[OSllli:e fermulada [01 a ide~eoberta do aBbi-onomo ']jJ]rt~anlmi_CBlnQI V. M_. :;;,lIiph.zy. C11.87";!) - lL9t)91' hQI' iTllw'ci~ ~~ ,se.mlo ~ de qu.e loo(las g gal~ 'eB't;lo Be; ,afas:wi,dD, die, nbs, 0 't~m a~rt.r6nfimo n[orl~-:Fllmie:tilll)ano. Ed'\vln Hubbl,~

1:"889 .. -19153 J em 19'29, 1(.~n:r:-fuwJu ~~j, ob~"a'~~sl d,~

C.1' -'I" _""' '1!T!Ir.~ ",~.3... 'Ii; j.J,iI~,~,," ..:ll.;" .""-,,_.... p'ii<Wlll;;"_"'" --l ""1I!:ii~d' ~-lP. ;~:e£~ ;l,~l.u .. :~Jl.lI!u. 1LIUWJ:L.!fIIU~ 'I;;o'UL1.I;lJl' :JJ,-'u.,,!!, a luJJl' --.IIOli6.'

Banjf' esta 'OOlfl15t~IJta~i.o d~' QU'~ 0 IhlJ:...,-\ffrS;O ,eat~ ~m.' ~xp;JJ~~O: e.~ro ,~{~,t.rumsn:to du, gal!fu~,' ,6 'L;mI3, ~b'fiseq~Li(i dla gr:a.n,rde mtpJ~1!1ln q,M C~g]Dl1i!..1 10 Un:i,V€i'afl',; Ql1RnnO mais trnagbula' e~ti"V.ef' rrnl8

1· ~ . .. I "d' JiI . ...!i

g:a. ;ax:a.~ m:Eitl0,l' iS~rft ,iEII l5!!l.a v'l9 (lI 01 ' ,;rol;~'e! iUIllljHi

. :af.O::'...cIit-,--'· -,- ~..,..,

.. ~ ~I:::rnen~~.,

Uma HtlN'GW d0 pooird ws,mic~ ~2dste:nte :rua Via ~aC'l:e<a, o~igin~ru. !) &1 IF;!: 'bnd~, a: sua. :[alrd]ia_ planewm, 0 ·s]!j;!;.oema, tiG]ar .. A .b.ip~~ :mai~ ~caita p~rti '0} sur,Sim~nw' ·d.o~' P1:ilil1et.fl,S. 6 ~, dp q;llB I~"~S ter.!iham ~clc at, p.a:rtiir de reSi'~l~ ~da, ,,~e~ra ~63tni~_a t~l"U~ or-]ghiLJOll 0 SoL

Ai, in;[liE'al~Oes. si<l] de ,que a ~~IJ.'1~R e os: tClrlLl'ilNJS f~8.Itet~ fOl'.LlUHRIlllL"se ,mitre '~5 'i:; ,5, hil'h~e.s, de auos :a.tr'rit H.ou:w a.g1l'egBI~3fll ~~B 'P~cUi1~ Ida I~e]ra. ,Cfismii:8., em, pO'n:~JfiS difwefl,Les cllo esp;ano, ,~t) ~lS, 'Pft::u].'eu~~ - '[Qu;~m:oo maig: :m:.d:e:r:i~, ~e ~.aJ~g~l.\Fa

.m,aior' ~e :to:rn~v~j 0 ,~a:mp-o ig1'avitaci.ul11l1.da, Terra,

, - d . t~ :tiJ . -' .J!': .. 1....

,a!'rraU'lLO ~[SI' ~ ~ ~~-, __ a5 [~ lrm.p~w.nY.Q '~,il.W' 'M ga,~s'

diJ8i~])~1_dQ5 ~ ~m'\rmS8\ID] '![ill 6SP8_,QO;. ApQS -DID :~l~riocljj, d.el' hatenso ,a'q ~ie-eim~n:to~ in],dou 0 'l'es'tI'iaIUen"&~ da 'cnJ1;r~~,. E'~5~' r'eHfl~hlme',rrw pO$_ibilit01l1 a f~DruL~aQ' de m.mliCJiS loo.l,ttPQ~to~ qwmi~,_oO'v~'!1 ([!~ m:~~ ptH~:ad.o~: a!film.d~!~m pa!l~I?lIi i~ ~e:rrbxl' ~' 'f:onl]--,~Jldn ~ uiaJr;l,oo dla 1ie,~" ~:fl.gtta:nt.Q O~ mais [~v:e3 ~p:~fnM\J}e~e:fam '.tal, . -l1a SU:l9i§!rl'tci~! .fofu:rnnOO ,~' ,~:t,~,. M~;mo altos, ,8 iStd]dlmtfl~iiJ~J d~' :su:pffincie, em mnitas al.'2ro; OonthllJJOU ,a ~thrjrl~da, V1lJi]f!3:ni~9! '~fogandn ILUlUl:' gtantle, q]Uantidad.e de~ na .8.lIiM.'lJiSretr,8Jj., t:uld,nsi ve, de, V~pl[f[' d~~lla. 1bd'a 3, cr.--OO,'ta:, ue(t"e8lti:e {ri],i,~;aJj e.. .toda ·aag'il"lli. 'md'u~iv;~: a Q~w'li(."a, resultaram, ,Alm!;n(!]pab).'We..n.t~. da Rt1rvidad:O V'l!J,]cih;;rica. 0 'oonjulJLtqJ da :giEtscs, p~08 '~la~ ntrl]~lhJ - g,J\:a:vi' "acio.~ dla.. Tbrr~J." ltO sst] .n:iJjm~~. Q(jlilEtthiitli. :e! atm,(fBf~;!iffil r .. u;'hrudva da Th"i:'ia.,

- - .

,At0' hoii~ d,~ .to a 20% do o(lllll,twd'Q' eKpctlido ~l!!S '~BS ,.:l V'~!JI" d.':@igutEJJ .. COOl 0 l~,dii~]lw da :Planets, Q '!?-,E!J.POlI·' Id.jagua ,~Qfre'll oo:ru:1:en~~an, nas 'mm ,W,'~B cam:ttdREl ,wtm Di£;fm,ca~", Pl'e~p~tand~:se, ~e]~ p,rim.e!kra ~Z~ :1Hla" :fo;t:IlI,a.,. dii' ,~'h:iuI va, ,Ai(] ~ti.ttgir ~ sm e:rfi.!l:ie corn ::I., Gl.'DS-I.a H'liJij'··j· ... , OOil!n,1;e, a '<:"""'''8,

~-p- - .. -~- ----- --.LW"'Ji-- m ~,I!-J;.

j'm-edi~;1~"'lt~liI.'~"nt~ eva~¥:a 0 g~£ulh~:fv:~ .a ~Lmo<a!er,@, em fo~. d~ d~11_g~ n1I1.'!1~R p~..J:'a IOQI~&mlb'[;~x' ~ ,pi<:recipitBlr em. forma d.le ehuva nevamante, Acre~1r.11Hile Ique' ,~e )n:'OQessQ! tenh~, O!lonido .nQ pi'.rme'im b-nh~o die al1JOS 'd~ exi!i~nci£IL dIG ,D?laneta e qiJ;U::!' 'l~ha d:~D" l~ .. ,a, ,!l)C{i:r~n_d:i d!el~h'l1'llva:~, '~O'f'tenciajs {COi01l0 f;o.u~ '!J.U'Il Ifre':fiil,:P~StaJ.de' ,da veil~,iki) ,MQtnp-~:nn ~d.1 d I ~1fl'l;m)lJ,as d~e:sca,l~,a'~, cil Gt:ri'~~, '[lID]" 11J1ui'tos miLhoos d~ Eml{!lS ..

Duratll,1t,e B, _-jj_h:il!~]] :';1 . da Ten~ .~ aWjJO;Sf~:-,at,

__ - .. - - - - __ ~. Q . - - ~ - _I _ _ __ ~ .; s"

'IPT"i m:i tjVi!~ i' p'r!J'vl;;~;v 'l nl tH1il~~1 j i~i n h '~. apen ~ s' bi'~~~.m(j.,~,!?~ ~~ h'~i~O.- ~~2)~ .smdo., dit;a atnlo.sfGr,~, [J([]ml~TIa. J-a ,M,4n lnllineEi de 8mSt COll<rJ£ a ."~, .fnwm.adla, a - ~m:ada.. ,a:bnffiif~:rl:'a ,~l1ndm9 m-a:. lOOnsL~Jt1!rlda, :p~ g8s carh&'rloo. {C02l~ m,1llioo p(nll'i~;,' Ig~$ ,[tl~Jgen_~o~~:j~ ~tfm~;_{~~]~'.r~"g~S .. bi~:-r~~]]in (.~l~ meboo -rv~) .. va:[)o;r ~,~.~ (f[~O) '~ ,~glU1~, IIJU.tf\O'S g~8e8", oo~n9 ~'YJfeto dq h[dl'Qgt@,IDO. 't) -POUCQ' 'm\ig;{i([1]oj Q;U8 'p:od;~Ii~ '1i!LH, "p~8;~~-e pG([' ~;e: loomhm~"iOQm 'm,eIWs ,da 8upB!rH'de, I~dfi-O'~ ...

:Fo~: :oeste Cml,t~ qUH1 de alguma. 'ifh1i"fi'l18., SI[1r_l.~.tt ~ primei:ra_s rili."l.Ws;

,,As teOl'ias sobJre a lo~rig;em. dial, ,cm,'ILilM na r-feTrD

IC:rzaci;fJ,mS::f.RO' ,OU' ,€la, Ic:r:f,,~a(J E~pccial

ma, IrDn6t~ difu.ndid',a, fJ:OO"os di~~ a.tuam, :prin.'etpalmern:rta· 'fla. cjtt!.lizjcl!~~ iOcjcl~iJi1tal, q;ue cliz: llt:udo Cjt1e: ,ex:n~te Ie:. u~d2$ ~8 fnnnas, v;iVM fc:rr,Stm ImCJJdu p:wt ]Rus gSlJ 'm1t~~ {(r1I:r:m,a ([tt~' si9 IE 'ql;leJ: $En~W\I.'1~' se~liaL~"

E~3:taJmm:~' esta hi:piit~,..· ~~ dl.E!' ,p(JJ'Itt.~ para 0 :t'bll~1tl q;ue e uma 't&~no]EL, ,nIB. _~,ifu.i:ea., antiewlud;orull8tffi~ !!]O pll''incipjo do tl".L':ttlmbiLid:ad'e. .J .,:;,;!j. esneeies",

U-f~ V'IiJI.v

o U\'f]"!O, ~'Ginesis ,noVetl1,[j! 1'estam€uJjQ WZ ~ ~it TetT.8IJ, ~ ,tyd~ que neiR '~wdste pn:i'Cedl.e:m ~a

. d'··~·

cm,~~,Q ~ .],"r.[n,~' ,

N 8JO se )(:HSiru:t~1 Q oon.d1~ii()' t'~]igio~a • pu,[m!i.~, eU.ll 'term,r)~, '~i,~ll:t1ifl ~ll s., r~l't!~'m d ~d{~~ q Il'~"

'Ii"ir"""~'''''m ,j,,,,.:! 'i&~ ~"''''"C'''lI '[!Om:t-,I, U~.E; . '.' 1Pi;U. ,J.iIJI,~a.c~~

- .A .l n ~lI!!

,llipiJtese CasDlogi!?'''~c'Q IDlll' '1;:.A!)S,'J\1!OZp;~ca'

10111 dfJ; .P'~~pef'I,RiUi C08'Ig;icu'

Es~R Jl:ripote:.se 'pl'aSlJIHIte qJtm' e,a,plIll";OE- de bBld~ri as, ,onund!~-s d0 'p®;rl_jC1!~S (h.~ po-m.il3i OUt '~nl mL~tool:i:~r; d.e ,poo1~~ mi'~u,w, Watao.'tE.9l d{}:ULlii""eiJ:'!::3~l~, W'nDIl 8eme~s, na :tkra e ~e.TYit].Qs de {ante dl.8 ,".~~11

",wB.

o . &-jcO-~[lliC-Q A:.tthsnJ1u£ foi nm .granda d~f~n Sill; d ~~;i.l, hip6t~~i!t. ,Pl"Opo~' 'Par t\tmxa~i["d.!!i; '~a . villi a ,~ :fatmada a p~~ d.e ~-tn~~ e~floos.

.:II';;. . . . " ,. ' .. · . .:'.11 ... :. I U'"-·'·, ,,,,,,,,- I~'U"" aeuardam til

u.d!ip~S pm: .1IQ\;W, to . mv,en::~, ~. ,,,", '-"\§.~ . .

fu.ll.St,ante pJI"o,}J.icio pa:ra ClI' S~lJ\ eomplate d'~volV:imento'~:"

& p1:mci:pais ld)j~~I~ a. essa :lti4t)6te~, $a:m em primml:'Q ],'Ii.pn- ~.J.:et exp,]ica como ,R vida. ooeg'!Ju . Da ~a, ffla$· ]lio Ju.s!liii~ iJ ~~CiJe~"Ir.OO' dla, ~. ,de andie qUel" qu,~ as ~ffir.,~s :fm:lil1U ii":",,'''' '" '~~"'ri'll" am ~"""',J""i';' ,", re;;mmfll (h~,' vi~,t:T:m.m,· t.eri,~l~ ,~id[JI

.~ .D;-!if~~' Ii~ .... ,~,~. iD" I 'Ii' JU-tl,U"~iII!U _0I;0!0,1oI:t'..., :~~- __

m,un. to gl"',8li.fi.d-e. DOW, euotnlle S V8rlE1J.'~e8 ~.'a t.BPIf:L:p~~tu..ra fJ' tu:na e:q)!J$i:~io m~i'oo, gr_:_~:,de b r8.d..iJH~~ Nell]] -:m,eiSMa as bacta:riSlSl, em' ~0:rm.:8L die .. ~P-Orn3' t@tm~m $u.pQJ.,!t~d,o :~.~ Clj~f:il['l]lrl;tmeD'ItQ'1i {;tIT. n.e.nnu:rnl metBQIito eiStuda£t.O houve ,:HJJ.guJm ve~.ti'lio

d· - . 'l!..t_".~, ~",:

. 'i!j: ::mt:ll~IIiX~~a OK,g~:tIfJi.t"a,

Oa dererl:$01"8S d:i, lll~ thl.arm, q;ne OS espUr0;3,

~,....,_;;: .... ,...... a: ..:!I· __ _,_~_l __

q1lli se· i'~ii!m! em. 'm:eoon~~, '~:li.il:!LII.I. lr!l:"Ll.~

,cltF-a:stii~JG~jLth u beD:'ipo. .alp. ~~ii' seJt.dti ,ca~ de, SJljJtl~·,tm ,oonm~ tiJ10gjilru de um d:es]tu~t!i) pele ~8.9Dl

Ttd ~]gJ.Cml mmprJ 05, ~i~n;tk~~ d'~'K'ObT~~mj em m.emnri.toa e:nvOOltntdfis 00 Srheri~, e' un ,e:a..na;_~ ~~tfg]"[}Si ide' ~:rrr;TIIo~~jiJj~ Ie b~s TiritoJfs,~·;ul~~_ 'P8J"8: !M d:e.fen~o-res da, Teorla~ 1ll1Il.:El ~diVa de 9'Pa ~m, 'mol~cjJjja:! qJ~~jca, for-,at, d:a ~a,

,;i!,....... of-,..; .,

Os' ~::dti:c~, ,E'JJ~.L;ln;J:liam, qtlC i~, oitll.!I;{j);rlOOS

qumido, entt:.am. nil a'tm.Q"~fer,~, '~e.ma;!.we· ,o.tuem. I!1:!UI ,gta,nd~ vl\\iocidaicl!e el, M~lo ao, oJ~JfiOO WIll, .() ~~"', ~o&em 'iml In.!~1SO ,~,u.eclmel'1to:~ 0 BUlfici.finte pam, d~t[U±r IQ,~jqn~"[" iY'O:lIDa vi~,a. A.I,t\lID di$g_s-o· ~$8i@s ~'e&1i([j"giQS, p~dem, &etc ,]''est..os de· orgaoJs_m6tLiJ 'Q;U.'ei, ~stav~.Jli ];1<l 'atm1Jmm~~. da 'pl...opria rf8'~"! IOO,lil'Qi im.pactn e ,0 camr' e],ea ,-:3e fWlila:am, 310 ma.teria;]. d'O met~Iiw\.

:Fnr que eBlt.a. t_~oliaJ J.lan I~ ,9(:-e.it.a1 Falt~ 'prov.~Si. .p~~w·~ ,~ ql:l_/~atio "C(j[lti'J;1n,I'~" I~m ;[(b~-:rto~

n ". ',' , ... ',. ,', "£!(n\in; ,rf.JI".;iI':i1",.;;f .. ,jO".nT....J':..r..~, lul'igeuill "Po.zo' el\lo.·u~~!~ ,o§'", ~!C:'lh;'l!!~liI 'lUu~

smte"'l;a~ ,qu,i1I,d~tts'

IDSlta e, .a: jl.ip,6bi~e. ~,m. a't~r:n-~in 00"" ,Afu.-1:l1aJ, q1Je 'ta vida lila, T~.rra 'rlena SUT,~O ~ fo:rnl~

1""":i"I"''ijJ'jo'~' ;f,;; .... ,J...... 'iiI,Il'I' Pl,·· .... ,rill'l:i,~,,"', 'nf:n(" ~iO] 11l.It!M, i'!I,mflf:~]~ de

~';>~.IF-"-!l.-,"!I;.J..t~,~, ,1·!I!Il-.ll =' '''~~'_'''~~III r- - - - l--lf- - ~,--

. . ] :.(.=.~·i· " -J ~~

,mtJ; .'t\(i;W,aiS ann:p,.ea "

'. mp6-lcs~ ;fJiu.itgtrifi£::al

1ge,gnndo ytirios pe~qujjmdo~~ ,SIiS tp:[",iri1_l'iu:ms.· loolul ~J.S n~s,g;i·tav,mn de tili'mtmlrW. I ~lfUij ,j~vlmr;)L;m &~, ~~i'e~ Il,db ,capaze.s' fle IjNjdl?:zil""[o- Como 'todo ser '~lUf! prorl.U1,;,8!'IllB.B p,:r6pi:i"alS m.nMewiBS o:r-g:§m,ca_'Ei I~' 'cha"m~o Ql'JIJt6trtdb .a: rull6t~~ Droll '~o:nhecad~.

'IL" ". ",~",,"_~g ',!II . ~ - ..J_ ~..!!I_

loom IrJ;ttptrrt~'Si0'"a;UI.'W!ll,.Ji;QJIJI,Cai iU;QI on,gem iu.t~ V]Lm."

Ha., nma fone n_bje~ao! contra 'e55S. ,hlp'rlm~e: ,t2lJ8 "'1eac-oe.s: q,uin-uca '~n-~olv.[daflr ~a PFOO,u~o dG' ,aHm~]]to ~iiH 'eJrtJIlel]],~m~'w ~:o:rr~p]e':xas~, e¥igi:udn IQl.rg~;oo, .ttnIi:t[h·'especi.:e]..i2.:!ldQ.'S· a .. cnmJllffi1l.Qg ',p.ara

,_=- 'iI,~ ,"' r.,

'ltl~~=J.":;!"'E~,

; ~

Ito, adnritir tal hipdt~sa !t!stsrniam'qs mao

oolntT~ - ~, tr,ajeW'lMta n btturaJ ~dft vtd~ 'n~st-~ PtmlB:~; eaminba-se ~''tIJ];I;tt;e dt~ s:itu:p,le~ 'paara t]i cu'm:IP'u.~i.JOra~ em ,sm:hdlO os ,prim.eJa.us l~l"gJaoo:iJ!mliOB ,:3Lu,~tl"ofb~ j'~ tffii_F.i!1JiJ6J que ~r ~~do wtament~ ~a:n1p:i,elro5- Por O'l!Itt>[) ] ado, :file fbs~:'re"ro au:tolt["of()S'i' :ro'toSRiinte,'fl;i.ZB!1lLtes), p~' exe:mpl0.~ neveriam eliF.ui:i1!ll' 02 Ji~l'e' L1:Q.:,atmo:sfef'8;, ~,lssp l(:R'o ·8!OOHVeceill. ,0 02; ,a,p~N.~eu: b~ll1 'mau.~ ,t~rd,~' •

A hi:p.6'tem naQ' '0 nceoit:t:!, awmmmte, wto []Jao ~~:~ll:i.fita' q:1l;U~ !;ila ;'Iltj,.a-' 1J.-a:n' ~'b.$t~~d,Oi CU. ~.G Q.u.u!C~ s~j.a ~~clarl,!3J: 1:1;~lSSO~ ,MdCllS, ,Si~O CQn'tt~,sT.Jto~ a ,~ia ...

~",' H~, ~

'. m;~glliQs ue~~O'~~~"!.!"~~ea· pm:"aJ. a VII,~]I,-'

gDml 11Ii," '¥Lin

Esta ,b:ipdteee. SU[~iB' qtl~' '!Eli,. ·~'[b~. mBL[~, primitiv-n i$~ v~da ,~;tt1 i'11;~paz (jt~, ~,m'titiz.ar '~ 5u:iJ 'p~pdfj 1,Il]imA7n'oo\j; t~~da 3ido' Etlrr.n~da. a, 'P~' de Btms'tmeias H1.'0'1"ghdea.:s Jl18 ~m~es dJs ThO:'9l, primitj'w, e ~rAtim~ante mmp[es,~J ..

.Para que voce ~nii,o r~a ~n1h8l~Ot entre ~ h ipOl~' '~i]Ht:ef'otro'ficrJii ,~ a ;ge'mJC.io. ~S'P{J[]itiia:1iI?Q' obs~"¥~ ~,tefilj'!;a;'~nte: a hi,6rteoo here:rd~--6&a :traJ,b,. as. ori~€1n das pr:-hn.e:.fras foI',~as. vr\;'B.S .no

. • '"d 'II!, ,.~. I

Pl~u~.'L9.'I3 q'lIle ~9rt~m .E1w:-:gJ." ,0 mnn ... o ;El]mplt~El e Jl.® ,i¥JJ

l~mJW~~LQ ~,~dati,.~, a.; :p~~ti~ a~ nt~illteria b-mta .ha bilb~e~ @ ,m~s :a:b:-,a.Ii:I'j ,'[Lmll !ettll.di~e.t]; .rla Thf.'r!llJ. Primiti,VR;, ,9i', g~r81Y'M e8]J[Rll:UIDJ~ 'tr'8to:v,EJj db slibiw' ,~:paI'eoim~n~' d.(! ~s· '~p'J~ 'de 'w~:lal ~ RoJiri"~r da ,mlil'lbi:a hrtlt-a~ ~lcl:o ~~t1.e es61e ~~1t\~~~.

F"""1o. 'iLl ...ii,. ,I..~...I_ II' .

:&e.ria:, caP\SI::Z; de ,!l}:COner' 00 Ji.01ngo ull) te:m,ptJ'!I! 'i4UU!!;!1 iC~18.

T..:6 ~.;"rn 1 '~'ij9 Th_o~ H:nJiI~fiij' t 18~5 - 189:,5"

!tJ"~!I ~-!-~.~ ~ _ _ _ _ _ IIi!J \

,afi,[~.lnava. Ique:_ 'i'i0"8_ H~r.im.'e:ir-ns. se]"e~ 'vlli,vo~ @ur.gi'l"~, ,oonm ]:asWbdrm de lIm 1~ proce.s~o ,de' ev01~~p.~ IC))Jlmica mTI, 1\0'88'0 ~[anGt~,':"." EiSt~ i am:a foi

)e,wm;:a~ a nar~r d~.I~,2Q PW Ilaldan.e_

~,~ "

A Ibeori:~ ,a,tu~~lm;~'nte ,~ti:ta. ~~' cleveJ' ao tt'flllalhK)~' a,Q\S' ,cr,w ]S,tt!ll5 .di~;.SIo I[[~~~~ t 1892 ~ i954)~ biolQ;gQ 'ii'ne]'~, ~mf ]9,29':. ~. Ig,u bi~:imiw, 'ru~sso 1\l~_gill" I:~ 'OI!'Iw:"iu 0( '~89-4 - i,9:S~) mr..

1936, I'ilJCI Lmiv.t\ Opa:rin [p1lt_b.lioou' sua :hip~m.!ile em de'uill~£!iI; no UVJro ,r; A 'OlF.igeDll da Y.'-',~ em 1936~, V m :nu)d@Jo eSQiMmr~:tico dus id~im~, d~ lla1dimG ,~ Opa:rin e,St~j eS~udi1~ IQgQ ~6aTh:t):

.' O~ ~_il.l8iS 5ml1pl~s ,da. 'EEltmOOC!!i1'~ pri.nritiLv:~, ¥a:~(1i,r d~~a", ·h_~dt(lg@,J]joj :ln~t;an,Q 'e :~f~-

mal oonlliribam_ a Ina~ prima fiecea~= IDi~par!~' ~ rltla,.

iii ,Iii" " ... ;J~t<ir,~IIJi' mwvmLe1:a. e ,0!1~ )j:,.,_..,.....,lin;t! .. S ,~I~m'."., ... o::;,

~J~.,.7*""',., .. _ ... Ie ~ ~ ..... ~ ...... ,~

d.a,-primeb'3. :fm1re ~ 1;an:-e:t'lmru ,clt1l1V8t ,fuT-atmJ a, write if@- ~~1\~ paiFcH que ~ n:m).e:~s

~, -:- ·:lb~ £.~~.,~ ,..::!I.-..di'P:;""'"'' ._ ,,:;;co U-:",- - ~ "'irntlIifI'ol'i,E!> , .. ~lDp.~ n ~ .... ~"'?,jI"O,!li~ Ie '!;/!;] 'iI1!Wlifm""",~, ~,~.~

'V~ li~r, ,wlde~, Sia: lii~ 'r.)ljgnltaillmfi no-

"'''''''''' """'"'~:t'""""" m'''''';;'''''''' ,_.!:J·_1n"" _...l:"._"";"'_",,=-.,", fI.'T ;,"" ""~' !Io.lV'..J.J..I,;-:-I~~'nl -UJ.UI)U~ UJtM"~ '[:tU1J"UtniHI.W..Q.r j,~~

~m]'HJ8 f~ ,~m, ]:;nriM.~l.d~ ortfrnli);~ 'pUl"ql!l,c ~es ~~ flli1:~{~i£iL .OSkJ 'h~ lam, Per i'Sooj. e[[!L ~ dJe incleo~ ·m~, WJfDllO~' ~dmm:' OOi1IJpootofll' '~m"l!olMdoolo Pf r 1~,~j]Q1' ~mlil, ~~' ~idii~~ mfil~, OO'm,a,-a_. clio$! ami-

, , - .. ii1 " ..:::'il~",-",,~ ~

~iI;:it;n£l! ~!llil."eS" e ~

!II! A ~ gU~ d;a, ~"hu:'l~, 'aMba'lI.fa aIT~5:'baDdo ~Qlec_uIa~ mais etl:mp,]exas p:3E3. ,8 ,su.perfYt:ie, e. estas mru~, 'mmm Be ·.ac::tmllibmdo sobIle as mchas;

• 0 calor alas l'ocllu: f:o:~a'V,a um an:tmfe'liI.:liiS [~~01":iive] 'pu~ que eJaa .reagii1;s-em, e IMW'= ua8~exf.!i, t1JmpQ:,,~t'~ In.~to:r.e.'5r,, 'Oest.a 'f'tl:J\ma u· .awm:uid(l,o$· re~l]_"aIU 'entre, ill 1D;[;[[IJ(lll'-'· ~'o. p~otei.n6ii:le::l~

;j Onm, H dimintl!ltAitiI nil i~~p~at~ :p-,bne-.'· wi~, a ,1iiig-u,~ pad~' ~ acum:1J' ar ua ~~ffillil'rneh~, ,OOfIlli]tmi.1d'l,] mm.-es:;- Qeeanas,!, ] iagoa e, l:agiO.a8:.

• E'm! ,i\lgdl~1 ,a~ 'm;t}]:~'"nb~ d,~ ·:Pl,[)tei:n,~ hJ,tfJ~' ~jd~) rn.Btg~ entre :s]ii fml]JfHlndo eom[rJle:X)Qi~, pl'Otei!~~

• JEtm" ,:fu11·\tM, da 1~~ct~~i,e3t ':OOpnla:r rlla l\billlR, estas R.a~Bn1:oom 0 £mn.:P1:~Jj;-:.G1 pmt~eO~t c:rig[l!].aIl:ito~pet][flJ!.eDa5" vemcu1,:£1j5 ,ge~Hti-'

no~u~ li!3 I~ 'Qid~~

til Os oo!l6id18S: S'e' uniram '18 fu:n:1ll8l"Rl)l ,fJiF'Slfi,deB v~t.1las, oq]}~l1d1l I::[)f.['iJ~le:.'(O$ ~'U'OOjoo~~ e'. oom ~~~ .aF~1 'rreri;(If ~l~_. .~T~e:'tm~dQ sist~ - }oolaili~1 le~h1l1.':i1l'::~, cl~, 1Qt),3)ii, iCce:t~adM~, dma1d'sH ,de grande; estOO_d.8fle~

• Egte~ looa,eer~d~, FOl"~, aosOO"V,8'Wd.o mG-' 16ctil'M· diQIl Tfifl]tn" ~~r'-mn, ~"~"'ro~ll(jl1l.'1li,tml1 paI~a ~dlq .. ul'l('jrt nD'lIlrt e~tabi1id.a;de;,

• Ap ,~noq!iJi.5t~."e'm~ l:Om 0 ~lnl~Olt 9._ cape.J:i-,· (_la:tIDe: e if) 1!20:n1i['i,[)i]e c~o ctoe,..'1,'Oi:men't!o e: .da rem,

iPlOO~~~JO. too,'iJJar8i,;m·~' ceJlll~~,

" E~se p1!'OC€SBiJ dev@ 'tel:' (b,]IJ"wJ;.o em "(iO:nl.O ~ 2 biffi".ll!ies Ide ·:8IiI,OO;

[Ii ID.st:;li9 OI9nl~~. era-tn, 'PJJ!I~!i}I'lfl~!l;;,. 'hatei'Dtr~ {reoolhiam. [[l3l~trM~ntes do' lll'elO} Ie 8Tilate~nMcas ( pgi~-nao ha"ia o-~o ~e ma ,!g1!"n1:(~s!e'1.1iI: '"

A ,s:ust.enta~£j, ,da, :lhipo:nes,e, Ida, 'n-r.l,~ Ida 'vi,daJ, Dili~' ~,~.~t!J' ;1nP,adiu.a], Ido,s '&ilSt,e:m :11

~r-~' - - - ~ - tir,& . - _. - -

!,1i1 ifm:iic.OO!i, ._' bi,po,fes_e, h~terot:r.-.6:£ica,

'h-"1 •. , C""" ,", 1:-"" rd· .

,;!'¥l)!.'U~j'ltoS ~!IJ!;rilil.'m IllS '~Xlr~n>meO':!iAiS, reb__i~~,_OS

lefaJp~ES de·'~! SU.pDrtei a, .hhoo~e

E,~ineia cl_ 'WO,WGiliJ, em la.2~1 ~ Woh]~]j OQif!~_r ,~ji.:n:t'el i~ar' "ll,m~~~ ,ai" :p~lir· R ,~ub~t~n-cia;s: .ti..r'wrgaru,eM,. A,~~edlta:v.a: .. sa q_Uf,'l f!O[t)e:L'llte es IDrg,S!.'lliBmos 'viv,()~ pucl.esse:m mntet]Z'Elfl" moleeulaa orgini(;~., as d0&n~i'~~ dn hilJu:i:.ese 'U_:.:'5aJ::---a.R'I1,] 0' 1~,.peJt'llnetl:~' dBI WdbJ,er Il:~:tl ilitt~,tettM'e"_jj]o~ ~B !i§ p~s;sj\f,~l srnfe~a'[' :snbstSl;nJJi,a.~ OQJi~niCEW 6W :~,!ilbor"t_(J~~~'~!. 't~m"b~m e '~j~;va~, qn~ ~]as,· I~h~;m :su:r.gkfu na ~a p:rlmibv~, apa1.'tlr d's ICLmipos;ooa

.' .. ~ :Il~lm,plleg.

'H'attJlaJ "U~uJ (p~io :No"belldi~ QuiWOOJ·' ],11'3: ,., 1.18]) -"dl~fmsor cia blp6t~e'~ OO;m~DIDul, icolDl 1IiLrtri[ de st'IJli!1 o_lu;tIDsi Sbla1]@y' MjU,~'i C 0' ;B£illd~u 0 ,cu;n~' unl. allw';Gilto pal"al "t~-s,tu.:"

pM-te ,da ~J.Jiia. - -

Stanley' l\iIi;lll,eI"' ~' .cnib~ioo·tI1. ~, ,]:951_3 ~, ,i9j;rtigo Jur[tulsdo ~~Pr-.od11lCaQ de Juni:lrlo8.ci.diP-~ nae ~O~~f3' iQoIlidi~BS' da Tejr'I',~ P:dl[[:dthr,~". Mj'Il~r IOO~tn:m.1!l, t1Lm. ~pal'e]lllfi :~oJ~iD do ~U"~ coo-tendo ~is, bffilflles 1~.O'uect8dbBl aD tre ~ii :pair t ub es, un] lO~nidmlSBido]i ~e urn ·~~rvatdri.o. a.) ~~nbi!od1J~jo. [10 ,ar:pare~h(J!' m~tan e, 'a1l1fliwaj h,i.,o-g.i;n;~o ~ ·'v.a~~!;:1I" d,~'!igtlla~ b ~ Q, ~o;r d.~4gt]i1i :Fo,i, conse,gwoo ~.po§ a

'Hn'VtHa da "iFlgllEIJ no b.&nLaoli,'~) COim;P1 ~l,ento.!l o~ .gfl"5'C~, _6'~ !dc:slou~nra,:m, ~~ l!ihrl~':i~,Q, ~,rl b~.U1.Q· i~U ,el,e~G.ldo~ m,fflut eoloeados no h8j8D~ ~' Ol3> iOltef,[~' ,fi,o h~o H m.istn1l'R [','ecehe as dle.SiCargSSi' liN0'~il t5imuI~ndQ ns :r,a:ilos; fJ ~ogu abruxo, d:o 'bal~f!i Ifi; tnbu e ,1¥.!afri;~rlJo 'p~)r' urn roDc;enS3dlrr\i:~ ;gJ 0. 'vapor de agu.8Ii:f,esfrlad:o" Q!ond,e.nsB-;Sej simul ando a ehuva: h,) !O~ C!lm,p,i)stQs· f'Orm~·cib~s 'r~:r,t.!.r:m d;ci:J~';Htl;bl,d~s -Do ~e.nr[iJJ,t6:cio~ n'm' 'tlLmlJ eM fanil3. d~~ i!rr~ lUI., .b_~e· 'MI 8p9J."e]ho~ 1(1; que simu]a:'!;!',a, 0: mar p:rim.it1~·o,.

]rm1m- d~X:.'jJ'!.l:1 ~om ql'te GiS poos, w-OC;'tltSLstoo'W, ![h.n',~])m U,mBI semana, ,0 ~'iq"{tid,o nCUJir:!t1UJlia!d~1 no lL"6~nlla.l:(fri,_oJ ~pr.ese:nt~l"\',D ~o:r- d!.~ tijo]@_ A,. ,3~, Iqufunc;BJ, do UlQIlUcUO mestrou qj!iJ.e VAn.os nevos oompoetos Coram fo::rm~dos-. in.clusivB ammo!¥iJ,c~dm:;~

Agora IlDl~~el;"Ve ~ ·81Th~e do.B r~ltitdmlt: ,qual I~ra a, p,top~t!i.9J dfi Mi![e~"? I~oi t~tn se nfl~·

TO

eun.tlLi~6e'S ,d~, ~fi;~e:r.\3 'ptrlmi:~i va lta'Via. ,!It fQ'nIi~,!taill de an.lixwatidb.~_ E.m, se gull lkl' b.l_gru;, C) ~erimern~n de ]IdlJl€!,r p,mva ~:t'..i,e, t.eai[i":I!]L~nm O[~~ ,~tfiva, Ijerc.o e' a 'V]]d~ de l(l(riginmJ, da ,llbil."[[UIt po;r ele :pU~Vli9,'t[;i?' .Abs~ lit:nta.m ~n,t,e" roe,~,p-re,ri:D'U~J1.1to ~le ,M'iI.lerr (!~lIIiK'iLpn)V,~, que; nas ~riJdi~oes, ela ~l,TI1[)lSfera 'p.ri;tnt:~'i'va., a. PHii-lir: do:~ ~M~!!l. cl:a .n'IntfJ~~.e~r~

i"iI~_~,i,.:.;..... t'Ni·- ;o"'''''~''''''''''lI.·r .", - .......... ,.110 •• ~R.~ll ~ "',.....:~' -,."",.I.: .. ~ ~1 '!;1ll r~_':I....Il..LL.u.M ~ a~ .I!~g,_ p-!Ji~iZ:IJJ Y. tEl I~' P'.I:Il.i!U~J"au ~ ~JlJLIlI.lL!~}!l..iI:W.~...,..!o

CanW.nitl~t MiUIS)" :~;1l~6va 'que ,3. J)~,a p~:,,1t;e da hl:~tese d,e' O,patFlll1,' ~ v,i,ave]:.

Sidn,e-y W 'Fo~; em 1957 ,JIWrna ct3nti~dH ~ltif!\il} a. ~~ da, vida, .l!llJD~t.nr~. o r,;;~nIj~aclo ;~e' s-ew ,~~If:'i:fil€ntoo,. o~ quais .f:OJ:&m, baseado..q, nos resultados d!a ~e:r!P'8'rlB]lcia, d.e ,MiJ[]e:n:; Fox aqueeeu, uma '~trn!',~ ~ec3,de ~]nn:riJclrlJo.s. Arl~ ~,fr~,~ re~,m,am:"en.'~~ '\,1'~riffi~ou. qu.~'. ,'W1b1Li:~$ ~el~ 'hi!lvi~m .reagioo ,~ ese, llig;tdo lPir~~, .Fo.t'IiULf:' ttu:deeuillas, ].1la:inr;es 'e !m..arjis, wm~tex~,< A_ 'dgu~ Wit:1il1a,da.. .d'w'au.'~ as, U\g3~e~ havia H'V'8:po:t.!ado e' as nu)Mcul:a~ 3Mitlfl 6lbtidaa; eram m,u:it~ $ermelli.aJ]l,ies a :prQkej'~.

C,i!)iaCeF.VifI,doSi - :m~Qle'Cl1~la,~ w.rotei1ca:e cl.a~8'O]''Vi&a~. ,e:m, i:gus, t;o,rn,am.~.~e em, pal"te iQnizad:as~ :ESSlaS ,mru,~u1i3l:S elelnza:daJ~ 3!tJeae:m,

- . ."- - . . - -- - -.- --Y - - - - -

:mulecuh9,. diE' a:§1JJ:Ii. ,de tlll.rt~rn,,[lfl.3. que' .au ~edIm de wna . gra:1~iJ..e mOlkWa. '~!~ie$, ~. e .farn!l:lifii.. uma. 'peili~cril.:a ,b~ci"alti~3Jr1a de :[fjD:~e~llfRas ,~ ii:tgll1~., Lttgp'l ,wn grtt:pc c]e' ]cwa,.p.r~IM~f]fiS e'lrlv'Q":U,~s ,~tltr. uma 'Ulli.ea pe.Ji!;cula a~ .IDloleculaJ1;, de :ifilJgu,fIi, :Worm,~, urn

coace'N~', ..

'ifjI! ."., i'ij;1!I'1""""";;;;"'" . .:1'._ ..,. .. .tJi_.!:'1MI t n l~l 1~,~!Ii:i,~iI']~u If_HIi lliilf.!£':i~ll'i· S ~~~.,

O~, loo,tiitletVOOog, p_recisam, ,p:roruLli!dmt ])l.olooulM

' ..... "", ·1 ..... \ .... ',,; ~, ....... """~ "" ' ....... melaxas ....~o!io..,.,~ 'J''''_ "~'m, 'iitli"':;j'o:<.o. ...

,~,.LI.I::iI&u,JJ, = II;;;; .I'.ILD1J!,;;:' !;,'I;;!'~.~ G~" ~.It~, ""a,a;.I!!I.L>I:!Ul, "-II. [7',Q.'l.ILf i;3l1.l!

moleeular e:fd,i,t'U!1mr,!i3J]. e, por ~6:~ ga:tan~U" a :nla;nu,'tel]!~~t~ dessa ,!l):tgmni:lia~JJ!.

'~ ll,ai~ "~m dn~:da. qtte ']]a, 0 e'D,vrOJ,vimeuto de, itDJf:Il ga s !to. ,!lj(nl~d,er::1\fe[ de e.n,er-gia. Q:tllid ~£il e~,tm, ['ante' e:o~l!',g~tic~,1 Ne]]] a~ HlidiLa{.iJes, ;Uf;;:m as . ],1Zi~,i;:{i .. "gas:. eM:f.-ri,ca;s ,pildjJ.~ tSel" usadas po~' 'f-Ul!ill !$itI1:r.e:m. uai1id,e quat1:hld~~ de. enerwa "e por: et_;!t~ Sei i'ne~rnl"f:.~Ia! v~t D.e~.e~'~bilu.zm~ .pOl" ~oerio~ os co~a.d.o~~,

.E'~,t~. fi~l']rt.e de e~ergia :e. -[a qt1J~ ~'~ ~p'orti1llnl.!(},. ro;t.iS'Ii~.il:~' e ~.'~Jl:1,\t,e1I..; ,~ q~l? 0 '~omhillstry-eil dtt,g eeltu]a;g 1"JJ3 ,;t1.tnaJllidad.e ~. llm c3.i'boi"dr,:ato, ,iZ} g[i(:lQlSe~ !\f~~, lulVleri$l'i1 Ica'fbo.j_ar~tos na'qttel21, ~pij~?

o ~i.e:n,ti~ta :M:e];vi.1:1 [~,3]vi..n ,~~,e~i~,~u. ¢'£Pe:ri]:nenlto~ iPO'J:r:H} os· d)~ :E\[:iJl~~I~ ~ ,F<tJ~;, l~eooUJ!e;~,fitir ll$.i c;un'l1p~O$ :ro:F:m~tfto~: v;elos ,gas~, d.;a 3i,~!OO.re]~~ '~,cimi4va, 'tt1Jle' {\[]i[ aID ht!l'Diliard.~ad!.(jf:1' pOi" :ra.m:~e~ :~'I:am~Jlte ene:tt',g~tica ~m!!l~'i!l ,~, ,r>El$,n~a de elID..t'h td,[l.r,a to~,_ Q, Il,~]. ..3 eo,n.c],u Q,,~_(j dfl'S'~ eg expen:[i1~e:ntog1 ~El~, :tnn1.p'~sI:nle~.1ite, Mg, 111.ostr:am qlJ;J!.e' .{li~; C2Lrl:J(rli¢.ra,1tQ~, podex,i;m"Ji]J, te~ ~ fuITil'ilal,t~ :n:was tQ~lil.~(:6~ da art1I1D~fler,a pJ:imitiva.

Eu'O'I!1II"ii',;i"lIi'a'7' - ·[li IiIlIi; IE!!" 'p:,~ .iDi~,~ Q" ~';:;'·Ir'- ill o;c!

W. .. Ll.fLL~ .. £161! . - '11111..~ _. a .ILI...I.!!i:;i ......... ,O;~ ~. iLU._O.1l:I!

~: . ,

N'o ca.pU~ anterior es,'~damJos' b.~d(l;s os p~ogj Sr:lgIUJIGO a hip6b:-~e ,:3J;~utillm,em.'kG aeE.]'t~1 'para es .!ffrllrgim.en.'ln diM ,Iinim,cira:s ,~~1u1.as ~iL~

,P~l!eC::I..· -

8aih'E!tno£! qus e_[,,:ifij, a'E~!' ~tml)eJh~n:~ ,3, itml:li9 ·b3i.c.1tiriai, que ,eF..~ hete;!:'~:~6f~ eana.eI...ubica, _t,6gi~o, ~ stlPOII:" ,qtl@. ~~~, r1rlm.eil"'"M' es'ti.T:U'rlt:llI'a.!..q, vivas ~.'ettl"al1!d:o, seus :nlit'~,er.t'tes d~' ·'i.lfi'laJ, ,~opa, n:!U'triL'i,,~a. que er,~, 0 'mar. primitlvl)j, urn. :dria d.everiam, d!.es~pmre.cel!.' po:r et(iHiL:BSt~o d.esbs: .[e~'as. ,A ,]';m,i.tl SeI' que, '[fi,uil ~D~~: term.am a~n-r:ri,dta OOJll. 0 '~,m.lul

l:az:e.'Ddo ,!Stttgir n4~alta .cJ,p~o·~ de ·~]cla_ .

.. ~ .

AJlga qU.€i n:l0, :mi m&11cip(n,aJrlx~ P!E o.g~M.

n:l,~tB: q;ue ,me![l~ deSII;a'~lue ,hO'j~ (~]e' :n;!3i~~ 'lliinba ii:Uia~,

• • • ]',=, ...."j, .. ,; ,_':j!' I. >!'- • A, j,:'" ~ .....

IbIU':Uliilite.u.'~'" iIJ[.3 tlOEIiP()\l"t~ililtli"'l:l, rnfi :~maJ,,~ a

qlH~:st~fl da o~~m l~ ,e;vllln,~~d d~ o1cidns m1!clelitn..~ .. Af:~'~.i,ta.~~~' ,qu~' a .fttn'~:EiJo de ,ge~u:'! tenha ~idu e~.e.lrd:~:liEL, no hl:icio pelo - ENA. ]}f;%~OOh,du~S'e'i ,f~Z\· P, Q!,Jt 00 I, q'1llt8' p~quelln:~ pEda~ dJ~, RNA, podem ,~'itD£.iooar IN:unOI enzimas; ~ i&llLtp'lic~~~~u, E:~~ ~gm 130]1'0061 as, w~J:ma;~1 po:~~$Jb:im.)tan:n que ~a 5:taj, tleJRNA ~a. p1'U'd:uZ:lda ~ "arrll;lj;i ~ ~ 1.t:ullde

. de. OtR'rn. ,~'[.a d,e RN"A 0 ~DN~11:eri.3, i:lparecidfi 00 m.eil1 te, mais tame e 8, parth; do RNA.

:Em, mehas (la,O'roe:Bmlia. frj,!'3.Di en.ctm.,tF.,~(fu as mai~ an'tigas :e.'Vid.~nci.ag, iCl1e '~dat~ a]gut1i:l'll~ st'uh~dA.~das org~lc'as ,que dad;a:m,. de ,3~'9 billlli~ d.e .m;L~lS. U~, VM't ,gio~ mi~, ~~es 'riVOg"t '!Sem~h~f.li.l~ b baJiteria:Jlll~ datami;ll~' ~,5 b:]]]lllle~: (]j~' au.'lLO~.

A :ull,3D,uteoi}fn"p. d21, ~,da :n:a, Thr.1.",~ depe_:[],(,leilll ,di~, aJilar~ln.'~:bl dJ~' 1C~I,ulaa .,au'~O'I.\!",ijtfk:~s,. ~I,!P() 'hultl~ f!i .;~~:lt£flldn:te ~ ,q:~ .multas: m,u.dar:u~3.S (:[bi'w~~es I' ottf:rr-e.s.se;n~., ill, POl1:1!c de ,~nlli:~l" ,i] ,a,p'l'"ove1ili.a:[!~e:nil;o da merg;l3J. ']:IJl:f:llb1JfjS3 dt) sol para a :P:TO.fl~o de- mol~y o~gi:[t~!Ctail~ apai:reee:nd:O~ assint, os sere8!, :p'nto.tJariHnte~· ,aJ]J:3teT(ib!i¢.\o!:!il ,s:w:wlriili,c(j,.E~nanse qUrd' h~, 3 bUb or::s.d.e, ,a]]:e$ a- Th]~!a. era m.'LIi:!:fl!Ulme'cl't~ :pa1Vf)ad:a pm" ,!}e-:r.es aI;Di;M~lllflftS. :Ha. ,2; .'~j.lh.fl~a de ,~C1iil1: a Ig,~Liida.d~, die, ~-eres' arubOi~.f~ j.i, ern, tio grande que '111013. ,Ol1J,tra ,~diil1.ca'~!iiJn 'eiS.Senci.ru .o~~e1!] ,~~ P~3fi,e:~,

OS8l~lie,:,i QLe,lillbi~a~

C(lrnLO k~d~ (IS ~~~ 16!.r~ ana,~~~, 0 'uiJigim.ilUl, Jl_~:.er~rlo ,pe~,:i f[j'~CW~bl,1Je~e ,00.1. aetm],m:W!ldlo' n~ill ~i3J;~Qsf€ir:.a. :Em. ,~3i1des "a1Li1;'lt1das U w1l16eWa,s d~ i:b~*ni{!1 (O~) .. :l]'U.F.:nD ,If\O~n,p,~ pela ,~'~~fl Iqla, i"a!lli.a~&'t1' 1]]:lfaVioletal '1liheran!Cllio os iEitO'ltb:a,o'@ (le ~g@mu JlU:U,,~ ,~e ,1l·OOO:lri1fib:i;8]~,i3Jm. flaI,'3 ~rom:nal" u Dzil.,]1iOi 'Oa), c91fl1., ,W:dlimEiI eap~cid;aJd~ dl9l QlmGJ'V'eF' l'3.d.ia,e MI 'l]]:tr:a'~rD.1~ta...

- ;I' - - • " - •

emn a. p:~~.o d,ad,a, Jle]a:' {'et:~if,Q .£O.!Il:[n3idla caD.il~iilla de o~mll', ~ v]da, 'pude :p9J$~ ~a!T 1UL'fi]~ .~~lij']'va, ,rue de fiur:-esci:m,en:oo. ~4 :OO~ 'be'mJ~(~ q~' ,0, 02 ,!;lode' ar:1I.mwlar :fU;!i, no.s~a :s:;t:mi~~e:r.a, ~i~iI:tginM

u

~3 ~X3: :i='fi1, '!;.tlm,l'li cl.e 2CF%j ~!Dle ae mlant~m ,~t~, .h~~.,

o ,~Ctll!m.t1.k' de:,t_nci.genio pf;fil!illliti'Uj :fin.:3lme,[JJ'Iie~ n ,:lpm\';clu.1.ie1~o dfl~ fl,rjmeims ~~re~ :a,~bietlg. erion. ~ .. [Lfi~.·~ ]'et:Llli_dl3.d.e'~, a. v],ibt. t':t']DlJe~a um ::perloclo I(le .m.U.ITi~:p.~o e dj.:v.aFs.filj:ea:lt~ ~ ~~trull.';i!Jru vivas, P]J~~S-{lI que. :oo~filin'tlia ,at~ iQS llOSS-Qa .. d:hll~L

Pn1&'i;n~o' ·d:e~Qf1..o" 1t"Q ,C:BJrA_' !£;UCam.7~;'el5

Ap6~ ff :lIm~~~Il.to e· 0 aper.f;e:['p~~e['lim da.s ,c~I.ul~lS·r;~~c:ar~:ofite,s a 1l~6t:tt'nfas " ~Ci] e a:p~(:[nrtent.o dM mli'l!ll~. ~'~m[l'~.. Existem. 'ires ·teifrlas - aeerca d(], .3~u.m,W.,.,

1:OOri,3J da, mvagina~:itnl da memhr:31EUl

11 _..:: ;,

PJaiiilm:~:tiiM,

·VO'{;'j§· ,F l§ J~ 2,b e q tit e- 3 ear 3,'c:lte:r]i~ti"~ a.

fundlatti,Wl'caI qtl,~ dif'e~eDlciit ~ u~u.u]a, e'LiCillriWi'C~ de uma p.n!Mrino'll'te. 'e' a grantl.e q,1Jfal![t~ld:lLdJe, I~e,

:m€:·:nib"l.'&haJl3, da pri-r:rllW~l. .

118 ~'bi, hi P f.!it.e'~,,~ ~lre:~~ cruue ! filLr,a,'U~~ d.e. .m:uJt~e.s:~ .nov,~ pMeinas rt:w.~m. mt~'b:~ti~Hii:aB. pe-].mitin[;lo :0 degeLIJ."!fo'lvimen110 de um ~jstem:1'l,

ro'llQ.plexQ de :m~:m:b~3!s'1i a~) P~},D.bl de ill\l'agmn e Sl~ esp.;illl~r '~Oir d:ej11b:~ d.~i e:e,].tl.l~"

DeBm· .fmm.a, ~~:am s-~d~ as d[ie'I':el'-ltes urga[]lel~1 em.v'(JJltas. _PtJ[' ~lrnJJ.e[]]ibj'\~~, 'D:.t-U~ COIJ;!Hl! (~ f'j~d~,lleb].QI re'~.do.p'tat~:m:i.'ti.r: G i ~[:l . ]i:alQJ,a ~ Q f.!L'H]I~~ U go:lg1.~~ll]:H) e a~ :r~itfic&D.liirias! 0 loo!Ser.ttV{]j'hrufi~.'L~l clil :l]l~trHl Pr,ot':e~1 ~e:!4Ul£IU2;i,u ao ~li.H'gimento I(le Um~, ear~lt"l\ooca~

.A:M! :h~ej, enlx-e~'~ol .n;~·nburma ~elula, RitE,

£6 OJ ti trail t:3 'Ii ,'" 11 w:m

f.~~. __ eram ,e~:1ito:o, ,'.- O~: em ... e,s-:_.c. I[fi ]jl.J~!fiI:I~: _ ',-,t:!

1~.il'itIDe- a" dt~asl IDr.m:3S d·e ~I~,:. r.m'l~.aii~es e IlE!ni(~m.1bn'~st

·~a,. Bmibii\otiJU31. (m:1)~l~~u~) de·

"p~-jDntes, .

Esta m,p~te~~, .porega qUI; algnmas ee·~,w~!!l. ~'r{n::nitln,'t.~!J. pas~..n,,~ ,!R 'Y'.i.v.er 'cle~~ro die· i!:t1J.~:; geJ1':,Ii~ c4~lUhLli' mais .eaLnP.~ e eflcte·]l:~. 0' runbMarm,e'nm foi e:ncfJ~lb."ado em 6:fg;anelw;;, OQ(DID, ;as: :O'J!ih)e{)j],dri.9:9· ,e. 'Oi~, don'~pl~s.'I00~~ q·tt~ posalllem UNA pripr:io,; ]~)d~1!ie:.m, ·~lrl.a..'1: .ser!f~elhan~~, ell1;re' as :r1"1'l,tne~ciliiara, ~ as ba,d~f'i,a.~ ~ 1nel:1,iili,v'e il' DNA

. .~'~ .

ffi~WlaTI

_ ,

1hnria. ndSM

S.eg'uu.'i1o e~I't.~ lti~re~e as (D~aljJe~~as q,IlJ.~:OM 1J(~~UieJn, DNA possivelmente, !'i!:urgir,8.m a pardr da' w:v·~.~~~iu da 'Ea:le~['ana 'IP,I~.Bm;a~]Mj U(1nlD {], rel."'k I!l.lo E:.lJI.dop,1~&[n4't.ileo. 0 gO,l,gjif."$WfiO Ie' Q9' U:~riS~OmiJ'::;1.

.As. o:rgan.elas .q,~: it~l[1JJ~ihn, DNA (:mitooG':ntJl'las "~ d,'~J11a,$tQ:s)~ pOiIi' ahll'~ l~df)i~lliiJU;ar~. de endtOs~ilnbiose I r.mjttlJali.E~U.LQ.). ,e-nb1e p.i\ne_i:l.r:i(Mi1~~.

12

,AT ''lIT' ,.It, '1!IIi:N 09 :~U.J...tl"l., .1,1- '. IIilI

- .~, ~.. . ..

T1Iiio]i!TVD'O: 'D'<,"·U',~A""O'."', A:'··,,· C;ITI '" "10,"" 'L' 0".'· G: ,T,~

&A/'A.& •.. -", I ."_ .. 'y' ",".- .. " ... ". , -]" .... "< .' .~.

A, t:l~ltu\l ~£ a" "umic1ade t'l'Ill,:r.f'fi-£~]6:g~ta, dos ~eroe.s Yi:vn~\" Mtid.ernam,{'m:t!Ei .(,·\[)iilcei,'~l!la,~ c~l.la, como a men~r' 'po~a:o d~ :m;~,tma "li~a O'otaida

..a ~..l,,.!I .. , ,..;11 <IIe..l -" ,-;;

YIO c~:pla"c]'Y~,!Y"~ Y~ ;i!I:'u.~Qg'U'I!II~'!I'!c~)~~O

lDde,p~dwlt~,., -

,- ,~.o:I!ID'''''iO;II,lI'i-~~-j:,fii ,oJ,.... <Ii'J!.t.; 1l~,~I11,~ . u.§'~IJaI!VU~·f llJiy;. ,~, ~."'[~~y.-.

o est:ltdo dSJS . ce[ W;B;8, ,est;Q, iutitnm11lt!'ute ~']~ad.o .!to d~~J:IL'vphf:;,n:alw't(~, ·[la. miurlf'Sajop~:~.,

o di13 san volvtm e:ri1,1tI~ (;b'l mh! r'O:~U;.HJ Id. a ,p'~]bil:i'L[jiy, 0, ·oo~br:~:v,an~e'rli;ttJ de 1IJIDl: ·m'll.nd"(:]i totalmente nQ~O,~ 0, m~ da relhnltL~, 'Poiiliii:iiblU'[;.oU 'Que mSI;g:!L'lihiit&S"emos: dentFO d.e Ill,&$, mssmns. Em terD'lClS '~Qlutj W8" ,~ ,algol 1iJni~, 'n~ hmto:~i ~ ij'iJ U,J1I.~'V,emo: nds tumamns Mn~'Ii('uin ei~ (le, ii.1J.6~ ro.esfrula. N e8W mODlen,1;Q', en, q:ue ~ou um eo:o.i1;;uatO M e@luia;s,~. '~~mvC)' 'Pm:~, VQS~. !l],Uiill!i:8ii~,~ocisda~s ~~],ul{j.;res'j' i1iiob.re ,ee1ulag~ E um ,ma.r.avilho®fJ pwoc.eiSi8~ de, autocenhecimente,

AtrilbuJJ...s~ a clm~, ,r.a:hriC~l!.'i.il'~es d~· fi{:!Jlos 'ho1ar!l.d.eses .. ]·IarDs ,e ',Zaebariu; J!aJlSsen~ :ni~ Am, do seCULlu, XV[" a. !Joinli'rt1:"U~,a:,o do '[ru:b:nai~o miTDB'Cl6piQ"

IYI~. foi O\U~;ttfO 11.0.1 atnd!$~ ,M'IO'me ;,;r,an L~nw,emhoe.k ( ~11;_q,~2 _ IT'J3 ) '. 0 .pri~eiFO a emp:r,ega:r .:mn nlierf~s~6,pi 0 ~,~ jnv'~s:~ i.ga~abQ

L,::, 11..;:;, _c' 0 21._1 '.:iI' .' . .1'. ....11. 1 "..!I,

U.J.OWg:J.C:a. ,:, miO~mn ne lIl1c,rOS(~p1~1 !.iI!.ISS\~~]],:'!jI\O ·V:lrli.LL')

IlO'Dr Lf3ett\M~l~iek l;lit:i1i~;l.'V,~, Sll!t:'v~lil'te ~a, :~:enI~'~ ,ch~m.~d(i :ltilt i ~S(b de lr:lili~~lllp~ol ~~,l~

o mi'~~~SC6P~,ill' eon stl'11-fd/i'J' pot' Robert· Bo'olit:e (1JJ3ijl _, 11~]i3J I ffa~ ~mg"esi' llle,mbr-6' liJ~a R~ SocjedBde ,rrigl!es~~. po,r RP]"~8,eJn~" dnas le-I1!t-es.,'O fiCCi~ eo~trtec;id,tlloorrn~j micro·s.cO:pilQ! Crin.;npo~tD.

En1! 08 de '~lri] d~ - 66~t Li~fi Bookst na re'iLiJ:Oti!~ da Re,al SQlei t';d! ~de j. "~.p:r~'s ~'n-ttJU I~ m.~:a~oop~, de sua ,ral~!rim.~M .. OICyili,fj en ~e 'o~ elentlstas ebservaram uma musgu Mai:!l a.~i n.~, ~1iJni;:JJO rCI~ to de .~]niJ 1~,'UIe FIQok~ {i!b~~~_Hil. M~ti fati,~ ,r1e ~~~ea,~ ;~7.Mba,to'Q 'q~( n mci~'Pal, I~'.r"_ l~iu:a.S:ld,tu ,n~, pOT" ,Upeq.~L,e'lrUl:i,g ,~m;p_l~i menmfl~' 'fllf.rltl ;~s:Se:D"I1. eelas, aasiwit. ,d~.'mnil1nil!'~' ,(;~l'tda~ (~m brgl@.s oo;Us ~~

LI).~c'a·mm1'bl'~\ a p:~tti'if" tJoo1, lllo;nw, uma :~omlda :nd Se11.'tildo de (lb~e:rv,aT' rtn'~'r-tio~,pil:3fil!a1l't~ O~ n'lJallEl v2L1:iador::!, ~er.e6 vj,Vltl~. ft'imu ctfttro qUt~ ns. ~peqllJeJlI08 'CK .. mpa];trnJJmw~~t: ~~UI 'eF,B1_J1U ¥·a;zi.rus oom~, os ob"S~~ados na ;or)J"~il~~ :D)::lS, p:ree.tl.cl1idlfji~ ,POl!" lllll1 'matai:'w g-e]a'i:maoo,,' .A.s:.sim~ 0. termo '~~~]~~," p~u it S'e.l~ emp:ni@pdo 'p1tt~ ,ciLejli]fimUrr rILM 1?O fJS 'eam;pM't];mem;ws: l!iI1a~ 'k~~bem a ~ep OOFl'Wud,o,. ~~nat:i:~Lili.1(lteg, d,~ oor,po' a.as p] anta:s.

,Otll'tx~"$. :pe~qui.~ad(j:rt~, CiO:1-"JIS~e::ll.r~, q'l.le 1~be:fIlt.:OO animaia, 'eram, ooMtiJt;uM~.ffii l~:t'''~~peq.li_~,

loomp~t.ij;~ro~·~ l!~~nCh~dio~, par 111l~, lC(jrn.'t~t\& gela,1.iD 0501 ,M. 'que tmnbem eb:a.lnal:-am, OOlW8!S.

,A Te(Jl:io" ,Celu,Zo;r.

Huuve ~ ereseente ult,el'~'~J$e' p:el,i!IL roiC~O\SlOOP]8 'e a :c!!)'n~eq)1e'ntel ,m.viBS:~iga.pao ,doa maif; idi~e:n:e'l];t~ t.ip~ die animaie e ~,]~'tnta8~ Dom

.- .• ;j;.,;.,;,~ _I' = =M- tb'" OJ 'L,'I ":::l~__ '!'fi. ...l_

ICl'E!!UW~ Wl'!3!DJtfllBSi' ' ~, ~'>IR$l: beJiUJ~l~ a -cl.:~:QIJJiUli'"

:8ellll'W,alHD, em 1838 ~ 18391, iOI'mm;Etral1] a 'bipdJie&e1 de que ,tod~~, lOS, I!il~M· viI.v~, ~ii!l' icommtnfdoiii: po];'"' ~~.

]]'stav.,fIj, assim :E"(]1jionl.lula.e]a at base da 1ea:1"ifIJ, i(1e&llJru:. "rOffiOlli-:59 a, 'JemiEI! Ce]td~lr-i que c~z' que. ~todoo; . os iJ;r-g~Jl.i!s'UiFo;s, 'Vivos is.ellll (;'uO-,,~titUld~ 'POT

,~';::]'i I,n iGl!!]!! U-;o;", ,~'1,;-,;. '" ...... ,;;1;.,. ~ ...... "" ,1rI;, -1""'';:'" • ...,.,it"i.- ...... ~·i"'iii'i!'''X ...

~,+lL'H<~,~ D:lLl!lI.. iL!ill1~: ;1Li..ii:L~.'..ilC~ ~' .u. ~I ,b.Ui-.U","I!iH...uJj'~"'"

~e:rteIjal]zffillCoes dki l'Diist4ria rlla ,BiolngLa.

X-· - ; 'l2~!\ -B--1lI. -1"';:1~~'L ---- ." ]..., -

m reo .. ,. 'Ui~ 0__ "'lYI¥Jt:!I~I~V1i 1(."Q[tCI'l,:g:Q,"U: qll,e as.

~ll,llM ~m."D.ffiIDt~ ~:e e,rign1mJl. pela ~p:r-.Qdli]t!a>fl de ~ul$ ~pr;~;S~Eis. .l1e smmwoQ. sua oonclusRo I~~mt uma '"F.r~~ em l~'tim: Q:I!lG 151~oo u1f,mro 1000000cid~i Onm.is. ,c-elbilln. e oolhd~ 0']] ~a, i

~t~)d;a 'o[§;lW,a sa' ,~)ri,g~ na. de ,~~ ~61)tlJla" - -

10 Vir~S!' e ifl Te!Oiri~, Ce,lulfL.'·'

A :Pi,tilj:rt i r Iiil,ij rl6,c,~,dl~ del '95 {}, ,0

de~mlt'Q~.vi'O'lliEn.b) do ~lllljo. dos· Vfrtt!s'l :IT'I!Gl_st~nu que ICi!IS '~ illlo aeelulares ..

E·~~rL;S!.:d::l,\ ,a, Te~ria t:ehl]a:r ,e'~aqu..~~id~Sl~' Pe .. nsa-se ~.u.e' nar .. ,p~--q:ne OBi vin.tS do ,P~tl$1 mb~a(}el~ ,ull~,iJg~td!lio~ .. Jigtu le:~ :p~ua, ~: ,re·pr.ncl:u..zllr neeessitam do mai(ru1:rui:rk~ de tunal eelul a. Logo, todo Q meeanismo essenc.iaJi H ~ji da ~' I~n;(..~oo't~~ IDtl! i'i!:JJ100rio:nr- dJ~~ oolu.l~'.

IClfM9i/fleQfJoo' ,d'f').Wj ,Ser-es ·'Vi:V.(;J6' ell,R, ,Fa;npao Ida' Ce,lu-la

[!Bulat, .~ at .ID)eJ]or p.iID.'~ rlIa .ma'tmia, vi1l.at ,d,trThad.a . da eap alCicl.a,ci.e' de! . ~,U: I;ii}d uplie :Eli.~:Qdl 'mdGipeJMil ~rJnte ..

'. Vfr.u.s ,_, ,sao aeelulares,

'. 'CQoIas ·m~\tu:~lGtms. _ 'oomij,mem ~ W:-, cJket~ij_u ,e ·mi· 'CIKmJdiM. Jill oPJ,rGtlfrirJ [J)cr viro~~, l1OS$U\BlU :m~I~i.nmo die sin~!, DNA. .e ,R;N"A e 'Llma·memb["~,,~e:]el:;m.·No, entan-

to,~ 'f),a{~ prndU1Ze[(JJ kdaa' 8.&' ,e]il~rul pW"'a a &Ul ,a,ljltOdiL1IpJk;~~iQ "md~J!~~ndoo'~. S~~ tambemi P~~!~S, iUJltm~c¢~l~hHr"eB ~fil:~~:rjJ..DS,.

,_ ,C~~U~ IcoI(Dp1eias

,a) P:f\!l~~ .. jjonjte~ ~ ,slin c.e11ll»s l::am. ]lD}u(:~lS m.e:m!l.)r an as. lolD'"ii'i. nouilo c:o·mna:Ft:.iUte.ntcFdi .... ,

'I ltil- iii' 'F

.,zad.la:s t pO"UiI;!a5 ofgaru~] ~l;8). A:s~iIn, nao IU05l:SUe;M e:nVfjllt6[iJ:o l1I,uileaJr €I ~" ~em. D'NA ~8;~_' :ti~~pm'sG :ttQ cito:plaan'~'j, en] iO'~.t~ ta-l1J1ml-'

nades nuclooid,as", As. lerutdas! pl'Q earie ntes . . ~n'nnam, as bae:te~.~. e a.s c~aIli.O'ff'Of&3J~, (.lg~,

• ~ 'to. 0"· 'i

8Z!Lli'lS! m'l ClarllL(!!uRCOOl".!a~.,.

b)1 Eitllg;1'ri_mg.'~eHi - leeltd~ ri,~ €!'fil: tl1:emm'i!nas, logo, i1l,;ternnmeJlI,te.leompmitl'lller.iA~tlUza,-, das .. OOIDl muitas ~:fg.lil1Jts1~~')i Ccrm_'o Gf~e,qo.'$n,[:i,a:~ h(lnllij·~' uma tls:ped3Lliz~f,j ,:fi:a:ncip~ 1t1ru.~ :p[k8~dbllita;nii~ 0 sUJrgime11J.t,Q, de. ~rgwrls-, mo~' 1c;~trH~ll~as.. !Q'!iJan~'"O m ~~ dGS~flV'{d'vidl~, ,lliF uma eelula ,rn.iaJlDh" ~,a:, 8 SlLm, oo_mpa.rli,~ mentalwQjto',. cm~Ul;U€n1 ,tod.G~;os. ,~p:I"m::e]jta.n~~~" do~ R-e:i:l]f]~;, ~~!t:i6't~, VW-'lIgii Pbllnt~ e" Air hlim:aiW.,.

:TU:HWM"D

A maktrla. das ~~[W$ Ie' ,mi~e6p',~ea ra maiol'ia, das· ceLt.du ,bllmn~]s e ve,geta16 .oaeila entre H) .0 ,50 'm.ilm"6m.ebu~)' JJO~j. bil a;igumA1t5 i~luJ ~s '~:nJ~,cr-ix~c.6,p~caJa ·ooro:O~. fihna: J~;lfi ~lLlgod'~{l e la!:h~elnlmi 'dG·a1~"M;" NittUa SfJ!. "~ Aecwbularia SfJ ( OODl (Ulima' dl! ,gu_a1"da.,~hgv,t1L, podndCI aMi1glr c~c~ d~ 10 'em de allb,ttgi)., Nil hu.mem" 00 p~EDr:t~~Hnt~s ~as ,celuJas n..elWS2J.g !que saem d:l eeluna 'V'e'r~b.r~ .IE!! 'viiio ate IQS 'pes ]lOd.@W. at]ngil" ,~tE urn m,~,tJ:"O d~ ,----. --"fj- A]iJiTl ,-, flbra, 'iii" teeidos d:-.

~prnm~JLO;., . ~,~ a5, ~ __ ,~ __ lOS. ~~_,_~ '_~

~ Mt~t~tJ gljj.s Vo'eg~tnm, p(lri'em 1illtmgi-r' ,a];gttnl.S

, ',;r' .. -

tlEt[lt.]m:et-m~ ..

A'S, me:ntr['lM; ,~lmaJs oonl:u~cldH ,sani 'u ,dos mieopiaSJU3:Sl ( J? .. P~'LiOI'il~ b9.iet'~rli!ii!i;: ,ger.altnen.te ~~m. 1~~2' a. '2 m de: tamaahe, pode:nd~ .ronda ,ttar: d'imc:n~ill' m'~I'J!Gif~ Afll oont:ratiI) d'~$ dC:rrH~'iiS 'Mct&'iallS, ~a, m.ierap.lasmas ,11,8,0 p(fi~su~m pa'Md,~' eelular,

FttWDm

~ '~~ll.lJwa. :podem, !\In,sauir on ~i:l3n fOlll:ll:lJ]s, fIXa (as amebas Ie' o~ ] ei,u;;odto,s" pot' !9X.'elnlpJOn' 'lIlli,odifi,cam ~--=:Olnlitn.ua:m!!i<".J]"t~ ~[[~ f(wm~1:J.

A "bnIilu '~' lo~'lwlR, I~l p,hniCG~ud:arij'tS, ]lW ~,:plolO aL~Jj!lp!!inha a sua ,funl~!il~. N6 e.]l~to; as duas formas ,ma.i.s. mm1Jll1S tE;§O, ,~ eiM.e1'dCilS, ~ d, piJ_lici'dri~a8.

,E"21J;Q[ea, eemo a tensao Sl111e.l"ficial da 'mG~nbI;ana_ ~1~,1II1itill;;ai ~ n]v€!] dl~ vis(;'Osidlade do ~l.tQiPl.[[I,~~, ~ [~ meio II!cO ,q_:l.iaJ, .' ~elphll$ e~!b1D

"i'ii'>"""".~~ . .:,'II.,.,,,, ..... , 'iTfi....,~'a-"'" ~· ........ 'n,.,-""'·'t"" pii:ll~'''''''' ",,~l 0 .1i ... .,. .. ,..; -': .... haa ,~;,i_1L~ab~ ~Ii- ~, •. '~~~., ui -lUL"lL~JI~.~. _" ~1_aP. 1(.!t:~,flillJL~_D 'It. .IZ'illnE- a!a

I i1' R prd'pl"l R .a~'tEn~m i11a~j; (i. g,Q I] €i~i ea J3:tB.J~

..lI. i!.~:i;.. --.'. - 3j' -iii"....... dOlI "f.. c. I "'11iJ '

'Yi~~l. U.llIl __ l1'~ _~ __ , I'~- c~" .:a:r.

,£ei: Ide: ,~~Jwer =' ,a~I(lf'a:tl 'rJJ'_dr-fI 0' 'Vulrr,jme' e' " S:~perficte Celtd«;r;

,DAA ,~u---p€y.J1kie celu]M vati.3: ~wr!L, .0 1~I.'u:a.dr,itii:.dQ; da1 CIJhlnens~o Utte:ar, ~: 0 Vlo1~e, ~m1D. in ,cubo ella: -mC3ID1Q ~iine-~n~1~jM.

Ci'"".l " " ' .- jJ. ....,...d.""",l-i ~ -, ,', ; c...,..-~I- ';

~;iEn!tl-iQ ,[(ln1,[Plu.!f], ~I~ re~[laol {:i. 'vwlIIm,iB

ICijJtupl~~im ~ltlCA cre.~ce maitl ~l, ,a ~1!.iped](;.i~ ~a: menr:u.b'rlBLna~ ;.;I C~l,11ilat busic,sr,:a rl,Qvaumellt'e Bquill.braTI'"~~ div]dWtlliQ-S8 eln dUM ilQV,M iL:~luJlaG.

LcgO,~ ,0 rl!e'&e-~~k! ,en.b,~ G, VQi'ilnle Ie' at ~uper:,f'irie Illi~' urn dos, rn,bJ~$, :indut-o:Fe'[::!,' cia. 'mito~.e~

.

,SI'ildl~nd!o"Biz:~- anante m;rt~~' d0"V100-

~eii~· .. l!~ - . i~. ~

ss ~:w~ p~,~, £er e)3SS:~ca~ lettt I~~~; :~;p~:;

,tj_) Cei'Uillasr l~~is ~ ,~~ui~kL'$ com cl~TI'o ':vi'~~

, ,,;]1 • "-' • • .cl",,: ~1' •• .

i~lirlD-(! 100m, gr~'l\:l!!e. 'Ca,p'3iC1.'~~J~ ttdt6't:ij!t~, ltd

,pDueQ' eapetta..lli;zadas, :Ex.: celu]as ~p'j;teliais" hemaeeas, ~8i]]]eta.:s~,cel'~, melistsmS:t]£a~

'bi) CcB.u1lu, est,aV,e.iiJSi - :pn~llLe.m ,("l,cU}o vital ,me... die, m€lll dillffe'I'eI1r.ci~an d.1L!.rante- Qt defilej]~ '~'Olv]mel:rro ~m'brion~i))i 'PJ'IlDmle~iml ooro '~~pacidad!6 d.e se diviiii.T', q:!.m!im;~,n nJ~c'tl~~-·.twio. Inc:ln1m,~ .'fIj,qlLtJi:a, ~.m.dE" 'm9.iorja. daiS ~]W$ii;, ,miIlMiJJis~ Ex.~ eel~,E!iS dcH~cid~ !oollj'lmitiVQ:~ le~,

~,lIl.llas .b eP'6"u~~. '

c) Cet1UilJas :pe1l"DUnlmt~, - 'e~hrlM c.m:nm. eiclo:

. -vi,tal ,~oJElg'll\. ,OO[ril alto grau dB ,t!Sp~ciitl~t.ltvig, ,[ ~ofmm ffift!'1~r:ilc~a~"iu ~elwar 'lQ~e(loe€' no emb.r-i§o ~" pl~atie;nnen.te peroem l@J, C3:paeidaJde de 'j8prodll.lya'o~ 'Ex.;' fibri:a~ museulares f!;stl,'is-, tl,~s" :n~l..lilOni~! ftl.omna tnos vr~"~tmiSl).

:II' ... ii~~, D'.·~'d£h'lli' .o'!iin: L.?:;; ,J"!,,,: Vr,IJ"u:n+.o C~alui'tD'"

~!!!!Ij ue .. ;. ~-~~~'-{ Illi'1 ~ _. -_~' ~-,...7' _ ~_. ~',r~ .: ~:_. ~_. _ ~ .. _

"0 '~l'olum.'~1 c~11l11er ~ ,a~e n-l.~}g: eet~ de

._;c.,...." ..... ,;::,,c,'ri"'II- ,~.~~~..J~ . .i'i<m :==,,j!,',,,.t . ..:lI~ ....... ,,, ..J.", ..... "";::;,rnn'" ~~ ",,'-'e '!IJ!!JJ.IJ~ :.:,,~,i..,dLO.~n 1~;"';I;;o['IWJ' II¥. ,':w;..u.l"".LUI!;.!I';J\~' ue :1L~iL'~qo,.:,::"~ especi -,

le'.em m'9Eif"nll f3St2 de d.e&'ie::m~lvimeJ[],m'J. nao mte~~~~ __ udol ];I ~~~o ~ indiri,du",~T,I'. '

E' J.-.-,.;t'"' C' .. eh 'I C',"!I~,,,'1

,"_S;'J.~lu_ur,a, '~'_,g or' """,, [.·.wa,

A_uim:w e ICC'lula. 'V~g;e'tal

lC,elp,I'a~ Ro;c,a:Fi.;OAte\'~;

~ ,em;'l!.il¥i1~ 6tl~;itJ:ntM ilPJ~SGJil'~W11l1 dnas ll.'iBglli5es :OOBrfu]Ggit::~!Eilte diitintas. - a eim,pbmm at e 0 _n.ncleo, - e.n1!J:-e ~USi c[t~aig {Dcm're um tr_&nsiw

" _. I _ _ ~_

eonstante die ;tniiJJ,wli'ru q~.lm.tico" QS,. D]'Bjs di'v~S05,

fii)S, d,Q,ia; $e;[Q.'~(l~. 0 mtu,ilas:ma Ie ftTtvoJ.vi,iQi 'pel~, membsana pl;aamati('.a: ,e 'u nliele:et p~ijl ell\l',oo,t6:rio. nuclea.r.

0, ,citop'4t~ma d~ 'cel:w.u· eUC'ari!Ontes Po.tllit$m vmtaS l'Jorgarnolu~ com fmJ~O@,8' ,s~'c;~~~_:[s, eomiO ;mi'["'-C~ln dTi~~~ r;eti c'Ul'~ end'~lPIU~;;wUicoj' spareJlho de Go'lsi" ~~ rIDM.Som,os"~ IcenU1J oeluiru:-1' 'phwtoo. ::Jllem M vacuo[oiEl' e incl:uSQec.s. !O le~IJ'il'pr>: ,e~ltr.e ,~~l· ul'g~]~la~ I~ pID)jjl~l1,cl:n:i:dGi ~->\lo 'l:i.iaJop]a~ma, au cita!i;ol, ~:Ill~.do P(ro~~!, iC:1'ms u~, 'ro;affi W~"BOs. [!lliJJi~l,]tubul.o.Ei Ie D][i!crr!):ffihll'1reubJ6~, oo~t]t1!:iindo 0 cit~~ooi,(itll'J~

01 'Du.ultGQ 'blm Vid(1J~il.iliit;tulQ. '~~Tat<uIistic~ it~ l[:,je§.lulla, le'"U ~~(~':Dt-ei . ~ fcn-:r.n:ado ':P~]ijl ~"'fi:v(rdu[..u,]~igp :nrnd~Rr~ l1LmlejJpi].aJmlH, ~r:Dn:u:r.til'rla. e' ID1I1Ji!1Btilfi.. 0, lenvQltO:l'io, nucl.'erur e liJ..l11E! menihf:"m'Ml rlinpia com ",trios. :p~)f-o;g;.:

ru 'cel.\1JlM. '~'ucarinl1'te~'t taErlliOl die iitegew.i.i:!. ~~}8rjO]\es. e.Q\M.O ,ite .l:tLlhi~.aiEs i5ja es~rr::utm~~e:n!~. s.eifte].ha;nji;.es:~, p ore.llJl. ~ ap:teSi~trtml] algumas

d]fJjmny~ .bui.~. .

1) Pail"-ed~,'Ce1I.mlM"' _. P.&U'\~de C-elUlnSiC3 q_~112 env(Jly,~ -~, 1;1,11!et1lbralDl p],E1!~m~tica.~ c~t~irn.~:mcn-· '~~ das ~~[u.las veget:iliB, .mant!E!ilJem '3. iJ(l;'nm. emstante e prote,g8~ 0 d·tGpl9Js:m:ar centra Pfe5s!5il}S l!{~;e(;.';~:nk"3k1 ~ QSI!!l6tii~f~ =,

2) P~m~a de ~,..... orIg-anel!.a:B que arm~:;r~~]'L1 ,pignru.e:ntn$ - {c~'01tiJOp]ast(kS} Oil m~tefia1 ~,a )l:\E!lS8'J"'!lal, Ue:ncopla&fL;ea)., 'D'S, rnals Importan 'as 8~O ns ,c}oroplnst~!· TieGs aw ele-

__ ,(;,:] __ .,. _10 ...:. ... '~ .. __ j, .. ,i:. jj ., ,Ik';;;,~.· "

t'O.ul a, .I#(I'].n!t"1,,~, p~"n'!,;!I..I ... U!.l~~.:::il~,~ 1!,.:1CO~,

9~ 'V3E,D".IDL- . ,d'e: ';-;l!1ct1! "UlelW3!F - MD wt~ri~:":

-1 _ _ _.Il _ _ 8_ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ ill. _' 110

l"e9pcnis9Y€-1s p::!'lo etJjt1lilfbdo .o.sm6ttoo. S'a,fl) d,e "finltlillJTI~nt~J ~impgrtin cia" PQ~ ,~X(!I-nlP~O .. 'P~ ,3" 'entracli':a d~ ~rrl(f~, "oila, pl::'.1.iJ:ta :N 0, .in'~~r.r dla" bO]S8J, qrte e,~ ~:FiJc~iolo bi uma sol~oo·forma=

d d .. i:: di 'L· <

~ , e agua e ' l,'V~~~i;l!S '5:ll~l3:t~l':1JWa8 IOI)wn ens-

b]' . t--- . ~

"J ., I. ....1. ")!I' ,> t

,_ ,S'I r.ngm~, os, i::1~_~,~ ~, •

,41 P'r.~t9a, di";!' ,agjd~) - e 0' ~bm,.i~J de te- 5.e~ da ~elun1!a '~eget~ut 'N'~ oobila .animal asu'bs,Uitnem de reserva ';9 () :g:1)]c-ogemo.

in P1r:es~Ifit'3. d'e' plM_OdMDliJi}lS, - ~i!l) pclIl'~e$' ]ll'>oteim'5I '~Ille fOJ:I11Bn] CSIJ:m:aia, e pe~ttLlimm 0 'tJ'ansittl, d m61e'~u]l~ 1~'Jl'~fi'''' tehJL]:a~ 'Ye:get~ia vizfu:ih~.

._-----------------------------------------

l'~~·O. PA.ElA" GA.~~'\, •

Iii -tjtJ • E" , d' til Cel' las

'_ .' ~.,fi '_' ,00 . _-..:. ,',~s:hl.,-t);.,~ClI ':>.~:U' '~.:.

A Ob~1"V8£~ih1-0 das 'Q~luAu~_ ;pod~ ser "'Qi:ta <.lin

~"L; -(;/1' -, 18 '2i. ;",-, . -[]U~o:l;a ----, - - - -t·.j,'Oi - ~"v .. ~ I: 'WI'll1_! ~ QU, ~~~!E j' as ~, __ ~ !SiaU rru;l[.n:.~u;I[~,s 'VJ.. ~ ~

e:xanl.e ria, fte$OO·) 01.] ~:o:~ibr~mH, ~m,,~ eeJulu ImOllrtas, st,r,ijVes. de.-:nm preparado ~OWIlleJL:1i'te f '~imina) ~ q,~ fi:,~-m, ]~r:~rvmJl_a_g, js1jO ~ '" fixad;as. e romdliS ..

'H~ ·ini(llWeJ:.t1S 'I,f,~nt~~1l'IS em, ·,S~" €~tudaT: ~ eelulas com., jl1r~W',ffidru!J pentl8!.neDl~B ~ q~

naiil s.~ p.l'~ce'diaJ. o'bse'l"''RQ~N!l -&-iQID,gi,eitlJ8~ .

s.a~ ell~d.a8 determinadas 'F;,tSJPflJS para 3. obteJ!iQio dB urn propaFttdn' ~GiIIm::'

1. 'FlXACI,o,

Tem,. '~~l(fnO firtaJid;'ilIi_de ma:!ialr e' 'proe~Jvar a o~l~~lR. Ilvit9 a 'Std6]i8ej inl.:P£!~e!' R .p:Jr.nUtfex~~1 de b~~trni~sj ~promgv~ Q rnl~C~8~an.Q Q!l(rLd:"WfI~m%'J;nbl para ·.5itlj,pnrtarr as d'e:nlaS ,r,;¢a!:Pa.s de ,ProM"".s!;) Ie' aumenta aTInid.atle das estruturas oelulm-.ei3 pelos OQl"'.B!i!ll.Ws, clto~ogico!Sl.,

A :&~o . pmie Set {@"~:1ta por ~llte'8i ffsiooa camo '(} calor cu PQlt ~(;m:ws:, l'[m:mioo~: ( 'l;;:'h'Jrom de ro.~,\tlhio, 6ti.do ,P[,~dOOlj .i[,deldo m(FnliL~~ t-e~nd:o de 6Si1:ll~ij~, glutm:rudeido h. 0' 'tetn>x;i,oo ,de: ~Imtiio ~' .0 gllJlt~ dei;d!.o &~O 05 'm~:i5 usadcs na: nl]:~&)ap-ia ,el,~b:--i11ti)i::a,

~. MlIICJlOtFOMJA

Objlc:rtivtEl, co~i;ar' ~s pe.v.~i!J; 'b"ClidWii en1l facias 'fin~8: :paT' Q exram'~ 1J1_]ctQ~(Q-P:~~I;ii\.

As peJQas para : Se':r~l'n observadae ,~O '~I'!rK~t:ro~~o:p,jo' 6IJlt!,'~~ ~ffij~ f].ic;1-pid;a~ 'e[[] :PW:afi:Jl}.lt ie '[!Q:I;t;9id9.S![lQ[iIl, um a. e~~~u1"a ,de S,·a u :rojcr8met:rr,tEs. :P'srs' a Ob&e'l:'Il'SIi~.o, 'peTha m;icr.Q~c(;.Wia ~et!'mItht\flll ~ . . p~.s sio iriH.;.h;,~r;$dg em :re.8m a!.,~ do '~i.]lQ, ~p~ eom Q'. ni !3lraldite e {j e~on, O~ OOL~_@ ''I23:[',wn de DP2, ,3. (Ji> 1 m]r:r.omet1'1Q!. die espessura,

.0, mk~r.6tomu ·paI'~. ,8 .m$.eI'osIjQip,ia 16:p,"tj,caJ M2lIl navalha de a~~j e ,~ que eoo:t.a oodd~ 1~81i~at ,at :m'J cJrOSOOp:ECl e]eib'oo 1M, usa n~'l1~]kla de' vidrQ {liU,

i"~l!""'m-,- '''' ..... ,11.''''_ tJj,a3 , . d.a;,," LJ.'I....Y_

a COLO'Rfl{JAO

A, maimia da:s org~l1!e[as ,3!ij'O b'-'itUlSPW"1lt!11:ntes, e' i._['u.1{)I'O'r~~'~ 0 'qU"' difi.clIllta, !il, . ';s!m:dg I'M ii~"t()S'ti~i'GO, Para V'~ 't:~u b<~\mais, ~ q~ s~ :f'aZ ,r.u~·e~aI:.iJi1, a, usn de 'oor3.[[teE~

:O~ ~,1Ulte_s p'Qde'm ~r \1:i:tajQ·,( do :ma'tam at I(}eh.din.} .ol.,ll nio 'titarSH PlDd'EH11 set bti[,cma ,. :~,~'u] -,d ,~- t~ }~.i. d.i n tI ~ ,~,::t1Li!.] ~ itl~-m ~)~i 1'1~'n.;{j . e ;~ h_e;[i(H:ll.w~i1ina - urn des c~,antea, mais usades), ,ffiddO$ (m.-an.fJ:e th fi~m:Da, Rci,lolae e~,~a - em'.Emt,e, 'IITii'uit.o l]Jsadu) erOi n~~ni.ltrQs. N~i.;l micl'\~~,C{D'P'~ii!! lele'i:;:f'\U:jll],ca. usa-sa ('rln'tr..a~ ~,te~, nilo letllrant_e:~, " saia de metals pesados),

T5

l\ti_el1)~~6,piml

o n:d~sco-pr.,n 6ptiCQ eo:m~e-~ de uma pab~ . Ine~~D.i~ (su,por-ce) e uma 13!me l~r.)'ti~a.i . oonst'j,'tt:iji'dimJ, 'pOlL t:J:!,~Sl, ~'l~tem,!lI!S Ide l!eD:~e~~ i]

condtensa,d,IO~ ::iB. 'a:bj're'ti:v,a e ,a, ooctliJiaE:

~!h~, ''I{,~L~,tUl,te-S' do ~£"!rU:$.!PUr(]]O 6plii"Ii)r) if,.:(IImn n :mi,t.ms;ciil,pilll Id~, prJlarifi.o e. u mi.e.l-6sellpif:F dc, c:'O.n.'~rJaS~ d~ ~ase.

lIPuti'a' '4~ re~ollil~o ae um :ri[j!l,te'm_~ 6pti,oo 4;, a ~ua ca:pacid~ de sepa~~l' ~e-bllie~,.

.lILiu;~ite d~ re~~'~:ll~U de' run $fu:s,Tt,e,tml ~pti~~1 ~ .ell, 'm.eJj(j(f:" dist9An:efa qUia )d~,e'.i~gtrr ool.:re )cfui~ .PUD,1:oS 'P~ia, que. :ap,aF~ i.mf1!iv1dul~l!.Z~d~.

Q limi~e' de 1ID~"l<[}lu~o !Iii} -o1hn hunrano Ie ,da urdem de OJ m1tt1i on 100, ,r.arl,c~:rta'G~" 0,9 lllnll.11!l .:an ,~,'c:l'i~~>c6p,'lj)s 6pt"'ii~IIlS ap,TTe-~JB(~j,'~::ltm. :l:i~i't~ . d.,e l'escrlJL1~a(} 'rjUf" O~51 Mi,'t!~m.etms: !rlill1 (tOt'O~ -mtrrt" 0 limite Ide :ll:esDlu~-Io do mjcrogo~piOI ,el,e'l:ii:..rlni.ool ~ da (j(['tIDe:m. de" I~l~mn mimmetr..o rt na[tfjm.,~trc~} on O.~(UJOO;01 nLi]j1rlille-~p'.

A 'L1n.i:d8c[lJe d:e~ _ :mi~Q:\!J.~6p]2!, djptif!a ~ ~ I mjc:r.dmei~D (I nil, = i(t~ .mm ~~ ,e· as, ,l1tlid~,ttf1i5 usadas l'i,lBL, MJlit SaQ' ~, rJ!a:r'l;filll,e:l;r'f) (1 am = lcra :1:11 Uti .l{~,-!tll .. ].n1) Ie 0 fiDigsJb:on, (l.~~;;;;;;JLo-tm, IOU 1C,-"1 liunl.

VO'R~ ,i;H)d~ efiDfmt;['!sEw ~p(t!t:' [E!~eDl,p]JIiJ. '0 mlcfOEiic6pJJr) a,lle.b.~ru~o ,de II!ira,[llil~aJ.o (TErM) e' 6 microBco,pin e:lei16rfdc6 c]c, '\'iflt'i:'"edtllxa. (~).

~)e! pode pesq il.istLf e OOmpaJ:"aE as P-lEt.'rtes IB as ~a.etenirll'~, I~'. um :nti~\Mel1,h;]O (l,ffilti:.co COt1tl~

~.l_ f!.~ .;'JI-",- r l:'" ,

1~:I.J:r[r.llJ[J.;[."·:Il] .~ nm nti~(1~e6ipro 6p~, de 'uans[i1i:ll~sio .

. Perce:bri.l! p~~ e~,:p']ol qu.e U:Sa.Dl..us u ml:c,fo,s,ebpi,Q e.'I,~tr'&ni.o~ de, 'v:~i1l'red.'li1r8, para

~:1" j!f' "

Vj,s-![J;:;i,d.za'it" ~tl:per.~j.,CJ)~.s.

ADI'LA- ~1!! 10t...41

• ' " 1.- I'", .l'~~- . II:~.

- ~ -

BIO""LO" "'G- 'lA' 'M' 'OT "D'CT·R. ~ n, 'DJ'O' ''''1' . ntsno --'A- C'" 'EL"''Il'TA D

,', J.'-" ~ ,!~ .. :UJL1t'lJlL ~ ,0" . ..,-'U,..u.:tJLIL·", . ',.,:- 'U~

- - . -, . - ,_. - -

lBtn:tdllf,a;~,

Thn.'tr) tl III,~!te;t!ia l.rm'ta; qr~talA.'t.u a rKl3.'M:,da .vJv,a. 'tl~~em dos m~~m_(~~, ,el~tnie.f.!i"t_9!~ ,q,1)lfmi~-9~~ Dil, ~~t~ja'l ,(~ra f.Q!~s:m,nf:;l e]e:me:alM~ q~:ttrl,OQs, e~'t!o pi~~en:te~ eu'il li~U' ,tJ ~lpu de, .ma.'lif!.1ill. t~l-e~'~I!'t?

()'b'iS.e i"V a -~ e'~ e m.t:r~G' t an t o, d,i:f e re n,I~3",S :i.'im.1.tm:m:_eIltru.s !8'Kltr1;\!: ::I :ma'~n3; vi~l'::1 e. a. _mat~ti~, ln~I~~ nos aq~anjos ,a.'lt8miro~, e ,n'O p-~r.;[) mal~~lih1r. pm" ~~lpJfll".

odas ~s celllll~J9j (,'~IJ;f.!rl[111i;\1, 'veg:~1i:al m.i:~l"'Qb~anaJ ~orutem [)S, m.egmo$ ,el;e!flle'ltl~ en]' P«~,P'~~ i@ip:~:'~nta;clar.ne;r~t~ :~ais. D'e' .. to!ilQ3 Q8

,~]""_:"""':'i'~ ... ifIi.~l ..... ,,:. ""'''' _. _'il- -'.;Jr "" ,J ...... ':8< ,.:!i" ~,\

G', .cJJ.Jln,::~,I,d."J.:;I' ":I:I.LIJ.Jl~~.c..;..~ t:O.u.[],'Ia(:lIJliLD.,::.', 'I, U,~.::t:1D ~~ o;:i.IL!L~J"1

J~Pfl!~!:3!B It. ~ilO e~~nciai~, p.~ra 'bodasa~ '~~LN.lIlfu.u:.

IT,31ti(~aJDi,e,n.'t~ gS%- dl:i massa ~O"tal ,(~a~ db.i1.aJs, ,is ,~[).fi$tH_,"i!jida pOoD" gels na;f~ r.r.u:.d_"aISl:: c:~ ,}L 0.. N, :a ,S~ 'N'ol;e'~, pmMimidaile de~~~,· ele;Erletm.'tns. uaJ t~;bel~ ~ri.6clie:!l. S:16 ,~tE~' que, fo:ml!:llm, ~~ oo,m;pfi[~le[lA;~J~ ~Struitl.:i:r.irui9 e' .f~.etill'lahs ~M ~l¢u_

:P,riDm,Jii~iisl: etemen W1d: !(1,'tm1iil~o'~ ,e sua ,t3:X~ ~ ~~wa~.,

0.15%

'" ..

0.16'%

'J .. '

~,;i.~ 11 1 tNt' "]'!'ii' _U;lIL-oi;o1.JJ. . -+ .!.;J a. ,Eo

,i"IIlii . ."..;f,i'i!"j,i"!r/ 1l;II~,~t1.:::i1-m

:.q_mUl ;dJ~ fitQli-~ d;e,~gua..

MI Sll1lLb~,t~:Dda.s c~~~,;~i.'ttlm'l.ie~ do~ seres v~i,;v:~~, ~.~ o,r-g~;ad'a~ ~m d~i~ ,~~p08.:

• wbsl,j_nci~, mor:gimioea.s:;' o1.gIL1lliL ,~ saiB, minerais;

• SUlhSt:DU]i_$; o!i'gkd~3S: pr"(Jlte:lll,rElJa. Up~ifj,ii}Si icarHwld:m:·atos. a.G::id·~ :i1LlJL1.(~eiw~", ho,~o;.. mlimli(i!~'l v1~1.aS :e eneimas,

:Pri!l:])~jjp,3is sulJ~'tiD,eiaSl 'Pil~liIelllt.a~ :n:a m;d,erlria 'vii,va e 'sua ·taxa cle o~o:no,@l1!~i31 ..

14,%

:~

JL%

,¥:I'~'

,n·at3:,~se. do CiO,]n.p~n~n'te 1n,t:cl.~:.abliLnda:n'te da m.at~ri,:tIJ, 'riv,;BJ ..

'E'!.l,ihtm~enrlt,e a a'~ p.,1jCl! f:' ,~ ro.o16cula. m,e,rL~~ ,~tJiUI a fu'liit:a ,[4l1n~_1o ·,dE? preena:i~:lel!" esp,itJ(o_~, M :mfili~-,_uu de ,~gma.. iGLD oo.!Dl'~-.m-ilfi. ,influem d'B~Bi.vairnente na oo:rrufl:gLtrn~o ,e _p:-mp:t1~d:adllEs -bllio.I6gi.ca:a, da l],lacrom£1l1ec~llas.

,'E:t#l1JU~"Q

,~ C:lU:3c~ririfttC~!l!i, da iluo]ecnilla d.e ,agu.a ¢luJle, ;31, ,OOm.i.1lfi :lmltE!ftcii"JJ.dfvelli1~o .iuiindoll) viVo 'flert~~e. Se d~f;~1n ;ra :&1U::l, ~tf'Il'ltt1Jl"3 ,000001]e:~W~

Os ,~:l{]:Uj(1S ide: b.itl!lrQ~'~O :~am"e,]i'~, si 1IJll], ~gti1,~, d~ 104~'a, g.t'aU~~ :&:r~C~~::IJ~ ~_ mo'lecwa I!lm. ,~s,p,e~l ~ ~:e uu:~, te'h",fdte.clj.l,;i]1 :ir'I~e g~ld,a_j_~ ]igei'r.ameo,te .~CbH,g;ado.

. Cnmu c'(D,~eqde[{l'ci~~ a :[I]tbl~~~J:a ~'I;l' turna urn

'bip'OJD.~ urn 'p610 llJeg.taJf(i'\i'\i:)j,,~ node 'iufu·o '[J:[~n--mfuiij do

-II •• 11 •• II ,"

'ON]gc:rut!h~ ,e', tnn p6l~ po.l!1lltl,!,N.l1 o[]]d,~ eODt!:e.I1r.~m, as

dra.i:s ~'itm:t'Lus de bidrti,gfuljfi" .~.SitiIl~, a l:D.Ul~c-liIJ3 de ,ap ,i§ ~iE'fn~~gir:a, ,E!' ~le:ltr-:i~:ilke '~~&in.ell~ca.

o

AD ro1:'!idt,r~!i~, ,ida ag-1J,a.~ 1091 lip iJdio s S&~O '~Il1:p1tt& de· SllMtfmcib aJlaw~E!i.~.

D~~i'M a b~Imhlriaad.~~ C~,dR hI(ll~m;,1ht d~ amR 'Wlld8 a ~'l]gif[t" s, _q,l1f!ttro .b1i:~traB' m(d~lE:Ji~1 ~ QguR, f-mr_D:1UaUaO rfIiTI,~'mI!' ge{mEletr.~~oo. ,a:b:~:ves de. ngR~n.es ~fj,'ae~s. de\l:~i,}:miinicla5, ponses de, 11iidtogem~. 1\ 'P'SiJr"tl 1!' dassa p Ol1te a ~61 it] defiu.i,dEis: ,9.8 p.1r1Qp,riedsui,jES pru1tctillares da agud.,

P op'ried.ade!8 da agua, 1',. ~'sd(i ,e ,c:o.e'soo,

Cl".ii.Hm:a:.:.oge ~d~~ h, ftl~±e,',8:&ya~,3Ci qu~ e.lristl~· en:Cf"e as moM,eiIta:s d.e· Ii,gna. mtn'.i.:'lend.o~a:s IfO]ltem,e:[,!I:~e unidas, diB'Il'eI1f]:l!l~ndn; . ass'i'm" 0 sen

, . ,

est~do Uuid"o e e$b~,"!icl. F,ato' q~,Lt':' resu]1!';a dla ra,~mdade (..'Om que ~ :&aca~, :~:o.ga~as, ~~ P(~]l'tB~ de ~-"d- .~.- CI ,~s.f~· -',- 9- 'r~·-·-- ,- .~~-,--,-4fA,

.11- _w,e. .... ,UIiJ ~e. __ , __ ' _ _ rem, ~ _!a: ' ,.,,~~~~,~, UtQ ~.c:iI'l~,

AlJg,o I~ ~ a nasaa cmiflsict~ ,~ R

,~bse:nra.~lo, de um mseto qUilltOO Se!i des1oea, rublilB um ruamna d~~ QU. us (lon,~ G:e uma ,gotaJ, qJk\\9 eal da 't(jrulm,raJ~ ConlQ ,~ p~i:~t?~t? Few1m.e[1os eomo sssa i!l&o ]JG~v:-el£ ,~, a. sJitaJ. te:~.iQ1 'SiI~;pe-1r6~ ~ ~: ql!l!: fOOci.ona 00I11A] m.tb, :Gln;re, 11i~ CDr} do ~;wietfi, pos_s~biU'ltanclJo II} s~ '~]_~Eltto~ ~~,~ I:en~M .s~md'a~I' l:, 0 :rewltaikl dat g-rmlde f(jr~ ,de: ¢oosiGI

M~' as ,fflo1ec~ dr, ,~ -

EK:]]erinleut~ eeloeae '1Jl1n' pm...100 d:J!4~, ~oh'ile o .1n',~1tiQ' ·eng{)ildlll~d.o q1!1 0 ,eha~) ~ueerRd.o~ Q que. aoontece? FtITfimm,""'se gotli'e;ll.l~ iSoln:e ,~ mw~ficie pD:rq[ue is!:. ~gu.8 na:rr· ,a;d'e'l"e ,8 :,mtaMecu]as ,a,.p:~liEl!.re~.,

,P:or 'OU;tr~ ]Qilo,- SG' v,ooo ~lfLi1Jtlh~l" 8iQ1J'H d:VlrrV-,i.i!) m_~ mup;~ ficil)r~lflchti,c:~dla. f~r ijU@?' A!J moli@'cliJ ~~ U'ilil' itg,Lm.: ado:~"'~'m 'n~~,cilii]j!3 nte, ,sOme mol:BrJ)Jl~s pillat'es eonul' 1i)j_S da '!:,'QY:]l}~. 'I.~ fur~iI, d~ ,atra~'iQ d~ nu)lect.tlu: ,de ~~. "para. Omll" ,[rut-tat:: moh~1ruliItS IPO~ tCh':I;nDJtrj,~, adesH,o.

"'l':l;di)'S. OS: ,gl~l~~a~otos q,~e' ~,pr-e~~llt3Jm: ;:dbliclad~ liel~ a,~~ lSio ,dJ;n;g,ro.in ;W:9-s, ',oJ~~~!Il ,Co:mo: ailtb:oNila_~,~ :hid"'J~'il~~,,! ,aldmdoj '::1!wft'l;'to. I~ !fbSfarto- At1il81N: . t\W- ·f!liio· ':a'p~~trt~m afi~:idad~ 'WJ ~ K,~ ,~gl!.Hl.;, YG ]jH~ 1irul@,· a, ~ S,~;[), it!h O'Jj,U]J,l cl: 0 ~ ~pflmj~tC'<.~ ~:p-oL~e:3,., 0'0;]110 109 'lipidiQ~ ..

,DiIGl~c;JJ1'a9 Mm g,['a::n de q'lil18!.rr~[(];a.djp d,e' grnp~n'li~U'L~ pO:]."D.\2I9i' sao ~1:oVleis ie'rn, a:g\1a e~ p(tl.~ i~ai]t eb .. r:JLmatias, -hi.droiilict:fts:~ aq,~ekts\~ ,all 0D:D.l~,ar~fi~, ~f1m, po:u.cu~ (l,ll ~:m. ,gIllP3.tiL'b!!Mlt0'9 JlO~are~ ~.ri,fJI i])~(J,I,ii:v~j s fifll ~gua.. ~-Qg~)~ 'hldrof.6b:iJcae!",

,S'. Ca.pli'lar,idade,

Ca,p]]mid~difi' e 's eELp~k:lade qaI,e ,st,stuB. 'oom,

..:ii 'L~.~ J_i,["'. • - ;11:~ ( "] . ''I. ~ • .;i,.,. . U.e~ ffiL),u'Di ,em '~~QS mw.'to J!!UJL0:5. ,calJ:i'llal"t~a'J .u.'L'3i\tluy ,as

fm'tl8B d.e mearao e ,iEJdMB'Q.,

Fa'9m, ntn~ CX'!')~imtti~~ ,c.o;IQ[[l1~ ,~p~ UOc1l:lL1H b~cia ~. hrfrodftl!D - m.1g)llJU8 'l:u_bJs., dB" mooI] , "mJs . mf_'~llL :~] tH~' tm:il~ itra~~,' "d~ fG.mlM ~r[gj~ Ui1'iL1t8

part.e de eada :bJlbo ji~'ue wmxo ,dio :wv-el aa. Sgtlia" fOflliLando 'I1.m, Angulo. cl_e,!tr(j',!l 10(i\n1 '01 fmt~:Io, da 'b~m!L E:ro, qual dos 'tttM~ ~, ~~, ,mai'~, £lObe? N,fj de ,di~etr'O nli3J.~Of: On mlf.mJ(l~? E1r~tu~:.

C1]'1lE-a.d:~':rm'ildo 'que eada mAJ]eonla ,de 'glIB. se IU\ga eem qnl!l.~ ~utra'Eil' quando uma m,orec}lltL sa. desleea, t1I ,gtUpD' tl!Jth} £Ie :~~ A9 fm:~as de ,ade5M da llgU~ em l~lacM ,8 parede des 'ca;p:i1m~81: lee. ,at de 0©esarJ; das .tuaM-etulaa· mEre sJ.1 9Jca:b:Htm Bt[pe:ra~o ,a p:lti'pna fll'fva Ida ,gTaJv:i.dade·,

~m_a lutilidade' pni't[tfl dJC!1 fiI[lfi~1Joo;j."l de lcal~itllad~ 00 a~ '~JiJ.nsist~ IlR, ~ suhidl~ ,de:~de,~ 1'R1Z ,8Iita as fblhas d'@ uma ~rn ab."RvM dM l~[bos dio' xlle:[[~. AtiW~de· esta vital pSlilf,~ 'q,ua1qllet:" v:€:geta:l.

~n:IIE diswti:r' 'e cite~.t:obr.ir. IOU;~OS !C-l!:laD.lp']o~ em (FQie':at e~':fldla;~id~~' e' impmt~i!.1~~

,3:, S'fJ~v.e:n/t:eh i!'",ui';()e't's·a-r

'Em, fW1!l'9iC) dla n.~~1IJJ~Z~ bipoUW'i .a ~a C U1 tdfJS n'llclbo~~' so']"ve;nb~ ~oJlill:l{!~,~,tad.o, idlo ~l' ehamada .. soliv"0~ ·uOOwrsM.,

A 'Ii.eDdii:nc:r~~: as ;i~ em Sie 'a.'lO_jIl'b~lt2il" ('Ow ,(01![),~ rleg.a;tivo,s lie" pO:~li&iVO~le m,$ifrt que, a d.\ljgpmri.,(!ao

1~{dF ~4ns liQwl'lin~. ~ :l1ii.. .

0' que, ,~to:nteoe qrr~dD 'voe~ COll~lC:~ 'ttm :paueD

_;!I , • .1._ N°' $"ii1l' .. iI~6,1'IT'!I ? £11 ~ ~.~ .s.;

1U!e CJ:",lSta:m IUe' .. ' 'H'LiJi num :p@rliCID' ii, ~ .... :ru~ 0.1 ~ WB'

~nha ,~ rl]s50J:Vid~ f.aci1n].ente; ~1'q.u.e ,S]. ail'·H!;cao ~eNid:a' pelo, ~,p6I~ '&1 8gua ~~ mais !WLl'te que ,SIJ;: !~'c~n ,~le\tl"os6:ii~~a e:[[~"e w; i,ems elx ,IE! Na'~ I

Come jii_ 'vl'mJ)g: o~ COOlpO-stOS l~_Qj ares 'sao hi(bi1:Jl6Iii_CD~ ~~ ti31 al#o];am~\; h!idJiofoldG;us.

E~ta ~~I~l-1i!ietbH:le, ~, vl:taj, ae iQO:f].~ide,t.a!Eums, que 'tooos o~ f:'ie'agen15_es, q~cos ,exishMm~ ruo blterl'Olf Ole. m[~.a ~-eillJl~Iill'a;s ,~i~~ d~ari.dOO~ 'm~ a~, ~: 1~,i£a.'9, ~. ~~!P.~ l,.jQqllifu'Jj~~ ,oc~'m, ,~. 'P1,f;},10 1$qnlMb~",

,C'tQl'u~jd._ere~ 'que ,:i 11illd.I~obia. tamham, e lN1'POrmsunte,,, Qu:tmdo mn~,ecu18s 'biidr-m6mca:s, ,sao comprimidas ~Dir nm~!oonll:as Idle :':8JguS!, d,evida. 8. 81l@J, :r;ep~ ,pf:~b_ilS :W1~i ,~utl: as, m.tern.I~.e~ 'bidr.~Ji6b~CM" m,antendo~as ~~~'. 0 ,~,plo mais irn'~I"~[']f)te. ~ME!le Sell'lI1.do ,e 'r1i t],llLe ifl~E; DB b.~,Ca.~"a, ripiltina das m.embra~s eelulares .. IGra~a!S ,~ h1i:bera~Oes JfritlrO:(iibi,C'.as, ,~rt-:[I;e ~, d.1i1irui e:~.ad~ lipldi:caS" d~ IDem.br.an a p'la~U,f;~ .. 'po!'" le~.vlo~ a wa ,h.''ifoogrl-dad.e, ~ ·ft.lJfi.nttda. ]Q~_, ,3j, futegddade' d~ pr6p~ri~ cel~1a.

,4., R:e~'\k'5 q",;;i:mreas

M,lL1.itol.~ . ~~Ire..~ d~, ~,f:~:;]it.¢Se ilMFI/IE(;.m1l p.fW' ,deaidw'-~L"i!;~o (p'OJl'~~~~p'~o", q_~'lP&Q; dmis aIPiW100cido8 ~; ]]gam_" fig:a~;ao 1lJeptidjca~ W a pc:rd~ d'c' ']l;lma t[ir(j~lilC1ul~ d.c igt~:~)~ 011- ~a, 11~, ]I~ ,[;'Ie ligna.

As ::r~fi!le~ de l:l~aus_e tlt';rul:meem, mi., nl~ESenela.

~ r ~

d.ii,,3_gLm. ~'e:~,iir,.af3:nd,[) ,m} q,ue!1br-Iitl" a Uga~h q,W'm.i'ea.

,[po,r :i~oo~ cbam:adas, '~3J{!@M de b]diFdlis.e (8. id..igesf{tQ' ~ U.rH 'e;:!i:J€:~mplo de, bid:n::l)1iseJ"

5i. C:aloi" {:lspeclJiC1tJ1

,i\s I.'e;~iJ~ Rf)iD-q'Ll:lmi[e~ ner'3~ em ~!;iI[rtos . i11L'terv,a]os' d;e- oc'mpc;atfl:.,uura O(nnc[jj, a ,agua,. m:ant,~" sua mmp~~'I.'tt.tl'"'a, ~18t~l1b:i' pryr: mais ~mp~~ d.o qtle

. as outras, suh~t~,cias~ el" ah~a m:t~din,dlo -b~~~ 'V:flrrla~~ de teli:'rrp.e'ra~t111'a 1'iI .. es ~~tem,a~ V~Vt1S,. :Pm·w.n,tu" a o!\gll:~L ,man.l~m 0 ,~q'ui[fb!dQ da, 'lienl:PJ~:~a~tl1l',iaiJ :1D'o ~.Itlll:etia[i! da re,Iwit'\l!

I~g e.~~]nr ,~peeffiro a. ~nantid!ilid:e I~le' Gne,rgu ,~a.~].ul!11Ii(!.g ,r!l!ere~~a {"UU ,aqr!t:lle~ 1!ml,:!

."""' ..... ',C>, II'"jr,.,.,,,,,.,,,,"I''::'.;)i= ~11'~ iI =, _['.~',:""j,:~,~, ..... ;, ... !I..A;i:~:I~. '''':h'~JJ_~LIii:jJUl! iltLil!ll. 11::1 r.ui1LJ1:3~I.Ji:fJ.llklL~.,

1IP,~ ,~, J;-omr;pe:l" :I;ml ,rn]m~'rtl ~tdicien,1t.e, id~ 'P~!rlJ.reB; de 'b:idrQ~nio e,nu:e :~, mol~Ul~.a, ,El.e ,~. (a:p:Fe[Se"m.t sm ~1l$.fii!~ .f9~~ d.e ~oe~;lO) que ,peID.ciI~.[1, ul[na lIib~-.r'dMe :u~lai'l;JIr de' :m,D1fiElfle[~tI!a,~Si,o de !ifi!.l.aa, ~rn;olecub:il ~ ,[m d'e ~ue 00, 'l:etlb,al, energiil, ~cjM.'~ para I~e,v,~ ::L.'~]l~,S!!tntta,. ~ ,nee~, gr.wlIDe Iqna:L1:~ioo_de d;e IM.e~,g~a ~al'or.lfiL'3,_.

L:Jga\, ,tlC!1OJ(.iu;iL4~ qu.e' a ~, ,a.pI.'~,t.l'lI!a, 21JtW

calor" eg;-p'e~fi(io., -,'

O'iJ.'tf.-a., bQ(t:'iB'eqrufu],c18 il'll,pmitau'te do.,alto calor espt}~BtQ, dIa agna Ie a, ,!manLbtet'IJ";;.;ilt}~. :pu'r ~'~m,p:IJt1!I. de:· 'Ill..itu.:a. be m per at'hli:F::'~ a doe q ua clla p::l:F::'~ 0

clle~envo]l!limf:l'n,t~ e;m.hrio:n:fi;iu de" ,a~es ie 'l!"~P~]~'1 tlltmI~'[~ do Hqui,iffu 3ID.ni6tJ~D~.

6. Co1'o:r' de :~ap'Om~,oo

VO~~ j! perce ben ,~) q,uaro.tq L~a.fi,!:!lpir-a q t.1LaJ:nau In:ati~a, e~po:rb~ It)U .,em. diaSl d,eci,($iaiatll,e11the mttiiOO qr~1l.enl~~',7' Ou 0 Seu, cfio dB Umgua.. de ,fms. ~orl!1 01 :pdr.,OO ,fQ~~31~d~ .na [, ama?

A ener~,a aiijo:rft1~.a nec~~!a'ni1 .p\~r~, ,im ~ap~ac.~ ,de uma ,iif1lID_gt'fu":lLQ:i.a· S& ~ ~1m- d:e

\'ar'pQ:ri:~3-r~.

Ollrrt.1"t111 f:JesiI.1[ttiilldu 1M.. ,gJ\mni]e, .Fw\ta~ d:e, ~&flO

, '-irli"",.....4..-.- "" ~1 ~ ~]f'';' '" 1"1-' _ "~""'" .~."" ll.,,. _"1 ....... ~, ~ - :';;,...-. ·,.ih ... ,P'JiilUl,~·UJ.I:Uu:L_ru,~, ,t--" •• ./ 4_~'. tOlU_mJiI-~~I. u~ JJ.I,[urQ~~E[~U I~ !U .. ~ll}~,

~O:T' d.e v~p'~~lb:H~~.o. dav ~g~a.

,i\s-a.im a agUJa .a:b~arF'I7e gr.ll:lde ,q~3i'b,tidooe I~le.

,~f:" das ,gtrl?e:f~.cieg II!!'.UU_,as L'YtI!3.Ui ~';£lI'1:;:ti ti!,nl,flOUC3'bfj",

if'll' . ',". -II, . ,_ j, - - - • ",..d'?" , .~ ",~,_ ,. 'i"'li, -

'-4m18l;l\l1m'~,~~[l.ier::lli mp~[~.aJ1!:~' 'si'& ,I\e:li.lIn31:rn_ E!U!If'

~ ~ . ..;]I' • •

:1.S9I.o~ tI $i[HYF OOOl.RlSle J!:l"lJj]], '(!l,[J;9'- Plf1lll,ClliH31.ll..S

mecanismos cli.e. r1i.'!d,U~C11 d,~ 'teolper.artUf',aJ da M8~:§t ,~p-e~flj$ OO],'pj'trea.

ffl'-, ... _ ".I""" "", ~ ..... _'!;...J .,

,.I[~a, ~' "~Q) ,Ilfi ~F~.~OI' e arg'_IB'lt.lOS'

A ,~a d,~ ,i£g lila dept;lD"J..dLe '[b.,tfIl~ica'!Ltl!ente ,de ~;~s

f3JMreS~ _

8,' A qt1:1i1rfi.ti,d;ade d~e ~ de mn tsci,dO I~ cl];]'\BtS:= m,'e'u'be, "mpol"(:'h)nal,i S'!ila' '~ua meta\6Ii.~c~

,~. d,e laga~, d.e ~3.S e_stntt~s, ltu.m.~Si'

'~!lJr:rutUF,a ~. d~, ,a~ . ]@:]]:c~f~o ,e~M.i,fiud1Eio

·D' •

_ :eirlitl:naJ,

12%

1~} A lLax,~' M ftgns. ~ 'i[],'V~ mlOn.'~ 'Pf~,pm"~i{iI[lal a idilde.,

!i:') ,A, taxa ,iLlie, apa V3:F.1a, ~utre as especie~:~ ..Ex,.: 10% dg, massa cn.rpar.:a[ 1iulttmlll, ~ ~98% nos:

Cfild~r.i,t!~ e eIrl, tome ae"gO% nos mohrseos,

d'} U'ma de9.irurtl'ta,~lb da ord.em .d'e JU] % ia, pride ,~~ ,[[a;ti:lt1 :p,ara 'fi1iifji, '~feit'-a :PQ(rr,g_'u,e 10El ]jm] te~ die ''!f.lBt~!ifE~ati de 9gtlta nes o:rgmisn'to:s db .m.lI~:to 18st!r,eiw;s,_

Uma de. :prmJLti:p.ru~ '::U1:ffi3.S. de Dln:rt:lHtla;too l.fl.fakl.'1!i11. e:rnL p,~lRe·~, p,r.lbre;s, ~ a diarr,tM,a.1 ~:;:at3.m.e]l'te P():f:" 'p:ro:v~'U' .,g1"8:Ilile· ,~ema d:e '~,gu~~

.8~ln.e;n.'~ de v~.getjlis :e eBp~c:.Si S~lr'l\e]n_

,m:ll~ d:esi,d1~a.t:"l¢io, mant~a;[} -,a];l!e~ 1U a .20ii% . de. li;gti.il~ ,n:u~lio ,p'el~ q:u~,l eJ.:;;peri:ttl;ell.tmn li:ll'n feDllm.e.oo cllamaoo 'vida larellte.. \b]tam ao nermal com 00 re~nm.o da ij:i~ponibmdaa.e h:Edrica ..

C'iI ~ '111.0'1:'" Ii,

£l!!!flts ,1.!r(ue,"ut~

O~, . ais ~rle.r',aI.i.s .estaI]1 dleeishrame:rnte, :~ese:ll't~ 08. mLi~ bif~~i:ii[mlJ£a dta celuu, •.

S~.o imll?orum'~S .P~~' a _r'e~~gao ~n,6ti,~ iti~l~riblt~;~~,~ ie:L~iea, -('cld,p ·e,n,tl!\e as .rB.'~~ d,a, membr:-ari3 plrumlj~;t,iCEt l, eqltiilib(t...i;r) ::1.,~id,o~b3se';, ati'Va~Wl de ,en2J.m.a.s ,I;: ,~hrrfiacM I~ e~ful~U~3&

esq~pJritk~M~ ," .

D~ lE]'JJarlE~~i!rI~. ~er,dmJJe[,~t.e l-e~fear-:$.ive~,; cl~s du en_oorub:Boos 11~, ma't1~ti3. viva !(li~OC:ii:adoa (fo,r:ma ilm.i~)' ~' ·':ilM 'm&.~~-cia:~ (c;~tM~:mIJ, I]Ii!I ~fln1.PQr:tdlo

.lmo]ecn:tu, ,~rgAlrdiIL:as).· . .

.. ;aJ :m!fii~'~ e3'Ulio rr;li'~oiiad[!~ na Itt,g:~·'emrj ,:soIw~ ~~s m'!;.ra e ex;~r~~1.m.~. O~ .p~nd.pai~ ,~~~

.~~ .::1. 1l'!.:r -+ iT""'" 'C ++ i\ ill' .++ . • • "

'lliI.IL;I~:~, 'S.tali}~ .!,~Ia ' ~ I!L, ! .. ' 3. Ie: ;L:i."J1._g' ~ liS pt]:m,c.llp~lS

.!iU]~ ~\iirO: cr, f:]0031~'1 POg~ ,e ,NO~"' .. "

,l.;\.~' fOl'Ule:ntra~e9' cl~, N:at+i .K+ H C:- ~stfl

bnp.orta.nt~ p. UQ. :1ilI :m3.m1rten~ao d~ '~il.ill:ibrio,

, "_' -.. .. .

OHtnn1ico a, ~~ aumentar at (!O;Oce~l~~'\a,~~, d,(]s, ]J!t+:ce..9ID1,(i

,m~ ,mote.r.io!" tilla om,ul~ 'eJa ga.u1.t.3i .~~: .s,e w.minub:; ela :pe!tidii! ~gua,

,A, I~n'tr.,i!el"h' de, H:* (pH),~ ~kCot! ,oose.n£,ltai.· para a m,a]]u't~~~o d,[~ me!~lm,]j~-mo celuJ:3JE Para ~da U,po [de ,~~lr.tla rJU lesL-m't1.1:m ha, ltD],: ,pl'T [d~ ,r-tau ·~~IJJ:d.Q lO't1$!dvM g'1l'8.n:d.e::t v:a:ciaJt:~es.

Mhl~~ll F1:Elifa-o B[Jdi(~

P:rlncffipflJ'~ 'c@Itjon ffi'ttnleelw:at~ c!l)W)Liu.\fit) do impulao, 'n~w,o~{)1.

Prin{:i,pal ctU:,tOfJ ]:nit.:r..'l!ce:I:w:llir,: cm'lh'tl!~n mu~~ma;r B ,m,~@ij.o :[loe.f'Ir~

C'(rut'iS;t;t1.tlt~~~j}. ,iEl:e [E'1i.'l!leleottd,~.& e

- - d'Q!' AT.P~·

CJ,o"ro

f1'Bre],pm 8Jr]:hmi ~,M8~,~ar;'

mfU1;1JL1te;(Ll¥lO do, pH e' .

haw_n~~i1!.nlOO:~o (lt~ riqL'l!]d~:s;;

Sfnt~ d.e h~-Ijig'lribrn~~ 'f.H"e82[j,'Jte em 'iE!!f!J z]m~~

:PreEente nos ·'hQ]E,6.nio~, ,da t.imai;d,,9'.

:r~a}2(F~1!d, .f~- nt'tseU.]oa,:. vresMl'te na doronla; GOEm;u'O['" enz1mliti:'!Wl.

V~tamaoa B12~' pro d1lJ:.Qa.e, ,de-he~e~",

1 ... MW!ll,"a~os

,SaJQ 05 ;fJj~m:e5 meis sinlpl'B~, q;ne ['JJio aQllfeu.[ blil~ime" ApreseD:~!."'[ll, die 'fu~~, ,3 ~e'~e ,!it.;ooE08 dle ,ca-lt.OIfl'!D UK sua 'con~t~tm~~o. T~m 00000 fd:t'm~ ger,al ~ICHZOm.,' GrmCIJe ~t ~]'~po(l:td.e' at} :num~Jl:Io. de '.'oon]_(~8' de C'al~bm10 :11~ (taaeia". Assim:

n :=:::: 3 ItC.3-It~'03) - Tuioscs'

n = 4 n:::~H~'O~l) - 1~ros~s

n :- 0 c= 1i:J;FJ.O'.-, ~ P~f:'1't-OSM

,0""''"'.,11;1' IJ!

n = 16, f'C6H120'6) ~ I-h$;ose~'

'I] := 7 ~ CiH'l40"7) - .A;e]Jitoses

.os m'D:ila8Sa.t.~,deoS' .maie, W1PaFtan~ :t:;M. ~:s. Pe!l1ltoslE!:.S ~ribose e' tJes:axirrl\1oge,b, e.as :bex.ose~, ,( :gilji~fiSie, ,g3ia:c:Ua'~e e :1Jni.OO~e).

H~:~'D8es;: as hexoses t~m papal ,(iiLuumnle.ntalmEn'rlte, eD,er~t[eo . e ~r'l?em 100(0],0 :m,o;I],~}:mt1'n:'O',~ (u,'lCli~:~,~;e'~ d,~ fd'Fm;~,~aoJ cEG' IC3JJI'lilJJ,ma'Ws i:ll1riS, eompielXLQS.

ICons,tltuintes Or:giiDnii:eos

·'LJ'ma ~S' tm;,p;uJwristj~ da mlflJwrla'viva ':aru preae.D~a de n.l~roJl101e·c;n]Bt~ . nl_Q,]~~llilLaa de :ru,l;o ~ftSf:.l' mcleeul ~b",},. E'8l8~5 mo[deu~ as s;fio ,pollln@:~~os, IcollStftmoos ,p~l" l.lIrjtidad.es, bSfsje:aa die Hl€1110r 'Peso, O~'- rnnn omf.:'ro~. O~ b:~:o~po'l ]'m~fj!'us ~, m.aiol· in1port£i:ncia MO as protemas" ns :pn]]ss:tl~ar.id,eOB e lOS tiidaoo bucl .. i!i,ooo.

IV~I·,boi;dr-at~, Glu{!~flt!!i,., Glicirl£Q~·· BiJtilnA~(};S del CM,lto.D€l! u'u, ~tl;CU.,;e8

P~deml ~er detini'lL1o:~ l~uimictllJi]]!!1lte, IOOIno p~~j£ill,coois, Oi1tn)~ ~.1dj~lreS ~"S; car:'\f~~~d.~~:ti, ©:)ID1l!' u:!fj,]jjdrrndn1,d~'ldo8' ou 'll01ii~~ce'ron!aS.

IO.:s: ,co rbei cl ra t 0 ai ,~t[ 0 . CII;JI n gil i 1~ UI, fd 015

basi1cain.en~ :po:[' CM'bQJl,O (CHi Jf:kllr,(Jg~ig ~,H) e oxig£nio (0 ),' Em ~]gU:DS glicidjM~ ~mn deSSC$ e.1~men'Ws." p-ode .]m,wr' 'tacmbern mtW:1oga'11i'Ol ~ N·~ e; I&n_j{'~~e' .(S), A 'mf!i]~cu],~, ,de 'i!lITI ~ i,~"di~ a~_;~~~n'ta '~ ~&J\le]eto diH' C&lbboPb~ llgadCJ5 a mm~s; hidr.,tJIrilas (OE _' fun!~~, ~lL"ilQl ) e· W om, ~~,W ;rudeidrQl (,eBOi) ou; ,[IJ mn ,gl'lIl:p[[meni;1Ji estona (eCH. N 3!+, moleculas, gU,cldi~~'I para l~.;aa !bU[];D de carbone ,hE3. dois atGmos ds ik~]dhr"('jgi111Q '([i' urn ~"tQ'mo' d-e'o~i~ItlirCl\, nil Dl~~ma ~tn"OPf[(rQ9:o da mnMcuJ.a, de ,~~l:

iCl'rIJ3>8ifica~Q

lOS: .eDJ"bo:id'ifBtolf G~O' c'llll:ssifieBdos «m,

,.i~~~ ,.,,","'~Pn1n_;,",,,'''';. !~.~~ ~~:-,~~'~.~J~~

,2J.I

A mj'~ e 0 lco·mbusti:lial b8;se para. tD~ as, ·~ettillas. if BlM'lmllua.da no msl e em IDr.ID!J.itns ftuto!S~.

n .... m- - "i"< rn. n-"T~I, _ 1OI.~_~.il!"l-" ",iI,C'l1 'L.g:,,:,~,:]~m, 1..'1',;;. .rni'll"l'!i:i'f_.;l,o"L ,",11~ 'I .. lV _ 1W"·9 "'_-¥!l\"'_11 tl,~~lULIJ,~ u~ ,WW-UI~ ... ct. ..... aL_~HUv.r,; t'4.Ju

~aCst]'08e! maltose e d:l3l, brtzoo~e. 'No S2l:IDg'll'~ hsunane, it P~~.'{iROd.I!a Cli~oo' vaDifil ,crutra 70 a ID~} mg pm' klOi}lnl desangne, E l[j ~"ii:CEt.lt ~lc'o:~dn Jl:aJ. udna lIUmiW~ I~'ne gH~oorl:ria ..

/t, fruto.s~·~ encr£ak£ililtl de fO§.l'mil ,~tllJ WjS fmtos e'm..mbehll 1:10 m,eL Ees~,;i~q_ da b;idroHse ella. ,saC1lliro~. L:tIiod® soc' 'b'mlBfm:Tn~cla em ,g]ino~j no ~n ',~ no mte~t:iTI;o, para! OSBlm, :;er 'utiJl]z~da p!;!lo Inr.gnDi~:

A g;$,~-tos~ e"~"U; dos DQn sti ll.in'~s, do Jel:te. :R.eS1L1U~, da 11id:r6]iiS~ d:~, l~t~!Se:, 'Pod e eer b'anm:~""]]1ad~ em ,~iOO8@' rig ~,a~ p~m :s~ 'met~lmli!l~'oo. 'SU~ _ "'lnrtC'8@ !~.H'lT· ria; glJin~h~l~, ·m~ll[U.lri'R 'P~IlI: fulf'DIlRl' Q "Iacto~~ 00 I~w' mE3i,~'. Estal ~~~1d~s nos igft ~ ~oU:pi'deo~: e- g_u'lDiJ]jf,O"tejbIliIl.B.

hntoslW; Au ribose ,~ '0 gliQcl~o p:l1t~llte na i!t1"ID1~:a d,~ B'N ~ om, o!J~]lzianR8!~ fl~mo !IJ. ~, NAD~ NA]JIP ~ "1~~pEot:efm9iS: :EIi, . ij de~oxDrJtibGll~ D~ nlQl~ell1l1da de DNA~

">. .. ~o ~

11-

~ 0-'·-0,0' ~.

~

C~,:H

:3i- 'I

H -,,..., - 0' ',11,'1'

~J •• ,~.

4 ~

1I-0-0U'

.j: 1

'n' - O'H'

,I.~.!. -Ie - ':::

6 t

u.

r DiB, 011

'(:;- . .. -lli:

.J" nfl"QJ[a ,f:l![l_ C2I

'F. 1"'

!t. " -. '. . - 'r'

,. onna, _.]'~.1.,®abl!,

-

2., O]j,ftOiS~aea:ri'a~s

n esu1:,~ ~~m d: R nn L§. (I d e l~!l) 1il,e 0 So

monos~iicmi'diiUl8' t:~H~e d,e~, 11 nirlMe.S}" 2Ltliav~s d,.e -,~ig.a~goo~, gliC{l~ldi~s,

OB u:aJl1ii1s 'iUnportant~~ Hin ![\S ~~8.11dealSi' tte&ulm'lllWs dla l.lJi1iicule' d.oJ.5 n1oillrisMcarkKeo~'~ i~m que m ~ peE'M de' uma mol€ic'lll:l3:.:de·~7 ,Assim., Of!l diS:SBIC8lfll1d'iOOR tem CO.mil :ffill'tll:W;E!I., ~r.:illl .. CI1lfl']~O) n-1

Os; d~~d,a{ti,s nw~, "i'm,portc_'":Ln'~s do: '3 'mJl~dtoo~~ a- ~"t~lilroS9 I~ a htetose. "

[j iliW:ti!li'!fU;:=;, f,OiI"lI;l~d~ po~ duas 'molM~DL]a9 de g]]e.oae;, ,:H;~.c8ll.' do rnslt:e e ,d~ ee.rea.lsi .em

~llinfi!.'!f.~o~

Ii SaC'.afi\o.se; i9rmacht -por 11.p1.Sl, m!ljecuJ:a de glJif':~~~ I~ uma di~,~' fii1'1l;Jtt.o~~_, E~ i()I:n,c{]:ntf;~d;!li 'J]~, rC.ID);a, i 11Ja beter_r,~ba., ,sw-gO:1 abacaxi e r-a1z.e~ de ICBI1i:iJ.U1raL

.l:.!.~ ~ 'r -I~_: ..... ~, ..l. ,.] ,

_On !I1JCIJ],''Qu.~~ uiiil '8aJOiifLI"lllg~ P't-'Qiy'[HI'!; 1ID:m

mist7u::r.~, 'bruta ~b~ada~, nr.;I;:~ ~tm:tei ,de ,aJl}.UCHU'" de mlvel!S~~ p011}Ule 8 'fntt,~ fln-t~s lev;o.~' -(l '~sim ~O'd.twd~

in:', =L~ _ -~- .. _ . .Ji,..,-_ ,. ',' ::!!II. ~ - ..:ii",- :1 ...... ' ·'°31 :. - ~. ~., I

~ _, .. ve~ ]Jl~ ~ _ ,~. _(~ ~i[~~!.!( 'I,_~_ ' p:!De'i/l~

'. Lae'Cos~: \t'iiMlJij~ta dlfl, BI.Jtl8@mtWio dla 'U~ :m,Q1Jew~, de· ,gli'CQ~' e uma de: ~a],~dos~. 'CD\Ust!l:tw,-~' no a~d.ear do leim',,:

oj

~,

t "=ij,4J

OR ,gliilco~~i

oJi~2

!~t1-,~ r

.. ODOH.

~~~i!C]:o[!;e fit~ilo~e.

S~~osc

OIl g,;ahurtois:e,

Laet'ose

3\. ~olis_carideofil

~;ijl~ m.illeeULas. f[inlacrnmj}l~as r(,inna.d~a, '[]ela ll.l1diao d~ m,uj,'too mlHli£IiM~.utt.~deID~ fd,e 101)-0 a:fu.~ OOOO} ..

Os pot]~~~Rddeos de l:"esm:va ~:OJeI~etjM, sao _l"JqWne'm~r ile g[[c~l0%!8'. amid.o; 1Er: ,[I prodUOOI de' 1J:"\iZ!~n::m das ®"~-s:, v@g;et~ltU~s' (8 e-m antes, _ ',m:rOii~ 'fefj,!§Jo1, 'b.i,golf milhOi; c~wes _, ba.,tat.mha.;, ralses (lIlaJiCRWCJJJ ba:u;a1tac~w.ce~, ,0 9..lI:ir!cido 1i9:t~aA e. In.ao~,'u1ve'l em, ,algna:. e, IMID ,8, sC'JIIU~M d,~ indD~ d81.um.a:. 10011" ~!'JIl.t 0 giil;ogmir;) ~! H ,9~~tfu'tcIa d,~ :tteBery,!3L

,IT

,.::11,= ' 'I'" "'ib, - ~.... i!?- ,.:'I, Y; ,.,:j

~s' aDmIi,8ii~, '!;:~1':ifil,e~plli[..II..tlle;p:l!.t::t. .Ltg"IIil:n}. ,e :m!~J:u;~~, !E:'

d.l1l!!!, :fun,~s"' .

o~. poU.g~a~a:r ,,[J",eOSi ~~ttel_e;Li;coSr g,~!O a eelula se . (-poli:fumel'{~ de gllll.tJJie), p'8];'~kip~ dA .fo:r:m.!llJ!;iiO cia. pru~ede ,~ehj.13l' dt3~ ,~~l~as v,~IL:ar.i~'i re~,pO:Dsa vtl Fi~';~a 'p.nl·re~aGI ~. ,~5:f:en.'~i:1Jfao d.es:lUl~ ~n.1l11a.s.. 'Ga,hl,O :[ia~ ~[jIk,e 3 :~tliJi) da~ eD~ml'i:1S m,ge8tivill~1 li.UjjliB[l:iJl~'l 1~_nfl!St;i:tui' -0111_ e~)tt:lmelitu. imp;!]!.r.-t:ll.'l:t-:e na f~~~a_tj, ea. ,1]1:~a, '~'l:f.El·d:.9J, ddreta'i e' .'!t q[W·. ina, lim, 110,]j~alcarid~o Jl.it'Il~:e'ili,j§L~:O' (con} U~3 n1t~~.Q na :r.rw]~C~i8.J~ ffi:loon:b;a.da.. '!ii'tiO ¢,xoei::lqwilew: de ~I,~6pQdlJiS 'e .oa ,p:3j.rede ealnlar de ~f,tl~gpS.

Pr;ll~Foe\S:

SAo,~ 'prlndpirl~, forrres de ,eoergia ~pa:ra QS ,~e:re~ riV'~- ,AM:m. ~. PaJ:"kicipa:m, da ronrd.eEi;a~~tl da ,iEJJti:Yi,~d~ celu]~' pm,. faserem parte dn~ {u;:it],os" fiuJil~~tlS;O a p:re:ge]liaJ:m, r~a:n_ es1."rubtll"-al ~cehiili!~e. e'. qJ;d,1:;w,aJJ e' mfllnna.ui.of:l~ (gUt:{lG;ilb;, ~' bHu<n5:nfu~ glienp,m~ei'Cfl:S),!

AULA .. ·· . N2" '06-'

.' .. "';' 1 -'

"." -. .." ,"

LIPiDIO'S

Os .lip,icllias ~ ,~sLWes. Ide' ,arcirili1Q' gr.,~~' e ,i\il t: eel,

,Aciall~ g.f3XM ~~n ,:'4ciclo.&1 !~'~'~M Ide eadeta ]Qf.ig'i& :E~u ga'rd~ natm'ais~ llS ~:~~9 pMOS;·'~e1n. urn nllnl,.e_I,Xj!' :P'"ar" ,de a'tOtiLlrJ.& d'l'tl, e:u'b6~lO e· ~a~ de:n,\i'adus, ~e ,c-aa:le;[3: ,r.-.etilfneB~ A . .cad.e~Ja prJd.e ~,st~:r.' sa t'i1lT.i:lru:a, (~e,m ].tga,~i]e~$ d,upill,aJ£ ) ou insatWada (£<OID, uma OU, mai .. ~,·liga~es' ~:ll1:pI~al.

o prin,clp~ll 3J.crro'~ ,C),i.l!:' 'erucr-a n,a;, ,C~ils~:~m~tru:a, Mf4 hlJp~"diM ~ 0 glLeeMt

~ 0 ll~~uu~mKUI~~~UP

uJ-ou '~~U-LU_JA,.41:_ILLLt_}:L.1

1 ~~I_' 1 '1 I ) I, I" I ~, )1 I "I " J )1 J

j . - 1111 ~I !;II U U U. .llI:- n, U u. !I! I ]1. [1;1 U .BI.

~I! . '-O:ID' .

1 . .• j.!.,Q :F:1iI~ .lI1Cht

II ~ t!.li.li.ltwlTkili~

~---o:

II'

II

!I]~~ml

a) S"jD,ll~es, ~ :mm,iul?id.oS a:ln~OM FlO.']:"' it" ]~ '~' ,'0,.

]~, 'IGU!Cetld,.~,,·-' sanl ,~q, .. H:~:].t->s.,oojo- M~'], e ~ .gFi~~l (Mc~]. de 'rr.r~s, ,~HrliDfiifl!.S,

..

:_1 O:I~ifj,-.so:ig .. 11,erlv.ado9 ,~, a.ciclns ,gr..aX.Q9, il1 ,,"'

$iaLlt'nE~M e Uquiclus ~ 't~jnrpr:l'3:tltl'a ambien.t$' .. NOrm,~weirr~' diB M:g'em '~eg~~ 'o]i~ va, aojaj, 3]]].eJ[ljniit[!I.~, .millli(J,~ a1go dia OJ etc.). Al,gwls, 6,]eillS: a.l1imals;ffg~:d.,[j de peiJte~ Ide haleia, de· ta;pi vara,

• IGO.Fd.Ur-~ ,~,O ,~le,riv:ad~s de :aci:dW. ,gra. = .X:,os; ·sa.t'"iLlTac]cg· e' s~li:,da~ ,~. te-m,pera~ ... t.IL1~,a am'~l2]:lJte_ 1M!. ,got,tlu:r.,~,s:lQ. p.ri1'tdpWmen'~ dl.e. Q.ngem :1D.imal fhauha. E1iellG~ m:aml:~:ig~). .Algun'lJ:llll .gl1:TdEIra~ v:egeta.:j!S~ 'man~ga Ide ,ca{:;fu;U e gOI'i~:qm dEl' J)OCI)" .& :mA~af3 ~~,o ®t:id,i!;1&~: ,iEJJ parth· ([.e. 6Le;Q~ vegeta.i;s. Sli)M,~, Irirni,tt9;.aOS. :~rl'.jfifimm;ente.

• P:w,pel bi£t16gi:.co'; re$le:rva ene'J:gai,caJ, Ide,. :tllinl..LYil;: iel v,eget:8i]~. ]Em. ·h:~jln!§o:Ire:n'li'.ilil)9 as

~f)lfijliil,n~ 9_~ ~~i:1bill:~ 'Leml.iOOs"

~,

t' ~ 1.11. H. .n~, H. lli...11 :n. II ,1i.II :E~ I), II 1I:.ll :F.D

U-fJ'-O .~ ~_j~-n I I I I I f ~. I I I I I I I ~ -"

1.11, II .. n~, H. ,Iii: .n .n n ,1iII :E~ n, u u: .Ii :F.D

To .... :1)'4mi~io .d;IJi

2 .. IC,e:rid.'oo,s (OeI"ia:s) = .• :Ht)~] Wfe·mii.'iJel n'u .g]ioo.1'"()'1. r~1:o.nn3J1r.ue{E1~! !1!:aJ~lJl de origem ,~geW~.'po;;, 're~ lil1lt ee:~a!t animals ,( ~'3. de .:meTh.a., Cel."IT-

• " • "" 'L'

menr,

,~nc~f) b:inlrl~ - .i.in:penm.e3.bmz:a.cao de snp~l:[Ci'lciras SUjefttilS. b .;J~si~;ta~~, (;rnm1~" e. :~.o~J',.

3~ 'Es~~~es - ,Bat], enCi~nwados, eom :ft"eq,!lt,&li!'" cia &S"So!l:'l~liliil)s: .tis go,rduras(~.,: ~i~Qrt!i;aJ~ 'eidJog "bUi.~s~ ]l.o:tnl~!lilios ad'w;;e:ntI~rt~c3i~ e' sexnais, vitooirii:la. JI[)"~ lL]~S a.l'caJ~~rlBSi) .. . A:p~Setl~ttull.;se f(O~~ "piil1:' qmItl,1} an;m ]l1I.L.eA':lig:ad.o~t Egail,os ~fiS',~'&m'Il'a.'QS d.e, ca-rl:il@uo ,e' hidro~'l'ilo., 0 !:Q[e;s.te~.fJ1I ~ um qio;s; ]1i1lind:pais e~~~,!6i~ (:lli,fihedrllns. Pm.t]dp3 da~'y menl'fut.!3l.n,as: .ceJ:u1.(dL~ de c~."iJ1aa ~mnll:~J~, IE e [1'.00= fi!!1!lI~)r.' [~:lQ9, btlt,-m&mfl~' £Eb"'f~, .]:11,' ,e:~[)n't~ad1o

ii" ,,'i]:. lmal "$. .•

~m a~1tD.entas, l..1e o:ngerm ,3wmaJ, _ ja ~u.e oel 'Ve-

.ge,rn.i~c mao Q ~djW.;,eTI1, 0 ~~~~.SfO; d,e ~'].e9:~rnl ~ a1,talI1,e:n,t~ .pteJufih;;iM .lXl'nrU,e ptiiGte ,~e, ,~.H~Ol]1J,~~· ,M .pa:r:ede :mte~a- d~s '~~os .~]~~ :~::Iieill511; .~:1.'l~M~cl)!;l ,e.a1dw,ectttil.'e;I'iI:~.~ e Ijlrejft~d1= Ca-MiO a ~Wa~~in ~3ngtlr{~ea.~ doe.n{:li.i t:~ji'll~,e-

ciilra .OL1m:o ~o..'Scl.l9[rQ9£I'. .

~.rn LIJ

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. id' eQln'p~exos. - apl"esenUtU:i outl."Os: gnJ])QS a]"em. d.e. i3:~id,[)S .gg~~XU~, ',e -'~l~~)Ol .. 19K. ~ ~olipn:p~l. '~m8B~ ,gtlCQ:~tpid.ieo~ ~OO~:"ebro8l]idloos - a,cidoB g,ra.xo.s com ~~ri)O~dlrntQS1 ro['J[~~nt1]o TI~tm,gi3·' .nio, maa _t1::m.n fo;staOOJ)~. ,fOsfoUpftler:l\9l (Mnt~m, '!11Dl ~sidu,(D, de kwo ~~bs;!:Orico! iiRB!?,s ,tlfiitro,ge= 1ti;~d_a.5, e (Tj~~'O$f oo,n:s:n't.u&il'tt."S - ]~citiltiJ! If.! t~f~'fula~

P~p~'11 bll,oto,glco: 'pllncipa l ~oO'1:I\PO[>1Sn:b3 das 'fileimbr.~H$. e~ltll~1"~s., ~.'~ ~6..~.i ~l~a ~W:!smdH CJl~8littoola.d,e, n.'~ ofu:ebro e: 'recidm llor-vos91.

"hopflXeldad,e5' ,d~s; li.pid;ilD$

,. S~J in~nl~l'$el~ em "gu~ lpo:j15 as 'm(d.'OOu],~~ dos ~1prdiO'S ~a.tJ, ':Ri]lolaJ]·e~} '~llrloom1t,O,.a mol~-, Cl!.J1bt dfj clglJlil e '~O_U)-!E ~o~1.;lv~js B."IIlm sohr,sn-, tes "Org-an:iJ~o-:. (~~:fi~.lIlit" cltJ~Jf6J:,~.~~o, etai\

al~oD; .

!Ii !3~[Ji ·'1Un.tl!Jaso8 ~o· ta,w;

.. !tle'mmn, maneha 'L't'aJns:l'd;.eidar ')fin ]p!;9J,pel;

• hjdrdlise -. ~tof"]Y~m hir]];6li'5~' p~IE!! ~S!O dn 11- !P~'~, libera.Ddo. ~O~, ~ e' =tlJCOr~;l~;

li 8;f1pa:mfi,ea~o - fa.z,~ndlD :ruWlllitse de U11tThR gord1Jwa eem ura a.l~li hi pro~:1u~fl{:!l de gHfler-nJ. ,e sais alealines af~,9 aeides grax(]$~ os ~:abij6lS. 0' sabaQ' tim.pa ]fO\[ .;EIi~ao ,e:m.Ws;ifi,-,· eante,

Pode:mos: re'S"U'Dlri:Jr ,alB, fuu'9:f'ic's ,dj,'Q,B U.'pidlos~, enn

!I! es:tmro.1t-all - cDmp.oIII;iEill:t~· ~l~;~, rnembran ii!J~;'

eelnlares ffW1~;O -p]utii:a)~ .

iii enerp .iea, ~ ~i~ ri.ca- re~~ e[[]er,~ti~a (kl" '~:ms' ~·iV(J'i. Atm.~.7~Tl\t'ii, r~, "d(Dbf\~ (rui1 e~,e(~,a. dos ~1~jj~}iWiat"g~ e IPt~t1:~m&@'!

!Ii i80bmtt~ te:ocnucQ - furI!lliiR a mpodBr'I!IJI,e'. ihl J]o,me~~~~.'us ~,~v:~s I iii; Di~ro:~f'e:fiO$). inE]n, mamll'OO"f10,S; B Ihlp[f(leane' jf(ffmR ;I parmc,uJ,~

a,wPOi5Q (tou:c;:iJflhtJ, d'O JJo:f;OO')~ .

• [bor.mDQ.a]l- [J(J'ful;t"! h~ji:!ilijlJ!ios: ~~~~;

!II!! isn:laute,.,el~eil:J!-:~ 0 bai!Jiha de~nli-,· ru~n:a dJo's aXo,~;

.. im;per.me,abliJjzanre ,([e. snper.fitc,iles ~ll~fPifllJll.j31).'l!e: 1l!Q\S V\eig:emis.

P-""'R":'~INL . 'AS'" ,~ ~,

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,Sal~ bio:~]:ir.n~ros: 1~"UjC)'$ 'mbn.flme:ro~ do iQS :~lJ'1j:h::l~l~t]('] ~s-

A1I ,p..t1t}1ieiil'Ulm :sao Q~ oompoot[i~ ~~gi.iliCl)s mais abn'I1l~~, dIr!~' liiBtem.8.!!il vivos. Inclus!'ve, 5e ~~'{jee ,~rgl:i:Dtru" para. aJgtl.e.~:L,I), o~~Ij:vol_dag fi~SB' 4rr1l'OiI:"lD.~[.!!es gen"e1i~~. 'OrU ~a! Cf3'm, 100l~~.e.~~1 ~,ll!e' elfiS. d~I:e:rm.inam I:lJ~ a.s oos.sa~, ca'i",SI:.~ten;r~t&ca9. M~i de 'qJi;li~e" m,n.ua? A, inf~~!':m~,o geo~tica. I~ $a[lle:~l.\e ,~.Te~~ita, a '~6s n P~Q 'P.:fi~~l,~~, 'Q.lI,J,;al~; ~~~, Iy~~

,b},gr:edh~nt~:s'E'FJol;g~ os ,i.ngT,edlentea :siit:! as p'.ro1'eW$lH., Vej iaL, q~tl!.e' .ls, mfo:rm,~~"6B\i geTI.;@J.iras; nada mais @llf.io de que r-eeei:tss ,p.~, que as ,ce.lu.ta9; ,8, ,partir' das mesmas, p~od1;l:'2:am pmtei:Elas. l1Qg'O~ ~)pdtil,:;; W:S -~::ul~sa~ ca:f.a~t~riJtlt:as ~~ . dA$v'e'm as f1rotef~a:s q1il.e, 'produ.:r:i'm.'Ii}:S1 b.~.t!l;tQ nljl)lfft,)l ,q:u~mto ~Bio~il~U:pt~_ P;O;tlem~s ~t.6 afYJ~u~a1!~' que lOO~ $Dm,()S @ l~;ue si,r_) as ]lO~~.~ p'M~b~. G~d:.a, UJm de D 6$" ,~, ;S~1~; vhro~... . nada rh~'iis, ,. do, (p1~ ~ loo"ltlple'~J}. ptDtmoo a.l!Il.im:o:sil:ailltt.~iYe1. ,No:;l!$@ ,~i.ii,<b~rh at im~o"]o,gkQ~ 'por ~l'o. 'fIl.n.ciJtrntiJ, para d~tG~hg" e' m;utilizar qU!a]qu~r ·]1'l·,~ti2:in@l; ~'~nh~ ~o Jl1Q8S'() ioomple:Ku pro,t~ico~

,~'oAcmo!s

Q Wn:d,r:$LIil-e]:r~e fif~o. ,~,d du~ car.bO'xUf~rJs' :~fa!,'"\am]:na(Ltm: A ].ig,~~~J ~l1tif\~ do:i;s a.:rnlli'O@lciJCM~ ~, ehamada d;~ lig3{fao ~pe;ptld:i~ ..

'IDd~8' 05 seres vlVQ6' i3s'{ii1 ,em"s,etanza.d.os, ~,r auas :p~,€J~ewas~ t~Q ~ ,e~llE!! ooJi8. lm.ens'U..r,:Rvel I~ti.daile. dele. No naturesa eri~timl mais de, ,2;0" 'a nH n Q a c~, d,o',s I p,ol::r'e :m, ~ ,Stpe'pa s ~.o. ,iEiCmil:l{~llOOe],d!oo forn'tEIJm as. ~(j::ot.emaa~ alanina, ,3.r:giliLin:3!.! :~td.dl,o '~'i.:E(p,'rtiBO~. ,i3J,d,d:ill gl n[:EE:mi.€o , ci s;1!;e,:C.EI.a, c:i. :i,t ip a 'I fe'rd.l al;!fi"l:1I.in:!lll,~ . gli. ci u'r,3i, I' hl~0:1cln~ji.ltaJ1' bidri]~i,p(!:nlllla!, 1~;s~til'iLa~ i$fii!e:u.~naJ

'~, • 'i~"='_ ";, ... ;jk~' i!>.<'!i,~~"ni!io 1L~,""",.t~";;;;;,i"I

reuema ,~]jja'i :m~~ ~ru]:lta: '~ij;rI~:J} •• ~. lLILi~;'LiI'.:I:r~.ILJilI;'j

'tJr.ela,p ill! a, tiptman.(1) "l a.lin~!,

.A (U;!fef.IBn~SJ, ~nUe t~OE!l as' 'p'l'o1.¥e1iukS se .del'vel ;aL.qrPl.antid~d~1 Q' tipu e ,~ ~iJenc-Jia de aRLfu:Ifila.cido~ lela 81: l1.ii B6l'J:1lliflSl'.

JV]'~6miU< !OL1;]'U~Q'v]rn'ts !<lminOOCitdns bi8ioos'i 'to-dos apl"G8l3Hb;m ~~I][ cemum um ,carn.ou<o oo'ntr,~~ i(~~to H :gll~~ onde. ,(I mdlCRll, e 1IJlliO] ,~Wnro de Hi HgIl!oo, a urn UU]mmeJnto amina - N'H~b m:Q.;tl!J ~~l~ = 'OOOB .' urn lrldrogenlo ,8 (]. '!Jim i~d1ca'l. eonelul~se 'Qll~ a, niL~ca' cliil~'lBlca :e:n:ti,"G to"itl]~ os: ,Eilll.i:o,Q:acid~(}fi e-sg, :[10 tamanhe do mdi.ca1.

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~)"'fe- entre '0 gn.'l[;~pa.nie~),~Q c:mr'boma die um aDlin.dlmcido. e 0 ~]J~anto amina dol 'Mitro B1Il.infllll~W;D! 'C(HU nbe'm~o de nma mn]~aWa de. ;~a. {'rea'~~ I~G'l" desi.clrat:Et~"~).

()"bs~e: ~i!t~. 0 l:l1;dnl_!,1~tO. d~ ]ig&l~o~~ D~,tidktJj~ d,t'!: um~ 'PI1J~tmIll]a 0 igullJ ·~o TJiUme'J'O ,,~ ~IDllioa,,!idd~ 'mm10S -em.,

i.I._,Pfti1iIIi'ii,

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05 8Irdo(]tacid.o& estEio ~pailt~ls, ell] ~s l'\ategw~~ [lOL:ailf:m:Wiltf S'UJEt "neoe5sin:l~de DB JJtM~a

·di,et~.~ . .. .

L D3.t~.~: .~ele9 pl!'OduzWos .peL!) pro.pni,o mt',gam!5MO ,( gliaU1ia:~ alanina, m1"in:a! ci6mma~, ·"l.i.tO~ill~t? AQd:o, ~'p4r~\I 'cllLhl g]tl'~Llm]C~·~ . .. asp~1B, g~utMllin.a, e p.rn1na~:;

-2. ,~~~g(.':i~i detr,m"['OJ' bt[~~r ~·b~i.~;ga.'I;;JT'iJ~-' f.fileu:te na.nossa 81i.me:uta:~o: :~O!['· :r.tiiOO ge:rem ]J1lr:1~HllJlZld,os p~dGl m:-gam_snj~ li siM" tri.p;bl'mc.. 1[lO~ .r~IlI.'ilalt'wrll]'3.;, 'b1~t'_'mii]<3Ji 'valina,' me1ifnti·M. ]eudrrrEt i!a i8ril'E!'U!em;Et .. par,:gj.. a ~eM hu-·· 'mt~flja:'i .A. '_·¢:ILT'JrUll' e 0 ~!~:t~ Slio 1[;~'Jr~m~p1lo~, de ali·me:rf.1itpa, qUle eO'ij!~m: toC!o~ .. rui amJiI10;kidb~, ·es~ "senciais p~m, a especie hlumann.

S:. 'semi.-~e:D~iais:. aqueles 'Pr~t'{:UZiid:o~ d~ 'fo~, .ma :fumu:ficiell~. 'pel-o orgmlls,rnIJ. ~m de·vum ooll~mr:dJa aHm~~:iJta~i3,JJ ~a~r~:~it'nima~ bi~tj.-

dinat.· -

FEPTtlUEOS

'U:m peffi?tfd,eo eonsista em dois nu m,8iis ~·e5id:u:M, . chama-ss .ifJJSSirnl. qualqner ,amin.,(}.a;,e[do ,[loftB(..'"1:;mun,o :::t IjjUtrl.11 por 'W1:va Uga,~o" peJltid:ica:~ ,1E1i1:IDJ~,~ o ,g;t~]]an1..e:nIDfJ amfnien 'die tWII. ,~. 1~~oWfu~o: do ~::nl!t..:rla dIe ,amil'9:o:~;Ldos unidas 'fi!~ ligil9Qes pep-fid:h:a:~. Sel'JLdJa dlds· ,restldl'1ll0:!f, de· .8rnino:3rc]d!lls~, ,chi:'lm_:a:mJo~ . m .. p~t[d£il{[' Ate 10 ,arr!ii1.~,D,acidils; oli.g:6p epUd.·eLi,[.j,:: .q,a:1t'i,~~ r e·K .. , : -~n atis de· 1: 0 1 poli:p¢·pti_doo~ .

PROTmfNA,

h, p.r--o·~ag~ ~8JO .po:li.rl,e1Jt~,dB~'S. ('ei"H1't'~TI 00, um n:Hhnem ~ariA~ de I.FiMfiR.~_oacid.QBJ m:m p~m roD·L~8l'·.3 pa:rtb"' de 1600n 'DlilLi61, t1U menos 100 ,::tmhlo~cicllns L Ob~Vie· ~ue D.lLulms 110E'flllfwip Jlruf e· l~odu~ ~ pro,te:r.nas :~mple~ ,s~n poli\Vep·Hdeos.

E'STIlUTfJRA .Dil .PR;OTEiNlt .aj ~sb-liJ:!tIl'i".a, :p~a

E Bl. ,5leqil:e:nt:ig, U.lil~'8Li" dos 113sidu:o's d'6 8urlnili!:ffieidl.G-S de um polilflB'pUdioo, ou _s~a! c'(HlIs·ism 109 ·cmh~@[m~m do 'G~~OI' ~i5blIl'irn1'.81 qmmlca e

trA'clant de torlos·.'e:s· ·resi'dlllioo. de ,runin_o~,c]d'~9 d® mn poo]].tld,-~o, - .

IC8!:d ~ :p;oomf.]l~ pO-:5m-li D m.Gsmo mimm:.o M: ,:tII.miD.Mcid:DB~ riWl,r~~iI:Il:'!n.,e.nte. :08 mssma ~q:[j]Mc-m!

jl!. d" • :01:. .,;!, •

q'!1l~' I::;' uma lliJ~·termUla¥-ilL~O genenea,

.I:i'~~ Ga i'i; ·11 'I' _~=, ,;r""'II' FH'tR" 11.'11

.~ •• ·.·.-,)LU - ,t".lUJH _. "-"JO - 'UJy - ..... j:~ ._ . .icuR

,~iw", 8~ @~on~' a. troea 11!)!j. ~tHiKIUin~1 d~

u:.m do~, :a:ml]1~licc[d<06 dOl ,exeJ:l:1P~,O' ,:3:.CW3. ·teriamo~ ~~ (jJ~'tra :m~)tk~.d.~ ae ,p,rote:tina. !l;:~, e~t~, e· funy&o oomp~etam~n~~. mr{}rBl~OOS+

E~s, Q~;tU.roi9 [J(iJt:BJlml, .~OgQ·f~ce·i e lutHil!, o@lui~Jl if}Q'T B![]~IU]!, trocar IJLm ·mIDd.no~cl.d.o por Imlt~:tll~ wterMrl.o 8. .~~tl~nc~. Des~a fmma. ~ 'fu1Lil~a,O, da P1,n.'tEJ:Q;i3J. :a1~"eii.·~d::1. pgd!e ~'aJl:j[~ ~eri a~l dD!l2'iQl;U-

.observe jJI' ax~em.plo .ahaixD:;

- . {.at) '~11 - hiB ._. [eu·- Ue ·-.Pl''(~ - g['U[·_·.gltTL.-· H:$ t he:g]:1Ii!):.E&] j])b]n~' ]j~lHjta'n

_ (b ~ v~~11 - his - l~eu. - 'We' -I~rn ~ v.8Il ~ giUi - lis ~ ]:i~.(t~ obin,:j ... ~na~o'd).,

.. ~ simpl,S!i!l ifrilt!9 do. ~lmM.',,~d.,cido>. gli!i1'tffiITliItaJ. '1P!6]~ tt~ir.ia til.~, iLiltfii.'6trula. de bempghl]iiua r~~· ttJ~ IQl:.le' 111 b:~rmiJo~ tOU]I~ a lbml~' de 'll1l11;tal 'foice, fn~OeEm:dfli' Jlfi miliVld.i10 1Wtmf!!: import.ante' dL@eH!:~ai ICh.aml1df[ ~ne'm.ia. f~(Ji:Fo[j.ilIG OU. ·$.icle·~ paden_du, ·~·[]~hw~., S~ fat~E..

b'~ I~'~~;h.~~ IC"_;illh ..... -- . ..:lin...;i .... • ~ ~;IA!l-I~j" UliII:!It!!I, C! .... ""'.u.lJi.UlI1l!i~. £0,

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, na. lcoom'p ·~e>pt$cl'ica, espacl;~me]1w .. ·nio.se 'lmostr,;9i, retMne:3;~ mas, em :f:itu~~ da atr.SJ{:8Q ql!1ftn:i~~. (6:~jJ~$I!~· .PQ'Ii'~e~ de h1dl'io,gen:k~ ,~.L~\e 0 gn!lf!!O IGSlJ;rbo~J!tJj. dJ~ nm ~m]notlcid'o I~ I] gl9;;1lJu). a;[!,nn~ do ,am:mi('~i€id@ Oim'E~:W1o,' e:Ot.f3' mfilnnaoelo8: proodmos. ,~~U1'i1i'i~ 'IlJnuttliQirma. helicoidal ~ r(tOD10 U]:1fi8. m~[at). S~ dj[']l ~sta, ,1!iI, 8u;a, iEa;i;rn.·!;'i.];rn, ·:$[>!!(:;u:n.d';i:TI:3:_

P.~(l!te·:blU COl!'! lestm,tm,a' seeundaria :sib Icliia·~d~:5 di;1 il!n":!;)l~jJlH8: h~SJ .u~~n'W_Dl ,1_lIL rearM loonlpfrlme:nw-lSJj'~, ID5!llo:'t que. IO':],! IC{lUIf:!"1 ]JilIU? .e,xeJliL.plQ.~. a t}U!.em'~;ru:L8. e !i} cQl~Wl1lJ.o Il"Pll"O·~~.jJ@.,n'lla:m ~bunl~.:l~lJ:i;e dos-m~mJ~nl~~ CC~'1~~ ,de ,35)% do "1:.o:ml):

Ie) estnIJf;lI:u·a. lb~i,Wl~

A. b,eEioo PQd,~ d!~h~ sC)br:e ~ mesma, IOO:nt:i ul11.dQ a esti;i.J:~, .t~;r.,c~·;bia. PN:rbif;na- C-(J"nl

. r I;, •• •

esb:1ltw-a t~l'ntmia 3,EjO cll.amla.,das· dtt 'P'Gteiup'u:;;,

-.,' -

:globu.lM:'.es~ Ii. ·eBnlll~l!J1"·a. 'tt:e:i':(l;liiria: ~ roantmla pm.'

'~i~~~~s di~W6diCl8 .. ~~6i? ,~,@;Yi;ltIa1tV~" e 'P\lr:v1te~ 1d_'i3' hi~.nto.,

'Q.lll~nilLQ a IDelar~§D.1 eo:m,.p r.i[i"jen.t'iO~l~l'g.tlf;"i3i.. !foI:' :U'iI.~(tt· 'qu~ It)~ 1" ~ pro~eina 6 cl~lamaida. prot,.ein.a!

,globular., come, ptir ex;em plOi , .a ]:ren:iLo,,]nhw,f4,. a .~iogr]Qlili~ ,~ ,~i~figJ()I~. e ,~s [p~Q.t;einiil!S das meIDbr~a~ eeluleres.

,€i) ~s~r:u:It'tU"a [ij1l.la~--nma.

,Resuj t3ll da u:m ~.fJ de v,iiia s cadl®'lias.

Jfoilipeptfm~QS:,1 assumindo uma tON'n1H de ll_Gtivelo .. E 'f} oo~~<:JlOenma da uni~.o de es1::r1:ro1Jll"RE tm;>eimiB~;

A']l~~(~[Qhin!i 6 :f!D'nn~.d:l ,pc", Jq)l;t~tt."Q t~d€'ias 'fl'[}lifJ-G:ptJd-W;i)~' d~ tloi~ ~~'1lJ~i."1' Lipoa<1 tnl'id~\3 ,a. um :b.i!'luJ~~lII.0n.w, qtiimioo, qu~ cQu;tem j)~JTQ.., Ja a ']M1Jj-iD~ . hon;nQmoJ @ 0 resultado da 'Ul1i]a.o ,dG duas ,mdeias PQJt:r;mD'U£diC~6'm

:MW:Wt~ ,~~tl!l~m~ag, d~ g,r-.I:l'I::1de ,~ niologi,CO aJii~se:fit"lm. OT,garuZBl!~§r~ q,il,Jiaten:tma' , a:l(f.[lO os 'mil~"O'tftbw{j~ e' 09' :mJi.c_r:o.Gb[me]].'t~~ e· v-A'r]~$ ~o:m:pl~]s ~J,d.n;ui.nc~)s" Q qll,lf:!!' :ai5:~·ul~Q .. i~:u:fI.~vejj' ,seu ,e_stlldD (Jm' :s~m estnd.ur·315 'wui'to 1-~I1i"i~-

:N'O:tt1i1La1m~m_e., em, sala, 11l.8al~ para e:lq111Le81" a eS'it,m'tufiiIDj, de' 'UmJ8 JR1ote:fna- am :lit; de t;elefo:ne. -Reti~e' 0,:5.0 da seu '~e.liSfmle e ,~Stiq1!le, 'voce·tamll-Una! estEu. 'm:;et l~~rl..3,.,.AgllILaL~ ~de\'Xe~o OOffi'lLal e v,~.iI\ (} f&~do ~beii-co:i,df31:11i~; ill e~t.rtJ.'tUL8. ~e"Cuncll.wi"~., .r.~:ca ~hirui dlibt as e d~ L'lt.ttl :f,"~,mto-gloh:uJta.Y, . ~ II est'Jr.U.It;UL~ ~·h~i:ir.:l~, FmMmt!n]te. ~d.e, numa eruxa. ~~ 6Stm~ttras ,~eri~U i1ttef:ljprli;ui~, .aJs.~m. ~~' o:b~·~. -Um~ e,s,b:l,ItlJj1'~ [~ltl3:t~~jl~. 'P't}~, i~'$~)'.' e:~ii'trrtlJ,b_tra,B Cfl:i11{j t:mJ],c!Il'6tlibuJos e 'm§M'Of51a'm~~:lh!is, de-mJ)t,~,r~In para ser ·~buJdada~. Q'~~J,~.(lo murr'e ~ .'~el!i1.~j- ,a~, e:l:1.tf'u,t .. u...r~~ ~[U,~te !'-~uhi ii.I!S ' mnite hlbt1:~s l 8:ofrem -llmj de~Qnle G os pi~8qui~~~o~s 'nio~ ~inlS:'~i~m -d~'tGcta·]~~. Com a d~g_e'O~~1 d ,. il'iO'vtls 'fix~tdf_o:~ :W:'] p~8!si,n!:'1 -pID~~~l~ !!l!i~t~SI ,0$ltn..i~U:r,.~~, tl'IJ il!.Wmmri ~ij~ 'Se'11Ido PQs"S!ivalr. assim, usar' "ballio JJ [loti;rncia]' do, rne,rosCi6pio e1~t[i3moo\o.

O'hseJr."!.t'e' en~O,.3 i:[u1:rWj!f~ca~ a :S:~ica:~ a biologbJJ. est:'lo :ilin'~im:m1_e':f.I.tfi 'rel~e~ltl\~d~s.

CLAS8lFJCACA,O DA8 patJ.TJJ:iN_A8~'

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o ~ub;itl:..a':t.O ef!i.cai.~~· 'fiWll ROJ:!~ ,e~pr;l~,eo alia. 'PJJol~l~ euz[matiea d,en.ominad.o IceD.:tl1o ·,ai±vo. C'o"mo h~ B8S~ '~m:aD:~~ ~~:pBmloo u 'mode1l.o qu~ 'e~Ht:.~ 0' ,6~ci(ln~n,to en~i:~,'tk:(!, ehama :m(~d.'eJ~ d~ '~;:hff,ve:"red1ad'llr,aj~

I(J:triLct~ria,fic_, ria ~¢-i.Q leJ'n~tic:1 .} 'it"ulmJ:)eIrat.1H',8J,

A ''V'e1oci_d~dl~ da roa~iaJ) 0n~rmati:c~", d~:rrtro.lde ,~Irltofi!'. ~imire~. aumenta ,ili rnedida que JI$!l~ "~J~~~ ,~, 'b~nl]Ji1lf'm,t~rn.

.A, w!l,p~r~.'~ur,a. .em ([U!e [:Ita, ij .ma~:dm(l, de velocU]j.d.e da. ,itl~a~, '!M:1;zbt1@:iIj~, em h,U'I:rtb.an,cs, est a., le .. llt_ F? .35 'e 40~ c. ]'l,~ I~rrutanto.; essa ratx.a. v<:aoo ,de, ID'IIP;IJl;i~rJ]I} ,['J~ll!:i3I ~2:n:US:IU{l. Um c:a:;;~) '~KL"1r:'i::l(til'~,O tl' 0 lda~ 'b:;acet.eri ~ q:u;e vi vem, Wll .. :FOtf.\~ te'Ulba],~ qti~ '~e-:a:' ~l·~:ztnl~s c~o poow I~tim,o de t~tt'tP~:tat~li"fjI, fi:c~, em jbo'n1Q ~'1~ c.

A parM, .' d,e UD1&iL d.e~t.e.rmin:ad.;EI!, t:em_peratuffl 0' gr,a:u de ,~gj.t~(:8.0 IllOJ~e.-tlhi[' ~~ 0011']],8. "lMiQ intenso Q'i11lE: 8S _lig~e~' ~;g:t~lbiliZaJd!fill'9i~: da ,~~mm1t',~, espaelal d:as rnlZimy SE' rmnp~t111 pfifiWlCmdCi! Si1!:1l dieftl'D..a!:~tl'l·..a)[:ao~ ~.&im ',ilIJ ~etlooda:de da . ~~Lt::.:ro, eozimtliiEa ,eai bruseamente, N a' mnoria,' ,~s v,~~~ le~ ilfe:mper~tura. gl'ra, ~, 'tarno de ~ ~ W C,

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A ro;aiJoria; d~~ ~n~inla$ 'tam Seu: pi: ill trbinto Io;)lr~,~' 7 e ·8. M~, 1Il~~ ~o 'b;,ld~1 a pe~il:ya:, pUI' I~~mp.;~o~ qrD~ ~tua 'fi~ ~Wnn~lgD~ ~ seu plI 9timg entre ~o "' 2,,0.

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,A,\\fe].arufiac].e, d~ a¢!o des vend~daFe.s de uma lqja aumenta eifrrt~, d"JJ.egada:' dos c:o:-mpr,:BJ,ttor-ea,. 'oo,:o.d.o como lfuni,I;e' 0 memento rem q,ue wdros os '~rnded'~r~~ es,~'i~m, (D!!JDJli3ldu~. .,A :pa..rt:1],' dall :£(9 ~filla:s iSt;:'li!O f'O~~~, ~:goj 'o_ij,1l) aclian.ta,. ·c.h.eg<O" m~jis _fi:legn:e~~, qu~, [:I, 3f8:0 d~- loja n3.0 me]J]lt'!re~ 'PQi~"nilft:M miiiia. ve'nd~.¢ior.re·~ dHla,p(i.ID"lTe:is. ,A rem~~u M ~~de ([3. ~,'e.a~M ellz.b:1li::iU,iea OUilll a qUilll!lt~~' 00, s~,8m,-mspont,'ile], _~ :st~.meMlari!te,

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l!P:Cir." ex~'m,plUij ,3 saeazase age 9Uinten:!]~ :~ob(re-a: ,~2!£31~e' 'e a ma.lt~, .Slnbm ,fa, malb:tBe_

,~ . [~p.ldnd~d;e ~ ~x:p'li~daJ, pele mmleDn eha ~~"'!feilI'lh$iidm'3,.. A C[):o1b!it~lar,;io mlO;l,ecul::i~' q.t.:t~' 'P~~;t~ IJ eneaise dill 'su]b!Suatc}', ~~ aJtm:nl~ lren[~ aJti,~~ ,~. mna ~rnr'iigllra~1 que ,posSi,bUita: ~ .r~a.'~iil, a:p.en~ de d,eCel-n:linad.fi ti:POi mnl~cul;n:;: Ou sejia. PaT.t1JJ, eada fechad:in",~, apena~: uma chav,e e cada dliBove ~~ ~ob:re'so:m,e:nte uma. ,f:edla4u.m,

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,a) :bliIbl~,al '~m:l!ietijti,VA reV[~\~eil ~ 'qU3.11oclla M 111ll1,E~s esU.'1.li.~Mlllm!'be ~e:[l"ll31'1teg .an _ ~fj.~t1'"ato ,que !:01.np.etem ctlw, 0 -[rH:~i!it'"tM,O pdt:) ~WII~ attV'O d'ai I~n~:[(l~ N,~~~: c~sO,~

~a.n.'oo ~ni7 (ur ~ .wtl~~'rotao d:o '~[gtr~:1ro :m.e:oor :st!ci .fIl, ~~~ diD ,:bnibi,ooil"_ ,L.o,~~ a:ml:~ Jilil~ mm~btt~a depm_d.e- d.~ if:\~,Lal~o. eDJW a. CO:[lce:·lil.'fur.a~ao de :~[,1cl!bidJll" e jI d.o ~ulMjtta'w.,

]11) ,imilhi'~o, n;'iitli i~!Oimpe!tJitiva, {f,'e'versiveJ) ~ aqui d,epemd,e. apenas da 'OOl!H~;e'IiI,hr.~an do i:tlili .. 'bidlQI'+ 0 ,]1ftibidll["' p!j[Jw.uav~ Um::l!J :aJ.UercB~.,i!l,) na flht'llla hr.iclJi]It~nal ;i!]a ·,wo.lkula ~:'!ii~hl~ ca, ~m~dlmdJj sua ~dlrlda.de+ "ThnjJ.[M ~10 e~mplO' .~ lig~u;a:_~ de :m~t3m 'pe,:sad!OS' com os gruIl~Gt - [SH da, m,IilM(;W,iHJj, en,zj.D],~ti~~ quJ~ sa Eombi,nam de forma :relit,e.F-~~~t

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, - . ""i:;;":' ' -.1 '. • .~'l ' , di ';;'1'

C~~ m'L~I.'EI.a.CJ!iiif.ii.:;::U em enzrmas, [,' '~la.'!lJ}r;;! as

e:n,Z'lmas em Sieis' 'cl3M~-S' prineipais ,e eorujunt~ de, ,sld:l(:Thasses~, em 'liuj~a~ dfJ ft.i-po d~ ,r~~~; ~)1;rdis:rJlaa lI1~lbt1i1 ~Lt:m, neme ,ir(:iCQ'mel:lid,adfi" ~,~.en:~_etntb] e

• ~ . .iJII~. ~1',~",;: " :.

,~,p1,"t!!pfii:II.Q!D para ~ ~t!J [~_i¥.U]'., UTI,]!, nems ~1iemi1ti,oo

U:rien,1iBca ·a: r~a'ci,o eataUs~daj e um ,H:iime:ro de, e]s'f!!:-s!ltfic;aJtfu)1 (p~,~ ~.deT.[~~~: mals :pf€ci~'!:!!).

'Vl3:lfJjKOS :a,dhm'~ ne ,enta.1l!OOr 'Uil],:ft. clas~lffi;ei:IJ\ta() [~d'iciultru e' qOOjl .pur aua 'i,l·~Zj ba..m, .sio[o loobl'~diD'

. . .• A_cU· _] ,11':'" ,. ,--

_nil! ,P]:\SliUQ m~.UJ.b'i !!J!~. 4lUI'JEa ~et"ml

~'a. t:d n,omt;NClattU"{t aereseenta-se ,0 ,su:th.;:o

~ ,,:]~..~ - ~.-.~, ~

,~-e" ~[},:;5e:I:'!f,amiLWin,5!E:::' !!4'!j}iEi _ !""l:di~,'J.(:tS~

,a) 0, ~bsitM)t!il[ Ida. ,rea.ool}[.

- - - ,Iil -

:Ex::~p[ns~

l!1'alta~"e - 'abtlfS, ~jtw'"\e a_, mahose ~taae - 3~1lR s:01;n;..e :a ]a~ros~ ,1.4.r.m1ase· - ~&lu~ @i~1ml e. amirl[~

:Lipase - atua ~llbr-e. es Up:i-di~,

b) a :~i~J ~ataJisafia" :J!:XerolP:[fiS~

I~l[i,rlm~b~.se: ~'.,a:L"t1Ja ~n;a, llliih"t5lige

O~da..&e ~ ama ,M i";f:d~

:Fos:lli1ri.la~e ~ ~lbUSl. '1113 ,:l~_a:I!~d]a.ca.[o

. - ~~

O.i~iiI:re-di.l'tWM;i ~ atua ,no' oocifi"i'edtl~ao~

- ..• - ,II • -

AI' "11"1'" ,.It, '~'Iroi OS']!' ~U,J.,J;l"l., ,1,1- !O-.i

,,.

'E"NY' ", '.''''0'' 'LITO" "RI'" '0' -0 'C'-'-E'L"I[1jT" ADlV'C

... _,-1>'" ., .... ,.. .:" .' ... ', - '" .... c·,' : .~. ~!,~~;~I

,I nl'~Ulf'OO

P',anl",a: que as ICitlul8i:9, gEl' mantenham illld;[~d~7i~daE. '!1l!e~s;~itw:n es~'t =repPI';ada~, ilL} ,~eY, ~ew ,:aLn1ibi~,'~e. .por. !f;l'ntfd1:t6r-io~'~

0-:- .,_'4 .. :::..,;~-",- 'iL~ . ...::Il. ._- rF;'!In~ " ',8 env~ MtilJlm~ ,~pre:m tmas ,~~

b~:ta.~, ~_~~;O; ieonllendo, OOhtJar.~do 'mei~l'~MD

'!!i ~ 0 m~m,:ilm:to ,80 m:e:iB.

A 1-.0.,,, • Cl' < • ~l r.:

; ~1dE-i:i_~, 'p.t:iI.1nrln!B:. q_1!;W' '1iJ:e:111la Q qne',el]ib::;:u, ~ ~~

que gSIl da ,~ul9; @ Cht~:mHdR ,dlEli ;DIDe;m~br.al:ul pEB5- ,m,a t Ie!8 I( Pit a s m a] em 011 .0 u m,!e.QlL.b ran, a ,cioopt~~JLca ~

An kmgo d~, BVrul1~ 'Er:!.;rr,gi.rJllm :1Il1illd.fti'G:!~,~e~'~1 h~ ~uI;palrff~[e da~ iQ!l3h;[lR8~ q~ forne.rerHIU 1llTI:JiH, wm.'or J1.~fm:ri8. ,~, membrana plaBmat]c8~ sein mte:d~i.r DR sua ~t)~o.gj,a, :Essaa momD~~OOs., fo1"8l1l 'v,ant.aj;m.\$ q,wm.to '£8., eV\O!b.l~j} elf, pnr ~O~I ~r-ln£EnB[iEn"&mJ,. !oomid.eil,'atldo,-" que a membrana pias.TIutt;ica., urns 'e.Ei~nn:L'um ,H,llfd~, e mllLlt:o d_,eHelBida e ~']]Eivel .. Paea qoo, VjjU~ en1.em.da .a 1m,po,n- tfuJic[a. de$S~ ,:[l~(b~~, ,~h~ef:Ve q:u.e·a m~mb~'·ia_ piRa:s,ma'tiea l~

, II ,Um.i'~ ,fi.s_i:CD.',en.Uitle :~ ~i& e ,:3[ a~~ncia ~. ~~

A"B ,s.o,ll(l~es 'para :tafrrr~Pll'" a ti:te:l'iLl1brru:1l8 ,p!asn~tiC8 mram, as mais variadss 1:101';3: dif'e.l"€ntes ,grap~ '00' ,p~re'a ''\1we, Vamas :0,05' deter. eJ[[j dnss deeaae "m,Ddiflc a:~oeiq: q l~e' fUll C],.oU@LID eem rJ l~n],~ri~5 'oel:~la:n~s 'lltalis e~:ten:ws,;: a :pM;ed~ l~lm~F, ::pN~~nue run ~{l:W:riH1 ci:an~llRC'OOi1ia89' a1gtM!1S prO'~,Btal:!l~ fti!:il1~~, e P'~l11.a~; 'e u .elic~aHx, ~~tl:;i. M11! ~~l~ mriD~ .

. - .. ..

1 ':nI,AlD~:nI:~ 1"'TJ:iF:1' 'j"n A,OI II JI;~I~-:~Jrl--~lU,D 1~1~IU~QlLJ

CO:OOJQ\ ,jA me.n~~dfi .otofi1~ nas 'l:l~:ri~,l1~.,

... 1l... ;-,,:';;,. 11 ~- fr ,.

;r:!i:3'rl,O~-~aC'u:::n.a!!Iil ,~.Eg~~ pii;'~"'IL~,!i!:tas "IllDg:ElS!iB' v1e_g.et.a.]S,.

Apt~ser.rU ,~~Ct :~ULficaes b~s:il~aS; l"'~'fb!t.,~o

'-'S;-le'If"UWi d;,ftC . mrGmJ,b');,,9,na pl,9:sm,liti'c~,~

SltSt:e11.t~aol ,e' l'Ie\1'uis'iiimen,to ,ee~!Illal.\

n... .. ~,.,..,.,-~ .L_jl , Ii!",., ~ ~.Ji_

~~iQ'.ElIi[ili(flll~' M [J:~I)]~Ul.~ C@N1IU.lliEl:f'rui! ;saO' ~

~lSti:ttrl~O bEmt~Jllm v~;~li~!a~' quitinSL D!Q6 ~~ bEJtCt~i~ ie' !J.i~]][jbBtct€iIT:.iiElS apr:e11leD~m ,acidp

.- .' ~, ;(.";:_})I ' • ":;,,~.. ~ ""..;;fI'.:I: ,.,' , .:'1'-

IteiOOllOO, i:lt:J.UO :H;1:'i'lLlIl."~II.Ji.L.;100 Ie: '~'l.iLIO~ eu ~'1!U']O-' pnnaueo,

~nqnan.t!i1 n:es ',ne'g,et,sJiZl ,II,fll:R.1I"S cem ,c,ei~,t;11oE'e~

IL..~ " ',,- - ' .- . .:.'iL .,,, . ' .,

~reUllce,~lIi]o.seJ' pootSlt.oa u:._e colal[j e m~mo,

P~de ,oom,I$F' ~g~tal

_ A pareda eelular ~t:ill e nma estrntura rigiclla- 'P~111. pel:mea've[. ~pretaenm pef'r"Ura~ije.s ,

iL. = 'b'~"'~ , • 11'

as :pon.' .. !t1a~iOefii~, que P[~ -w.tam:n ~'ill::.[JIm.ento ~e

eanais _-jJ~;,orti~ioos) 9& ,1P1-~fjUlJ£KInO~J ,atrS!"~~, des

~ I. ~ '. ,=, ,..... '<I-~Il 11

quW8 lL"lIII:, OilmTU.lD']_£a!~~{i. enid.H (lf8!' mW,p.]:[l;'SJJ]M U@;

duas eelu;tas ve;~ttlm vizinhoJJ~. P~;JIl~ ~et :rigida~, "e;ri'ta ,~, ~]]1l::r2ldSiJl e~:ce~~iv~ de [icl1n,doSi P 'qThe p:Mvtn::3:ri~ ,0 es:to,~r ditlJ. tle~,Ltla~, plaammp:~-'iSIe. -

A, p~[le ~ldl~V' v~'llEiJ ap~~e'n:tt~ li:.li~~ le~:but~~;~

:0). ~ela mtidia - ~"fuoo'rnda ,~, ,p~~1' dg gul~ ;g],~saon'lJo dlu:Hll'~e,'8~ t~Jclfue1' iS~nOO',ellU~tLtllli.= da PJ.(I" pectartos, di@ 'c~cio ~ ,p~t~m~ d'e :magnMim\o, A pact-ina, (pOlU~s;af!mde~ ~ IJlne, -iLJ[:ma ~~]ma, a oi!]'b:-:a ..

b:1l ~-... ~ ~ ,. ...!l~. ,_ ;,~,..f.... .-.~~- .... ":. 1l'

!i", ,m.'{,~!@1 nrilm~, _, ~TiiOSl[~, ~-e ~ ILiB=

ilr' ~!!!!~!e.: _ I~ ~ "

'me'~~3!. ,In~ii:a1 dJ)~ dots ladosl'" Ie ,orl'.mpo~ta pr'.il" l1JG'lnieGluloSGj, p,u~ona e ,gnc~l:pro'te&]ta~n

- -). _~'Ii . ,_ . .iI . .:::_....: _ . .1 ' ... ~;i-:li- L _

,~~ ,pu~eue se '!t'1I.IllI:IilUU:m , ~ uE]l~acllH !5,;olure' ~

,[l;)i,\ll"~i:le' ,!P'rilnar~;~. ~€mdo ;!i, '~;;.lmad~ mai~ t'»' ~SS!a~f ::apa.reoelll,ool no ,estitiiJoon arl:rulm da oolu-, '[a (fimaU da We de ldif~cia~tl). QW~Jdl;:all,[".L'eI1W e MmJ:a]j,tufd~ [p0li ~e~ulDs~.

'0. e :,:;'p,ra; ~,C) '~:1tt"l! qu e Siite: ,iEni!l:C,A,m t :f:"jil '11.1,

:pro:b:~p.ia5.DH\ (~' riv,~, da tlel~a.: m'~nlbnln;SJ plaanuUica,. ~it:opla:smEL ,a I1tlcllie@ 1~ cleno:m~ltl'ado halin,en"

'QnR1il do adul ta ~ . eelwa vegetal podlj3;, p'~voe3r. ,31te.~fie.8 m pa.red,~ ieeI't~.1lM'1s~Undfiri,sL IoU .so:&,~r :wpJ[~~~ou d,_~ d±'V0I:_~ru;: :S1!.]JJSflljL~l e~'a8.

al ,91~,9i~oes dB Ilal,ttde' S;e.cgMpm. .;= ,:±ill ,~~i1rJ d~' d. -W:1":rllinil!cI~, 'Gn~m~i J~iobr~ a eeluITose' e' ,3 pecbl~e' da pm~ite iii~'tm.d!aria, pode"fur,mar P'lDIiUil' '~I' muenqeD~ f"euOmel1d, ,rih~ID,ad~ de g~~im~,~i.Q:.,'

• ,GOltltRSi, ha",epider.tIii.!9,de pla.fi'tBJi como .a mBe be ira. a lM~:Jl'QJ~irft! ete.:

'. Go:ma ,arabia;~: ,~bMi.d.:a, date ,3Mc[as·,,

i. Mu~ag.e~' '~o:m_1nm em frtlit~~ "r:lo~:J; S&-' mentes IE!! '~'Wz:es. 0 ,9gar~1~P"~ IlltIL511: nsuei] ~gem '~d;u:tida j)'OtC iI~ij;~ rodm~iWp dos,

~.r.II'iI\"-""; ,n,.",,: ,~,:~'!'.~." ... "-:;', h("<rb:~'I':",r;,. '''''0 ~- ,.,~:.. .... , •• ,R''''''''~'.~' iEi! ...... _1."ra Ulf'~ 1_- II;; U!;::;\[._~LI!;~J'il:.I' ,~:~~ . .l!.!LJ:ill.

mtuW usadl3., em 1:mho\i:)@J!t6:ri,o lOOm'!] nmi~, d,e: cuJ:nu'(,l.,

b) im:.p~gn8.9IDQS' -- lL"tM1lI tam £~a cle:po.e:i~o de ~uh~tmnt.iag ,s(jl:lt:~, a, p~red,e, ~e~ti!ndlfit:'ia.

Ii BDl1e:rifictlL-cio::: depomm,if.! U :i;;]IIi !61~o ,cba;-madQ mbm:n;a IiL~ p'a:r~d-e ooh;d~r do 8'l1,·, be:!" Ilnrl.e 11.A Cl"eBflnnert1LUli. g~ii1., A,~tl~ b~tfrri_a, :m'a·t~. '~ e~HtJl~___s d IJ ,~tihe]>' 'p'~:r~[U!~ [1inpsde ,:;J!~' tl~l3aa ,de miliHt~d~ j'Unto ae

.

mCl'ilJ.

• LJi':gilii1fi:~~io; depom~, -liotaJ (]'![], parcia1 d~ '1lij~11l ('pmle ~'tereaiar' ~'nm' ~15 b~mi-' ufis. da F.IW:\ooe eelular), t\, J;·igJ.d!2~' d,us :teci-, des cl:e! flll1.Steftta9&o da- .piamtaL ,esc1le:ren .. , q;~J ,00 de.ve 8 pRSJall~a de Ugofum. O~one UlIu:u~:m 'W) xiI~lljUlt ('b:a'qu«m e tI;;~l~PJJ1!iid'eQ 'i

• Clil;lliBiza~ail: dEJPOm~o d,e 1~tm~ (61ieo) 8!llbre at ~p1iie:mle. vegetal Fmr:m:H a cu,t[ .. , el!.ila. eom 'fl!.: n~'o ,die iHlp.imll!ila,b1illiza~ifQ

!I... -' _.,,;T l

(e'VI'~, 8, It.ra.r.iJI::tplJt'8.ba'O).,

.' ClJrifie~~'0; d~osi!;~iQ ,~ :ooro, (ilpialo,~ sebre 8 ~pfderIThfll v~e1[ial Ev.[ta ,gr tr.anspi-· :ri!i~.'o ~Bssi!va- OfHIITiJ' em rou~ 3~·lonM I~ if.reqfiel1t~) ~ :fi:u.ro~ (eaf11egu.e ·'mu,psif8~p! de ~MO ''!iiUl, lIt~'lifjl ~ obse~ ~ i'\J$kd&~oi

.. PtliDet:"~"a~aD:; d[erp~Q dB ~~ ~O~n"e a ,~-id;e~Em,e 1,:Ie dit7t11?.io~ ~lrgi~S ive~gem:~ = !!j~~aib:lmca~io' {im,Pf-egoo'900' de:

O~CO:'l SOD:I"e ~, pm:OOE= ~l-u1af ,dei: d~.t:mi-, nadas alga,e;, °rod'ilJIi~'&S)I~ s[l:ifica'f~o (im~1":e,w-~'ao d:e~ slrua sehre .:1, ~iclel'me d,a :00= ~lf:uu~ to'm~ ~ Hl"~nB~~: Iit~jJ; ,di~m,mae~~" ftim~,~, ,~ :ft:1i",tul~

". ,GUoocALl:l:

Rllll:r('j~'~'~~ nit~ai:3: Ie.x.te~rn r.] Ii~, mJ~rn~b,l" ~ 3· pbmmartica. da: meioria das 1~~1u1~ anim Eti:s"

o glicocalHx :e ~m.1tfj:fuitullidrJ pOI" IMlku1 aa, de

b , . .:!Ii ..:11 • _,J_ . ii',", ~_jI ..

e:a~'_ ~l,tI,'[',8i,'uOS, a,SHli'~m,~u8,!S ;EJ10~, 1L1oP);II,;!I·IO$,

~e0,l": .brQ'~:rfd,!t'!~Nj 6 ,g,g,n:gU,~si]'d,eos,·. 0' ,PIlS l:P E"cd;e'iD n. ~I W, ~egl"a;:~:!'ij, ,d'a, m':~:II],lhr,jlJJ(F}~,. It 1:';: ,gliCdJprotmuiE:S M ,gJ]~ea:lix. [SaUl p1Iocl,'I!.tZ,~~·u j)i(J l·ili~ti,~.'LiJo ·'ii'l-ttd-op'L~iilti_oo' gr~I~Jli· I· ,SIZ' cQmbina-tn a::01D PiQr] ',is aae a::rJde-o,!j, 0:-0 g\ti'l_gioiS~o:m'!ii e, ,poo.tl2!r~iO'n:!Il_Gj!lytet 't]~,aTlSf~f'id.~l!5 PgIlrN 0 pa esmo,

9 pritit1rej-ro~ wnitiilJ:~' QjU~·~: c,6]uJa, animal {az; j1mt.O 8:.0 sen ,mElio, ~ reallsado pelo gliicocalbL &~im. assume ful'lpl~~. d,~ rital i;JIn]lort~liJ:em, '~)~ra a c_e.J:Wa- tais ,cllil:l_Q,!.

mEmoir. ~l1Iml' '~O'te~i.o ICOO1n,~in:,81 Iwnt-Hl ~~lif~S ff.sJ(".~~ Q q~i:[l[t_ico~ dv mclOI}! :i!de.llt,ifie=!IL~§lli ~elnbD:-' f~ ,~~l\li]]u, pn.d.eii'fL SB :reeo[[]'he:~e:r;, ee[umE!! ,de: tnn mesmn tec[d9 ~~i:ni ,gHtlucMi'K fUL:'IW:liadQ, pel~ ~e$mus. ,~b(Iim'[arro~), :adeqlil8l~~1 ,dQI :me:ii(~, Ie,.: tOl!!J!i,Q d_a:, eelulla ( 'hit1r],~ uma .Tl1LMblal que ·[letmn, nuiri,el1'tes e ,e:nZllfte!!a, :ElQ redor I~ ce] mafic', ,8d}~o cel~' ( iOOllljj, '~mpI19't no epi'te.Ml e [tl:ervQ~o):;· ,.luge-Dico ( s 'pm't~ dIn e9;Umf~~ . q.t.:lJe' lDiihtill?i ~ 1\o[f.:l:iia~U ~le :6!Ollt1oru'"])M Wle ,rnjm'trun 'iEfllxe1l;WS)~ ,~g mbstOO1~B" d.e;tennJj'l_8lIn,te~ d{]~ gn..~p09 Sla_ngtHne0:9 (A. 11,., ,M e' 01), s:~o ·gllidop<t~' l~t'JiOOs ThO gJiOOcoon..

ICftracte'''1!s,QC,~1 e Modt?,fuSi d'g; ,MelnlJr'-':1Ii"~a _P!~'ll_W,t~t!(J,

A, membrana pllasmttica (0'1;1 membr-anflj, lcrl.top,lEismattca ou, ,mnda" plinSJFrJ'a,le:111.El ,el 'W1U!L uuissbna ,me:~br.anH qb!e~ se:p'2I.:f.a. 0 hiaJ,{llli~a 00'

tmeio ambient.ft- -dB ,~e:~U&. - .

,M:~dl~ ~e!fI~ d~ 1.5mn ~75A9) de es;peBlWTIl, g~lldo v~¥el ,~anM, ~.rn miL"t-rOs.OOp~!~ eJeti&.rloo.

~ 1:IIIl~rugr;a,b$ ,m-Wlefurm: q:~ a. memhrana pThiEuii:nliati.ca e fOiIT[1L1i!J.da. :pGI'r' duas e.am_~[la~ eletinden:s~~, e!ii;:iitiIr.':t ,(2 .~,~, c~da 1L1iti.tu) e;r.LU~ as: quais se' ~dtu!EI lllm.8 eamada de cm,eno:r 1~let.roaen.sid_8d~<., clara (;2',.,5nm,J.A, e~e a,s,pecho, 'Cicilam:jinsl" da ~~, ~lUHiJiitU:f_a., au MJm~, d'eiLHJ:mlltm;~'-'cse llmi'~9dLe de :m.e!mJb,r.aJD_Q I~ mGlllh1:lIiH.fi, 1D1:1:tida rRo:berfl~!O.n~ 1959)-. ·VaJ'!3' 'r.:!.ll)'ha:E que' 11t.o"d ~~ as, mern bJ,"aI:'J,a::1; ~elu[are::::: (BI_ ,pbi:Sm&t],CR I~ as que ~nv'Dlvau1 as erganelas dto:p'las.mA~as) ,3:,'r~lMn iden~co, asp0~:~O.,

'Qujnfl;i,'~~m~R:'~ a. membrana ~p]a$m!i:'1.'b~ e dG 'P il.'_ ~r:e ~ a 'ti.p[~'p~o t;,~,:i~~ ra ~ -Ap-tre s,e:ntiil'~ se 'P£inci paJ:,m;e:nte· fCI!mlf!jrla. per :fo(m5o'Up,idi'OSl. !13- ,p1'l0'reina ~tre., p::KT Sl(JS 'V'eZ. pml.'s 9"e ast";ocitaJI"- a :gilicidi~B. TaMs, as me.rw:m8.1:Ws; sao de nartm~, ~l.p-{O'p'tl\oteica, v.arriain,d"~. ..na quantid.ad,e ~' ,P:I.1.lt.

, • , ~ • I

qu:B!iJdade dsa l1;iolii!~uJ~, de-"")l{moo ,e' ~J:ro:tmn~s

p~ro~:fMl,W~~t.

O'~ :m,a~!C)~ JJjtt',a: eo e·Ktt,~,f.iJ~ lilltaf\t~~; tlio dife'l"iJn'~I~! s~'(r pel B membrana pl:itt:B.1l:IS:ti.c@l sepa.ll~adQ~- POil" -~~s·o ~be ,a TItemhlra:D,~. ~) t."Q]l:IiNJ"]e; do :ir:L:ter.cimliro ,~i.trin.'~ dmB l1i])e.i,O\S tan [H_f,ere]lte_"I;. R:ep"l~et~ta, leJ~ mrl,~ ·b~i.t:a ,::;-e.l-~t'iv.!;1, iMl1'ie :~ ~lllD:ifi e .--1 s.e~ :me];o..

:M'oo'~IQ ,I.Uatal 1t1~' .rdem,ln~~, Pla~atic"a

V,iiirin~, mod~]oJ~, fu,t~lm .:IP'~~i).pOSltoS' ~' 'wm sj do meli'}'orr.,acl]O!'!!l COM. 0 dESeI:l'lltl!hJ:1Lm!lell'oo 'tecm:o!]rl_g.im .. f-Ioje, _1'[[,OOB~fQ 't;e6ri(;rlj1 mais Rceirm,.~ ~ llilosaJi,co ~id,ol (~10hri]so]1 e SiU~l~(r1' 191'2), Pfl'siuHm1do 'qtK~ ,~ ~, :m'~m brag~ ,p~ajtic~, Ie' '~~d~ J.U),J:' 'QLQI mt)S:f1 .. iJeo ,de, m(Jt~u]JaiS, prob¥iMs eo.iillc;:liblS ,n»maJ, hiea 1li!1U~da 8mlbl de li;p'di~Os!J'~ E~be: m ~tll,el~1' pod;,e SiE"T a pla~~tJirlo 'PEl!~a_ tedas as·

.... ......,;;·1"', 'I'_~ 1

'ro~IIJLIJLI\r-~~ 00. tiJ~~,

Er.illI_ :[un-~iIQ dt) ~~;]i3D!1e[fit.tD e le~t1Gldu' dM! mem'broom~ o'bse:rvo1i:-S!e q:1ilie, s~o ~mnpl~s l~,popl1Jt~,c~s, t:~:ln'Wndo i60 ,:.l "'51% de pr(j!l;em~s 'e ~5.: a ~Ol~·de ,H~diibS.

A dupla C:ml8!OO de . .Lipidia$ apresenta snas nJlO.~;ecuJlfW OQIU sa eadeias lddrofd'bicas, ap'clm.~8. (2~ij'rMmJI vlIJltP!IJdrm para, Q interim' da, un~:[if:ll~ir{n1la,· jia M· ~,lie!{mo;; lJi!11arn$: bi*,ii:fliJl~:s~ 'vol'tam"'3 p3r~" ~eio' anllJien:t"e ~el:tJJla.r ~ 2.,5runJ' OLl paTR ro ciw;pl ~~m a (2.5RTRh 'me~~I$' ~,,'~~~~ .. ~.q1J!P'SO'tS;, A mrel'8.sio., lIiga'~-~E, fl'RCBtB I e'nt.reSls dUM c:ooe.ias 'n~~,SM s :part~s' h]:d]:'f]f6b~e~! ~s 'man tim. 'llll1'i ~"

l,Mas, ,~_~ m.J~m~b1aJ1:~a abl' ~go'Fa, ¢~.'tu~da~, ~nti!~u. ,lb~f;ijUp'OO~.~ pClrem,~, ";l, :p1"i(~~I~ e ,~, 'toncent-~~~, d081, outroo, [I lp,idiOE;, ,sao mui fuo I variaveis (1CO'~ ~sit'GlE'Dl, @sfin,g',.rdJ,plllli[-OS II!

. ,'I.!!,U: "':...ll,!, }'

,gA'JI,'Ct.J'~PIMJ;OS ,.

~' 'pmtBf~l!as [Jia '~lbr,E[n8 MO ,~lol1iUl ~ tll"e~' ,~ bipol[(["e~ hull. ~6:!o ,po!!i'tii_v(:J' e um po,tol nega.tiv.rJ;}~ tlluw.;ndo mBrgu].h,~a.:s~ 't-O't~] ~'}U 'p~t.claJm'e:nte~ na 1ioc',ra:r.na:t:'h!1l U.pidiea. A P3:r.1te, hlth~6hi,C_8, d:.l.s -~,~,futJIL~, ~s.ti ,~.Q~mi z(ljda :IIlQ ca['JItro RaJ, Ideam~dla ~,prdk2.~ ,iii H l'llmnfiIllic-fl( I!lfe ~\n_Cctl]11t:,SL. :tU~ ~e!r'ft~ie d~ nl~bif',~~, Jnntn ~~ ~ooea:s: hm~f[b,~:@ dos,. llipfd]:Q~. co:ntat::tL~ (fill '0 me.ro lenr.a:,eehJ1rID:" OiU 0 ciJto:plarsDM"'l1~

P'od amos classifiear ~1c8, p:rQtgjilJL~s do: membrSrha e'm, ('Lois gl",and,es gl"u._POEf~,

~J: ]TEO£em8lS, :inte.gais: C~):m.p:t18enrl:.e.[1[l "l~l a OO~~ dtas p1mteinas d~t ,m~[n'bl·9,[JJa. ID!cJu1d~s .,aqm Mfllo 8. ,ma:iolria, ~.a:Mb·1Il3£~, ~1'~efifiS., ]J~m~fn iiJl8 'ir.:r;Ei;]L'1~pmtOOO1"mJ e i;@ceptore's, d'e ~lle!libr.ana~ A ,[;);arLe·.W ~o.rijb:i.'ea de~JSiU ']1fi(j~~in~s fi,~~ :P'['\~ iEIlO8' '~]p'f.c~, na reg]~o 'medial da membrana, A:s, mriTh~~,a:s ~M' p -·:ote:ill.as, poderm 'elttrave 6,8 ar -todla !11 -eBP~'l~ da menmr,rula eu' ,niliJ. Po.d'i::l'ilIQS

dl~~l[ que iila!~ 1P"],,(1I{l'ern,3~ i.!lllte~;am,s. ~,iii,or jp:[locOOilna's' mIU;~!l~' a~, m.emb'r,E!J]]'u.

b) pr.omima.s, pfHj'!il£:ericaSl~, 8:i¥iJO .fricWn~,tt;e. nbtic11all p '~r,a3~ Ii vres d08 lipfdio·s., Uaem-se a l.~c,~],s, e!'s:pe'[;,]i.ficoffil [la, membean.a .el 'ptQ~i'1~:v~lmm1101' a ]jg~if~(I, OOOtF~ atr,~ve8 Jd~s, iPTil t ef'n a 13 -', n t;'ei,gr 8.1.8,_ S &:,0 ll):1!"~"!i"~rn as :~:rif~ri~ !~ cl:rocrom1o ,!l} :(P'(jutiiCti.iP~ d~' ,~!'esi:Ji1.'a.{:'io eelular 'Q 8. .:mjto~6:r:ulria )" ,at ~e~ki:ft.a( (m~mh:r&n~. d~ ~ritvo:cito<$J,

.. ~ 4.:',_, .. ,........., ,i ~ t m,j,,~c ';I,

'erI""'OiIlC'liJlJlJi8L e e:1~li1Li1,-u.mlf)SUli3I, ,iffil:'n:!w:uClt>!J.E).

,Al~' Ilto1liOO:laS ~fl~im~rica_,,'ilI pode'm ·1rlr.U:iH~l'OJJ;at"' ,~imltf] -p,F."O,te;!l.na.s, ,em>ftlLtu:MiiSl~

,Esp(!lcializalJ;iies Ilia ,~n'IJ~JlQ;na

Ell'll ~,h..d08l d@1 eertes ,tipos 'de tecido.s; la'~p,lt;e ]i,!3r.i:!:s d ~. l~e"if egtti:nl,en to t a me m, b !t~,arn Sf pl$;511lli't1ea ~ofre nldiJlillil~gj;,~"fies (lm~o crinseq,iieM~ . de . adapin:El!iQe-s .£iJWlldtm~ait1.,

eU"lfl,si~eraf:1d,Q qtllB a, etl,ul~ ,~pli.'CeUa[, '~e~ij'!LllSa ~oblfe Q' 'tecidJG' .~o~~nt~vO't R jfuJ~ ;(!~'ifJL IQm:]l:t8t~ Jtm.to ftel:mea~IH) e dlfi:W:mi1J:3t'la: face_ "basa1~ iei! faCl" d:1Iamefi:niaj~ne.illft;-f2' oposta clta:ma.~,ge' faee in~:hcal" sendo as d.e-m.dis~, mces to'ier,9:H;", .EltiL, 't~cjd!Q ~pi'~(~lw.l ,~s I r,:a"t-ifiJt~~fllrJl I( Imnna.dtl' Jil](f' Y'ii,"i~s C81liaiia;~ .de ~lw,8:El ~ R fiEtee bas al ~ aque1!a ''il~o[~tOOa. pM'~~ '0 It~~idg oO'r:t\jutl,t]v.~. D:..s,~, fru:ni~:~ p(idem~s fa1srr em, e~e~istLl"Z8IyO~~ a.pi~~~ ~,.8:.tel".9:i~, e' hasais,

:1 ~, i'Iie.}:'O'IVill.osidades (mic,~ruo,s.)

1:S~.O e:~pall'EUJ~S dlh' dt-O_P].i51'ffnla (r!)'nll_~ de ,d'~diQ de· luva) 1"ecl)herb~ 'pot mlcm b!r~na e I~Olllli~~),a(~ Q,'iL'uito,Sl n'~i,.~~Q.fil~I!~Jnt[)iS de'- ,ar.dma, I(:p,mtelna) :r-eflllp'~D..BAlIiei~ p~Ia. :ma,n,u'~I1r:;;ao, de- ,SiIlA fnrma,

,. }?t-"O'ntt;l]:fi'., ern ~luJi~~ ~a~i~tn1i::va~, C~~., 0 BiP,dBio. do m~tes:tiRQ delgado e ~, ~p]l:te6.0

,~~, B~!CviQditi~ '[;mrt'al'lfro" para. ,atlm~bn" a S1Xp~_m ~ ,alwo~~iio ..

~ ~ & til! JlI1ji.;; ~I ~W!itll:lo I~ I~e§.loo

il~'ild~ m~tr.an ,a~LIQ5 I'I'Il~iJ'lH~

:2 -; C~, 'e F1~Je.IIlJ~,

Os c'h1~~ e! flage:lns aM estruturalmenta ~dffi1t1;.ccr£: Ap!lesentrun tr~~ pan.:es: hg(.@te~ cO]'PQ basal e :r ais.

'Baste·

Co~s.re mnn pmlnl1,gam~e11Lm d~l1Ii;Lo:nd)if':'dna lpiamlliitim t]1Il~~ e[wo1'!!le lUll'll emu de snJilt~:t~~!, 0

C«r.po- b~i5!ai1I, on qbteJ)_~~D:mD

Siwa-ae I_n,al base d.o. cilio ou :l1age.1.o,. ,t'l,Q

. t.e. d ·,tJ J N· . .',~ ali- • clade- ~

T ,"' • ".J'. I • ........ ~ • '. ( -" , I" . .' .' ~ '. .' - rl - -

':11-11 ;l",ILM ·0 m:QP . .a.~ma. ,a ,re. .... .', co· .eIi n:u.Ull

.. .,i!;, ~ ... ;,~, ,.;:'1i",!" _1_·· ... , _.;n. . - .' . _ji~ ". ~., Ii,. '0"

'~9fPlU!ie-wo' 'l:JI.I!IUrn1.oo~ '4'eip.ImIl1llH!QlU C~w:ID:uO-. '"

,~al1'trlol'@ ~: Ifo:lf"mlM.o [1iOir mt.cn:!lt11Jljull)~' te-atn:l't1ll"lm, ~rJ·~cas-. ,c.~mb qu~e 1Lemhram ¢anu.d!i ·de ~er~&gelim1.te' q_ue se. . .a.1ldtngam. e e·mDutem 1'1a 'll.ag~~, iisenit6 tetIpillI19d~r!ei~l;1e]o. ,l[Wlv]mf!nt'TI Ida. ,~m8..

o ~~lQ 'QU~ ru~a ij il]!!IrpQ bas~1. !8 f(n·_W.arlfl, P.~f J!il,ij),,_',e ,~o'njiU:Drh)iSi d.e '~_r.l~:S 'm:icl,ubibtd:o :peri£~rleils~. S~ml fjljl par i~eilltT.,a[.,

0_.0'

,llI.HllZ.

OfHt.1Iju.n.w d,~ :m:i~oS;'lj]lie;llt.os ,( ci:~les"q~lGlt;o,) ([1])12' ,:[i:x;am n ~~~"lt'P0 'basal ~EH:J! m'~~lLlop'~'Mm3L"

le'iJi.o,s,

Q'CU~iwn, ~: ~~b9~.ios c;jL~i~diO$ no ~tiEi·]iQ de ~~l.rVas. dl~ 3:l]im:ai~ ,illW:~l.ltiorJa~ 'e:p'ii:da:rn:!ie de 'p'l~niri,;;ti5, t~stru'L~~, 'loP(JrnQmtas1!, epit·eHtlt d¢. :'J(~p!'tiI~timlill]w ,d~j8 vi~s -rnaJpif;,ilt61':i~, lcilJe manli·:f01L~iJ.g~ l~p·n~].iQ' da t;uJ!nl utc~~l~ h1l.lmr;rnu 0 w6spoooi'l ,00 :Wg1!Js. I~ {tIDb~-

S&o t~a,cteri!1!lticM. dri~ 'f21io~ Iq~' uS d:ifacrem dQS iIla~~'9s: L~- :apaFeCl!tHn,~ m ~ld~· :!mtl'N!I;HrO parr ,eef!u];a , .m:oviDi~epdD£i: .1"8,pid.os, I"'" O;v'iiDf",~ ~fulliIl V1!..,_~ :.dfimio

J!!!_-_~,,_~eD~!l!I "I!IJ~~ ,, __ ' __ •

I'_.]~s,

,Ap-;,n'ecem em ,pr~iOO"J.Qa'[·,~~ ila,g~l3.d.Qs" no. '!E!9:pre:i~lnLa,'tozoide d,e vr~t:['_io.~ Qm.]JrJ:[,ati~ . n ,~pe.rm-a'l1Diz~llde' ~ :ti ·Uooil&a 6i5lu:la .U&~]ar;k de 'i!l:rL;·:[ltdfe~s}~ em millit.~ ~lgas~ ~te~tm6ilde$. tIe 'wnr3goo .I?' $"~~ct.iIlb~ ias It} ~gl!lltUI,~: ba£bl.daL~"

.s.,~ c'al:acte.I', stieas U'l[JruC£lfS de' ]1a.ge1-~t!:I :

lo:n g'(~':::h 'u.:iJiQ. 10 'l;I _P;'(Ull e o,~ ,,([HJ':t,.. ~,e I \d ~ J'

'Ulovim@'uto.s ': 'Gmlt'~S[li· Ul,!},vi"m.I@JD.O' ·pIO]" ,chlc()team:,eUiJt~ '011 QDdulat{j·rifi~

hD~e8 .

.09 elli,M' ei' oa _flsge]flS -szio 'respc;,n.s.a:ve:ilil ]lela! locoJllw~M de- mmti9!t3, re~~ llvres "e de: a:ni~iJ ,aJquati.,Cbi5, :p'1~11i8rjB> e' para 0 d.eS-]U·CSiTneuto de p::l:rM~,uli3:S :ma., s~pe1'.dicie da relttla . .on ,tecido.

16j esplB',~t(ll'i:z0fies lale'rei~'

l ,_ ·DeS:JnD~snm_os

Sao ,rfITI1Ii.8J~O®S .,ralmQ'l'll.,ctBi~ p~. ,(I.14tH ed1\lliulj, 'r1!~tih~ 100m Q objeMvfJ ~, aume:ntar a :~de.~l, ICi(!]luil.a:If~,

O'co:liT-em £::lin ]o~ai2i' suj~lto.; '.3i gr-an.dle l)]ift,8~ao m.~ica" t'Omo () we:i~.o. epit..e]ial ' :pelle €I, c61~jlu ,do 1~:p.].t6]jQ iub~'~tiro~ e (.i']ula~, ,au tmcidlQ 1n'1x.~'Ubn:· !~tri~.{IDJ) ~tdt~~Q,

Cada, d~dmn efu~ pat' dRaia pmcaa, !c:itO'p,IEL~:maticaa 'OOllde.n~d~ (urns, em eada ceJulaJ, vlzim.haj" p:Q:r: 'tono:[Ham.ent;Q.s l'fitaml;entolE _ die, pR!!temas ea:pe~!':SS~91' a.te 17' .nm ae ~ltnetro)1 '~pIe '~:,u.rH~'l!,I'~:m_fi:~s ilfJJ.~.eOl$· enmu reforro e' pOll" nrl:~m-uam{en,t~~ l(tiJmne.ll.U;Ja. ,de· p'iI()I~inaJS. ("tirOl. "1 a 8- 'rlmql Ide d:ihlnfjitf,U) q_iWi·,~'~a.\f,es~a:mi amemhrana. das ,d,ua.~ ~~iu.~ vi~th~. 'e o· e8p~~ ]~:I1.(;rr.t~elular:.i ~Oiftto; se (10J-fbllt',~_S$em, 'amhas :aJ_8 c-e[~.,

Em, 'Vm_["En=p:te~i-OSl como o·e'p1.ieli.o mt~tina.l

h.l· 1· ~. ~ ;}l

irX-'tlnf' Il ~ :_~~A~O ,~i)DlfJ: ;~X'Q ,JI~~on:-~_1 tTIm

'nln~as ,d~ ,l'uJ~!ij;~B'O !e .ved_a~'iD ca1 ~naI'. ,0 '~OJ:l]pl~o' jU]flLo-illrm11iil e: furn1lR,da 'pO<T .~ ,elemof_mto5:

,a) ZMlnola. iDcbuitens I(~o:n.a, de ,od~OJi.=·t8i-· ;m ~altt:ff]-n.H]1l ~m" torno dEill !?;ona ·,apiMi d,@ ,~]lI'~. '~as treh.1i1a'$ ~,:~~na.i:s' { OOitfJO- ~. - .u![res.-I~~tila'is .' eem ,0 IDl~iett:vg' dle v.edm·"e :inl.p-ed-iF'.o trHnsit;o

d:e q:ualq.tn,er' sl!l!b~~nc1a ~d'ii" e~::iJ~l!e ,as ,oolw.u. CU111pre a'qni'~ :p3.veld~isi.vo (I ~un ealele,

b) ~D.ul!.a a:dlll,~l~~' (zon:a. !'lie 'a(i,e'S'{i.o) ~ ~ :Ufi:IJ. cil"lrID ,oo(lltfulUij, em fO'r:m.~ daa r:~luJa!!':!l :["8-

,. . ..

:F~ll"~a1'ldo "ii, ~fWi !'iil ~i;r.e :aa mesmas,

,~" JlGl~a ,adhere,l'tS, ~.a,:~_lib lil:e~ ail~~=l(:),) =' ~ ,3Mtm ;e:ba:m.ad~;) tl pl'.lLmelJ:o' de~nlGS~fJQ]_d "l3![p6£5 a ~[}rn,fI!, d, adlesi{]l, 'N~'tte, ,!ttle ha, ,nO:l",m.31=,

'ru" :cl ill

_ - _ Ii .. l , [-0"· _ .• - ". . _ . "_ ~ " "-_ . _, r;. = •

mente, uma ,11 ,errr~, ,I.e. (eQmO~~Otr1f:lL09., "li"iioffim ..

, .F.

I'efB,re~' ae P,:[i:rlllii91[1[),_

Sa.(;I, fQt.'.lTI.~,o~, qlQlt'! ,:f-efu1.\~mn, a 'UDiiio l~l'!l;U~ d[1li:2L1;;, orhl:i11as ~i'Zj ahas ~ Oc~rrre, em, ~j)~a:~, com, prn~aa:f ]]lec~nie[fL, CCUll_CI, a ,pe're_ P.uil;.an:JlbOl ;:ltt];ricrt8l, Ide ,bBc"~ e-p~.t'cliaia d~ re\'l'eSHml~l'oo~'

S~,o~ '~~pangije's ~ depr-,e'SS~s,' das 'm.emb:r3!naS . fle' d:i;j2L~', c:ertl:l~'iH!!l ~:~as~, p1\~FOO~O:ila:n£oo u.:m, Il1!m~ .en'tr elss 1rM.)'D1Q o~ rha!os L'l:[l :E:ll'ilEEriOI" de uma l:u'y,E!_

I -'.1 ~iies. '~il:mU1'iLi,Oa.m'~Eis:~ ne.'Dlsi, IlliU lfilp!p'

!. ilil·.'" [··l

J1!D.I:~~{jJn'rJ; ~'

Ji?(l>:ram, Oih!i!le:~:ya,das Ifd(Il:~e a~ 'c6lwas €'pitelnaif!1l d,e' ,!"e "if ~ s:t;iu[ iI:t~D,'~U I ep,i t,~U~is, g~ a.m:u.ill:ul a m"t!'~, I 'm uscul ares lii.!!l:a~ J rn,U:~C'iiJ.ll ~_l!1e~" Ii:Hl"dtrhtIC:;aS e :i],m"'ViL'li9~\,

,M j'Un,(ii~ dtJ, tipo PIl' do f:tl],'mJad~~ po[' dais 'tu:'ba.s, :p.ri),teieos pi$E3!Je',]o~ que, ,3[;tt1l1 ~e~~am as :nl~'m~hr3:m~u~ de dUM Ill,5el:~!!l ""1'"]2.:lulb~~..'I' p€lJlnitinOO!,:a t'Om1!1:l4i~!:Il~io e~'1'~ !:!iii, 'n't~$m,~~~

,M'l'til,\i',es rug, ,jm1rm~es ~oml~i!"'!ilt:anL"eS pa ssam , di v,e~,~,aJ,£iii subs ,!t.fi.:I"1 ci a ~ ,e,n. t I'e' as e ~ 1. ula B' (nt1cleo~ftt.eQ$ a:[[li:fi_t)~~idt)s.' e, :vffn~t pm~m .. , '!laO h.;, 't'eall$:tr) de' m aoc:]:'~nrnrilec:ulS!r!.\

,ABsin~~, ,gropu~ ,~l~,es tions,1titu~, 'nm, , roccij'umtO funeional, aeuando de' :itnbd(], lOO()!l!.'liellJ3Jrl:O e ];t~mlAlni.«a.,

14 '=P ,pJ~ufid'~~i

.N~s S~~~SOOg de- d.e~(XJD:Ilnu.idaltle da pa:r€(i]e, eeIULRar das {,-el1llaJ~ Vle:~t~~ h'-,a, .f{]:H~~i3iu ~ 'tubns, ,Pl:lQ'I1~L"{~S~ 09' p~~nd'Hsm(J~: qu~ ,pe'H[]IiteltIL a ·t':pid,~ eomanie ~~~~ ,en. be, 0 ~ ~i'~!ilP~],::J.isLm,ai5l'

.....,. .... d • ..:' ..... ", ,,,,-,,,, ~yll·JjJIJ...~a;U1rl~.

l(,eJ e;~p'f!ciQ;lb,o~titi!.~, ,qpi~c\a~rs: ], =' "pr~g,a;Sl b$i~d~,

]]:n"at~i5~~ if,:JUH- {lcn~ ,(113. basa dlaS ,rl&lli]as dtus e..~afei ,ren~iB. Helacitlf['i,mn...ge, 100m. ,0' ,,1!'a:n.s~po:rte, d.e ,=1l,gll:a re,a'b~~,nr.vi,iLQ. ptrJif' lea~~ e~;~m,I,3J:&.

,2' ',~, ,D~:d;esmDli1S0m~

S~ro mFm~ij~ :t13J, ,1t\!;!gH~lJu b~~'i;] ,[Iaa: "~il}l'~ epi'te:[ials, faee doe lirl~ltil:tatfH:O]]l, a. :~a.mnm basal {]ci~a1, (t~, C[lnt.al'~:'o jitlifitn au t~i,lilt1' 'ei1njillif-t~Vfr mbj,~~eL'l:te)cb senlel~J~eS' 3J Uiml ~mn~nl0~ ~:tti. j\ig:ai]id.ade 3

" " _ " . , ' " , ' - t _

fi!H~ dk~, epi'ttUia eh'tbOl'~ a:, sua p,at'~ tt(l, deBmnS_S~ID, IPf1I"I~'m,~ na,o ,M, t:DH-e~PGnrl!fUlla, clfi outm ItB!itn;, j$tq,l.l.e ,bfiJ['l, h~, on'Kj,"a u~l~u]a epiteHal ,e

sim ,~, UUru:~3 baaal, ,

~. ~ .

fJ'lD'.A ~_';rc ~.~ . .0'1 iT!TD.:Ai, '1I7VO D' i . ..t :IA"J:1[J!l8D':D )Ii Jll'['Aj dIi ~.~.~ ~ 11 Ul ~:~_ .&_~ I~ "~a' [' '. n !l_UG~r~~ "'Ilft

,~,p~:amADB SELRTIVA,

A" me:mthr,8fi~ pl~gmi1tica, ~ a pri'ilcipru, ~'eS~o]];.s~v~li pGlfJI1Goobr,o.lrEl' d~ '~'~1;:r.EJ;ifa61'~ ~JT(h:jj de ,~tlb~'I:.;1:rtrias. Ida eel ula,

Par,EtIi a ·mru.'~n~ das. 8,u'bsu'lJlChu: e;dg,~ uma ·lNcl,at(;ao wTeta e:nr~ sua sdlu:biliidadie nos ll:pfwu$ e S'U,fl (:-:lpaci:dad~ d.~, :pen~tta,',ll(~' 'D a~ ,Y~h;da:s- 5iub~taJnd:as' apolares, solfi:v.'eis, Q)!)Sl Jipiilios,. 3.'b:a:vessam f~Urn~']l'i:e: rEt membrana, [J,\r)r ,oubvo ~ade;o ~lJlh~t.:anciaa po.ta't'!es~ i~o']'~,veis em 1iptdi~9~, t.em malor diBc1l1d.ad.e para penetrsr ,l:iI:ElJE ,celu1,S]§. ,A conf[gu;ra'~io '!mlo1ec:m:M podera 'poltisibiH,tru: a e:x[$mn~, de· ~lln.'~spo~d'Q!I". IOOmo '0 transporb~ nttViQ @ ,ft mfiu~;M 'mcn]ftad~.

'Phd.e,moilli cl~sme9.r 1], tn~:ln:si'ttJ 8.tl·a:"~E; (IDa ~~nd]r,3J:tt~ em ,pe'Eme.~bmdaJd.:e: seleti.ll:al E

liI:"""",,",lIim'1Iioih~,",,,_ I~'_ 'iI'1I1·III.;.,'II'II,~,..,lI,--.3I.". Il~· l~~.!i;:,!I,F~Jl- • .J-~ ~~~I '~_~>Q\_!i!:!Il~liIlIJ~g~-!!

PermeQ;,bili;dtJijde Se~ti~a

A :i't~ 'b;\~i'ta, HVUlM nte U,lt;r.av,i2s lill~

-meii"!ri"i',l~"jr:"lI~ '-;TI~-..ti""_'I'.,,, 'IF"I; ".~ ~'(1i'"'' Si ,..;;.,_,.ni".d'aDl~""'iS, '·1

. !!'u~I·i!1.lbIh!!a. e .!f":m,- 'I;;!!'I!"'~~ ,I!'c'~ !IJU'_~ !:!i~5'I!.0 __ ._ ... L

~.e~br.mla :~il~:i:~ 01!] :1;1 io a p'$.~S~l, ~:tr~~f6~ d,e ,S.i, AlEi~~, !ru~"i!ie que a m!enb~arla, "~,aKm:;t'tr.ic.a, e ,p~d\Vel~, '~~mJ' ,~e-]eti~ar"

Podemos ,ctBlB~],tica:r a pe!'ntle®.b].lida~,e ~ef,eH va ern, ;~J:",armspO:f'te P,3i§!!i:h;'OI j dilfusao~, dl:Uusio faei.I,iitadla e !o!ll1w.,OBe ) ~' 'fi".a:n.spot!tie

,;.;: giI4VD~,

!n.~l1:y_po:rlB ,p,ft8&~NO'

Fala-se em; 'tr,~~ ~~.ilfGi q:ufn.udo .niio M I~ de, ,e:ner.~ pD:f part:e. da ~lul~ J::i q1rii!: .tj d~l'~mmtQ M, ~l;gbatd:m:lia ,ott ion ij~r:re ,~ favuiti de, 'R!llli gradi~Db!i Q1'Il1miie.g (Ico,neeiltra,io) eiOg ,eletri:C!!llI\~

aJ lJjJ\u.ao :~p.I··s

A d]UUESRO, j]Co.l'l"e pnrque 'baclas sa pan.icnJ,as r &'tmUO,3,i mo.Meu[M~, iLons .... ,i l ,esltao em oo;])HtW!1.ie ~mtrrimenw e PO'i"' mro~ t.e.f:ulEm1r a S'I? ~spaH"1L91' 'dIDfundir L ,Lowoomm1W", \o~o~e pod~ eonelnir q.u~ esse ,d~~].,~.g ~~ .eta da 'Jlcgjio (i)lrtd.e ~~ 'p~n161l.[~' ~s:ti¥eJ:i~ em 1l'nti.(I(f' qll~lfi'Lid'~J~j~ tm ®rjs tOO ©~l.'b-ooo J :~'ira 3, ~egi~(~ rjk, n1:~O'(' ~I'U8Lr.rt;d~d;El LmiB]l,Gl" !OonieeJ:ltr:~io) ..

P'ar~ q!J~' baja . anil:saWj ~]lila'''mmo,. em p!1m~i fir:') 'I:l~ga't a '~"tL"llCtnbra:llt! tk,V~ ~er' '~nneav,~l a . s1JlJ)s'll.iru;ia, :~I I ""in ~gjIi:iHd:~, ~,Ug~ibi~ ,~l~ve: OC"{ll~ dirc~~iilIi- ~ ·IC(]Dt.tfrttl:b:,aCM 1C~:u;Ll"Bi lu:i -m~,11:li~ in,L1];'Ol'ii. E e~!~]'~Ir~

,Mi:,ilri!.ve~, ,d21, ,men'dl1:mrrh8 pl~i1:1il1Jm, C!C'urra djJ1,;hS;~to de '[leq~OJ.e'(3)S mo:le~w.$ ,roi~IW Ie 0 I~Gl do o.~dge:mo e' do g,;§;s. e3.r'bfm.i~o.

A, ~iio d.o o:x:ngem'!J' ~(!O[1l.Woe ~B sua OOl1i.Ce:ntr,E,~ao 'e mal:iru: fm:iil! do qru.e ,clent;:rQ, d~ :~eh_t;]a,. o meto m.afu~ ,caoce:ntJ!;adill e: cllanJJ.fI1~JO ]u,p~':Ir~il,ml(]!!!lI; I~ ijl tnencs omce:nb~d.o e rut.1) :bi,p!J:t6'tdeD~ .a o:bj'stivQ d.e tode t:riIDEiitu rtllt.rave8' ,dtt memhrana e' l':!l ,m.okmia f d,eixm;' es d.om mei08 oont a mesma loon~fi't.t'!!it:ao,).CO'mo a, ,c~lW.a usa 01 O:'Xig~i].i.o nat :m:'i~pj~~SJ.o "il;:eliL'iLlLarj: a ~.u;o:m~n'b:'a~.a(J; do :O,le[allt~, diminul deoll;.ro da l~~lula e, assim, 'pm'" clllifii~ab, 'pal~U, ,do mte:io ~.N;tl"a.~eJ:nlW" para I~ i:~tr,ait,.~],~. ,e). i~ ~~bthlico, mm.o produ,1.J) ,iin~ d,:eJi. ~~i~~,io ~lu].&l, 'Venl ,;::Jlu:al earu,i~tr.,~.5Jo ,s.e'm~ ~~e;]ll'ta&: d;eBl;t~, ~ C~,Ulra,. iLo,go' p(n~ lilifu~fu. g~ha ~I m~it;!

1E"..xti,~eh,1ilE!l,ir'; .

A dufiLlSiEJ.o e IIl]m, l](L"O~~SffO ,ti:ffi,0Q na.'[.1ll'~~. e loontm11Vlj, :~r, :i~(l' . cl]um~da, ,diifusit.1 S'-ple~ .. :Somcnte :s'€,ri~ :i rnt '~~cPiida se a, i;sot~JIida OO~,

a]c,autada, .

bJ, Di~;g 'filclBtilJa

,A, ,diftns;io ~radiJilada. e i!lm~ ftu!m.a de a~]e~,~1" ,~, dIfiL"i!!S:io. :J~I,::,i. t~il;m:,re'J;ii~i cl~a 'm.~rJla, ~)'~rr:J:lliMi., ~~ 'Ql.!1Jlil' mats "len,'~~ell1~'~

El:9J. e l.m,pffi1.:a.J1J.te 'par,::lf rnolecruaLS maiores !oom.G ,g]icose ~, :8ll."tim:l'oa.ciiioBl, mas ta11looru 'P'ilir.aJ, Ice rto a: ~ons, comO" 0. 0'1-,. e Na t E:1 0 II,· L

h '''~;'!T;;T'm~$' [1ldl1cioo~d~~. ~\ril, ,~ cliidliE:ao> faciLi'tada ,~oo euzimas dita;E; peJrnii,~.es q:llli.e~ na "Verdg,eI~. .sail p,nJtei:riaEJ integf,ffim an .n':t~ana. Eissaa pNlLIif;e{naJS. [p<QiBiSU.em. 's.:tti.6S, ~:ilrpBcf~o8, para ICel't:tl:,~ m.o~,~euJ 8:~ eu : elas ses de· €lQmp-o~tolS,

~" ~~11 ..;m'~ • ..::Jlj~,I,·.:>l: .....

quuruecs, a'L-:t::J!eru:[i:IJ.llI\~ a5$IIU1• a i!,.JL[[iJl..gi:J.U\"

'Cj IO~D~e

Observ;e. que . ,fl~9n~Qi fffilrun~4' ,9'U1 ,d.ifU.a~~ ~~a eJ1iI1 ~lm:plet5l ti;a;J, :("st.t:iiUtada (;!COm:.ir"~ 'ua:a:1rsiw' ar:fl:rav:es da membrarm. de selnte. '[)e5t~, fe-r:wm~ 0 soluw tr.~a1:i§ga, '00 Ul,e:W ,li1:iJ:lffil't~ni.eo para ij

t1'ipO'oon;i)oo. .

A, ~~. ~ 'wm ··tYpo ~.fi,pem;Jl de diwJSilJ) n.~, qualquem !D:.rulmt~. :p,el'8L .~b.r,~" 'G :~,ilJ.'v.ent'e I[ eJ.'1t\wJJlar,se ill, ,aguiPl Sil':!vera.~e' .univarsal). A:smn" dm.'"~'m $1;, osmose 0, ~~.';,fe(ll,te tr,amgita. do msio 'bj:potin:jeo, pat,~, t!l h.i,jlertO-:nfi1~oi' 0' f:lbj'~:ti;''/l' ~ 0' ,Ul~m!D ~a mfi'H~9.o. ,ntiI;j)\~:r lJ1:rnR m.owrnm.

A cif"iim~j~e ~ um dG\$ fe:o:iJm\C::nos' m~is im~lO:Tli:tifllms, da 'bit;llogia

Pbr'lffi,u;ujJ,pIOj, sa col{,u}as'Semlfi~ :um.8..,oolru'a 12:l:m ,~gu~ pura; eJa ~b9QJ've'cia, ~wu.a ,~e:ro. ~;iin.ro~.e fi: id)cll.arl.~ ~'IJ~ ,~t_o~! AA~; ~~n'liu.:,~~i(, ~, rc~s.e '~n,el'guilifuad~ n~a '$·oliiJ~~Q ru:~a:t[It~r:liLe Sa1.irOil:r ,~lii, ~e:J."d~, ,a;~ ~ :ii;U.'rLiIj'cl~i!3l,. As l~eLn1$ dn 'm'as~" '~~r,o ~,'I')i'::"" ~, i!\!~iiflnb;j.'to ~ :~r ;"'~ t.~f'!Iil]:]d,(ii iooJrln." 00

';,&I_p_ !I,;,L""~ '!;oI,~.!.! "" ~,~I_ __ cam """"'·H . -~Jl _ _ . _ 1_

,nrigi:lilian;J;l, do s;:~,~~;. ,~mdill~ ::ljj, 'OOj[]jce[]f~aa 0f],ilIivSi.1Q:'·

it C.OOOmrt;.I'a~fl dlo ciJ.ij}plaGlJi'iL1£l. Logo, em eo~rOOs' 11~i' as nnasas ce1lWet~, 1.1!RO SoH.,eD] aJ,tlE!(r.El~a.es d,eV'idas· a Gi3,nIDSe.,

,n~-::-.,"'-~"',iIi'ii.-~'-~ ," -~~,~,~,iIi''''''""","",, '--"~~ iI!'f"_ ,",I,fll! LlI'!SI.,,;r.lI;.Wjn.n:;;'~,rI' u

Go I oq,U.e' uma StJlu~aQ! tl~' agu~ e ,5.ae~O'8e '~!~~~r d€ m~in1J;)~l) g.e.ntw df~ 'iJJlll l~tJhg 'd~ 'Jita~f\~ eorn mn :s~ d~ 'mawl1al :~ml.i~~aw'$] (d,@i~~~~ ,atra,ws~w' apenas '~iii]n ~a) armrnrri3l'ri1ll .om '1l4'iI'N'I das ~'\'3imid~~~s- M<@,t~gtilb~ (]i' c('uYll.I!(;ho.]]J1iiJ1],_ 00110 com ~t~ pura .. A;p6.s nlgum, tempo :wE'ifique eomo '0 :nivel dla, ,~,guN sobe clslIJ1':tro do tubo, ,oom,proym"tdQ a 'pas8!'a~m da 8tpgl dp, t:opo ,arret Q, tl~idr~linro do bilio rum. 'ft 'memlli:Ir~: 'Bemip.e..1'IDeaVlel.

O,'smQsf! Ie ,ft·e;,'alu' aBfMLiI

,Se V'(~C~ ~me,rg.W]~~t ~li~tiQL,.·it~· hUID"~'~'i1f1S I!2m 'uma, ,~.t1:[u<~io, 'l~,hl~~tu'ni~'j' ~,p6~ m~ia h(il,'t~~g. o'b$.~rv'~l,gSe· ~o ~tmsc6'.piQ O:ptlc~ q.~ Qj,~B 'fi~tun 'on rug;t:lJiI os, ~ Ctml"J!l@'U· :porqrua flS, 'mb~Ocitos p~m;il' i34gu~ 'p~ o!J mc:jo Q~!jj~ Cj biuCJfi6n~ooi feDfimerlJfi ,dim ,~e~,i.'o~

An 'Conl:trl~l:.tO~, sa V,QOO n'il!flirib,qjJh~]' mu~citrj.s em 'ilJlm. mein mpomnfu-g·r, ,8JPM :mei~ hom, ~ariilJ arreb-sntooos" (}DlDO ,;±l! OOJloontra'~~Q do- 'maio am me:nar a ,agnEJl penetrou em granda, ,qu:@Dtid£tdl~ '.JJD. ~ebdH,~. l~f'OVIl![lHndl1 ~I seu, 'est~lllf;l'Oro fenQme~ 0

" . .iL..=,~ = .;:11... h _ _..,·ft:!:=~. 1~~1i:I..Li']j!~.L~u l • ~lU;.QlfUlti~.~ilil

=~:;-:w~ .. ~ . --1'001,11- .rtk:rm.4'" H 1nT1&

(It ....... lH!

A~,a, Tcspood;aJ, IP'O~' t~:u:~ um p'_aulr,ago ~IiliiLJ d~v,~, mesm ~ I~rnn '!'l~d~'!l h~'!'b~i':' a, j~ifJ do "ma.];'; Qual o ;p'rin~p'io' que 'Pem:;r~t.@· a pJ'~~v,o;~ao d.a earne saea (de 801 OIll r1.taIlq.llIli:')?

C:el,ulas fJt.?6:e:I'ai'B e o,"S!DtOBe

Na ,i]eJ:uia 'v,e;rs;-eta1 ~~ ~gW..a)~.Ao, da ~t.m.da M agtln esm "teb~dQ\nl;rul@; a I~~;~ d{!l V:.;1I,C:UO 0 ,cite

'"""'"......... .. .... ,.,.~,~ ~ iI ,~,_ •. '~!llAd'';:'·.~ lL:i~~l.~IiJ

Nt.nn~ cGh.lm '~,ml ~d,ultaJ! {[I' 'w~"Q]O 0 nma ,gr~d~ llilo]s~,_ iJUJ~ ~p~MlJ~be' pr8;~(;aR]]~'te~ _li~O ~~ I ~p~~(r dEl. ~h':Il1lk, 0 ~a~uolij, eontem w.n~, sol1J,l'i"a~

Ifo~~mHM PQ:I!'" ,'~ IE" muitas OutrM ~iiDciaa 001110.SsUS' mdin.e:ra:iJsl n~dcilrl!aE?, ~cido8 tQ,rga:niOOal! 'PQrr ~emplfl~ ~ :tJ!!kI!l.Opla.sto, & :!i."O~m:br~ de ~ruolfJ\ qmte 'e WTIa memhr:ana, li:iPOPMteica. eeme ·tod~s, . M· oil)jb~~~, :rn~b~~as ~'Ulaie-s~,

Q~.to :~i.or a. ('.:on~ffi1it;r:,~an ,dQ, 8l'UieQ 'U:a'ru~lw"~ msJior 8e¥.,i1, iii SIIl18 prnssaro. oSJllrlti,ca. e·

maier .:sera: ,B terudend;D1 de 11, ti,glJ,S pmetr;ar :0.6; lcalola

·Vge~'~u:f.i!J)(h'n J,6r . ~e.IQ~ ,lSe a. ~ !O"~:t1LTa t~st.iver I~ 'welD' 'W~trorfi(;.o'l' p~:tae.:!~,Ei :~~ e 'fi~:f~, m liIT·~~a~ ~ nfi1rn,lW~ ~'1amRdJl] n~ ~:ttl:]ula ..;r~t!il] d~, 'p~~oJiJSe" d:~O ,e.a:al. qu.~ tltr::o:n"e 'Bep.Ht:r.:~u;a:o dat _mdmlhll'8J18., jIlli:smtitiC8!.L ,dE! p:3Jrede celuJIaL

~IIiiM' om e iUiI - ¥qetllili

tm!!"l!ldllj ar'll OOlli IjI!Ii:J i11~fll~~ <IS I'I:Ih~l!!I I'BRI.~ f1TIlllQi "1ili1l.1Ii!·~ii!i!I j!lr~1l !I:i!:i d~li:I!ifl'!!i!!1!g "lr'itl. - .. nliiiffl'lllmjhl

~~:~'lllillj;!'!l

'HI!,11ti j1

,Se VQC~. 'COAo.iC~r uma e8]u.l~ vegeb;d plSi;8rm:d.m8td~ nurrrmaio ccm Hguta pum! OQl de' 'peg)lBl'lJ9, em1J.e@rutl'B!~-i!J! ala vGba;, a ,fiCBtT' '~! f~fu~l~~O d~l1D:~ad.u ii;1te~~Ha6U1t~

,sa .[! meie fhr multo m,~j;(fl~ni®, B ce,b'1]l~, l\f,~g\e[aJe.ea· tL1.ttgi~ -po:r~m. :n.1O ~&e, lise celular

..oJ " ..JI ~ ~ lop., • .-1 .. ~ -'.II "",'.1] J: . ..-.'

,!:,.IieVl'OJp ,~ l'e$~:::lr~m~~a; ,~ p.:,~J;o.~~_e '~:U _.~J.S~'~a.

'I"ili' - ~ ..... , ;I'"

.I ranS:Pc\I:N -i!i.€ ai!;,i!~OOi

,As ~ehJlas apre B,e n-tffi".m ll:l.e,cess,id adea Iclife:rent~ em iI.I:',el~~ilOi .,as:. nlQ]2eu];i3.8 as mals 'rnve--,ra~," ,P.n~ e~ploi .0 p~~ass1n que '~lip.n delmimeras ntea,~ae:s hjL~!r:aee']Ji]~re,g (~lntes;i:!' de ,proU;e:n8JS e· :pi:u;tieiJjJa. die ,;BJ]g.nnas ,e'Capas' d:'aJ, :!Bes.p~~io ceI~) ![;}eve ser man,N~(). :n!O ).JJte.rio([" d21, Mh.d:a (:om iI;i1Jma, 'OOcot-e·ntFi~~ilo t~~: de 'fte~ ve~'S, '~.ml'l\r dO q;nemQ.o meio, extt",ilaeelWJar" J~. Q s6diJO~ parSi. Ique' se'i~, manJ~~da ~J difi:\t.'ell~ de pOitenci~' d~a, im(>t"ttdl'~.ni::l! (Wril1cip~]rtlenb:l' 'cie]u\a..r;2 :~e:r--:"v~~' e museulares) e para ~omp ensar '3 gt~tli,d{;l Iqlll~w .. fui.d::1,t:l~, r1~, J1oW~Bln t'io, :~nJt.eri,or da" oilulll, ~ oOlmp(j]]s·~~~{) oa»lOUc~)! d~r:2' ~~t.it 'nu.m~, 'OO([lm;Iltr'~~1 e~r.~~_l d@.lQ.a, 115" veses maior ~lQ mein !~t~"~cnl'il]]ar {fL1C dl®lltro C i[] c~~J'iLi~a .•

BOfJJba, N:a I - ,,,

.P,Ill" ,u:m, pl~ljceS~t'j d:,e djf!JlJ~ij] sd,lil:pl'~~;1 ,ohJ~l.ivanffu a :iSQ'tooi~ ,~ WilS ~t1'~ ~ pAr,ar o :meio ·exfrr.a,~eJ.'ril3.r:.. 'ii:::'~iL'till't~U o~ f~ln~, ,s.odio

• '''''''11

:mi~fil para, 0 I'ilJ~io mtf.a~6Itillali,

.Para manter as ~ncentra:QaeE desej,atd.aa de. ambos lOS, tons'" p01Jft;.u1i'~n~ ililr ~udlaB t€::m' muito. ,t!I:.',aih~~ A l~lu'[a faz nso d£!, pmteina~ It.n:te.gr,alls, cia, ,ffi.'~l,brana .. ,dia.ma~ ,eiM:'.h~adot!~iS5 que r1iD:l(~kI.:nalll.1, l00T:l10 ve:ri[ilIltilejlr:9J.S: ··bom.ba~i3 i,Gtnl.easj 'u.anspeftan,C]t} ,c.(urrim,lumlBi[]rh:!: :iou:s ;e6cll0' pua .r~['~ d~ ~BWaJ ~O\l:tt~~,~, Urn,. gr.:adl,e,fitte:· d.e 'OOlD~n,~~~, e e]6lr'i~o_ J:, 'n~ _m~i-~ ~~l~~ooltdar essa~' ,prn!~w,~EI, ,e..~e:9JdO:i:"a!S: rr:;~9t-uraml pnt~~o e, ,eo:n.tra· um ~d.i~[I,~ de N;'O~ ~e ntJita:~ ~h~'~ ci,e-v 0 J: V.~m.'-ilO .tH,~'t'a 0' -ft1 td:g

· m'~l"2I:~elWar., 'O]js~rve que' ·esse, 'br6.18ta ,C!~r,1.r'-e' ,OOIjj:ni'3.. 1ln1J gra.dte.lflI.te·_ PM-a: q_1)le 6~~.m;, .aJ. ~·].'illl~ 'oom um, :gr:aiIlcl.e- ga;soo energ.eti!oo, a. pamr dol ~[egr.ad3J~(i' d~ ,N-" ,t ~ld@(llu)sinQ 'bifodaktd~J ,G:l'lFL AD ' tadelll,os,ms' "c.tifO!s£atada) i, p'or QOCiir:T_e~~' urn. b~~stimento .e!t~ffi:l:geneo p$ C:€hll.!1L., a ~rm.ba ~6di'5=pc1~~ifl ~ um e~e·mp]Q d.e. 'L1:"2Ulspnrte :a;tiy,o,

Par.,:;'·, cad~_ r:r& .1.'O'llffil' .NSI,+ 'bttmbeadlfi~ p'SJ.~, [oowa da ~~lli1b~ .. 8.io 1~,mh~~dQi,S, nom; iuni~ K+ p~ra dent~N) da celt.ill_a -asaim ~""e .uma [-ela~,o N'a:I~ d~ ~k2-, Razao- ,eSta qlJiJe'i :tti'];iiRllrnn ~- ,dif~lll.~-8: d,e'i potencial, d8.. l'tlemhra:ID3L qpo~jtlv,at J]iffi., lfl:3]~'_e 1F;l'M ~.O:ll'a.tQl jUWlto. .~Q m~io :ambi~nttal .d;~. ,000uJJ~ e ue;ga:tiv3 U:l;I!, .~~e em cn[J.t-a1i~1 ·com ,0. c;i_'~!p]:~n1aJ.

I'J1DI.A 1Il.'ifDl1J'!!n, JIj,!'J!l!Di AI, "I'roS- :n.A ':Ij.frl;l;1IArD'D, AI, ]I;:iF~'" _'_~,~:o~· Jl:u' ~-ILI~'''.D-,' ,~:.t.:I. JlIr~~~~~,

J7F'D AI, '" "fC:nn;D~ 'Djj6i" nu: AI, ~T"I'ITn .tn,p

I_I ~ :1.1~i:tLr'Mp.c-v:i-~~::0 ,tD.'~fJl .'1 .' ~'T JI iD~A

00111l'Oo lIl.~m~~~, ,9n~,Orm1e'i:rte~ pBq~li'Ien,as mD~,~u1las ie ~i;iIlf:iJ8, i~~].'mm '~hiJ membrana eu 'ptl.'l"

!I.-..""'Y'II1i!rh=-4"" 1ri"",,,,,m""ln; ""';111 'n......,.;. ~'I!'1ii2T'!i'~ ,,.,,,;i-;:;~-,-..-.. ILJLn.Lllu,I't"'!JJ. ~ IF·~IL-!)!-1j.J! v\~ ~V""- ~1!:J!W.J_.LQ,~~YL.!I.i~ IQ~Ju..''t;~\.

COU1iO 'paI't:h:u!Jt~.s maiores 0 ffu~ podem 8hn.p]e8mem,'~ afu:',H,ye$s!11" a m.enJhr;.:inH: 'PitJJ~m~tcica,1!' piJI" outro l8idD~ ~io inQlf.loc-prn",BIlQM pOl" 'urn proCE!SSO

,iL., _,_1.... :;'.--lI '. i· ~ _.]' _,. jj

CJI;,~am>~ ~Qugcl,to_ I au ,9 Jin;I(Lirm.Ii:t<'JISi, ,~tl11'V\~ !ijJ[J_,

~cl'~~

,8:~dtJ'Cimse

E tlfJ'Ja !fhtn,!!~ ,dc' tr~:ns:Ft»'eTICLtt ~ bleee, pua p .intE!ir1~,l" fbi, ce].1IllsL~ de ~rall'hliie quantidSlde de 'm__Ol~r;.·ld,a~ '~ 'rJLttl de' p~!frib]~l~~=r 1:n~m""~fai,!}re~" t.urnai

~._ """-.i!. ~

as '1)a""'~TIa5,

N:e~~· p:rooe~fStl a membrana :p]a&1Illati.ca· 'P~ni(.ip~~ ati,~6nte,~ cOOJl~~a'~rn!l'ldo q~' a mtr.obU'llfj, e:n.~a~,ve· 'CJi mate-dat que estfj, sendo ,~ng]o'ba.~' !B. jrrdm'~'I), ~!" ~J:t~, r:; 'trn:r~ste:rith~, p~:lr,a I} ]i1Il'lie,riOiF:' d,il cel:iLll~l.,

As FOflJlM 'ma:h:; cQ'm:g:uJ$ Jde ei!,']id):l'cit~ s~.o~

[I'h' •.

Lh;g~CIt091E! ~ ~~mOC1I1~:.

s) ,fRgmJci.:l~e'

,1'~rO'tl~ oa(:lQ, an 'pwocesso p,elOJ 'q,naJ. 8 ,,,elula. ~gfubll parijctihJ;s 'sD!JJit.tas~ gI'a~8, .~' :rQ~~ijo, ~

~,.r _...I, ~ • ":'_.1 '" • '"'

,p-se:lIil!a'ap~os. i J.,'bI!CB380 '''V]S1''11111t9 ~;Q n:nc.roSCPPIQ

optl!oo,.

A, 'faJg!t~cl1tQ~e' ,a:.[,l(f'e:iu~n~ uma ir.npo{~I1bJjc~a, ,muitio grande para, I€JlJill 'Q'lgruLilJsIDloa vivos, n.twws p:~I~~ d1epe:~.d;~Hli. dRretame:rrte da ,~lti'lllS~' p!Wr.a, 'GlliU!' pM88ni ~e ~]ilne.lllt~'I:, N,jjS ~:rrlDul1s" ,~onl.O nJ6s~ ,B. m~~~~:tO~E' esl$1i vb.lcuJ:~d~a.j~uj i'lIe-C~SDl!l:ll de ~lj-mpez~ ,~ (lLo::resl'a~ on.d~,~ ~tnlve~ d~ oolul~s,

1~~p!Bdali.z;;ada,~ {~~~nl,a.~. rag:a[a'i,t(l~ri(l~· h~ 0- ,e;.~lobalLl;_en:tlll e' 8, d_e:st;~~ao de· SQb:s.t~l1cisu~ WS['i,~ ~' '~cro01"~OO iIfJ:v~ores~

O's p'ro]{!i,ngmn,mooiS din 'm:lZl;i:Ilbir~Ml' IDl~' formam O~; :p~eiiJdopod,Os, .ao e_ngJlaha:f as lk'Vt eulss s'o] i,dE!:JB' originam uma 've s,:fC'IDl~ chamada :r~,g,I)~~om,~!" l':J[lllJ lica n~, lrt': ~~']asm ~i,l, c.~ d-~ 'faii~'"""J!tSO'mo~ 'Be Up Q, 11m ~(HlJ wsia ~~soS~U}m.QSi, pml1il±1J, fur11liilili !j} vReu.ol,~, ,dliig;N,tilv'Q, local onde e ,pmce._ssad~-,a: ,diges:tM do )t1ftJ a:~eri;;i! :ra~d~L.di(). '0' qua 'seniiJr' atr..~liVe.ssEL'~ m,~~ Ie Ie iLncmpomdh ,a:(b, Litu,plasm~, e os ~_gtos .,.3J[J ie!J:i_r--nrl.nados .([tonl"',&! de 'urn vac6o~101 1t:~S.:iirllll_a:L

MEf~M1lI: ~1.(1~m~cale!n",-ulvE3

Iii) mFlI~ ,bill !!II SiOf il'l.gljlilid!!:!!

~uIl6po:rt~

.~

,b.DI pino:ciros;e,

En.q,lulllft.O 'S]J, rn,godw'Sle e reaLHZ8!cUt por ,c:e:lul3l,s; ,e~p'-ec]:~,li~':lI,d:l9;~, ~ pin~ri.toge ocor]"€

p:rat-;]icarm:m,m eml tadas ,BE ~1]j,I1 rut,

A pinooi~ eOF.Hsiisoo' 'tto 'mglobam~rJi:tjJ, de pa:m~s Uqu.ild;as, [bnllimdc,~ :00 intla:im:" ~8 lee' t umlS p~~, UL,ej]}.a~" 'V't:: si e ul as. ,df!lli,~I:~l1.i-.lla,d.;l.s: piu;flsso:mas" 0 prceesse d,f=·,d..ige-stafli, ~ senl~lli!i&n',1!e ,~!l] d_;['.1 'w,;broc:ita~~'~ 'ComQ ~5 'V,~~~olJ~a:5: -fQIiI;uaiciias sao grandes e. "'v.isf.v:-.e~.s 80 M:ic1:"01SCli5pi,Q Oll:nii~o. :modenlam~.mt~, -m, pilr:.ocitos~ te.~'n $ldo' c~l~m ~da tm 'W.:a.el·,jj'p',' I!I.,O cit~'El a, p.8ll:"·a, ilili Ce !r'e n ~i;8.I" d.,at: m;~'rnf.\op.in~i,tj}s~~ ende saj) rQnmll:~a~, 've.~f(rllt~s, $O'ID.'e:l1I.te vi~VF]~, MI JM.lC1'[li,soopiD IDle.tmJmoo,

,N:ormaillm~nre~ a pm.oo,tosa tEl ut.ill!zalJd$, l~ar.,~, 0 !®'ID g1'o'b~m onto' a,~ alimentcs (por '~~_'-~m p 10 j' got[~aB' -de ]jpid.o:s pe~,3S ,oeluJl:as GfIj epj,t®llo do iDiftC:~;i1:;ii'1iO d~ ]g~,do d(~, 'm ami'[f:~1(f'O:;:; ~ -m!afi!, pe,r Y(1;}7a. ~~d.e, ,enghJb~ 'pmtrl,ge'[H)~.!I ~m,a, ~a!:" ex~lJlP:]ilin, vf .. UB,.

Pcqli1i!i1!I1lil.5 !'!Ial1liluli8'l!i di6$Oi¥! dlJ;5 E: m a!I]UI[I

'MQmbrsn.a ~'I6Bmlll~Cil ~ 8.&6 .. ~mljl1J'9ln~~~ I ~~=~ . ~ l'!Ig I ~b!l (f .mrflfln1~

t se r Ingert~G

lb~ocilit~~

Exociroge: au ,el9!SH1,oettu!m '9 0 prot'ie£so pelQ quw san. ~U.:mln~.GB d~ cel~ O~ remdms' Qla d.nge~OI 00 msIDW.inl :~~g,oci~rl£ill o~ p:m;fi~ado ..

C(m:si~w ~,~ no m~'all]J:its,mil1' i.1.t~HZi~~O .~. c@biiras :am"{llwr3,S para ,~lh:[l.n1.ar seu pr-:orluw qU!~ amaxd em clf]v~r.:so~ ~,O~]S dt~ nQ~ol "O~gaW51IllO. As ~1't11.r:liS gland,tiJ ares fUnn~Z(IDm:'G seu ·PI'Odu;oo. de: !5eCll'i~{)' 'emi '¥~icDil~~ 'que ~rerio .el:mm~;F£d~ das o~I:u;TB!s 'IiHll" ;ex~w~~

A'II"I'TI-.tl - ~1!! 10"'1 . ,_~,~ .l·lIIl- . ~I:' if

DS··-·>··TIJD·· .' . . iO' D' '0' C"'~IT'I 0" .p' hT ~ ,~'tI,.!Il ~ eITo····· S'O" L'

~:"~' '.,_." , .. : ' .~! ~. -:., .',' . ...: , .. :

U:cr1i.a. . [ur~1:~a i~'¥pllJ:~va. 1llm;c3li!.'te. .elt].~ ~ ~]:u1a. j)M!I;!:[(dJ~nte ,e, uma ~aca:r-iQn1;e;t ,e(m,sl~'1te. .1:1 a q;tti:ftn tldade a!t ·m.emb.ltanas I~rre s:entfis~ .: e:i.'flq,l1fan'tu ,ri!Il ~~11:l1a :p[\otatr.fonte .Ie :pn~lJ.'"e. ,em. ,m·elnb~a'l:r.La£§~ a leib.b::ll~ e-lIlea:]~]t)it.1te ,e' ~ .. j.c8l. ern membranas, &_si:m.1. 'rJ.uan~() ma'~9 desren.w]·rida 'fhr uma ceJl!:ll~ :mais '([1Lelnbra[];3S 'OOlt:t~, ou ~~ja. 'mai9 c(nli.p{f:r~im,~ I1,taJli:z ~d a. ~e1i!'4. As menD.~~.[·:;ttii':I,S' d.elimi.hufi oom.p:ar~'Lim~ntoffil;" as urgane·la.s. citO:!plHm,i.ti!Ua!~t; oon'renqn enzi:ma_s: e$pedfi(!~s I

1;f~'[)1 .n:lillmfpriDd~ :ftll'lt~6es p.iatii::~~. .

Dev:en~[~q;i [p'O,is! ,dif~~'IlCi&Ji:r' (} n.::iJtoiPJ~.Snl;:a M fim:a. ·oo·]ril~. ·p:~C".iri\OIii:C£ii e ~ e·1llQario:n·~e.

,C:i·topJ'.lc.#UlJ, dE! ;umt'l~ ,r.;,e.I~'f.d., pl'l}.'C{ilcril~nte'

O· d,m.pla..._~3i d.aB; ,~hil:u plJ;a~arinn1te~, ~, s~rn.ple's ,e ~m]j:n,,~nd.e iLudn e'~_p.i3J~ delimi.t~,cln :ptl'I~ .me1':tJJlbt"an.:a. [~·[a~]:r:i,a'ttca._. elOn~ti'~w.~.~e de 11m3 .ma:biz aO'lmf-a". ,ii,~. eom mo16cuilla..a· e Ions dj 8 s ol yi.do'S.. ·C omo _ ha grand .. e _po'b:re:2 lli de

· ...... ·""'m bran "'I '-~ ..... :;>;; A I!.. ;II, ""';;'·.u·O!j,"" 'e1l "'" '" exeet A h ""

:i.olLlL~. _~ .. ":-d.I._~ IEJ.~ JI_;IJ'i:I1~ ~.~,~ ",,=~,JJ. b'~.J..1. _ 11 a~~~ _ A.'~;~!'it;i:'~U ,,~I,::,

riIDQQQU,m.a~':j!'q:ue .n~o Sa'l:); if::lIIV'QLb~. P;H~ me;nrihflaLna ..

ESf&3. ma'triz, eim\p:]lu-DU\tje;a co~'[t~m. 09 I:.iJ.bti~!H!!(jrr1.rlJIO.~·. eOIl.s:t.i.twdos die RNA F.- ,a: .. ~]_do :ribo:n:t1cl~ico tl·ooS£.i]\illlool .a~d_ad.o,~. pI\O:r.em~,. sruiOO IDesp:l_~$L.vebj, pel:BJ Hin:tel!e' de :p:T"ihtei.I1~&~ e. uma 'nlo:Fe~wa .,~ DNA ~'ci.dln, ,deoo,nciibo.nliLC]~ic[)~ cil"culalj, ~·u ;putew.ii:'ill geil~h::~j .fiil.nD:~ .~!lie'gia!.t~ denlamimid.l]h fill.U;}'ooi,~e .•

.M dmn~ jf:liiu¢es me'~',]i~ clepim.dlem. (]I;e €''fizlmas ~ocl.:iatd:aJ~,· a. tr:let.ri~1in-.el'iLililh

I(~'i'ta'p\lama de' ifluno ,ifiB,lu·,ts 1f"1"ea~ria:rftiB'

, . ..

eO]_1i.pll.'eend:e toda :regi;~Q en't["1::' .0:1 .m.~·l!l'ibI'an~ p];a_8~tlc3- e iEJ :wem~,IDla _nu_cll_ea~

o ei:t[)plaBma ~:El:tl cfUlg'~ilbUWln ,de k~ e,fj.mp~u"a:imelltn£ h3r~ico~::: 0, ~'itosoI ,tl,'ue loo,rre9pilliJ.,ae· a um p],13:Sma, come~polld.eodo 3 urn :r:f[H;rl~, de iSu~te!i:l.'If.:a'~~tlI paT,a as deirnaiHl e~'~lI.ltu~'i ,e,~·tr.lJ:·;UFa~i .Di.!~)1 m:em:brH.D .. !fj,sa·~~. 'iGnmu ~ ci't~~qtt.e~:ettt)~ O~, ti1la:lsso.mus ~ ~9 in,r~lusoes; e, fi:l!lru:rrl!eil.':l\b:!:~ ~8 1~l:["U,tm .. · m.em:!bra:nosa~ 01.1. !f;)1"g,8belas ·,m·l:topl;;i!s:m.a.tieas eoma .re.1..i!f:1l1u ~ndGP[a;ml~:&im1 0 - ~1gi.1::lurnrln~ O~· J1ii!l{!i'~somos. es ,p-e!lunSStml.us~ O~, griooms[i;tlw.usj .. o mi'W-ci"hlrlrrl.3S. ,00. dam,jpJ_lins e· M v.~llio,]ii~t

~'I'~IO:O- j 1''' ~.iI ,.iI. ,uot 1- ':L.iI'

'Thnibem. 6h31IUilu·r) ma,tri~ vt~l~llil,a:liea., c1i:'mp]l_~D;~ bas~~~ ~.i!Jp];3lsm~ d:~.iiipla~~ _rfliUl.ilili..~11:1tat.

C~tilrn;m.ge ba.iili_c~e:fi't~ ,de' ,a,gua" 1(lin~~ ama S'o'['lt~O com peq1LUe11. a IS, mrtJjfJlt!:(.t.ilas org~~3!S' tglicn§e~ ar(ci:C.Qr.ieidl~, ~t.,~ e [00l" ]]ml~ru[:mr~:J;l~CWfl!s o:~~~ (plf~1't'emu, 'p:(j!lis~3,cand:e()'5!; Ie .po·W1~~l·eO't·fd:erlg). C~p~Jfide' a 58%' di~' 'V'C1~,ume. ,oo·]tibU' mt~

a el.tosri,)' ~ ,~. sede daJ. :rJlfa-i)~.a. das :re,a~i)es q:~micas vit~:i~ GO'D10~ ~M.m m"ep]~~e-liLta n :loeal d~e al.'[IIal1ef:l~ge~m. de ~nb~'tln .. eiaa de :res;erva d_e e:au~~ ,m:!I.imai:s:. ·~rnn .. o g,Ue.Qg~niq, e :gtlil"l~.1ltt:.qt1S.

:~¢o..,:(1)i:iln:iJ_c~.m:en:~··.o cl:~ e ,~ natLn~~a. u~loldl:al~ nr~,'te.{na; em ~~'lfa. ,Otll Re~J·,:llIJ.. de

Ii! If '0 ....... '. .. I .:I

em:1tsisl:i@"n .. eia .gelat~nos~., -AB, p~tkl!.llaa (he ~lt1~ cllalTllad;a!:3 .mi~l~$j ·[[[Um;. ,uui4i,de't :aJ.p~sentam ~eDB-Oes: yariand.o entre· tl.il ~. O~iOOl mD.cnlm.eizDS d~ clithu)9'!.m. ru. mieelas g~ :mao·tem iBm. 1~EIlIUbu]t,e: 'e !='rrli:ttoo ~'ll,fim en:to, ,0 m.ovr. m_mlltil 'b1.~i1wnia.mO', gra~~Slg; a _m::-'BP~~U eDtID~ as JllL'teEmi~ e·I:il. thn~aa, de: ~U~, car-gas el~tn~3;s! Fe;nommo 1e9,'Le respo.rn,sa.Vtel :pffi~. es;~lhlsrle ~ :!Sfl:lU~~ ~tiloida5.s.!" e:\Ii;~l];~ a :preci ~H3.f;3Lo, e:~~1:PQiai'lti:Il~e.3 de suas :p,arlillfiuLl~. QLi!and,o, as mieelas e~;1ti:verem.l~~m .. sep~radas p~La!s mDl~~o;la;s' de Sgtm'! dlz-se q,UE! esil:a 1'].0 estado ~O~.; OO.::.~ -,iStS· ::mciA;:elM 1E!>~lteja:lm:JL .P:~I[Sitj~ ~gf:'n~\~1ll~:i:l~2a{!, r:o,~iio 'UJD :mtet~iulll cOllD, ~n!~;i-st.!n_eiJa~la'IinDsa~ e"SJba·dio· geJ~'O ~16]a~ '~r.an!ii;m ·en~ (I .e~1£tdo ~··e iIi

'~sta,tlQ> :solj. .~nr6me:tlu chamsdo .1."~,~,~!.iia;i A

. ",""",I"", ~ ·C~· ., ,.!ll ",hoi; 1, .. -t ' "

;pJ;3.n,'!.:· :pe,,[,,h~J !;Jill (:l'IlJI.;!.lua.s:ma e -m;:us 'lliuscosa

_]eJ:nhranclfi l!1'ma, ~b!lttIla ltl ou. e·, e-~'t31t1-,t) g;el,. aeumparrha 8. .ffilf:IJ;embr;a:ll:a_j s~ndi~ ehamada eli!tup!"ma. ·Jil. '4 i"eg1iao. t:eliJtJru e· .:[1J431.i9i .fl:uida. ,eco:n_l~. l~d.3iS as a[:~a:ne,}as. dt(lipl.iEilSma.tica~~. e~tiRl!ifJ

,sol., - seniCEn dita- eInd,o~ptas:mai

!lliIl"'...., .• ' - ,iJ ' •. ~~ 1' ...... _ ...... ~. ~

~:~[!~J!~riaS! IC:r.:HJrp~~,g.:l',\I,litllIoCOS

1. .. Ciril!0se

'D··'"', .... ..._·..- ... ·i:iit'L'Jio.ii<!5l.... ,.;T,,.. ":!'~I ""'.... ,,,'iii'" j,;O; .... ,.~,"~ m' ..... ol'~· ...... , .... ' ... j .-. , !l:;.L!LULU.I~U ~LtllL~ ,~. ~u.ltJ.l~I_~ . ~. ~'M',U.I.~.~.~!W!

do ciwooJ~. j.'e~r(Ji.l~te.~, eontr3.l~o dtm.ada des

m:i.crom:M)J~ntQi~l. -

.A \i\~l~d~Jde· da CQ·I."rei'il.1te ,ge.~.da, ~pel3. Idcl:o!1§~

"'" i~_..-"",,,,,I;, .... "' .. ,....,. "', ""'1:"" .. , ........ iii ....... ,;a = ~, ... -,;/'i;~""'-~"".~, ,-_ .... ,'" Jl~._~_",~,:

.~·iI,UUi.t,=LIJ1~JIl.!!J.U.l. ~. "".Iii;;" iiilFJO;Ji Ui:!I:,ILIt:::rJl~ i"O;;::![',<JIilb,W obi. .~ !l,J..Lrl~iLiI.iL.!I,l!.U.

em baix.as .tt!fljJlp~:r.altu.r:a~l. itt.s, p.rlfH:l:~·i!lt!,a CThe· arte..~t~si~ra~ .011 :ll.8l. lEa:~k3 d;,e o~~-br·do.

A ,eilYlfit~ ~ e'Viclelf:llte e;mJ, 'cQtl!.kq 'Vegetal~ (:'111'lJ s'~'tleT.,mdo q,l]:~ 0 el$pa~Q 6~ upadu pe'] u t1.'OOrp]as1h1J!.3 e 'b,il'Stoii:!1te re$.tr;i'I~~. $iil:.wl~~le· en.t1'l~ i] 'V;t;lti.WJiIi dl:I s:n,~ c@l.'tll1b" ,~. a rn.B!ltilita.lJ!a plasmatlea,

'!I; lh ~=". .d!, 1& ==, .' 'm ..,

~~~ :poue (tiDt:li!:j<rV'ax' l:Ii, e!~~"ose'. 1:Iiili :t~:'!I.[!t[I\jj~.'pm

CO]J:I,mn-, 1li3J. 1'00113. d:.s, uma pl~.'ttl,t~, 3"q:lli9Jtica ehamada

'] ~~' l'iI.l' -1- _"..11 . ".. •.

e uuea, ~~Ia~, ;t:~ JW~ ,SJllml!dJJS (~,muvilm.en't.t) ::r:i!e1E!J,

SBtQ:P.~ ,~ ~ruti'fitliU e: ,o:tl)e,n.taLdu.,

,Pa.reda- ~tJ.glBtr

,~t 1\I(),vimemto,s; ~an:u:::ll6id~,

,i Mn wimelt't,o .ge:l",ad.n p'.e I a ,eIIlL1ss.:iQ d:e.

IiSeud~i)d~s., Ooo,n;e em, aJ~ pl'fjtd.zo.~~Ltj-os, (.ameb3!Sj e' ern algumas ,~6.luJIas de p~;m::i.rae'hll3tfe9 ('c~1tl[3~ "de d.e.;re~aij p(fr:" ex:em,p~0)~

u~"p!lHl':s ~rq f*':rmI.::Ai::i

/

ICitoesqllif!lete.

o ,(tHoeequ,e]"e'to ~ ,(',es~on'sfi'Ve] .f.heJ:a menutencao d& f~]n'i:a da ce'Jiti]j:a~ pe]a. cicl'os-e :pel,OSl :[[UI"}V'mn!lntiU~, 'l;:e']uli!.tre15 b§.lij],vllnlen to ,amEib6iide I cent E";R9,if&(ji, m 1!1:~'d:m.l a,,~~, d,e,!;!: I u:c':aJ.m ell,to d.~!s ~mf_"BEium~B dw:"3t.m.'~ ,1_ dj,v],sM ,celww:t pela

~'r:g~a.:t~, d38 Uf!gan~f3iS -meml:nr.~,[llOgJ:aS. _

o ·~itue'.l:S.(~.u.,e[·a,'t'Q .It, ~{)]!l:9.i T:.uido ,pOE" "!i,il'ifliro,m;un,eB'~£J~1l. :rllHjm,eJD.rt:~s ,m'te:~dliiri()~, e _ nU,IC,["iD't lih ul0·s p ollmi::'F'~s d,e 'PrO'~e].ll:a.,s ~h)blill~,E.~_

.~) :irtd,e~,ento:s, ,_, g~O e~,tUT9~, filfIUa_,., ·eJ;a~ ['}o;l" 'U~A~ ,P'l:'~lte::llla c:fua:mad':l ,3Jb.t:Wa! I::QIm, ~'tt~i de 7nm, idle diAtne~jjj~ poa.endo ~Ixi$blr .OO(m~1 sim,:pl~ ffi]mne~B'i fal"J]j~dD fe~.e~ .eu

~d,e.\l_ ii, i[letm,a ,ll(ilUnl~r.~.'·aile pru:"la: [0t11'aS-r. ,~

'F .... ~,;;-~'If.::'! """ ...... .i!io ..... b..."" ~_~ •.• ,;';; ioo .... .....:;l;..... .n. "".,.,j=E<o .. ,j"",";""'; ,.;i,"," ,~.,'1040 'WI,I!U'~'~''':'u.llAl!~ -J!~ ,~.lli:I:u. 1!1 "';:;;!I.ro;,.~U ... '1oJ4.9 'I,lb. ..

mnfa cl.u:p'llia:~.t,trui::ce; I[) P:[~ces~o de 'pfiltme~~D,tJo! ,n.o entanto ~ l·e,vemi!llel. ,Fum.lc-im~la]_men~ te ,~,~r.-e_s-€u.~ dj)i~, pape]~ -b:lq:ieoo;: prumu.-

.~- "" .,;1;.--' •. , -= ~ ..j, ;1, ..... 11· .. - '=:=''1 .~1I~~ Jl:.

'V,ellD ,3, V{Jin,Lr'iI-\f::JHiil, ,",O'~, au, :p~e.llilUl. iU!.i:ll,@~ ..

'lLuiIaJ, e. ~itabililzam 3. ,,!fo:Fm.3L Ida, ~,lul3t.. ,NQ\mJialme~'te'~ ,0 H:lf;a_s de aCijna m~tel'a;g}e);t1 ~um. fitas de (;l1!1tr'~' pmtM:n.as, oomo ,:1, m&!lls_t]J,iHI!~ POl" .exe,m,:pj]~ Er!hOI ,p'ro~f1S~!l) de CO'Eru.l~~' c1la 1i"hJ:'a lllU!u;ul~r), Os !liJI.]icmfnIamerut~!3, bin]!'" 'lOGIn. atu3.f.f.1. 'paF_~ :~rn,nl(fvm"'Dj '~eJ3'haI1IDllam.e'n:k!r~ I~ ~1~, ~lills tr]hIl1"anrre 3 ,di vi-

"- - . -

~~O ~elu]~~f~au ~ ·pseud_6,[1li.'D.dos ,~ ~Uln.'o 'ID&Se' d_e Siu~ren-ta~3to, dos t~:'!Iitir:O"lliU;Q9 das eeh.i!-

Ias m.te~:bnaiI~L

b) flbun'euibils iiDi!e1t"medi!jloj,og ~. ~m ' Cil~-mLi:tg}~

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e~fllLr-Ulllm11J~: ,e-,gb\!JI(ilWlLL:3:'JlI:e' ~ ,es'b'11.'t'1U"i3

eel.'u.bu:~ ~ re,s".:s:tenilTiia a tet'lBi.o., 8M eir.iltim~ L'i-adoo ·:a.p.ellla~ ezn "~al1iliSmOS" ,p'].ttri6elm a:res, PMLim-:ipa.iM'i pf.fr:" ex,e:nlpIo~ ·ds rorma;~o clos d~osso:m~. C(iI,]tIfMil1dO~]]l~!§il regist_e:n.-

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cia_

;e) ,mi£r'OlhihiU!lo:g, ,~. ~M, POlf:Dl.e,M!l1i, de estruturas Iil,ro'ti!i.cu" <g'~ob.uJa]'es, cll]~IJQ.~ta::i ~!Em, :bt!H-, ce'" [~rohI'trruio 'W!]]_ ~~lu_diDho odle Mlrri,ge-r3:Dte, oom UID va.o cen~311 CtW IB',~_ ~5nm de dli;'IDe':~~ .~an lo~,n~ti.t'u.id,O;S pa,r uma ~otei~ fiat ehamada rtuh'l[d'h,,~ , 8&0 duas as ~,fia& £tj[~s ba:rlca~~ _fOFDl.a_ ~.I)j, ,~q.Hele't-o rlgi:jo, I ,p~,~i,P"'.'l'il.'e'Bte ,nas, pr€iJje~oes c~lul~s), e ,3i.'~ua,ml ¢Hmo'base' .. p'3ira Iq1il:S' liil'iD1a!:~~ ~mLot!il:r_ POlSS3.m. lIDJ!~,v!er 'es .. "EtD'tUas, ',ee;}u]ar,e , l., ,S.ai~ ,~~eiaPOMAve~], '~O'f

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]OS~ pela .'~,rnU~L~t) d[o .f1l.])~a l'lli.b'1tlCG' ((Hie'fits u deslo~w_en't'Q do~ -cr-o:mJ).sf:U}mO~' ~ dvs '~e'n~

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BihoSl_sO'm:O'riji,

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8M e~1:1"l,d_"UIl"a_s H~.oi membranosas ~es~fltlM:i em 'to¢bl~, ~ ~lI.ll:aa""

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13,au ''I.Ii$lw~e:i,i!!i: .:t.,p enaa ;:t'fll :~[ti£1"uaG6p:ifi e'~etfUnL~t:J. ]list.n..ttul"killm:e]:i'L~ ap-l'\e~e;Il,ta:-OJ!I duas In;ilitm.id~d,es~ l..:iiJfia. "menOlt- e l]fnl~:9L ,~il1; q_~ ~e unem ,D,IO illn:fJci,~ as, sJrites~ prtlbM@.,

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O!il rlbos~crtnM ~arn, re!ifpntlSa:v·e:i.s pel~. S[D!tese prM·tei.c.a",

'C~;tit.ui~au '1(11;1 hlll'i·'fl3::.

S ~ Q 'to:r:~Z3J.dt~~ p,!ru' .m.,{!-l,fi,eul as de·

,!,,~ bonuele ()~pr~l~eb:tal!l. au seJs. _. RN".A1: (&ci.do .ribUQUf~Mj~o :fi1b(l~~ica, - c~·e~, de' 6~% da massa do .. .ii~J:l~~gom.o) aSJ~ocl::irl'O a pr.;CJ.teittM (ceres. Itle dl1L,q(den:tn. t:lpOS1.

'O~ riho_tlmtm, dH~l'EMn, ,[[u.~rn:~ ac tamanbo e· camJ,oBi~afl. q)!rllll.ie~ :lUl$ ·e~lui]a~ ~erL:IC3jio.n:'lJes; . onde ~t)g·~intil:lim. s~ mai,Uil"£:~) e :ti,s.~ 'oolru:u: p:rm::ariOm1'llie~ s-. .1ID~te!Ol~ 'es;!:.<'9!S exp'[o:rauM c;am sneesso pela. :r:n.effidn~ .. ~.t~b.i.6,tioo;g, C():if~]U 8 .. ~tr.--aJciefu'la. ,e' jj[ ea:tliElpto-roidma inibesn a ,a(i3,o dog rihossomos 1~ac'terl4i1JJ.O.9" ~ll, .r~·G!i e.o:~nlt.o.t m.'lierreme:n]]. Da. a,~jH dos rib'Qsoo,f.I1j]~. tR~s c~WU:lat~, ii~1JL£-aril~f.i.'begL

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A~ .m:r IJ ill!! ~II'II!·:J~'" I'lii Co.lii t.i'i 111,[1 iIIMI

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'Vi~ibrud..ad,e·, e 'O~~'il!ja,

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. CaSQ os liOO~itt{.1~, deS'tiuam ,~, p.1I'6:p.11ia

C~h'lLb.~ eomo eeorre. na regre.s.g~JO da eauda do g:irlt~!O ~t.lItl lL1a 't::r3.fig:~,~a[~o ~e ·@'.ri.'~-o!b:hi~}~O~ ,e;m, ,eri~6r:i,tM ~'lllj' ild.1tda - ~. ;~~o~: ICiOlt],lfjl a. ~rite relm"cl'~a. I~ ,i:L\ ruMoo.se a a.l1iltof~]8. l~ d'_@;[~3.da ,8.'1ld.:6li1se.

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,~.dQh1·mmGntQ do .:pG~'l6Ddo, .d~ IT[dli!Jgooiti H~O'!2- ~:gua Clixjg;ana'irh~,)~ d~_d 0' n nm ~ p~rO'xi8:som~~, t;em:po:tlto O_:!1I!h~ Ib'J"]]lil:dt~ em 'il a,riM l'ea~Qes bioqruimic11ts eelalares (J>ilI"' ~W1ip1Loi' durante a d}e;gr,t'ldn~ii!Q d,e gii)r-d,tlI'a~ e ·aminoacici.os), O~O i~ extD?JJITh~menm 't;Queo~ d~' seT d"E!'~XH]]POstO;. A ffiCl!~9TIledeeompQ'Si~~o' Ooot--re"M p.reae:n~ die Jm'ii!.a: 'e iL"Il,Z i.~1$1: ;t;:.:h., m,a ~,a, '~,9Jt 3l~,a~,el~ I~-D r.lr'f!.i:d ~ _w,),os ~~~(I1(:1~.

:2 ,H2O'2 =:. ~caJtai[~se,l 2l,H,201 + Q.J

.0' .bo:m'b!UlbaDlel1to CfU.'~ v:oul!' Qbse~'¥a qllandol :aJp-b~ ~ (IOClge:l.llitWl, sobre LIm fer]me:.li1'~(t resill'~, da '~o dol catalase e da libe~o eln ,~ oxigf"-J:uo. Q Qbje~vo ,~ causar a :m'~e d!~ bact!l!fi;aa, Fab;~~~;li~;j;s~, ~sil:.:dt<~;mwte ;E:Lm;f1l~i~.

Ouuas [UIf~et:l mc'[uBn1J a. q:t1l.ebr.a, cite licidoiS ~OS! d1~PQmh]Jli2;ml,&~"Os; para (I metabel FS:rDj) ioolaim~ e. a d.esinb]rxi'c''8l~R~' 0:I'ganfea te.i'ta '~j:Q([' lexe1l1JD,lo\J;- pe.los p.-erm...issmnGSI; .d0.S he,~tdeitoHl que tttet~oliKaIl1.lo e.tanru, ~~:l presente :mJ:1:5 bebid.~~, :~le'06:liea)fi,) e:m sUbs&!}D~i.~~ 'm"~ttjl:1S agr.e.sB~va~ (m;$ h., ou m:el1l:~~ 25.[;rt de Iil~,,{)G'1 jtn~i:d.Cj, ,~, pe1:iJ8 lP~o:,xis~a.m_OQ· .rneg~~a,dad:i;J~, ~~n,d'Oi' .~j ,~StaLllte~ d~W~dad,o :J.n;~lo. ~X.L.,}+

IG'I'" :if'n,~;E'I'~'O(" o'itI;j"iii!f'I;,S' ' .. ,W;'U~IC"CJ(.Jlg;'U:_·

jllf"i .... '"'"''''''. _.;,,_:.,.il .... ,~ U~JI..o .1C~...I!JiIII_.,

E;m p'rot'Qlzojri~~ f~JrpgO~ I~ ~.QJ!u las ,aa~ '~~~:rrtil\S; Fixi,ill -~!l1'mtc;g ilu:tO~M ns iJl]mci_;~.*SiQImo ~p:r0s.(IDtam 'UlU' 1il1'QI' d~ pm:,rilij,sSQUJlD.!£!,

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$C'lDH~ntm;)" -

In~',..,'J'\I'Pn' :'n:r- "lliLl~i' ~.fi1'Y..J_ .. ~ U~Ulal

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Eim, ,~elll[aS' d,epl'O'ti.8,tBlS,• anlmais e de 'v~taLis iDiE:r:kn'ea,. Eistio ,:9il~UUes n~' c~luJa~ de. 'v,~'ca.isJ ~l'iO~OO.,

:Li)u~!llt2~:iQ;'

'Em ~]uLsu.$ anh1'JJHi5J!' na'I1Da1nqe:rtlte~ hEIJ urn p:ur cl!e ~entDotoo (diplm~mm,us.) 'pe~rpendtr.::l]JaEe.~ en.We $[ e p:oo,~m,(li.$ do fj,J6.c:]E;:f:J.

Cada 1~l.ih11,olo e UID !eulindbf'o emsti'tllfd,tj JM;}'r

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nov,..:::;, MI:ij unres ue ,':W.'~ HlIU!'J,''Gil;fl;J!!UiI]. o~ pe:I'.IU)e.[-:[~,

sem 6 p,ruJ" ,bent:r,al. ,com diil1nlelt'a:'1) eni tOf..rtlO de i~[]mn ~

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F,r;}tm~ os"clli~ fU}S ~[]~g,e~QS hXl'rpo ha~U B onemtam a [mma~M do :f1l1S0 a:eJ~t..reO d,1ur-ml1e ~ Idj;ri~n {lelula.r;.

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O~ ~@iI11tlLloI,~ MO ·-~b,niul,dQ~ ~ ,p:_illn;ir dG' ,oonmoloS' ripl-e--extstmtG$ ~QSSUI~ Rutod.uplie~~io :i'l1.d@pendl~ntoJ',.

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S:a.o ChtpOiB];~ oi:~i~Jiimitici;ts de cGl .. d as ve~tWi:l ,e ,Gle a1!D':~:'ilS •. A'i!reget1:~ lIma :m:tma

-.5'f - - po ~ .

diaeoid.a·~. B !jjl ~elk1, -[,;:SI]])lanhn 'varia (Le .. L~~IU.1:liB 'p.BL'm'

,o~l:ula. Os 'Pl~~,t,os s~o v~~.ive~ ~Q M.O.. '~am 111. ~1eo~ss:idad~ tin, 'imi·~:rc.Wl d~' .~o:ranw~,~

·Cl .• sslific~io

~ fu~o da c,iJlo((~a~iiO es 1'1~ .sat] iliV'idido5 em: IfH'.lCO:p;hwiiO's iE!i a·t:lJm.olll1utDs.,

], •. LelUtMJpia5ih:ws;

'Sio plasw~. moolo,t1as cat'il'ctm:zados. p~to acUm:tlL]@ de: ~ubs;mndas de· ~.r:v.'3::.

a).' am'_U*JaSt¢l~, - cwmtrbdi1ilml, ,~rnidQ' ( 'llIl~i:5 eommi~ H~ ·raf:ze$ e eaul ~ il:u2hell~~O~.~ ·COI!'l10 'r.fH~ 'CaR(lI! da, h8.t8l:t81~

b) jl'J;oiteoplastos. .... arm~~w.im pro mwas\j; ·~ilJm.o na se:me~·te da ·m.nm,Q]]:tiiJ:a~

~) OIleopllutos ~. ~'~lulam .lfp-€illos, 001110 na eiPid~e d~s [Jrqllid~,

2. CINj!,m.opiI91l1trnSi

S3.,_tl; pi:~tr)s (J}lJ.e aeumulam :p_[.Wile:8llio~:, It}g~o ~ol.Qtidoii1!~ Ie· realisam tbrwssinte!j;®' O~ pjgm.entos; mais 'imnortantes .sao as ,~ten6;ides ·8 a

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c!lD-raf:iia,

- C;i!r.~·te·Il.",:iJde5';~ a11~i~~ftn.tam 'CO~aJf''a!~'O ,2i.'iin~.:rr~l$d~ alarfi~ja.da Otl ve;rL~1l"tel~ia. O'g Critl\GtIen'Osj p.o:r eI.Xemplo, ·:apoosem:mm. ear a~ar,~~Hl~' Ol'l v~ln'H'?lli~ (() ·~g(Jt~(I]o· I~ prel.-U:r~or an -vi'~.ifU\li ~~)~ ~ ~~J:lkl,~5"I!l$. ~i1~ am~l~das,

- (ai;lJ:"dI~ru, dnrofHas .~i9 OS m~]S htl~' ~rtan:t,~ p~gm~l.~Q(s.. Apm:ve'ita:IU a en&,;,· ~a. Iumineea do sol, 0 que tl·iw,rma.tdl1a!i-'v,w, pard a· :I"eali zallf.\[iQ do, f!l).toos:fn~se, .A cl6rnfila: A 't~!rrll~lI["- '~'rdt'l"'~'D!]~d~;r J~()ltt '(fur:..

mula CllJj~~I7'2.0'~IN4·: ,goi ja. a._. 'cb)"tofil~ H, ap~'lil ME' '~'eril,e-.am:lmlSirlae fr6t'tnth[a

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VOC& :pod~ ~~5·~ta:r~ cemn ICtui~i dEiJd~~ '~ ·it ·ron·~.~Ctiin.3. d.e ~ro~tJfm.].a e' ~~.n'!l]~e:~te s-em,e,'lh:nil,t.E: a nu~l~;(..-m~. dB b-e:mugla~. IDj[fef.e[tl em 1~18J~.Q ~~I i'V~m,fJI cen,tr.al: na ~Q'1Mila I~ '0 'magJl_e~]'o. e~tUulta na h€!ID{l(g,lCJ-hi'na~ iF.\l. 11 fm"fQ~

ErnJi :funy:ii,tJ1 ,(hi eol.m·.~j_A) ~ lEPlQ~ n~oclel:ili1 SBJ," cIa~[ficados cm:lr:JLo::

aJ ~ib;opl~rros·, emn pradcmtnio d·e ~mv~· 'nJ18~ ~!.'mdQ ]llastos vermelhos;

bl ~~illi·'Q~pllalS:'t.,S - ,oom. p:~oott~!!1li~ I'~' "~~'mfi-

1- -..,1·· ."11 '- ..

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,~}. cloropllU!i~-os, ~ sadl, VilE!'J-diaf!i~ ~om 'tPl'led.o:ttrimID das cllo~"t)tilM.

1D.Fi,gm;u

• -r- 'Os plas'~~: san fOL'tr:ta,dl.O@l· a ~ de 'pJ;::u~to~.

'PI~~n:st~l~tes~ J~i que possuam ~ cap:l%ci.~~de M: :ar:l!l:oo~JI~icaJ~Jo.

,0 ... ..:~.... '.~'!I¥i "'" "";::! ., ; .. ,.... ,",,_'" divide a~ duss

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loolllhll__s;Wh~1 [iC!:4!J]] 0000 m~_is on nltinQ~ metadc dtiS- ,r:loiil!poh~J~~ ,[[a t1,~~.no:.iJ] .. lEn,qLtahto as reE1(ilas JOV'~'l1:S ~]'esbem~ es plli.sf-.rJ.& I!iim];8nl a.m'IDda.;Urhca~o e

. _.~~ __ 'I - • - -... - + II

:r,est~.G{)em: il}ji nmaero ni".~gmg],

·Oa(l]:s:idftt"e~se ainda 'qu~e urn p.~ 8J.g,to p-6rl~ se 'b:m..sfillrnlai· !imJJ m!lItrtl~ Oli pla.s-toa :sali) ,IDnllaJJi,OO ,Iffi[ '~mig_]" de .di~utag l~![I!I.sas moo.furn~ 'p'l:liseltws: nss ooJQJ~, ~m~ri.liJn~rin8~. ~~, ,tupIas.tw.s.,

,C'lomplas:to$'

S ao as Ijl'[~'J5~, d·e lu~d~~" Kln:porta"nc],a:. bio]o,g1.ca H tambem os mais ·-:fl.ECJltl.e.nte'a.. Oa !~101:-1Y~.astos. mais comuns tl!m Jbmu:a .d,e! urn disco ,aJdlaiadot eem eomprimensc v:!J.I:'.i.aod.o ,E:\ITll\',-e ~3 e ~O.tl.mi e ~~esrsu:rB, e·ntr~ t e 4}~JI!L.

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.3) :~.Q:.e.- 'fn::am:r .v.3ri.adi~~ ~d.eEl~ ;tl[fll Qt. dn_~a - . ·P;\r··e~lu,ta.

b I v,ege-tais '$,trPeJ1iOJ'\eSl - podllarm. ~e~I' e~![r!or.iro@ t .ov6lJd.es d~iiclaiSl m;ti,en.t :f'Ul,"ma d.e clava, 0' 'WJjumel'Q ·e oollsbmw pm'~ 'COO9. ·t:ipo eelular, :[roew:do v,~.riar conforme S,8 ·Deo~d~Q~8. 'em .. w~di~ll~ "~~,'fa, d~ 50 P~}~ ce~;uta; :na. ·~a~·

ronl1a ca1c1Llmw,...Jie q ue h:i. 40i:tOtuJ' .,clorop~:~ tes "pur nlml~ da ~li.petfl'cie· de. taiba.;' '[[run 8J"'-'

- . '~I~ [[' - .;1;."", 1~- H-'i - - -I -£~J

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ime:rst)R. 'no ti~_Q·:~~ .A. dliii!l.po:si~ na ~luJ.at. ,~Qtle va:rialr em ['tUl~~ da .hu :solar. PIOif' ~em.plfll, lIB!;S' folhas de ve.gehtis· S,llperi~IIf\BS! ·,~ljm lua ,!Solar ·rnm.rtWVtl intensa, ~8 'Id~pl ~S'!tgs. .ilicam diIPO:erlrOs .. p[iU':1ilela:IT,ru~mte a m,e:m.b-T8fullJ. ~ ateral (ooDsijde.:['a~8~ t.a:o:a'bmn 'litw El3J ~oU"mS=· ·bt~08i pe.lo. clclose); a. fonnra e ,,".miku:l~ te!5piira;-· .~ acl~~!ll' "iIllla ruga $'}.piroBYM~ l~rr~jetd:aros nas I~!§nWA~ d~ 'vegetals giIJL]leci)[J'i.~s" cl:~p,jrl ,e ~ f~F.ma e8:t,:m~laiila .l'lta, alga. Zygn,e',nn; J~

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o Hi cr(JiS e 6J)'i '0 (h~·t:i' cO' ~jGm ~.~:p. e c to ~lumQ@i1;eQ<.

,Ar) M]Cro8®~pio' E~.,e[h.'\Oni,oo pedsmos OQJ1~At~r:'

a) r:e¥e~1;icl.Q~· ':po:r tliJiftl'Jl3. d.u;pla., Itiend).r.,~na. jipoIl~OiMIj.C'a. oom ,~eq.l!lffi1Q' ~pa90 le[j.~~ ~ela&.A li}e~,elna. Intema mVBg[lOia e femia j]:gos.: .ds prateleirut, :as, h1r;lB~hIBj

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e , tilacmd:es ~ '~eeJcul3Js, membeanosse a.c:l1;;1\~·· tadas, pareOeI~O moodas!. qua contlelI.\ U mn~.BCuJ.W; ds claro:n]H. O~ tib.c;:mdes mp'afte-· ~B[1;1 ~mpllh:iiJJd:i1l5 'Ii&m gI"lil,P08 ·(cBj~WtupQ cha'm_a ~l1£g l;i $~ld[) -0 ,c(;mwjum[) de~te3 gtU.,., p();S cihama,r,}Q~:lI ;( pOl" ,~~mplo," IiH) espi-:na&e ha 40 a '60 gran.1Jtftll l~r c$JiJ(r.Dpmgro~, '~Q:m ce.1:'lCSj, 00' D.~m eada lw.o.)\. ~sfm:;, eada "gl:-ailJii1JDl ~'um9_ ~tnrtw:-a ci1i]lddc~ cml3titu~· iI<l!;a8. POll . ~acil~· m!l:Hnbr·~n~;, d.l"lp.~Q5 supell"-'

P~}£~, :~!.~ ti],aror~_ N·a. '~q.penl:c[e inte~ dIll. m€l].1BElLllla ,do! tUa,.o.6i.de, . -hs. rlill".fn~e£ pa-'· mmistalm.ml ~Je ~~cnla6 m.,ediudo 200:'X 1100, ~~t.rons,- d.mDrlI'linadas A~JtfJSSO-

!L~;~;I; :~iI,.

U~~ d~8POStQ8 como l;tidri'UlOS mama :pf;[rOa~. se~:dtQ ronIl1d.er.a~ a m.f;.'"j1iJO(t 'pa1"1l;i'cu[at '&ito$~ill.'~~fj;e8, Cad:a; qlll.a:nW9'Sama. Ciilotero. eerea de 2~d moleCJIDaIl1l '0 ,elnm.:ffiR, 'em, grLLPJH de 110 ,~ 'to a' as.s~clndas· Q(] eitoeremo 'B n.ll.ol~ll'~' lou' ~JZep'bor"Js (s-ew-r- 'r.€]~,ci,{)Ii!Ji)rl" a 'tt~nJnill'm.i1~~ da 'en ergia. lurllinaS3, em. 'q;lf[m.iC9,' •.

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IPrimitivl8l1~ .

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. Sao or~n~!u -. ~Jon:lLla'lmj~nteJJ ~m -fO:[(il)~ d~, 'ba8ltQnf.'t~" ,apro8eJ'J.b.J..n~ oomp,ri..nmnto V:EJ;rimJl.d.o entre ~ ~ ~1 e minie:tr.ro eJIlt:re 0,2,;)1, Im, l~t~u]AQ' pre se nt.e a, nas (lelt~as ~u~im1ib~$. Sali) -i'i,~~ms RO' M·.O. 'Bn1, c~l.E :6xada~ e $,'riv~. e:m;p:r·egaTh~fulill:i[!l

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Char(l;atmos ,~iTd_d:riOMa ,atQ OQilj un.W de 'u;~tq1(:l1Jr~.dtia~ d~ 'I!lnl,~. olilu..ia\

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!l'6Vemmel1ibJj. ]]llofJ\mte'was. .A i~~8 OQ·]}; ... · 'tOO:J, ool~~stD:t;ol~ 'B ]is~ ... mai ~ :pc:mlJil\ivQ.~ it. 'm,·, te.~-u ,ROO eb~ e!t}lM'te:rru_. .3.~eft't8. In~na,~es; on 'C~81f.as mi.toeoiu:lriais, e e' me..ru,lS, pertl~,~.'\!'el.mntr-e· a:BT.J.lJ0S h,~. m:!f:!l espaJ!i!') ,int~rn'UE:·rn.b:r,MJat 0'0 6.3;mu·,a ![I!·x.m:m:a1" ~'Ftd~ bi acunnilo cl~ 'p~i)tO'iI]~ (.0-1)~

-b~1 rnst.as nU;tIl)0~iais· - !Sao !d.oh1:'::±!u; d.aJ ~:nbrm::l!_;fliuoo'l':r.rn ~ :S.f} ~prei.Se;]lw_m 1~--Qm·lJ.U~ ~M '!1~'uia,v@li ~p~~deD~~Q' dO gt'.siM. "l~'U'Q~~'~' ~lai, ,dim .mi:toc6ndrJa NaIl, ,crWtas: ,e.staa as enzimas '~p;a:nSav~is p~bu iI!ltap~ OOll:Jis riea iJ;l, i[\e;spir.a,~-aro celular:

'c)- eDl\l9s ~1~ta!I,ie5: ,_ 'p~Trtkuja m~'diJijidd· ,e:t'!Ltm~ ,80 e .l.OO! ,a'bl,g~tmD~' e presas ]l~ cris;llaJ:~ 'm:lwoo'nclr.iais~ -espiHl:~ad:llis' 1UO ~g$tron~ umas ,aa~ (j'-U:t:r:aIS". ~ mtG1han~ ~ 'mc,[uGi:e a~; ·it~~i9 de·-eam.po p,J:"e_S3Jr:l:e1tD: eabo~ localiz::mJHI~e: mos fj_'O'r~,Qs e1emeJJltw~a5. as ,mihzimM q'lJe 'par!., :mite:m ~o ~ugrp~]amen1bo d~ ~metIDa .. iillera.d~ ~'ID :sigtema. 'tF'ruliSlXJlrltadiQ1r Ide eM'b:\mlfi para . iiJ!j .pl"odu¢o Clle A fP:

.J'Ji .~ ,0 ";]·=~·_~·iI :1'1· -

~ iffl!~tr:iiZ :m!ij't~oinDFt~ ._ ,:a.£S~1e~ la··ge ~f} ~

-wam e p(OOel1che ,0 iuteE:['lLKl" -cllamitoc3nd_riiBL. Na ~.trlz; sio ~(Iloontr,~ludas mloLOOu!~ d_!~ :QIN1\ RNA e (]~W~ribOJii,~j}_fi~ (respo:f.j.~ ··sRvei81 pels l!Jl',~.~d ,tle pI'ote'm'ri[l:s mlitrio~il-' d~ia:ia .' 0 DNA mijU_root1.[h-iJiJ ~j~~ellt~ tfJlEl., .ma. Hafhiea. B ~ -. sa!tiLeiU:'iLa.nrMJe QO niNA '~te-

'rim1.:o. eS~ru1eto., ~ ~ mem~lrru.m ~n~rna. N iii. Ht~b."':iZ. :m.itf~]]dnal ~t~J ~ :a~, e:~laUll. 1''e~~.:~ll'V~is :~elo eielo ,~J8 Kreb.s f:i b. acidoSJ gI'a-'XiO$.

Mo't cut~ II#! n'lL.d8lr~ dEi' DN"', MkU.1rr-lOO:!!tlilJmo

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At1 miiocbn.drlaSii· ,S1Lp:l,es.entmn· eapacidade die ,a.l1,to"d.up1ic~o ii J:Oirlalli~ ~m de ~,to{i6nclJtjWl: p:rl~~enjtes.

~vid_b, fi ~sWDe]halTh~a· mrmtf(H]:m:muca COJll1l as oo~'b:hi~s~ pl'O'\l"aV~Ullm1lib~ G'vohIirro-n ,a p~. de b!fR~wda_8 ~uu~ bh::as.. Como· no~ elnroplastos; m¥Bulil~ te~;ni~81 l~lCBL;dor.wte~ !~ ::p~~m a ter lITD;9 Mli;!ll~iai mcrmfJl ~Sti'~a j~m.ta:a ~ 'Ul;emTIJaB.

Ftm~~

AS 'm~b]~5ndri,~' ~stio ~nvC!lrioo8 eom '0. m,atarboHsm.o ,®R€rge' -](i,O da '~e 1 ala ~ . ~3-~'ID.ruQ -r.'~poI1S~vli;]·is, ~l:tlld' 'prOc~81S~ da respir~ra~. o~ruar ~~aSl81jlIlblll~,~te sera b:~bt.d~ nes pI"Gxim.os, CBL;pi~j.oS,).

VACDOLOS

01$· v~i:!u.olo8 silO estnlt1Ji1'la5 ,sru:!u:H:funtu~:s Ipresentes em 'n~.u.imiii ltipoi¥l. eel 'LJJm:r.es. ,A..p.!f\es.~nt8M ~alu_8nbCl var:iad,t,l; I~ est aD. r'eves~~ 'por·1.netni1, ana

SmuJ!3~fm'W 'a m~tbrmm 1~1:IM~latillC~. 0, lOS: "~:ifroS ~e. ''!l~liol(l!~, ~:. de Seuen, ~eblllaF[j' d.ige_S't.ii,.~ ~,

ICQiIJil"ak:T1!!,

1. '\':Rtcti!l)l!iiJ' de suoo, ~ehlJblill":

J- _.. t';..,,;;,;---- ~md-ilf'i,-r.:I -- - - -;Ob.d-· - ])---.::11.--. ... ~ '~}u!!;,am "",,,,' __ ~ ~_'.-'~ {.!iO ~:WP,L, ._ '01 q:i!ler a 1JT--wJ11,,!!:

iO:3I'b~. "St;o 'lip:i.ooSi ~le ~lulu ve.getaN;_. A:pa]1\~"i1m 1001 :gr.lrtdJ·, n;~mRFiI:) ,~ ia~ p~q'W;:no 't~.m~miffilo nas ~etu~ as; ·llru~·ri:~rl;~:mHt-icas - (~m])rio~I:IJ~;rii!l.·~.); iu]> Looln.n~Efu_JiQl' nas r.6luillas Mult~. 0 vacUoLer ,!§ !ll1:l1r.ito· Igrande' e' P(;.iIp~, qrltllasleL :~ bllt-alUlade do! f!Sp~VO IGimplb,snuiti~o ~ ~~ v~~ a~95;% d~ ·vmum.e oo]u1~F: 'totw).,

ApresMta:i$L uma memheana H];ltlprotei .. t;'_1!li. ehamada . t~J:ll)Opla:s.to'~

OO"nUm. uma solu.~.aj(jJ f~J[,.!'l~M~. por. 'gU~l~ iS~i~~ :~~liic~~ '~err.b©s P]wn~utM e .IfJiiltf~ !t;ub~L§mciai;; lrJ;j"g"arnic;3,s. Sao TOl3PfJjl ~,~ v,e1 s '[Ile]'rJ! I~qu.]] ibt]1;3

(J~citi:oo d;'l ~[trl;a V.~'iWt~ .

P:Q:oorooa ~ir ~. ,1Ust6· as SU2LB .fu.nc~:

- - . - - ~

,~w~~e:n'~lm,~D;tcg, (agtullj w'n~1' ~l1·r~oi d~'~~8:~ :arJ]}in'Q1~el;ij'a;s ~ :pm'tmna3. - !U"(rmllJ nu s{mru}J1t~~ d~ ~TVilhQI ~ all} fG-·ij:io e ' fP-lllmbem pode:m fr~~m:~m;iI.ar sghstMd~8 'hld~sgj ~eiSi Dar,~' ·0 ,c~;t®!Sol tPfJI" 1~P.·~'m u mmx na ~.rmgUl.irillt P:ocil;ID]],. '.d~, :mmianaI [pign1m1!WB (pTIncipms respousiivehs :p~lQS Cn1"8S das itONS ~,·de ,a~a_8j. fb~s:); pf\-ee.:lliu:~"~,e·l!do de' lesp89.o' - ffld.l!Ui "0 ~e~p,~!tp ,d_o, lC:it~ol u que faclllta (.1, intf.:!:rt:h[!';bii(J, Cia ~··]:lil~: .~ ,~. '~,~,iBJ] diiil!. I~~gh~ Iuminasa :pet!)::$: cl.(l1ropI~:rH;(~S,

~-~!I--,!_1!fiIlIiI1 1'1<1,,_ -In"LipM!;k ~IIL.~

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. T~mb6m j", ~tu..dad~~ R~.,wtam, d.iJ ~1J.8fuj, dq,

~ .. .

Ilfa,go~SO-mla, 9"~: pilno~SGmQ enID '0 l~Q~,ti, pif,im~·rio.

;L-oo.~~] otlId,!3' ~~ .a (lljg~f;' r"~o rntJt~lo't;lWm;

''13' ~J' oi!' 11 _'iii '" ;Il.:::11 . , .. '"IIi

iIJ'. "aCUOJiO ·P~IU.s9,i.'H IOU. ,con"ll:r;a-tb

Ap,]~e:~ entam movimsntc d,e C(llm."I[';~,~.'r;,~f~,

'j/~ ~ • .:".21 s ." 21, ~ j, t ~ . -

ltIi.)!?Jl~I:I;C'~. 'uua1. (i! :n:o:m:e...,~ ~e Si:S,!.!i)~je·:e di~boda,.

F?1l~, lirnl~'·,~ a eli:nii]'1a~~]J 00 eiceSSil de D.gu8. da ceh;_lI~ resultants (1.0' processe ~m6tioo"

Tiproo ~e ]J:rotq}~oltri9~ de ~l ![]Q~r[', S~8 hip~ItGni ~1JS' em ma~,c,] a igiJ.a dp~,~ 1!''aZM p~ a Q~J~~l ~n:b',a-J' PJ\li esmose, mmi ,grraI'];~;l(!.l (;I[aaDtl.d~ d~~ rlgum, rrta.~ula([os m~smo~;(~·stueficil\'lJib~! V~Ut. q[litB· 9 mm]lbrana. pmsm1itita Fosse ~:Pidi.al nfi·o th"t::.a 1'1 1~!3Siell~ d:1il vaeuelo ])~tll.nF

Ilud~U$~s

A:s .itn.clu s a es ci'to·pft as liLla t.i, ea S: n,§.J 0

liiE.'p~elltanl ei$tnamW~j], nti:vas qi[IJS ,~ruuill9si -m~; ,SlJ Q IOi(IIl1i'h",ar1:'G ~ ve s;icull.a~ tlerm'pora:ria~' 'i!;[Ue: ,8!lrmaze,]')HI:U: Sl(tbstlhui~ Ide' 'fiessrvlZt _im;pi)I1antes. 1'1_~1~,@L 0 ·llret~bo~itIIUQ' oo1,lhl~ eome 'gIDi:o d~'

gH.c~£J' e' gDtas de . gO"m"duJ:i,iElL ...

Gticogemo~ pI"hloipaJ. m.1:mfl, d!.e. ·res;eNa ,cb3, g&09f' (o g],icQgen~Q' ~ ltW bio]lolimlliIDOl de' g1J.cJ)@le)~ ~8 ceh:!lt~ snimsds lEi rlas:fw",-,~. ,AJlgttniSl <~ru09; ~ ,Umji~l1i~O ~od~r.o' ~~~ en~~~r 10 ·,e. 4~ ,de, ·~b.\U. Efi~m$.B,it'~p6~veilil3 pella g~i~ii!neAe, tt g]:i.C'O~6litle' Il~am .8.de;t:mM. ,il ,~ge~fj)ei.e· d~s' g1l'itl'llM:9 de· :glliC:eg~nm,

G@iCas, lIi:plidi£as:~ assim ~o armazenades os .~<drlM '~~' .A gor.dur,51.:rio 'BOOSO]; ~gb'u.ti[la .pia.~iaJ, fQrr.mm; gcM1rlres mo~. qu,e vaeiam IMt~e O~, e 0 5'In (~legan.dq, aaa ~eltnl91 .M~[~.~. ;:l'be a~~m _

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l~',L~'LJJUf' .. ·r' ••••• ,.'., •• -~ •• _." r ..... , .. _., .. ~~ .LJL."I~.~~'IJ.~ ,._ .... _.

o Ol'icil.eo :roo de~~ito ,am, 1830 ~pOl': Roben Brown (1773-1858). ,A, 'pres,eJ),ca do lJ,rlcleQi t1ilrBlctieriza, ~s· crltu'las 8~]{;miOn.t~s. Podemcs dIzal':, QlU;'!1 o l'I~'c1.;eO' ~d~rg~: I) material gw:u!tko ~-VN'A) (h~:§; ~elu[g, C',U!£;anonk'8- .. Mslrn.. .(tile rel!1~~ntaill, ;£) oe:nt:~:~~ ·r.eg-rUI a.dJ:,_R'd~ 'ii:i~i'vid!a,d,tl~, ~~lLlLtateB. L~~}! ,0 dt~l:fl!1inu:9J ,e!: 0 f&~rn'oo([' das 'Q.~de,ns ,Ill]]ele~es~ viabllisandc a. ,e~b:utlll"a oohlJ~ em tOG,IaS as 'iHUas flm'~oos vitEliS',

Niln peuse, n{ll, Er.iIJi1i.:mOOi ·em alge. unllateral, ID 'Willa ,1ln.f[1U.&'1!Cia .anutua erlliT.e 0 ttI1oleo e 6 cibJplalSIllB .. 0 citoplamllR ]nJ1~ta d>ecigi'Va..rD@i)]'~ na ~M nuelear que~ ~r(Jf;' SH.a, "r,~~ orienta a a~io citopl~_sn:uitiC"a" 'Gc-,E"11."~;_~ nsslim um p(r~~o' d~' int0ni,.~p~nrlli:ncin '~'t~d, 'q~~ ,temrL !S:idr:l\ dlL"miJ(1J~~:~m ,ptlt' cliv~aas tt}~:lH~~iencia.s~

Expmijoo~a, raalisadas, p:or' exenIt-plQ, ,or 'B~Jb~tan;[~, 1:10' 'finoo go ~i§cu1:(li, x:m;) ,~,k5WIm 'iJ'~8il '~';n~~pen~Jt~['!jc1 a! ICgrt~n"d~. Dm~ a.tn~b,~ em d:iIl,a~, IDe'ta .. des 'e.m que um;f~;" del~S)l ,~~pe:",~., 'eo:neeru)a (!i 11LiiLtf]~!!). A m.e tit d£l' .DJU:cle~da oo~til]u~ ,['!omo' 1l1fiUill mmeba _t'tfitmw. em mrlfia 00 ,EWtlS. 'po""Pleemi5" A .ti(liiE~t[lidlH· 'mlilo:t~aSlct '~'CreU']t aeaha mmf'.~Ddo em ill!.'\nrB d~~. ,(ljQudm-se q[I!l~ ~ '[l!ucieQ 'O-i~ VlVil! oom 0' ciilop~~~ e 1i'J dwpbllS:rII]~, tlaq ~~breri,ve' sem 0 Jl!ud~, lED..}(:e~t~JI&·~' 'Om nthi1.ffo nQ &,agmJe:tl:to aiOl:l!iCleaclo d.mIJ- ameba, pu:r. er}re.'ft~p]tl~.

~, ., ., ,..;!I • "11"", ... :

,~te' ,~!llf;lrei\n.vjJa e I~tm:~egw:a :$e' "~e[MUU"ill!Zlr: • .J.!i~ta

~~rl@:.1ltC:ia ,de &Jbkm:i_ :OJCD,u, ~~d;a comno. a e-xp~ri'~ncia dla: lm,errotomia..,

-Pr~SSQ8 metabdHoaSl ,ilnpo~ta:nte tamhem. ~oor.:r.em no. '~u~~e~~, MillO, $I: sii:(jte8e~ d£ UNA, ~ die RNJ\ ,e a. ~:rnO:li.8~

~F.iol"mL~

A :I1'i):rn.~ do :n:llcl'eQ' e ba ~:t arrt e' V,;'\Y.i~lIiI.~,. d'~~~ncd,erild,,], din 't~"pf} DEl'luJar_ No 'Mtanb). a rtIrn11a ii:1'O nucl e Q ~ H.O'1":m,tiI, J m e nte, Ri(IDiIDp~nha ~ fGnn;~ a~. t::~l!lll a, H a bi t u ~ 1-m'e[lr'~~" :ap'I'ase:rrta, forma ,e.sr~ri~~., C e] rutS:\5 ~ Pl1d.s'IDl;j ,t ie as ~um.'iI.1 'l'JiJ!lcleo alnn:gaJdo ,9 .nas paJ,~ntga~ ete e' 8cl1~W1.d.IQ',

N'orm,31m~n te' as cehi1. as eU!r;":'2I;,1F..iOll'!':e,g 'po~~u,!j,m, ia.~iO,a..~, UIll, '!Iluot~{[J!; . ~f;lJ"J.do... . 'p(I!Ii:'t~Jl!tUj, u.iJlinud,~~d~s. Eri'n1;}'~ntg, 'pooem e)Ci.stir c&'E1i.lb,"5,

...a ., ('P ~. I iI-~, • '" .;.] '" ·;il.A ",1.

eom !!tl!,D18: 'iilr,ii~Jnrl«l!tlli J! ~~w~'~Oi"C iQtJ[hlroll;:~ilw5!!' ae

mamif~) ou' ~!~;1;&s r!flL]cl€@$ (tib:r~ 'mi.J~],~t !~~tlf"i~d,~ ~~'sQ,i~e l~Uc,~,~]. ~!li)nd fj d,ii'ta'§!'i \fIQB]~0~]"'~l1ienb3~, bittrucle~d~$ e IDld'mrm,cl~ndas (pi ltt:inU!~d~s)-

M'm,IDs a:nlkor~~ eleam, iRind:a~ ia~ bemi,ceaJs ,de,

• - - - ~ R' -.., - ill - - " _.. - -

'wamifems ,C::c:l!i't!i,n ~eiti"plo d~e' iC6lin::Jjs ~:I.l'l!1clei:l)_.das,N~lo toOsifd;e·tlct.1Lm ~~~m,~lD 'ct)f;Te:1i'o tnn~idel!ta!1do '~~, 'k.:a,t~ de 'runl'~ ,~~pe.ci~i;l-a,C§JQ lO~l:UL]la'r ®e ;~ ,[:{}nde:l1l;tlj,' in~~'n~d:iia:v\eln1l.ei.i:[~ii2'. - ~. m![):rfr;e"., A af']ul~, :~()~Qra da, h~n'.'~~a $e ~:1ftOO'D'~a na, ~li;~duJ:~ i~e,~. 6,;O~l!1~lI!rtimG]lto m£du~ ar ~ tGW 'f]iucloo .. 'QlI:@indQ a h~m~:CGR t1m~,c]uroit;'@ o· d,~, ,~' ~S']ocm:'~ 0: pompru1;rmB[Jt.o sU1lgUin~;,o : 0 T,:m,J(:"1le~ ~, I~xp.u'l so, ill~]\"Hi~, I~ :e'5:p.a¢~ tH:;u:p'a,dQ' p"9l~, 'hm]ogktbinFi~ f~rnrURnoo Ij "tniUnsports de. :~es It~SI~~l"at6ri.Qs. Esitanito R aUwirJ1 im:pa..ssiJilit.ad.a de ~ep@'[" e:[([z)JjjllSl.5 '~m mltta de .mELted"ill. ~bi!Do,' ,~:pT-es;er\tmi& mlJla enrta iW'bm"rid&~ A ~b.;enui0i&a ~ive' de,9:Q a 120 dias, C@Ibfi]],",ms:-s8 desta Dn:-ma ~s, I~ el·i~tL.ci,iEij,~ que 8 testam sef;' ~.nvi,a:l1eJ ,iEJ, ~i::ibl"e~y@,D'ci"a, (1]0 1lli,~[,oo sem II}: citO'plEta~ ~ do cival1]amna seitu ,lld~!lh~CIi;

'Ob8s.r-'I{~~.3~ runda a, Gcon.~ncl~ de masses 'nlu:lltwu{';le,~!d~'s. 'fbrm,~das ~ .pariilt" de dois pI"Qcemm.s OOEiicos~ ~rJi.C]cW '~.'P,WJffi16Jiio. ,N~ s]nci~io bi 8 1iui~o de ''ladH.~ lOO]:w:tm 1imin1].cleadas qil.t'e: 'j~:r(h:!'ll] ~g_8il:, Ti[],BtIa,br8!l1M- 'Ij!~r.,~, t0I111t1r-[ltlIJJa, In!lllMat 'tlind.1iinmleada. -P,pde:ttIJOS' !eital:' emrno ,~xem:p]o ,SIt

~fi.......... ' " .. 1..;, --,'" d ~~='~":::~ . ,j. '..:I~ ,llJIJUdJ., ~8CW&li]· ,~j,R! •. 18 esq:ULt:.UJt:ih!J.'caJ..:e no lGec!i;.lIJI

,O;sse:Olj Of! nsteoel8jitos. JIa no p']:EL!UEwdi5~ oeerre :b"li~13a, cariocin~e~ em uma ~lul~ U11JJlnl'D!deacdal sem, bav,~r.j ]l.Q e[l,tan,to~ .ei.'tocin,ese·" ,~sj_m. rasulta a massa mn.ltinnc:Reads! ~'onllj] em plFotO(~!o!rio~, le-spomzoIbiQ~~ [:_0. ,diLl! pw .. m~(Jilh~ln. g",~ ~it~~ad(l(f." ida f];laMtlt1H.

".- ...

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Sua pMi~aj] e vma¥e~. ]jlaJr-en1., cantteterist,hz:a 'P~raC'a,r~la' 'tI:po cG~:ula:r; p~)~., exemp'r~~j, ernl 6t!]ul es e:nl'brio,n_m',lM ocor.re' na l~,gia~ central. 'N as. ,oo:lulu ,glru:hdu]m~s ~, basa ~i Bmrldo pm+rG;n~o 'n~ ,oolu:l3s ~Qdi.pu~, A~.aE fibra& musculares ~~ttiSJrl.a.s ~ 119

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o 't.a~nho (ii' @8,pQ'dffco pm.',EID I~~d,a ,ti]!l~ eeilliLl!8.[!, ]O,@)', v;flJritivel B,O ennGl.ide~o:i toclaS 'as ti~lgJ~tg. g~a if\!Rl~]onil!4Q so w~lliml{!· da ,t~]:u.m~, ~itu~~'iij, est a eX:p'~~"~S8'a, il!,'tld~. R ~ hl,'ea:o . N~'I).':~leo;pla!8PiJiAtic~ LKNP) 0'0. K~la~io de R,ertWig::

Qb8en'a~s~ q:u~ 'osta _:r~ltl!.1ii_'o !~. l~l~'vl~d_~ ua eel ula ie~l:1lb11i_ooari8J;o .dim.hl1)Jindol" po:re:m eorn Q oo-escimmto ioelul~r, AG' I~ongo 00 de8en:VQJW:mr0nUi~ ce;]:ILlal" 2Hll!.m,e~n ta ,0 '!? 01 ume £i;to_p~t as m,;~:Uc{f eIJLq,~to a volmne .IllID.Cls9Ir. sa DU!ill..mm :ioEilimmdo, O dt~eqwlLbriu a:1dngido :PrIJ; ~ta ml3.9Mj a "par~r de u:m .d.ete:ttl'liiJ;l~do -y,Rla(r!1 l8epre~e"rlIta -:ifm]:' des famri~~ mi'bl5iti.~e~,

o tam !'ll1b·o m~mo" no e-~ta_trt~~· ifa:ria m1~ l e 5~) :mi.cr3metr~. lUi. .Ill~,deo6l gigantes loomo 00 (ita ~te:r,<l jthL_s ~8p~51 em tom~ dL~ 000 m.itc.].'fim"etlxlS" OU, .m.'iJ.'I:iID pe~l~i' OOmn til d'G F-(J(tt.mta J14"il!;.fllt!"0t1Pll!'8 lJ~dieru; ~ eom I~@'lt:a de, ~'~D£ ,milil3;ut5:m.ett-a$..

o ,cicl,o de viid!_a Ida le~Hu.1a apit:1e~bJhSiet ,m'vidfd,o em. dfli$ 'm(km~~to:s~ r.a!J;j, a o€hil~. ~sta lam. ·m,mHGi eelular ~nl.tO_5~ ,w.Ib-:alSloSJe.) ou .Ilio ~stal it!;Dl ..:!I:~-ri __ ;1"l,~) et ,'- .... 1.."., d' lti'~--~I':;A n __ -:. .,,",.,. a

!!,J!"l ~ _ ~~ ~ .:," _ap,i!l cnama .~ -. __ ~~:r ~~ _ llU"~.~ ~ _"

W: V:t~o ce'~.lU].' 0 :n;tilcle-o dMca.m~a-,se e os setllB eompon entes d ~~"arp;~t-;~c~'m,.. D~!?t~ f~mrJl 8ldi pnde,r,tt~,()iEl' de'~1:.mjTI:a1i," a e~lnltur8 n.lIJde;$iL'r du~nt@}· 8: mtsrfllQ~'~ for -1S'S'G, ~ro' qjlLm R m~nr em 001JEu:pffile:nte,s ll'U~"[eares, est;Et['t".'i se ral~]1,do ll~ 'GJom~D,eintes: nuelearea do 'l~1licl@o iDielr.fasi eo,

Durante a in.teJ.1hse! [!J at:i;vidat~, 'nl1f'j,e~]: e m ~".im a t Jrl-iii tf,i.aJ~ um a, sf§lm~ie dE!: J!l1t~fi£e.s 1(j!B watRbQieos fur.uimn~iJi]t~s pBJFa 0 oonU"o.~~' OLO:

,wti.vid,nd~ c.eh,l]a1t 1001I10 ll;;an1Lb~m a d.lJ1p']i(!'a;~~o M

D"N'A, . .

Oh~~v~s. :r:IJ,O. n:ue[,efj :~l\te~,f~ ,~~u

";!I,

~"bl:tLt~! ~ari.ob::ca!, nli.u~Tenplas.a.. Du.(tlelloliill' e iC;!I:"'(Di,matinJa_.

1~ cuiot\:ec;a OU. m.emilb.~9DS nIutcl~9J!" OB, e.u;.i];o.; 1,~.

A ~ri~l~ ,e; 'ro,r.m~d~, ,~, IP:.niir' ~o retleillQ' 1!;i1'll.d'(~'ll1~ma.tit';[} e- t~r.i!, P~):f run-~~ Wl]].'t"er ~'J, Irn~J,teriJ::S], ,~ij,e'ti:,o[),. C((i,mo 'boda me'mb-n:~~n,~ ce'hd~av e de .. :~':I!a.mil~'\Z3. Hpop'n)'t~i{~rn, fr()sr(~~~p]d~.'ng: ~ pr(}'lt€lilli11"~). ,E'i!!:rn~Wlta""\S~ lWJ:pla. f,c;Gm !:h~m d~, e$i,p€'ssuc~'a eada . uma) e Gam nu_e:L'iO'OOS' 'p'o·tOSl, (,8iDll"IdIti)l ab',~'VeiS Id..a:.:s ',quaia, ·,g~~'o:i."I;'~ tod'o' 0 'in:te~-'e,iittj;r~~, rnl{:leo:-l~itljJ:pl~]]-la; ~em.dIl "Vi. si'We] apanas :tlLQ m;[mt\~pillo ete~:omoo, f!ada. pom a:pireE'!eJ['],Ca, iJ"!Jnllf[, redonds !il1l1 Jle:XagonaJ 'e di.lm.etw variando 'e~UD:e -tiD -e l.UI[},nll1i;1t ~ l'llo['.f:[talmeute:<e:m. ·IWI'.rl.o de' 7l~mn) •. Ell'il iil'\i"6ci'tog de o;1]l<iQo cl.o n1!3f:'~ ;Pm" ex.enlJD1.o~ ]U1. de 40,S!. 8,0 P01(l00i :pOl'" nciCOO~[letl:O quadt'a:M,. ea1~tllia,~.se· que :~. ~.a ~~ibe~a !pe1m JU)r."?~~ :rii]ll·e_ge~u_ de 1~ ,~-2,ij% d . .e· ~di!:IJ. B, 3t1B'."1l da ~riQ'tee:34

A nl~bl'.an~. ,~r.na, em connmJ."lrJ OOIli,lL ,01 bia11~ht.Sli:lla, apRse_~ta tib05Einm;n~ ,oo.Eliidog. 0 esp'a:1'~ .en:til:"e ~ duas 1nemOCtml as ,~., ebS1'iiad.o:

. - . -

I~;P~~~' Jl~~tlC~~~ ~tltir1. d.:ima·J1$in~~ e~1·l!.re 10 e

,5.0 nan,()me1r,:ros~ E!S't~ ~Sipa¥.o .apres~~~ Oi:ml~e~ cem as .cj oS tl~~ Jj as € ean ii\'lli3, tIl:o :f~ t:~ en] (ii'

:.1: ~, .Itt" m~ ~ 'II", '~' 'I'

IIi't:nCtiJ~p~,~3LS,mj!ll' lC~;Ji,. ,n·lI~'~in p@.iIl, gU:liH P' m_'llill;t[),S

lcitoh~gi8:ta3 CQn~i,d.~;f'~.m, a ta~rio'lec'a uma !~_sp~emli~a:9~o n,ql J~FropiciiQ' ,r¢ticwo !!jn{~opln-__sm t\t.i()D.

Ao COlllrtr':Ii:o d.iB1 me,mb:r:alil9_ p,i:a.srn,'t:ic.aJ, a 11Z..."1:I':[ ~Jt,ee.:±Tl :p,a(!! SL p[,·,e,;SIEl.Erta. ];~,eg~' nr;fra,'9a.o. , s e: ~:e$ada).~, ~~~.tra.vaj!j;a u ,oo'll.'t~udr) nuclear- ,e;' a r;:~ln]a 'nQ,0 t".re.,

.i. 'NooteopJ"::jrs;n;a, iriUl, ,~_ario1'il1ijjif'ar ,O!lTIl ~i~ptas):;i, m;a

Ap-r.eE!elIJita~seeOOil>Ci' ml~ SClhJ~~Q ~Ql11og'ene8j visco$p,. oom pauea OIl], ]j e'nhufl);SI: BIlil1ida:de por !OOiI"an),Dea~' :!;e:ndo '~I lcon-es:pond\eIill1e nuelear RiG hlalo:p'~sma .

Fonn~ a base "Ol1L(h~ ,mi!J_o nwrgulhado!:l 08 loomponeotes· nllcle.tu~t=J, Ahim de ~,gua" pod~mQs, observall' na OOl:]:oJiDl-ai p'J!'ote.imJLs ghl_bul~, ,m$mtid~s,~ vari.Rs @nzl"~ como U Ida gUe6lme, DNA, ]JQUnruer,IHJ'S-e e R.t~A '~.'mUmre:r,!'?JSe.

E ~ ·'sed€: .dB ~:nmt;~lS t~flJ9Q~ eo:~' 8 dltpH~~"8.o do DNA e: a sfmte~ +lo 'BN Au .

3 .. NuclGD1'O

o !i!l.ucl~o10 .; uma e.s,'tru~, 'n~ahn'Bl~.'be, e~[~fi~a, e' m,m,to ,e:letrodansa~ orim eerea t'h~, 1,S!: 3, ,m.i~:rGtitl,e'. ]"O!i!" die' diaJn,i~.'h"'Q, ,r~rifit',3!.~.s;,~., nottll'Jj.alttH~i~tel a pr~~~~ de urn '~n:uil;(~;l1Io ,~o:~ t1iicl~o~ pD~do' e'Dstbi: DU!li~9~~ ,~om d~is ,1l:n:1, :m~'is :o,l:I;(:J,MlaS',.,

AssoeiR~~a ,~. ];tm~, .r~H~ dD t~rQ(mo:SSomo dita ~'eglMI ·!f:krg:~:nrizadiot;aJJ nueleol M;, ~.'OCElJ ,(]a. mn:t!E'sec . e. H]~,m.B:ZI~n,aUlJ,eTD. t D do RN M' (ribos ~a,m.i C 0.). ·Po~tBriornNllltie., esta -ftNAr' '~ni· Ere, ,eSS{DciaT' a. p:rr:-Ote~.n,:±iI:$ .. mlgrar para I) clw,lasma 'e consti.tui1i" os

.JtiOOSI91tH1l,oS", .

Qwmic~mClJ:nt~r e. conm:tyjJ~lo -por' RN,A, dbns::Hl'.mie-o; p:rQte.fnS::3 {EI! ibsfoH,p,iideos; com peq,rue.n.a quaatldade dB DNA. Des.a,parece'1m mnieI'QI dB. cl!ivisi,(]I, 'oe[.mar ··pma 1:'et8.p~sc€tt ,Jllh etapa jliuw e~1.ama&,te]_,6f3.$1Bn se~dlo mlrmado pelo ~~om!O~r,im'rJl or~ri$ad.otr de ]]UcieoJ,o.,

're-mi~:rn, (h@ ,oo,'On'~ljh1!'~ ~"\I1!;T'm lJif:IJS, ooluI:m eu~mmr't~$, ]l~1i'J ;Eil,pal'tM~~ il!))~ ~.j;tiblJ7.iJidb ~' narn :n EJlS, oo.Jlul EJlS, eQlbrioJ] Wia arr es d.o !Mt~mo dt!

bll!ttShda~·· .

VllBiv,eiB ;10 H:el'lieu.p~o O:p.t:ico~, se:ndo ,~aMs ~um I~or~~~ ,~,eida~" P'od,E$ bUl'~\f!f" ~~ ~~a d'e ifalsos t!rw;leolo~., q~ ,~~.o partf~-uli:u' ,de [!roK~'a:Li:f.1tl aJ]ove!acl~ (heThe1l"D;Cl'o~tinlll·~, fo([m~dj] 0·:5 '~~O~e'Jd;1lffi.$'):~ se.ndill 1~.S'it_e$ '~HI"~dl~ QDJ.D, (.:IS eorantes 'tlpiCDS da ,c~nm,ati:!l:a,. di'fe~:md)[) assim ·!lI:o~, ~t;l:i!',d;ad_mTOO, .An ~'cfi0e.6'p'i~) ~ElJ~ti["1h]:ijOO, ;~piW;i;.e"e'· ,fi}rm,~~:d(j ptl'r' gr::);l"J,W~S ~slfl'iricQ.s de 15~!'un, g:,~, dithOtltl1l ,ItiLlUrt.i!'][j],hadil!ll>8 liUJlil)]a '1'IL~~ri~ 1~:LOll]'~~J~'a •.

i5b (!:roma-tma,

RiE:€~' ;~ to.QlH, "]",:egi:a.Q aD 'trn:c~:'oo') ~(eiQ g QI 'n~ol.;O, q:.u~ ~ eorada ~ 'vi8iv~i 3)(J' 11/:J tm::tSJtitu-i~~. de .DNlA asseeiade ,8. ~Qtraifil.8iS :b8siea~ de baixe ~~~ :ID61ec.uIar. M, :~ustog~" !!3 ,~Il :RNA. Iii, tam,bem a, ll~$('~nY1 de ecit]om$· cam o. '0 calLe~n ~J!I!~ p:aroQ~ b~r w_,purtthncia para a m!~tnt.!f!'n~b tIIl~ ~s~m:tu:ra d.n U!:tt~.l; ~ir 's«r ~t:~d;i!J' [I,P'FM~lti.J,

bunfillia; {lD.bi(n8~, ,~dlllidad~ 'PBt~ b~tQxi]hlrt~ 18 G I~J.

Quiweam~·b?~ ap~sentsL 95t% de JnlllcleQ= 'P'l',~ote:~.r'JJ~ILS, 'pl~ine.i,p~:im~E"t:~~· ,3, desJ).l{.in:"~ honu,IrJeq:p1"ominu CDNry.. Em 'm'~ncrr ~,u8!in:t.id~clle!, rlbor.tt1l1cl.eo"p:r-otmna (l~.NP).

A, dispo::d~d e tjr gn'l:t:!i Ide 1!i.i!Z]ifide,])~~OOr d~ iCJ."'OmfD;tinft 'If@rla de IHIDlwd)O co:nql Q a.po cal, '·:ar -e:'com e essado fis'])ot6,gi,(::~ dra pr61~f:"iil, .eelula" Os pl'asrn(~ciitos,F por ~~:plQ~, ,apro~~ntam rt1!Jm.oi '~llu1di:m, denses d!e Cl·OJ]_(]J9l~riH .. ,JT,:i u '~as, n:e:"f'"VlQaas t:e'mJ Ic'[f''[.nt1!~ra; -iQ, a 'c om 'p' @U'~ a C(fri, d' .ens "'" ~ ·'!IIO,

. ., ' - ~ltA_E

Ap'rnsenta,~,se. ll1enos, cO],lcter[L~ada, na ~.nr~dase~ M'Q

I~:tarn,vo du:m:a:mte ,~ ffi¥'iSM ce1w.af' a C~O\Qlj~titHi, smIDe uma lnteusa '[)Oncd~llls~;:J)_.~~aol e-onatitr~[i[]f)d.o os ~ill'Iflsst)mniS+ Po~ 1e::~e:Q.1,pJlrl .~ esp~T:Olml:o:a6fde a, a'OmH.tilililt JlapL"e~emta ttO,% da masse IIfl,iWil~; ~e:rLdo esta ~, filJj!m:~, ~'·~!Ei:de:n~~d~, de C!F.'llm,ruml~. que 8-e eon heee,

. A ,t:rUm=J[w'uli, I~ :1IG'rm~jl\Fiil :pm" um~ Ic~d~j~

dIrf!1.a, de DN~, .,~Q1a.d~, du:Hi!S v~'Ze~ em :ti~o de oj'oo 't.Ilor0Ctlil~~).~, de hj8:W1l1~S~ cUJf.La<tiiumdfJ 'ml~d_:a.d.~~l ,cham~tl3..$ iDtl.U1!~~l~,mJ,. lig.~ et¥tre s~, pOl" um ~dR90 de' D,NA que~ 'POT' sua v~z~ eS't~ ~~do ;ifJi, du'~a pM~(rn,~ bj~cona., &: histOO~ ~~ ]igilUm ;@[tr~:ve:-ii' des seusradicais a:JnfJl1]~{!l~ QiJDl 1"Jjs'roWmls. 'C09ratQ do. DNA... 'Oa~nD nem 'kld08: es t:a,rue..srlli[i;; £o~frJ.rto ~~~,1Q n~;r~:trJigJliz~dos ~p~~ m$' ~h:H:U~ s, :~, Cl"Om3:tba a'Ptesen:~i!L seu ICaLf'am{f:' a:cirlQ. Es'ta:. fOftU~~'[Jl '~~:bili·ta '~llW: ",]~, $'tI.'fl'~ do'bf~tIf:!ie!jit(nS 'c· ~abm se ,tr,a.tiIB~brn:m.r em ~Mi!\!ami18 'ri9-tvei~:

d:wr,m:),'I,:;e, a dI:v.lll1:si3in 'fo'elul!"xf. ..

As 'hist!Thn~· Saul ,ll"WleebJl:HiSl ae 1l~(!I .p"E:5Q. m:Necruar~, eIDtTe' 10 e 20J,~O~1, eom eEb~l!l:tu~;,$ 1q:w'D:ai,ca se:m;u!fuao~e~ 00]:cHJ.'~ awd]o-,se an Longo da ,ev(j;lil~b" d.3&1" ,~pe:cle~t h,nlS'EQTIlaJa e~ta,o m,viti!id3$j ,prinei,p.:U:m.ercli,te~ elm eineo ~~~I?os,,:· ~I,4,\ fI2B~ 83. 'I'3t2A Ie' ]HCL

'0' :H.i'veJ de ,~m'ldeR5a'Qio da cromatin ~ ,s.J~ooentg_ l.rnpOltiaurte i13]gJllfic:ad.o J:uJ:lcionai. OS I~~S mruOl"leB. ~ €])O'mo8fEm:Ell.. c'ttr.ulel"l£ada. SM, tham~o:.~ Clt'()_G~ep:t!r.OS' Ie iJ ,S~fl{;1I, m)m:Plnen'~ eorado, :b~If'Om.at~~!, '~ITDQ' 'piQp08to ~~!J'r

-EI'· 1 . ...

.; ,". ,''.i.:r' ' .. -, _" -' -' II", II

. elt'4:i .(:fro, 98~ Seg:u.n,dQ lI~'it:z} ~ h~f."Q(!l'ilm;~;bn,:i,

:!I:\E::pre~emjta, ::;tlli .P(~"\rt:~ d~ .l[,':]'"Om~.'tinJa (,"U,jjldler]s~d,a:;s .l'1(] nticleo wtm·,[amool", Asslm" 'o()nfhTnlli~ e ,grtlu de ,oou.~~io a i~ 'It·mi;e 8e. ap::r,~mtru:- :8ob Idl(J~s. ~H;p:eetOJJl':

a) G'tillC1'1lnllAm a ,_ fG-pro.oont~··;i!J 'rn",ljIll~tiRElli ,gc--' ,D,6tii(I~,e'l!l,te ,arti:vRI i~oo ~II est~, !i1iend,u CQ-' dl5_(!,,a,dtl 'pMfll :ml'Jl]IU·. RN~Am "itL '11m d~: '~ru.~' .sejam, prnduzidas 'pl:"01te1inaB... Para lta!nJ]Q, encO~::IJi1"a.~,se d'~~$Pir.alil~(hl" :s~ndo DO~CO e:le;~1i:id.eus9" ,A'6 M~., ,atl:iJ~'~Si, t:i~s em eu'~f'Li)n'u;~.tilI!'~ a,p~~~~m m1l],ib, cJ~~,

,2][ Mtm"OCl,~ = {lt1I'Jll~ Ipneti.~~ iU~tw.a~ k~g9J' (mcontra'~$~ '":Pit;"I1i,ll:ada (con.., d@Wi~JdaJ. ~[m mi,e) OOi~"ri~po de, ~~r d£~lnifi,eada e nem ,000.1:lfa ro.ui.toJ~.sp,SL{:O 1m .. r.aolicleBD:. E, .m.1l_U:ID e1etrodenssL J\o' I<f.E',~ nud~,taio, 'OOIIn, :m.uita h.r.}ool,ut70m~~r~ill~, :ftP:~r-~-oort1, ~~iC1UiU~. o:m ex:emp[o iinte1"eaunre ~ ,0 q.u,e, 8COntece ~m 'm-, meas d~, w;;tmtt~s'! 'pmtadoo~ de clIl)i~' ern)ll:OSK{:!ian,o~ S'e~tn.ru,S 'T (sexn ]rt(;}Dlogami!tioo}. ~, oo;lulas destcus mmea6 ati.v!inIill :6!IpBIIli1B nm ailS doia ,ewu:iI:i.O'3S\'H:tl(]~ iTI:I d,~~g.v,~nW ,0 .rl!U'brd p"e:~,mal~~ll'teme lI'te! Bel7iICiIJ. ehamade '~aEj.= 'Ra sexnaJi au 'C(jI]l~t\:sciUJll'D' id~ I8mtTt oj:!sBJ~,aM. em 194J~~i :po']" :Be._ri'1~m ~ B,aLFtj, n~) 1fIL1!lCJQO die ~ruu-

· las fi'~~a.s, ,de gB.ta~~, P6sfLeJ.1of.filu~nte {)~IT."a-, do ru,n oolruu ,de, 'tfe:mH6 de O:utrBS ~ecies't :iil= ,dl.tsij, ve ,tE, 'Jl:trtm.an~, ~,'&JC~~li~s:,~, p~~tim~ '~1~ envo:~,mrlo :ru;[€h:~~l'.~ Rqje selve p'8r;BJ >01 mt'Jign(i.s-tiaQ ci'OOlQgiC(~ ~lo %a~'" Desk :f~a 'pode~moa,.(larat-· :ffil"]z!dUr ~is 1~l]}OS de hete.liO,t.l1lma1io~ a ,het~e--, !IfOCMJ1Ul'hna ~ill'lUtim;fi\i',a ,e ~. :l1ei~~fj~ro~' 'm.:atbm '°faelllt8jtiv,~.,· 011ErunD{u~iSe' hetereern- 1IIJat't]],a 'OOIil~:iiltituthfa, :wW",~ a .pa,rtrp d.a (;ll.J!lTH'J,'tina pernZLanentemente eendeneada. '~'i;Jica:Uztl!da ~p],i;~tipalm~~e nas ~:t:re~~ du CJ.'un'i!ilsso-

· me, perro dm;J, ~anbmn.'ema, e .nes re.gi~~ W1§8.:= Di:11Iidu~ dD :Or:tlC16ijt~; A be&e~~'lio.a 1K,\crut~tiw ,e .e:~SJJtmll.1Jaf'.L'Jte a. ditn 'igiJ!'Olil:6IDtmSli iSle«t1=,

,,~";j p\A..:l ..... _....... ..."', ....... d,~'"" ... Ij!j],'i!' "" ... ,~._ .,. iL..n:j,u """_"\

~._ , ,~JI!4'L::;;I.LI.u.:. "",:alJfiIJI.ll;,:~L ,~;f.J"":"t !i::ip.![U.lll:i, ,d, ~,IlI[:;IL<;""i['LJ_;",~-

matina e~ B [~rni)]lfbtma, eoo:densadat eem ina;!~iv1.d:mde g&.ri .. Eia1i 9.p~Mt~;d(l, . aeq,iiAn'e~u,.

· m.uitb mpetidas de lJ.:NIA, Ie OOrn rep,)icttyin d~-, sada em [~]a~ii'h:;ii',~ da ~ucmm3.'!ina.

. .' ,~ - - - -

ir.'I'~'UD'", ',-, #"iii, D~I~ nn,rriill;l'lIf"iII.iifjS·: fl'. ;11".....,,~ .nl~.~: ~ ~'. U .'.1 u,~, ~~U,JJ!B'U.o. .·~'U~g'tJL;1!

: :ntt.!JuJu"i-o

"":'"'ha;rrH~mo* tto'W'oS6omlO fiJl1 i~S,p~~~l dlo, DNA duran ~,!@ a di vta,,~.tli, , eel ill!.l:i!'[l'" e s p:i ra 11 ~.a, do' tc.o;niJlQl;J~adfj) I@' ']n.Qlivicilu~t]~[iido, LO!gOi ~ 'llIIn~ e!it],'ULtm'.'¥J" CO MtitrrIlda, pm' D'NA SObrl~' IJ1Dl esq 11,eijBilliO;

'plumieQ., PQ(I!'l~J]'t-o, d:nri]nta· a ints:rt~~ 0 DNA~ BID Idtl"erreutes ;~,UB OLe ,e.g-rlll';$IJ&a~OI, ~lP~aeD,ID:a,-~ loo'mOo eromatina; j~"" clU!ra_llih~ a diwsiijJ. ~elwa:r; ioomo, !L!lJ1Il'YmfiSS.lilmo.

C~mo d,1lll".m1re, ,8" dCtvi':sl~ celtdar- wds. a 1a!l"Ctm:l]riLn~. sofrs iD:OO~ t\ond~iIl-S~i10i :p~ fo~' !~~ ,~om!O_s.s6.m!J$_! renCl1rt~ e (:ur,a rosiE;, ~~pes61Q~, b1'FIlt.llnd(HMl' wjs;iv:';~ ao M']J:M'[)~6pio IOpilj~. A (oo,ruleli.'is"Rr8lli, ,f:tting~' ~ ~,,(IDl:O' numa li3\kp'ElJ, d~ 'W'\i3atJ' t"0nUWf' cJt.a_maJ~, mO'bifa~, ~u;~8mo am (~JJJ~; ~O\l~ ,il.')o:ngeq'iile!nci,Et~ e mals vis: vel, Ms:lIiI1L., pedemos lQ:bse¥¥~l:r qP!le ;00 Cl'Q;mn~~nws: drs eada ,es,p©.cie

'."i'n,,;,,"""''''' ...... *.,.'i'io''~ ~,.., ...... I·,,~~'~"'i"""\ ~ .... ,i"",..,.i-.", ,,10;, 11"'-: I""''''''' ;H"W,A'",,,, 1~1l:.n:.rJl ~~a.LI..I. ~~ILi:I.!.!l.lI!.lJUI~ m,llw,I..I...U.I:_iIj ~ [_ ,WJl.lR:i."'~U I- lE1~L:-1~a.

Ml19huent!E\ 108 cientmas, ilSJUU ~ termd ~'tomu:S3>01IiI (I para in dj,lt~,]" uma u:fiI,id:~.d,~ '~norli~&iJl)]6EP:~. vist~e'~ ~;!j,'l ~o: ae n:aiet~8lciJp'(i.o ,6pt] 00" eon t~TI. d 0 iu f(r:rma,~,~.Q gen 6,ti,~ a, ~:

,~'I"'".J[I'W'rI;O;:t"")I\""""",j,.,e· ,~I_, estar ... ..,._'..JI""n""CiI, .. L .. , :>'Y'''' ,"",,,,~.J,. .... ,,,,,,,"

lL!LJJU~_I"'':::~'lI~U,'i:r.ilJllli-l _ ue i::IlLi!I::lIt 'l..'U.ll~,llll~ _l:lnl.J.J4l ;1:.h:.tL .1;IUU.tb!I.JI~IG.

Logo.., '11",1: a,l1i.tI!1[~ qhf~ ftihm ~m tt.gmlo,..~!J)nH]1iZJ d'I[} :rLlfid,~o In terrrf:iis:]i(;ol' OU~, ,em, cr'OOll'OSSIOmDSI' de

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C-onm deralllic.:lQ 'qU!~ ,0 ,mr'Q:ITIOSE!liXDlIOi ~. fOiDlIado 'iP!H" 'ufitllili m,{l,]e:cl'ulil: de: DNA. que ,~ emol1i,j em !~ 3pELGl'O~ ]"~guAH,ers I sobre oitc 'moleelllas: lele' 11&~:m;;(il'fi:2Ls. Cad,.a:, ·'graa" -rn9~tan,te: do, ,envo[vj;mem;r;o, das :liiBt~ peLo DNA, e cl~:l!I.d,Q DtLCleO'SSOJltrru.· eci.,m~' ds· l'lf1ll!d,@OSSOl:lilLOS nnem-se uns M~ oo:WQ~' aeabam pCiif for.mar '1]Dl9 esrtru~W".at. Jl_e].iooidsJ,que. em a~j~~io,~, OtlW-S 'p,~utcfrl)_ va'i OOlj~ti;twr 0 ·t'hla:m,e.nro b;Eish~o d!J cromi)~SlO'm.o,

E*u.tUl'-4

001 cr~[)gs(Jm:~ ron,~ir.il~cfu, ~:p:re3e:[':Jdt.a 1i1lW, ,e'~'tar&o~illanl,enb}1 co:w;dr,i'~io ,Pij,'imWia", q:llle. '0 ,ill'!!id~, e·m duas ,pa.rre!i, dtJ(iJs "braf;os. ,Ne~~, !eS'tr,8J~ame.n,tQ ,ea.tta ~'OOBllU2acl'lD 00 eentF.iJ,_erM •. E;:£at.am,en.te pOlL' asta estrutura ~ 'q !I1e d It.wm~s,,~mQ' se Pfe:tld~ ,~ fihr~' du' fu~o thlr,~n't~ a ,witose,

.0;' ee'n.tit1lttem !e urn e~11¥.eitame:rri.'t!l) da lCJ.'li)matlaiB l~OI"D1adQ ,pm h~teroel'm:l[iilIlI.in~, cP'~, Ii!luag PO~oM em form aJ, de' Id~.. ,pli\fj.terea~,~ es ,nme.tJrl~rrtlt~~ lecais de il!u~1~n des mic:rnt;'lllbuJfl5;, dill fi:rsa m:ro5tj~o.,·0 c:errtrOOnIm{~ Ie ~ ictnet~m8j 'tram p!a~ticfpa~ ~,Qi diret ~ 11:0 ~ ,W ~ v] m.e'Q.'t,p~ d.c-s, lC]:tlmosaoniOs, dhu'RlI.'lIi e.a mvl,san cel1!]J)ar .. Dm"8IiLb:: a ~.~.t(i!1ii' f3J!:\H~' Q ce:li.IJ' t;'uEfii,erro :~,eprc,s,ent.:l 'p a.r. Le oondm1wd~ dSi 'l'!:r.O:Ill,~,W~.

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Ern ~J.~W.lIl~: cf:imn.O S;,Som ~),~ ~xi st~ u:Q1 a ti~r:!i!SbJ]~ci[) fl~t.~d~ l{l(.;a:I]~d~ n~ ~b,~,m.idad'e· dO' mesmo ,~ . nr1gin~ mTI~, ~S'f;:rl.i!t~ cham ~da 'SfII~Ii:t-e~ ~'ODB !Sot Gi!JJ ~gl:iio· :m·t. A regiao·- ~ of1T:!l~~~,M,~ ~'f:InU~ r.egili.o ft,Ji'I3D:il~~d(fI~~· -llIltD;leD"I~ I(It!O~N~)1 e 'oorrespm-ule ae: toea] dB ·'8in:usse· ito ,RNA:.r~.boWm.i~, que· ~lr~ll8 0 n'l1e_~oo)n, l..~e .KN.A..-r. ,ar.:m.Me:msd.o no, uueleruo film I"eElpc:u:u;8i.vel peli! r~ao do rIDOSSmfi(l. N~ ,B:SJ3!I§c"ie htOO.RiW as R. !.IN. egtao llocmizadas nos crf.mI]0515;0'm~s 13. '14,·

~. r.=' ~'~I ;-;" no JJ.a. ~ 1L c ;.;;:I-Llr.

Nu memento ,~ Iqu~ os C1·L'J~'l:l~~OOms· sS'tliw:rem, mM~f:' di~~ 1Po-dc~~ '~lbs~r~aT'. no. mWriioJ!" . ~Jlns mesmoe, TIm m~bl 6EipRruizaM~, pOlll.Bir) :Fm1id~m@<D·ta~ do ~nnE]"Mjssm~O ·e' ,qUE e asede dQS, gene s cham ada Inr.!l)!'liliIuD,em.:a... Ln,go .. '~m~~neDl:g € ·11Llll~. lSubUl'lli'l d~'d:.e oonstitu]nt~~' d Q mrom~p-m!O~ 01 l1I~n'.W!ro de eromonem as para i~eJlld~ tt,mu~O'mlOl B variii;vB~. 'Podeum\S em s]n.t~~'B' (alar ··qtlJ~' 0 'tifO'm®eniu usda m:Erls: ,9 ~B 'fl' .trIil1l1U)',SSOCflll0

distandid{)~ .

Ao h:u~,g:;g du~ Cir"(Jim'IJ~.~q:m,n_Jif;i 'e,,;;:ii, em,

.gya.·nu']~',*--1e~ (Qb~yva·$e '11 OJ 1~!;j't6teoo da· 'pr6,f~ .l; d:Q~·tut~e··a:·m_eiO'.'l·e) Q'~·j[il&$$pem' ~~maribio e PQSli'~ic, ~on~5'W:Ii!iibe~ para ,~da (r.r;-~JmiogonitJ" T4:!S. fbml~Qij~lS ·1"i.J:ln;~'s·'~IlI;·ti!im Slci·to:r~ tl~ c:~r(J'mon'~ma mil,] s-

'i~]1~nu~nm ~ ",a1ii2l~dD~. .

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mb·,nies,tnibl.lra,

Ao M]CJ'fJl'iloo:pl0 ,Eh~:b:{)ni,~o n t.TOJ[U;~;S~'mo· ie a.olll~t.il'un;ruo· PiQ_:r f.i I amentcs ]i.g'e.ir,31.lrlent'~ ~3p·it,~~~dDJ3 ~e UJ\ilm d~ d~;aII1,~tm", Os, 'fi~mmw!il . Sil(]i dupl~ ~. 'foml~cl'Od~ pot duas lrluidad~ fi~.nejl~~·

.~I 4]:'IfJlll e~~dll 11ITI~,. ..

o lr!iBtltF-d!Jllel1) .8.pareee ba~~tan,~ (]~[illifJ e ~i'r..u~dJiJ na ~;Illpe~lfe:i.e, ,dtl' i:'p.'t01JI!I.,o:sso:mll.

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ESEle lerm.o d~gtu:I: a ~xiln]n.i.d8i1'e.~lo iC~tlm 08i5QWO. ·1l.;aff( ~ ptrl[attl~. d!~ ,~rn"emid:HLcle ~ilfici!O,1l.SJ]. e D.a;O _~'ff~t.:OlQgiea. i:svmI ,e'l ~~ OO~. djglilDgu:e 0. '~el&if.l.MO ,8,0. :n"'tif!]\Q~p~_o ..

_ ,n truo.'UI€1"Q· ~a tnns !~rI;a: poba:i.daae~ imp.edindo com qu.~ lIm dlete.rminpd~· 1;legmeo.W, 'filsion~~S1e. peln ¢:x.1i.remidatle ,~, '-lDl· c:rbn1-~5m\1i:O.

P'(H:- eX0nfip 11(li~ quando ~~ta q:u ~ bra (D' erennossemn PIGJ'rd~ '0 'wlorn €:flO" as 'regi O~8" IqUGln~~~:t(l8 ·:I]c~m pw:~oaa.s, ~ acabEi!1IT.'!1 pot. so tbndir :~ UInJ rfu:(J'\f, l1"O[[lOS${1I[J]1J quq hm:ID~IID' ··mD1rI~· 01 't~lmne;ro d;fi~1i.fi_c~_d·Q ..

'-Olr :isS(j~,·~ im~~ ,do ~eItm!lBlIO mantem a I~~talbilirdade do ·c:r,(Jn~OOSQlILO'. O~l!'V'ill,'\Sf-'. ~1ll,e. caa~, v,~~ que a, re]tilp. ~. divide 'b,:unMm dimin.mo 'L.e,~ ~lm f!rr'O', ,A,i~;:liSi Jr. ':l e s '~,21::ri:a: tl,l~rttta.:rc,!la,O () '~Tlve1:nccimeD,to ,~el~;~F ~ df~ indilridlw. M q~ '[J~"rii ,~ ti~~:;; 'reali!i:i~ ~O'm u inici'o d'a d.GJ1J;_j,gf(;lm· d~ :~rf,~11~ as robd~ do htcJ[·viW·Q msulh1U'!LW d~, dtlln£~ ·~rmanGOOn.li ~,;Olm (!I. Jdfiumro, dQ tm1]m'}]J.o das orun]ag ello [iJm·:d\O'Iludo. A.~.fi dqDGi ja n as~ria/lao vmho<m lC[t]a]lTw.o J1wlividu{lI 'cL~d-01o

Cmoomitides

A d(;rplit;:u;lto dlfll .DN A OCQ*,~ na ~~j:t-ed~-8~!

U1Jm~ '~lla clJ~ad_a 'fg~ ~~Sl~,. e~da mO~Gjjtil;]~, ,dc' DNA" no eatanto; PQIt'l1I1'm~~ ]ig-ttd~; a. ~ilJW,.,~Q1J~,(t.

Exa:furime:rl!;t,e p~)f.' 1~t~ :raz1\)~, voce 9~s~~. n$.~· futO~~9 d!os ~rom.Q~anmo~~ feit.u d.:jj)r~j:D'te ,!!IL 'w.etar~e, que· e.:~_e~ f!l~ 'p:ar--eeera cum um ~T.;_ Em~ '~ef\da~' VQ~ ~ifJ ,e~~. I~bee·nrlt:n'~ n:l:iIl, W:UIOO ICl't:J,mD~~'mO pO_~m" :u'd'l.:Ulis ~,p·t;lS ~ 'tu'T:iJ. nl~~itp!J IljrtllmQs...~l>:mI~' Hga.da:g -PE'l~, cemrtrnm.e.t'O~

&ta.s clli.m!$' L~6p'ms d.!jj, mesmn '~l1.1nSSCllm~, ~ i.gaoii,a~, P,i!!: 1 ~ ce'.ml:'t:r6m,e1" 1:1 'sua.'!] eh am a das '~:In,;iti(les·jj;H;b~.~ D~lrDllte URia f~ da di~s:lio· Ql;lular" a .~;r.ulf}MJ.e' .. 0 cerrt:r{hn0[l::'Q "Sa d~fViaBC ,~S 1·:ilrum·~:lj!El@s·] f'IttU se 8€lp,i!3rr~m ·IH31..1·~. origi iIJi:;1ll' ICi'\QID([ISSOmeS marep~D~lellWa"

51

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o nUm~ro d,~ cr.-o'fU0 ssom-us' ~ Y~ri,i\vlcl 'W1!lt\8:

M 'm3i~ dife'mrnl;~$' ~~e¢:eS't. 'p~}l'im I C(_mii'!'~'if,lltte p\fU;,~, ,~s it~dirid'!,;il08 de 'UTI'Hit 'me~]J:a 'espe~i't.

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o fiotnprimJlMliio do. e_rOln:1!1]~]fh1 v,a.ria die ~s~de p.~, e,gp6ei'~j tndQ ae~' 1. :ifii,crfu~]]etEu a:il~ 1. mHfiD,et:f~. ,N um 3" ~:alam:[.i{nifT.~,~, Tritur~ '-1irfdJ;''''~"e~'1;$~, ,ap'j~eSgll.t~. 80 @: :miC:f::Iomeb'O~, O~ ,!rui'o:m~~w-r.110Sl humanos vaci::ttn' e:ill,t~~e 4 (Ii, Ii mi{:;mmeb'>©" de oooo,pj~me.rr.'OO\o

:TitJM,

'0 !;]"']1t'6'i!!'l-O P'Bl",iIJ '~ ,cllH:~lfica'~~,IJ! dos, [fIQm~00ll~'0 0' 'ta,[Hll.nh,g d~fJl b:r~:~oo em 'fun~fjJo M P'~QM do, ,eE!J1il.t1\&r:mro\.

~ MGbt~l1,tr.lieo-" 'Cf\Qmossomo I~m ;QU~ os ~;l~~~Lls :arPll\Il'$~tam:-~e~ l~p~-ma,dain;e'n'te [h~, m,ea:[fl~ '~:81d;w., 0 '~fill:~6:m,ffro 'rem Inealizaean t1_en:tl",aL Subn:llIetaoonh~'i:e:o ~. !ITJ'jo_m~Q:m.oJ que 'tel:r!t urn. des &x:¥J;OS U~,-, Jf'~:lJnJ€!1iJ.te m~ior ~'l1Ji2 iii} "o.u.'liJ.1j, p~lrq'!J@ !ll ~WII,. b&oero, e~b1 th~.ilor:.~do (ffi!.'t :~~ifu:~ "lie'n'b;'al .s nbrmeman,fJI". Am,mCll,da dDH (m]mO~$UttiJtlB' h.umOOl~~ Ie' d,o ~po 8ubm~'~~tr~~o.

'. AHui.1im;~-ric'O ..... 1tes'~~ le~o ID, re.fitramEU'~O e lfi1!~-itetlnirncl. (qMSe ~ le:ltremidade)~ for .. ,' mando (lQis bt~sr um 'muito W'~d;e'-e' 0 ;[]!Il&!t:QI1Iflilll;:l,ii;.u, peq_Ut;!!LW.

,It. r.nioe1ibrrrt:rte:o ,-, 0 cen-tJi:lu:ne:r{ll .e "1ler:m:il1M, ""r.lI~'I'!I'n,t'!c·'"'1'.l';l"'j1 J:li~ cromlO\$So:mo corn u.:rn!: 'W':Ii-

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1C:9. br.~.;o. E~lt~. :t'ipo air;:: cromn9~(Lmij I]io I~ ~na, e8!;peiCle humsma,

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to;oo J:! 1DHt:iJ'

, 1!IIrniti!.~ CMirn-~nID n.fijY''''''''~''' lfIl.::ffit_,i

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M ~lul~ l;'1illpt'(;l~;tnl~' fg,m:mJetM ~li~1t'~ d_~ i,:mJi dnicO! ]'ltrta cruO:lLooso:mtc~, ,8mtiu 'J?CI!f ]810 t' h am 3 d a g ,e ~,h;d l!,l,a ,b.,~,pl IDIi-d.e,:g" eu I''',g ~Il !C FOliiiii:,OS;,StOln.'O S., Gada conj:u.nto de. 1O":-.pmi'.i9S0,m~a '~,e:ee~. 8 d.~nonOOEt~80 die genoma. Log~~ cada !game!~ e p(llr.~do.rr dJo"gen,fifi'].a PGt~l'n;OAjU, nlJ:i,'!;.e'l:9U.

Em flm~o ij),:ru .grande lciliv,e.rgific~n @. 1~~'fJf$ciQ;!j' l~go\;, Ida wrande vad~.JJt!~o IDA] in'Uni'~rn' it), crOnID5$.Oiill9S.:;o con v,p,nf!inu~-~el ile:nmn1l.1al" CEtd:s!l i~!:1I [Ji:nra ,:pe[a i"0i~6ID:'I&ta 'I~i~~" E:\a:t~I[U'bnk' p~}.lt i;s'~ O~ 1~~La~, '~a!o dioo$ i''n~I' I~osm,m.o~.,

j'~ :GLiS ~ 1~~l.U];~~ Sfj·rruiticas·,~ ~, ~nmu:at;~va~, 'Pu~$\lI!~nl dQ.i~ to'nllliIi!:t ~ CfTm~OS~~mi(i-o~. :~mb1;'e Iq~le clmCl1t1)te, R €ecluliIa,;:ijo dmI'T,e a, ruSso [10::3., ,b.tl,aleo~ dos g.Btme~as ~e(jr~iJ?illd6 8' soma, dos ~Dom~~.£ pat~mo e ·m~:~~mp~. D~fil'Ominam~~ estas l0alului e:ntil,O~ dli;p16i.d~ ,,1.1 'ijl1n,,.j ~mD~lOIDJllj~.

.Pereeba ,qTUB es CI'OmO@lSo.m:M liU1TIS. eel~ul~. ~O:Il~:~,tic~" '~,;tM ~.{~[-ij, ~~r@~} QL~~ '~~uel'm, drut5 ,Icites CI'oIiu)~&'5rmj~s, ~,il.l dciis ~_ft5. [ro_J- e'x''e'~p.]Q·J ~ ,es~ie 01i.1ItM3..W, ~[~t':eDl. em. 81l8a;:cel.u]ss £ionn.:'tie~8, 23; pa.J'e5: d~ ICli'(ID1n~"Il{ID1!Q~. 0$ ~me.mbIij$, de C!.tdJ~. 1fIi.8L.'F ~ao ehamados CF.omassomos :luilmoJfigDs.,

:uau d,t',a:m.t¥lQIito

N~' atuBidade ~1i'l:em: tec~~icas q~ :~r-mitem .. !cOl~',en~ 0:15 I!::"T1!JDlIOS $,O»U:Hi:j, em ,~,']l b lll,[id: da:d ~ s' Idet«nniDi_qd1als" ~~ SS: cb~ h$l'Ifulag,

'Q,u~Etu"ilin sa ~ 3 .mes-'[u '~i:~ie& (e-Jciil'j'll:e,m '\'~ri~8j- t'i' nffm re, 'P~w.~o I~ ,ditan~n,s~ d~1 eade bmlM :SWl @lS:peemeaa Ie: eenstantae par,SIJ, ca:dal er.cmmaoo,m.), Assim, ~ pQ'$~vell id.enmfi:CaLr CQlm, Pl'~cigi'Q ca;iiiiIJ, ,eJ"IQm;05In:m:o,._ rIUlI'h!::ior:lJ.1.Jld~" ill~

l'riiMca" '~mI1i.'O um ,~d~go ~, bsrras,

,A, 'teaIl~logiEIJ clle· blUld1B~lnento; ~~:!ii~cl.ad_a ,~

j_ ~_ ,~", ,;'. • ~o' • =,~,iI,~..,r"".';:'~,..,..

IODi.t'3l~: loBt:!noil:Q:g18:D,! (]€!cl. ll,Ul.' .. AU um ,Sl;gJ:Jlu:.i,.,o;I.w.",i!l!

:El1!V~~;l~~ '1]~, 'looatimt,M d.@ ~n'C'~~ ;wor:lJji~a!lib,~mm:t'ttJ de mlilta,foes~~ b1cluB]:ve-~ IlllJ, de.tll:t]i~ij;Q d.os tastes' de. p&te.r-I:ridacle.

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Ennb::e 1B6H e 1871 FrjedriCb. ,~e~che;fj ~~~dp v:lIUc~·pii;,.~~--U a 'p~IE!:Sffl".M~ ,ooms~re die. d~L'HM'ltU.l.~:llI; ~,ub~'tiUU::i@;~ {a£l!d,M. E:lll 1~6,9.,

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fI!;t~l6ii~. A;~~~' eo]: l'9iM~ '~I DNA ~ iidt...""n.1tt1icf~do ~mr~Q' ~,d!J ~m.albiiI §t."niiti6o :ro1aclmmoo ao OIJT.1I1r~d[} cl@!s .,a:a:ivii[J~,~Sl looh,d~m~ ~~ .. iflte~IDooio d.o

00iL'litJn1~ da M~~' d£ p!"IlJWIM8. o~i ~ ,8~,IDllwto8 MJciomrls., di9 D:MAj 'OOIlLWm ~~ ~'~ ~'.en1 -.reaIidn{]Ie!. ~ l~~ pI~ quG ~ ,oo111lla. '~Egfl pttJdIlZiTIr '~S:' p~.s ,~ (1;tm'l,,~-$ dL[:Jiw;', d~t;~,· I~ ,8$, ~ea;sl dn :ind.NldU<D. lIDje PQdenilfi8 sm:l1uxr Iqtl~ '03' lbcldm;' :[liUclB~ mp1.~.~ as. nimia

~'11i~:~i:"(;o:., !L.,:;_~,..-~1";""":"""'11r-,,_, ,.. "-!Io!I~.II,Jo.t"il,.;r~ !UIDIII!lJJ.~~.·'CUlll:l:"l·i, ..

OOImQ' Q$ ~iIDs lI:ude]~~_~ e~tioQl' Sem.pM· a.~1Jc.U,~dO'~ .?i pro~:i:1l5'~ fOlttrl!a_:_m ~3' If11Jcloo'~n a~;;

'T'r-~

... &pOS

Hti cl'Qi$" "tiPO!5!' do ,~d(]o~ nu~~ruoo9: 0- DNA (acido decs1illrirrib~clei(;o" am :po·rtUgiLl~8 AnN) ~' .0 'RNA of a;cidili IrftbonU!d,eioo~ em '!m:r&ug!J]!s ARl\D .•

"COD8li:~rui~~'

0$ d,~do'$ .iii,uCI~it.us. S~lit bilopo'l.~:e~~~, c~jQ~' 'IR'ou,ibU(l:FUS ~ untdades ['o1:rstl:tumt e~" ~'Blli~ d<e1lDlllmlMla.:s DJurib:!oEtdeo'S. Pedem s~ '~1J'roI.Mm ,rih~"!l1jJjJ at'W_~ ~,lim.tt.CiBt;lI~deo~'. "

Per sua vee; .• 1C'B:,d~ nudsobid.eo resruhbL ~~8 ~oo:~!!ao, die tz..@$ .. :r-e~i~d,nos: DD'l ,[",a;d1i:cal. 'f~~.~1

"IiI'II_'';;;' iI1Ii_liho..~, n "Ii"lf"l!llii;;jjj; 'Ii... ",",~ "I!iii·i~an-:r1;,t:i,...lld ,_!!!_. ,1f.~"""~IIA!I'~ ~. ,_~!!!_, D~ I!j~ ~"-II!J!~'I!o;OL'"'Yi~"'_~

Ch~,'H~!moS nuc~fd@D' ,ilI,G ~n'OO' fOmlacl]v l~iEIl peill'lttoj!te~ pela b8!Se' ~':na~ ou ,@iEd~ Im1 n'llfe:leotfdoo de'attl-uiclo de ',SE!t1J. ra{lje8J]: losCa,to ..

ti'~g o

II

c:r- r,a- a-oHi.,

. 16- "II

- I

Ql-i ,Q.,

~~.mJr

A. l!IDi~ II']U!clootiidsO\.

(l~adical .fosfD:~O fP0-4) ,e eomum para.es d.oia., llip~ d!:e. acl~~, fitldei~p$;, ,nNA :e IIN:tt J~. a 'p~tGSR PJr-~lJr:t:~':no B~A, i~; 0:1: 'r:i~os~~ 'B[iI,gu,anh"l n, peuttlliS'B d.u DNA ,~ a, desoXllTllbose.,

~ A Inbooe1 ~~ 'a. ~"1esrnd:rdbose.. silo- [)~ .uH~ apb'j.r.ares 'Pt'€.seftllJas InOS, m..1Qieotrd\eos ..

Exi$t~. ,cinOdl, ti:PQ$ de lsases Illk.r::og?n8!CRa~,· ~ncO'r.lItr";!J!dla;s' nQSl il1J(JidiJS 11!Uc1,miO~; !;;td£nm~ I(A), guau:ma ifG)j ,rn.tnsina ~m:~,·· Hmina, ~TJ e I~,~]~ U:n. .:

All: bases :m.tro_ge:l1:ffiidas podem. ~~l" de:u,iwdlE9J~, d~~"·~iu:~i~ia~~ ~:ta:tio eh am,~~ pUFi~;~ ,a.dt~in',3 e :m'llaDin8~ @u derll"wEJ;S das 'p;hiInidinm;, sendo

~'~~ .1:1 ' .• 1 1 .. _. : .. I_ "'I

Idi:tM, ,J.dll~i!mfdi~: 'eJt;()~m~, bm ~ Q 3, "e Hracoo,

As bases puricas estM .pu-efl~e6 tanto I:IDiJI D,NA ·QI1J1sn:i;.o no RN,A. P~(remi das b,~8l'es, pirimiLd;i.C8l:Q! n' ~ito:sifiiil:,. e camum ,Para' amboa es ,~cido~ ·~l(l.cT~it"Or:;ri m~,~ ;~. 'tiwina e !~hu~i.v~. dill [D, :: Ai assim como tiL ~,clla,,~ e'xcl~__siva do IINA..

As ~~~ ~Al piIrrh;;:a_s el' (8) pi~imidi~ parlkip~ntE~' ,d~ widQs, nu:-cl'eioos.,

D~. ')I~ 'tarEto, ~) DNA QrU3.f'i,t~) o ll~~ 8:\0 1(:,: 0 i[) $t:ttU£cl! QS· w:r qll.1.~'b·Q' ti:pO$ d:ife~-e:ptel'i! d:~ tFU~~~lJ, :No DNA, pgr' ff~plo~ iWiIDaJ 'ltu.ilerJI1dl" 0 ~m uma *~C1dITil~, e"u:m~',das, b~~: ~t~n'~ ,t]denin~ p_unina" t.1~. -R] utaciTa..

·:No, RN':A, !f;mJ cada. ['UuLC:le[io1:£rlerJ. ,~ncmumli\l3'mns uma ,cl.booe a.uma das .segt~s, 'b~.~ .mtruge{):laJda.s: ,aJde:run~, guam.ma,. 'ciiix)aih!:E. UUJ. l]f,~ciJa.

g~~!lI d ~N. 0-

.0='1-0

A, .a~I,8ij:iQ·I~. 11i'1,Jl!11JOt~! II~B~ee; ~glWIStO"a¢lli~~!tr.uO'I!!b1to..

o

Nas mo'],€culil@i de J],N:A .~ nNA cads nncte(1tfimeo ~> Ugado 310 orntrn .:flj.1i.raves de urn. :rai:U,c.aJ. fOilaJJOO anldo ao ea.tj)tll'll.,Ct d.e il.ilme:["(]; :3 O~. 5 ~a poot~;

.~gd~DP

:ESltrutu't".3.

Ii. ~truturn DNA ,~oi .pt~opostR am W~31 ppr

Watsoo.·,e Criik., .

Os nUi.(::len.tl~: &8 U.U'it3. mesma ,t:alrlLei3. e~r~·o W!~i]j~)U1O\S. a'tr,a!ves,' de liga~, ,~·',5~ ~u .. ijia~ enl~ I~ ~.d:~~l w$f.illU~ de utn. :rujcl~cl't1ideo, ,E 'ilm e~jb(Hil]1 Idla.. .pr:;;ntus~ d(1l ~'U.l-.rol nu;!il~Oitt·d~I) .. :P,O'r ]~$Q1' .. ~ d:uq [:_~dB'l ~ ~ DNA ~~.(g dl]w aJt!rtjpaFti1:el~. 00,. ~~~., en~;_[uaJ]:LO nUIl1_>Hi tias; :lit .. jJ.; dn n:N.A as 'tiga$flcs;: 1~:tiIt~m 08· ·In,]luloo!!tid.e~ ton"t~nJ 'no sen:tLdQ 3' 5\ na "Ilt~ comp'l~DW:nt~]'" 10 ~nttdQ' d ~ li~a~o~~· Qj ·fta'.

~'dtllag ~Ci:ld:e.1~5 .;r.1ta, e:n.t$l':l~o.t legtAra ]igEidaili na ·.liH:fa. ·~·al1.f1g:u.r~.~.~ !f:J..e h~H!Ce p(Jf" pM't~ I~e·· ·h.:li:cl:~.'O.g;e:n-io entre bil1h@ie~. em fi sas O'P{~gtas.

A 601n;-"" . .,:, ..... o;O:;;"'''';W··.;.,1iL . .,... i:.. ii'l'me ..... """"_ .. "" .... ....".,.,."

~,~a ..c·1tiiI I~ ,~,~ _~ ... ~ 1~_II..;o~JlJJ_o !D..ll.l1..l.

lCillliraoo] o.nde 0 comtmiu de· eada [ad,Q' eorrespenda aij'~ ,~~.PRIile[il.tO$. I~~fam:'~ as d_!i»d~~ti:bo!Se~!, e, 08; Id~~ll!S' S'RO ~ .. bases nit-roge'DEtdu de 'uma de iQ!utrad3ta, como f~IiI.nleiQjS dliE!g r ,Ett'nS ,aLtI1lrb ]:!G\r. U,gal~e~ d~ po:rnte~ d~· .mcKrngemo.

P*m"u~ '~11Ltil(l,' ·ej£li.t'acct~riliat· a 11lJO]iI!{l;u1~ de: llN:A (l¢~m.~) pf~~@lnindn l!l:Q].~. d:!;[p:~ at~he]:~:ce .C(~,m. ,dibletlto mtif~n'ilu~·). e:sptlL(;iab:ne:O.te g~aLTIdj) ·p~a. ,i3L. !~:i:k1J. e i(!OJril(Jl, .!l!iet~dr.1 a:QJti"pat'J,l:t\E:J;~ r:atE. sej~ as duas fl.w OE~. em dir.e~(~ op~sta.s..

.P;rJ.:.n?,"~,n.ttO da:s :bas.es

.A. U~>rli ()tor:re ~erttpre ~ml"e '~ ham:

Dm~)c~ e nma p~ri:mJdica·. Ntt;il DNA. a. adeDtimia. se ]iga. pair duas :[roI\a'i:~ de b~d.Iv.Mo ~, '~a. A: gu.allill~. ~ • li:g~. a lL":i'oos:ina. ']l0:~"I..rii~ ·p'.O'DJIJ.e~ de hid.r.l)girnrfuu·,

A=T

n #'ill (..!Ii := 'l,J

L~~ ~O'[1!eU.~l''-!.Sel BE duas ·fitas sao Sei'iilllll'e. ioonlp'l]emen.lr.:En~oo. Se· 'voc@i souber as bases de .. "llD:lSl. ftta peode· eonelnir sTIb:r.1e a mqOOncia de bases ds 'firta ecnnJi!lm1')J8nm~. Portal1toj lel:1Jl eada iragnlBUOO IciI.e, DINA, ~ qu.snt~dad.e Ide' basea, ptirlcu Q. ,~[rimJdic:as .. e ssnl'pre' ~ metimm.

·Jiul,oiie,li·

- - - - I!l - ---

o ·DNA, e 0 propriO! 'IlUlteria1 hn\[);rm.J1u~imrrtBl ~t!~co de eada iu:divid'Uo, {llU, '~aj ~'6B1TI!a tndas as i]lft'Qn:rt~c·Qe is :g en e·U!c,aJ. a: ~m, sn as. s~qo.enciflls d:efin..id~81 ,]9' ~m-gdeoo. .. Ass1ut .€.aJIla e~cle e· eada .maividluo pM~u.em uma i5eqritDncia

'_.!iI • ~ ~."" ..:II~

d1liJc~, leam,cte::r]zan.'IJI# ,3 e:spec[e Ie g~an:IWlD!fJiU a

~=;jt:l'" ~ ...:i.~ ~'1,,~_j: d ~1 ~ .•

JU!] .•. JLJ[mu.~a·, e '!U.liI' a.ir.gaIll~mll.

VOfS jrl saba qua R difC:r:e:11l!~~ e:nt:r~ todQ~ os. m:g~UB 'viv'QIS ~ a gu.~1I!Iti,&de: e ,i5Jj CU:ualida.dle de

, -:..~ • .,...,~ .... .,. "" ·1Di...·d,,,,,.,.. ...... "" 1I'Ii';"~ ~.~<::' .... ,.;.;" .... "". ~l"'CI; "''''w'·: no:! 0'"1;

j~iu.:as- P.l,j.;.cU~i ru' ..,::;LLLVO ,nbllG 1tt.LI:1I. jJ;~,J'-a.JL' "'l, "W. ~ " !y~' 'v

que :s~o' M Y,l'l]SSas;pr'Qteinas. A;m[fb']fmR~Q gm1lBti~a ,ellte:nilJidBIJ, da fOntta, mais ~1n1pJe~, 'possiveJ ~'·nma ~:im. pw:~. que: .~il~aBrcek1Lll,W;, proCbll~@I]}lj;.adSL8 ,85· ltloaB"Q!j lD!l"Utelina~ g;Elm"8ll:Ci!t1td'cr assim, tod,aa' as. btfsaa,iEi Ca1!'admBt~as. 'e 'ft p]_'o~ iiDd:irvidusJl:idiade,

P'o:r. O'UUoI 'l~cliQl, ha tI'~S'. (}tli~~!l.ctGlj'sUcas q'i!J~' _g~ante.m, c s ueesso fm1cio:n;aj d,Q n:NA;: leJ:,e e' ,~p;,J1~ de, :!:!1oIT'M"' ·m;p.t~e.Qc:!i.·~ 0 qit~~' pTiomov~' U;ID,~:' IIToC~; tluiri\;ltniica d . SlIla5' i ([fo;rma.9G~'S ·jj!jO hJl~g[;!1 idlo, t~~:m; lSou.e di.r,1,pJi.~9~a·1t!1 p~~eii~sa, CJ que pBDUi.-ite· '(1 ILl~' 8~ at ':fiebnffilte b':aJ]~:mi1tido ~, ~Edn] a. p:i!U!'~ c6h.tl~ e .e ·p._~~d,~, .. peJh;;~ ~eb,Jl~. ·par,~. 'q~' :Sej.S11iD. plfodu:dd:(l,s S; •. M! p~;ote~'M! 'ID g,:u~ pl!l8MlIilltBl Q1llie '!Pile '~M3lja eJX]n'~o aafbrma ~ urn. tr~notipo.

.B~pU·~~faO Ida DNA

Em 190(G .MtJ:tUT ~o.mherg demnnatreu, q iL~e (!I D:NA ,'Qde "Be, replicar .num tube l~,e ensaln, ~~g'fi, fO';fR d.a~ c~ltl.la~, ~ ~},r~~}@D!~i.a~· bH]ea~ m.',aol. Gl ipr,6p~:fo UNA, 11mlS ~n:zirllla ,e8t;)e:c'i1~,C3. que e·].e e} am~,iIl.l· 'DN·All{Jllimel·,a:.se (Ci.b Ud,i:[ de ·bactii!'lE'-i..a:.s) e- uma !QistuI'a des 'iftla.tr.~, D1.tcleot-f·d!El;t)i;i:., ('J:jj . s~la~ a :pr-el~e:fi!fa cl~~ q u~'''ro bases ~.i:~'iiog"e~,;&d.as·.~: :A .. G.~ T' e C' ..

Fl1 co u dal~ que Ide ~_mDdo Q,DNA.s~'l!'vle; d~ mOlde:'pam ~ao d~' p!rodU:~8t; cl.e :tniMS UNA... ,A qllce:staO !cientXial e:[f,3j eemo R. :rea~ao IOCO'ITllt..

Em 1'95;'1 um~, @:lij~.ni.iJ'lICia ~~~ln.t~.;dn pOl' ;Me.selso.n --, S .,scllJJ ·~r.Jm,pN~1lJ '~UB 8 're.~li'cm~ d~ [1 fA :~Cm'.il1.~, it@' 'mt"Iu[t ,se;rnlie~~ritth,"~.

.BepZicofao ,seTJi:t,ic'Ons~,.vat=.~V\fl. id'tJ DNA.

P~l·,S! qUl~ o(';orra . a l'eplh',SliCHQ

'$eDlico:nrsenrRti~9 d~ DNA hi '~ru;~u-'O ~~e.nciM b:isicas;' a ~a,wncla .de llUlL' ·DNA. Jg~ sirva ~.e. woi:~,e. par~:±Jl .~ fOT::]]la::cao -de. um.,i¥Jj. tCf1d,i!!i'[a ,eolllPljelJllL.~ta;jr~ Os q_.uQt~ -t,j:po-.s de n1!1cleotfdeqs diap~w\te:ta,. IJJgo, !presenp d.o8; q.l1~'O :b.p~ de.: baBee UIMl.rQ~a(tB:iEi ~ A,.' :G~ T ~ C; a ;ilm ZllDS TINA ~fun.e.r;a_He P~l:a, e.arItaHS3l" 8. l~~a,~ Ie litDjJ8 forute d,~' e:n.e:rgta ...

,P,(i(JemtDs B['lUm:cler a· 'E!·m-tmm.R ,[lei dam. mementos pMB. 1ft ]l'~'Plica~M do .rtNA... ]?D:]'mm'o .BI :['nole'il::u 1ft de' DN,A deve ser de snatuza d,8J. (deg8S])lir,al;~~J pau.'tl· q,U'@·'~I'TR. 8 .6epe:r~Q das dnas :fit:ns. Segm:utoJ·oo I[lQ;-VOO ,11~~oijdeIiJ5 d.e~m ~er ineorporadoe "e.M_ eSlld~ Ilt~ ]:)01" .ug~CGe~ .. OQ7V.aJente~ ItS, a egu&nciaJJ ri1!efiirids: ~e1:o p,aJ.'1'e'anlen:oo>. ,dSl!iEi '~~:~e.~ 'lBo-m:ple·mA3!n~N.

. Ptl<~,emos" r'e8!!Lmnicl8nlk~ute; entender qlll~ ,~ !~1l'Zim.a 0 "A~potim~,ra_'8~ ~pi3 ~~ ·]).i!:mJte~· de· bJ.crnfJ<R!@·mo entre .. as bases n]1tl~,~dE!;S. de uma ~:. outra 'ltta: -dlr) DNA, Cads i€ade~:!1 polinue ~~tjd.ea! ,6JJg'm"3 sepM:'8J~la, ~erv,e de WtoJii£l'!' pam m:nii ~ov::El HUt omnp']en:lJenttar em ~ litt .. rnieSma e~_a!. D:NA .. :po]:~]]le'r~ PQMibili't~ a li;gaQ8lo' I~e ns .nu.d,eofJdMt3, llvres ~'1JO e[t.opliffiSil:llEL~ b,1co:r~o(['8]ldo~. ,p~fi!,l1el-'jO!lm'J}~nte!. .9. tIm 1na]de·, P·o9S1lv€'is enfJiS lUll in:rul&::ula-~ ~ao oo.mgid.o.g pela mesma 'ffi1Zim.aJ",.

Logo;JI fli ;pI\OO0$:801 d!E!1 [h],J1:~~a9@ dn E1NA ,cl'UimiEt :replina~io ? ~ d,Q mpo s:e.micO:!Il!Serv,ativ,~ l(cacla nova m(d~ttllTa ,~ f:til:'U,ua(Js: :par LlLttua filial. ""''''1i~ mobile: IC' um iBiL' fita ~:tLOvaJ,

,I:Jl.U, b ..... ~ . _ ""~' ""' ',". ~ _ , _

A. ~ep1i~a~1 sempra ~.~ip~ a prropri:fJl lmvisa.o cel'nl ~lL". Por tel" ,~EnnpJ"!e uma fi:ta '00l1101 molde, ~te ~'8to' rrlbmi:ntuL muito ;8 i(!CO;I\~e:rilliB de erros IIilO 'i;)-l"OCesSO.

,ii

!~lrigew

.0' DNE\ matE/riM WOl"lID.dDnal gen;etiflo. !est~, em:c:errnulo 00 Ini,C'1190\i, Cemo g~an(!.S. 'em 'a.H~;:bu.a <aT.!l:~]ise; ,jB infb:rms;~, ge:netica f:: U1B8f.. "~fecei~~' p,.m"8 qtJ.e' .se. pro ('bJ1Z:BI1. i:n:o:tei~sf sendo lest~Si l\espiQ:1Y5~.ve~iS peia, ex,p]~8aql ld~~ inD9aOI:i!:

C~.1:.",llctet'es. 0 n.NA ,~tl.~~·n·ad.o nu .l~ u.c teO' lOOlsi~SPOlfll:de ~~ m2lOOU'~n~ ,isS ir-ece-h.as· e·:r.Q, .~_ Ij)[]ifre.. No entaJn:~\1 a pl~ocl.~D d .. a~ !P'["('~'~1];ag :~.conJ~ 00, ci'to~p-1as.maL CfJXJlCbl]~se,. :PO~f:"1lan1lto1 ~rat~ .Fet:e~'~s dey)ertt .~et' otlip..iaii;~, :11 lliIJlt'3. ~u.e (11, pr-O:~j() _de ~nteiSe prnttici±li ItJcOTIa. A. codttieoQi.o d~. DNA e!' ,clia:lluui:!lll tr-J!iHsc'n~o~ 0 :re8.~,t;:9Jdo da H81lScdCM do DNA. sh. longos p'o.LrU:]]*r-;()S~ semelhantes ao 1pl'"o'p ri () ,D N,A'i d,~,i[ti,om h;JJ a lci~JJ!!S a !lJii (I,O'S, 'ribu:und.e.feu~ 1(An;N o.U 'KNA1\i'

A ·1t;rru:!JJ3Cni;M ,~ nm pto(l~SSO S@iIle:nOO..C!EIW :~ ["I~plliicaJy:io: .~, 'pos~ao do nUJGi,~otideQ '11a ·u1.o1s,{nli:a de JtNi\: e' 'oom;pl!t!ill@9.W .~ "seqi16'ncl.a IM$ bases do DNA que ~. d.€!: mml!\?:lo, Asm.~ Q, pSI.!'e;rmlGliIW ~eg-ue ~TI'~~rtbte:' A. = U;' IG· .. C.

'C'aditl mrilBcuJ.a d~ !rNA 'feJll1l. i:me:.io' em 'U!lll '[~J' ~specifiro da. mo:],eru]a m-o,]de ,d.e DNA~ ,~

:[">egiaiil} P-I"'nmotn~. 00!fi'1:'l"€:ndo 0 m.esnlO !DOW!.O seu.

.I-.~:' • ' .'"'_ ii!!:_. 'l.: d'""''P-''''

'1IJ@I'pnnQ. 1ll9" '~~!lJ 'UllQJiII:ilia . _W,-,A ..

,!t. I:. ,. ,..,,t.. -i-.-'lf~·.l' 'L • 'D1!iIi.:T'''. n !~,rnIil :li~rt~~J !!Ill c:a",,!;;!,;!!i~xh!~ ]l~~l, ~1I!l'Zil'l!;l.iJl ,!I!w:;',,~

rU:!Jllbn,etr,a~,e au 'tl'sn,,s·crii.ptase'. IJ~, 'Il"ez. 'er:i:I'ie.ttitM H .smtese ~ a. :m,olemJia d:e .RN.t\, se .sepai:a ,{lOITlple~m,te_ . do ]D,NA- eonslderandc .qlLE,e a cad:eia 'DNA-Rlq:A,e;: wm'!lQ ~nffM'v,el, A estrntura das mo'te1r;:1l1a~ dle~ RNA. no ~nta.]]to,; soflie

• 1'1 I'

'romljfi_c:a~~, P.OJt" pmeess05, pM~i~r3:ns~:r'j~irO'nai~~,

d,mD1ut"hl1, en.'io, fJS, ilifi~.-ft~1.1'Ii8S, ti,po~ de ~ fl,

'P .~ . -,- ,..;, ... ;iI;:i"Ji >!i., ,..I: -. c, ,4i~= ~';I,.".~ d ' Ii"'fIN'- iIo. ..= 0'1'''1' '.'

I rctuuga;o, ~ RU'!III"'I<. ,5u ,Id inti: ~!r,~ , .B u _i!'90 pd!ll,I"!..i~a.

liU = ,..-: ;,III;.GO

0' RNA e -'ita dft]\~tam0Jlt ~'n,v!Qhfid.'t1 no> 'p'rn~QS~9 de s,in;t~$(~ 'p7i!lW,i~a"

'npus '. RNA,

Em ,lUl~ae, da .eEiltn1tnI'a e da :funf,an 0 RNA ,aljltel!:1en.ta,=!i;lJe, di v:i.d],d:o e'm, t:re ~ fiipt'H~ I RNA ri,h,eu~ISIO[mr;'c,o: ntNM,~ RN'A m@'usa,g,~:E~o' CBmnd e RNA ~!id,firbi1(t(W (KNAr)'"

DNA ribossj-lmco m.N"A~lI")

ReFl'~e[]l,ta u '~po ITlia]S, ,a1b~l[ud.ante' tie RNA das '~~lu]3 S', I~ fo:r.;m~rl,o ,em!~ :W\e'~,,[jes espe~fErctl . dos c:n)mOS3tl':m:o' we l~(r~o n ilIi.da.s: ~c 'll1!.:u;:leob~, 'DOl [lld,iw~'&ol'o h:t~~05i'l'4 Ille RNAr" 0' RNAt mig'l!r,~, Piil~,iil, '(:I ~i,top,l~:~tma ,~ndtQ ~ ~ocia '~J :~tmlrU~$ paJlt~, CCiJloot'ti.:lir os rihIDHOIDM< .fIl.]Jf.'~allt8dn~, pm:ta::il:UJ, ftm~O eEtruItlJEII',aL Os rJib~.meiS a:Eio' faciiJlntenW, 'vTh:Elveis' :EtO mieJ,'Oseopio ,m!etrOr:.ico1,. Como voce' ,~a;1Je~ estas IPEl:mEnl~E' [r€'p'r2se:nta:1l1 0 toea], da :\!im,tess pmMica

fiill;.f'\A m""1I"II'B!IlI,~r"" ('Dr",,-' Ai, -.~~ lIJUL_~ft - - [~~tK~l'Uj J;W,~~J

{) ,iRNt\m, 11l§~ I() fD,u]iI~ap!O PJlt" Hm, Jlla~enlfj ~~~le$ dc, ~!L]JJ"Heob[de(t!~, e rep'treBiE!'Q.'t~ it'il, ,e.~Jpi.a. dos gm~ tliLD_~ dil.~ve-ran, ,Sr!II'" ~ad,nzirll~~ I~ p:r:ab:io3.$, :S~.Q lbnTI~tlw.'.·~ p~t dit -rog]oit~ ,~tiVlaj do D'NA 'lr.e·spljjt~~ ~,Y,~i'g ,]l~ la e:>tpr'e$',"}fio g~ni.iI:,~ ,·O~!"Q, I~!ru;{~\n'b"t!i,.~ 't.l'l'iodoo no nl~c]@@ ~:~:':!iro t!!O ci"~lJpi"t~F1O!;)i 'l'l~5h~, aUoolr:Jdo ,lOO 'ribo~on](is. "pal1:fci,pa d~ smws.@ '~W](:a.

,D pe~ D'l,(]',]elR]~]1U" .dQ RN,,~l: v,arria em, rml]~io' dio! tamanlw da ttUlJk.:mbt p:l'til~'ica 'grue ,~l~ v,a:], I[!Qd.iJ:i,eaJl['. Boa :p,ar-tE!' (1(1 RNA]]]' 'tem 'vi.taJ :!Jjal@iJt.i''lt~Ii:le~nb~, 1~1Utt'~, asssm a q,ua:ntidad.e'· d(~, 'IIt~.O em l·~d;ga i~lrd'~, ,;;l' eada ·m~um,e:l'lIt~J., e' '~Jn'ui.'to -: .', .. -,. ".,~ e= ··!ti.3. . ~,t- - ~~- ]J6otU, . - -,;" .- -; mais pe:q,U~iJi., _ . i!i!i. plfo .... "l::..: , ifl~.as mill, . _ ~ ~.M -e-e ~.

Idjfi~e;i:~ t1~, fusolar- ~ p:~:ri ficat':

(]',ad~, ICO:niu:[;Ib~ de Ike.'liB: bases, iIJ:bi)geni!iJ~; do .RNA.Jn e ehalna,dn oodorn~ SHli1cl!O, ]'\~rl1S8h!e~ ,~~la' codifl.ca~o de. d~iieI:mi:n.qcfio am;illljlacid.o. Pnde, no en~:mt.o, rnmt- .mais de nmJ ,~(klf[Ji] ]urra o meBm'Q mninoacido E'no8 que pD1nferttunaJ Oco.rra::m: d,ltt-,~~~:' H 'tra~~~n:,~ioi" 'ieDd~" ~m~o ~',~ul)~'~ 'It1J],Qcl:ifieaJ~fiB5 ,l1Ii$; t_Ufi3rent.e~ c6dOris~ mna:ijtu.em M ~,hrun~d;u m,u:ta~, :g:~ie;~.,

~tr~d.t)1'" (KNAt) ou det~mI;sfe:tenei;;J.

o RNAt ~. fODll"r!ad,r.iF por uma ~~!~~i:a, m,1I1.ito· peq[uena de: n~l~C]w[:deo8,~, ffulbra:!ila.. ~bFll:me si .masma, eom, '7'.Ei ~ loa 1:rl,uuiLeli:t'~'deos,~ ~eMo, pO'J'iI:a.:nJ;o' n $T.ILeliJJnw clo!1; '~l,~ ~~ /RNA da ee:luls" ~nl 'l}eBtJ ,moroleetilar viadan_a~, 'entre ,23_0'00 e' 30 . .udfj.,

Oom'11l . 015; daJIi1.~is tiPJs.;; me e ']Jrod~do 'OlQ [u.\cl.eoi mi.gr.:sn do 'pa:ra IO!Jlrto,plal3'Dla~ on-cil,e. dessmpenha uimta, ,lhlll,{:RO. clas D1am iru:pmt8ll'tea: !::a-ptur,iia;, ,~ .tr,anspOir.ta. a1l"fri:no;1cidolil, at~ Q B:N"..:...~n·~, estandc ,!€ism as5Qit1,a;OO ,80, rib~amo. 0 RN8:t ·P!l)de I!!e {ioD:l:bina:l" a.e fAj,1.'m.3, :weVle.mlve:l eom eertos attrl.IToal,cif~Og.

8~ [a:m~ijO:l .port-a,n't~J! ,e tran.sferlt ns amine,~dOJD$ -jlar~ as PQ~~~ij8$ f(tl:rret~!'ii: na 11[ij;~19:cum, I~te].ea e:ID IOrmRr,i!l+

E:Sltmtg~almeltte 0 RNA'I l~tQtbr~, 'ttQ1. btW!(J 0" ,0' ~plattQ f{j~b ~~:,~ [1i1~:~lfJ ,(:_~t]a, ,~rolha~ tOO'~$,PIJ ride ';1 urn ,~jti;~ c$]lIedfiw~ Logo,. ,e,z;ci$tam qt~:~lro sJti~s fun~ill)l_;u~.i~" Un1 .prinuziro t~~~~l1ta 0 ']g~, d~ u:nifi@ jiLIDto' a llllmIrr:i~ q.u~ iltiv~. ~ RNAt;. Urn '8a,~d:o' sitio,,. '~p1fl@'_g;@ntoodg a s~U:;!,iiu~Dici~ de bases n:i:bogenatdLas 'CIC,~ pe]n acido adenilieo lA J

~cedido de ~UMm{!l-],ecg]a~·,dce 1t1Jr;~d!lJ cit:idil~c{';!1 (C), comum a todas as mole~!]:la:s tie RNkt, reF,~nti9l. 101 hJK~@i~ diIB m1..i:Bio com :() ,a:m:h.l.oecid.o" Ha nm "tel'{'1e.ir.o

'i"''if''[t.... . qu"', .,;: ,,? 'I"iI:ioma~',.r:.';l!.",," I...", ....... ..",iL""'.....iT!i'!i,oi:iill"i.t"'" ~ ....

,~.Il;llillU. JIG!O I!'IJ [!OJ ~ ... '"' ~ ae ~ _~~IUI~~_ll~,~~JI.~~II,JJ}1:r-Y ll"-!-

libo~m1Ilo,; Fb'l..EiJmel".IJ;te!, ~l!m.lq-.-~O slOO 'que' pG$TIi uma aeqUil];ci.a d,el 'I~B' ba;g~ C(D,mplertltmeoxrta'l;"esi ao ~iHlo.u rA~[lI1l$~tV)!J 'FlO]!"" 'ft:~o:n~:iJe6er :~, nt'U5iJ~a'DI d.t'll

- 1.11 ~~-- -... ,~ .. - • ~--:_- - ,t.:!!l--- 'r': - -

,atrrin'l)ri~al~ na 'mlQllec:wa de' RNAro_:l 0 clla1Jl]~~.do

t'"~·:;l ,8JD l'CWO'J],

MmJ:mli I1G '11m;Qo ~!.mllill ,Pd~ ~ RN.A:I;. 0'11 ,1I1'1'1fin[]I!iI~1i IlllI!m .. ~ ~ ~ iliitr"rr114~L

A 11 rl t;ad c!"

;!ll.ol 111lEJJ..tSdlJ'. b.IJ 1If! iIIjl:ll.ll~!'I

I,"I:If!1lt~n If!

.Agotl\ q,1}e j' le~bJ[,(h:I;]lJ)OS, cs dciiios, :nucit6'~,Q~. :~(]dte:r:m,l'():~ moo.b'l'· um_a, tab~J~ OO,mp'af'Jlt],V,;i, p3,l~~ (t!b~r:'lf.a:]"" M pri_'_~t]P~~ .ai'f~P~:llt '~Ii,tlre e]lC8 ...

&~ido fGsf<Jrioo'~, ,~enw.se 1 :.rlbCJISE!! ada'niu~. gu~'r-rina, cltosin~ e J!lIff]~~

A.d.dD bf:fui\co"i' :p~:lio.se: d~~mribQ~e~, ,ooe'ftW:aoOi gnamna, d'OO~lIi! iii, ,~ 'timiJN:li,~

U't\·

, -

,m

,Nl..~ (surro:tQ.nt~},! ,11lll![,ar5ide, .

~ pl'"Qt;rJ]rioIXOOSJ., lUi"toCo.n.d:ti®.s ,doroip]IMb)s. a.1_gum~ '~;

:lI?rincl.pMm:e:['],1[e, nfli

• .i1'"

C-ltopia.Sl1!1a~, nJll~D.'QiI·

'quf.tIltidade nn jJj6~]erJ:

l~';~_ ,t',;, .... i':. • ., dUKW l1UBJl. m1.'OO I

p!lm:rose: ribese,

,a~1len1i'ma· i1Ll,~nmttJ.'" citosj.[la~ '.ll-:f!Jdla e' o!J)l'tr;,t_8· bi'l:8~;

Tl:anBpar[41 O!1=

n, ,.J:: _-d ~1"

a:mlM~l!S ,~ ,M'

.l1riir'. seu fll1ttlcornm com, a .c.6d.o.n~,

I difOOcmiR~~, ~s.ipo

..I. ." oJ...:iI

ne ,annl1(l<8I..c:WO!1 na

jpl"O:t..e:wa;

"'V1i" '~o:!l']'i'i'ii te

,r,n[jJt:.li~'uen@ !nib

l~iwpla~nl2J.; mBl'l4J]~

'q]u811thla,{]e Ji~1 r.)l!.i(i'Jeo~

t'JI.r:i: ·o't1iO ill' ''=illfli ,ininif!i" r~"-lII •. : -y" ~ iiJi!.iJI~ VyY I!I

iil:.ilnrIJ'lZilIQ':GI' D' .' 1!i'I DD.ft!TI'CllhT A, Ii:)!

II~:V JI.llD1~1 , '.':~ .!F~U·.-:I' ~~'l!~

I.tr-a.~ao

Thd:ag, flS, tal',S,e;Ir:e,r.1"s,ttcag, dQa. rrrgaJI~illItrujS; ~io expressas pelas protelln.as que 'p:lOr].1ir2i.e:l1il. Jr" :nl!8urlnIl.m1li_{~~ .qUH O! ,[u:::gamS!I.!1) e ill 'que ~~o as suag 'pro~erf.fi~~. Per Q.t.d,<1f"ij1 l~, ,:a;s· mfumta~eB' ~l1etkcas !!il;~,~ 1l;[I~e~i ~Ull pm:',a, M:ttle' .as . eelw:as pTI:lli~a:~ sirnte~Zi~ suas ?[ri0i~", Ca,da ~~H~a de 'b~es ni'ta!l~eri~das ,din ])N~A ,~o-m irdl:fmu:tfJ~C1 p3j~~. ~UJDteti~U.1,llltil:a ~![\il'~f.n,a. tf!. eha-lll2i:lia. ,geu.eouge~ ,illbn ffi58 , !UI :DE E C],iclit p:a:vplis que, ,enJlbfir.":a 0' UNA roccl'~nha:aS' ]1iI:Sc~,'t~O~ piErr-a ,il ~Il:l'tese de p:[lorte,rl1l,~,. 'ooijavis" rq,o.e-~ ~ge d!.~tam,e~C1,te:na S1!1a s(n;1:ese, e i) RNA. '""~~~tm,. ,e~tabe:l·e~.a."I$e·\Si, (~l.a~a,Q n'N~& R..~:A e ,P:ffi ~ eJ]:11li::l,

~n1!i.TA', .ru.~f .

"',

GeDLe e3r~ta~

A ',sf!C'j;Lj!nda dl.e· li)ues d,~ DNAi ![)I~l. ,se.~a~ d~, g~n,e. ,~, ~0t1ji'fii.e3~, :~;ti[m, ei ~~~.r:ilt3J" ,!~). '.:il[ilCtOO II ~nl f~a de RN...~~ E9~'~ pur sua ''We~~ ~mn:3Jnd.a,~, sU1te~e pI'O'bMe~ n.EJ c~~~Nil:'EilSnl~~ :pl'rJC€~1 dita '&~d;~p,o;

Cddig,ifJl Ilej~;itie,a'

'0 ~'6ffi,go gell~~ieo Ie l~tabe]le(:i~ ll'ela ~qittfuiadd ,de 't:re"ss. b~ii do RN:A:mJ~ 1fl'l,1 ,~~,~ p~]j],

f:6d~ifi., J1'- . q,'ua,ul] n 1I:l~[e t)'Ef dees p os,~tvei~: a. denkn an, 'U,c:I,~ o'[.,i d,e a ,~, gu anin ~:.D l!.u~J.~",o,'Md,e 0 ,t:~~f}J~:ta,[l,ul11ldjra~ti' (i,eo, e ·~31dl3.D,uule~1..{,Mi:L 'N:~, en1ra1'l:rn'l bfi ,2:0 a:w.~n(]a,ci,d..Qs, " basico~, eo:!I~£f[i:h.ttu .. dlo, ,~o~ 1M nossas protdna~.. :AssiIitiL 'p~u.le.m,Oi& im,ia;gi~l a~ ,qU:tJitr.;O bases possf.~ei~ fermande ~:iIT'i3:.mjos tlih:, a tT.lOO. capases, portan 00 l' de ,fi[}l~,i.i.l;Srr' 64 c6doi:LS .pnS$lve:is, E,sta '~oria foi P((O'pust~ po[:

Ge{f~' ~mfiW e E, Cari~k

D",o:.' 1~..'li 1""~""iI~ .... ,,, ''''p', .""[ici.":',"", ~'''';~'': .... ,~""', zon'm"""''''''' .r,: ... .,.~_ ~ 1lJI~ !t.dt1~U1tJl.1..Il_I:3," ,0 c:.!LJL~ l~.Il,·~ _lL;IJ_i"lJIo). ![;;i;3,y.~!i...:lIJl.IJ.L,aLL_~

:in:ii:il10d,eid!il}I[ " de:tier:minandi!D., ,poOi5~, i:l~n,ai.s. ,rae parada, ~e.i1lmin.doji d~~ta fbr:mla:~ 0 am, de uma Crulaia. l]o'lliJlieptidi.Ci~ UAA.; UAG I~ O,GA,

'-tirlfi,ea,~,£;e qJiU~ ~ .. D".lLes:mo anlrni~'dd[l (;lllide He1:' ooililieaoo ~,r m~ de um IOOd.O.fi:l. 1"3Za6 ,peJia, qu:a] 0 e/-l;till1go, ge:['J;e~~fj e dj:oo de,gel1.er--adlo. 'No en:h:;rnWj ~,hom. '[~lblr'a'~ eada ~n e~:pe~Ea, um s6, ~mim)'.ddQ, l"ogn :i1IiSQ, ,e anillr£gtlO~

Fila"" • .,. ... ~'~ !J!~?iJ,a,.-. .... .,..,I~: ""oi:! ... .;i! ...J_~,~ ... oI!t£il:' •. ,,"

'Ii...'!O,J!.h:LC'i!Jl d, .I,~l~~,I! ICiILJI.lL,U:: 'I.~.::I 'ILIJl,J!UUJLCi Ii::: ~~cI.Zii

,~o:fitidni!l ~p~~, 6 .a :we.s$a ern fucid~ as e.f!j])~~S I!ti"'·'~1:!i.'be3~, '0 ooiligo ~, chan:n.adJn ,c'd.igu

UI.l'ii.'\'i\e["sal. .

'Ef!l:tas, duas C'~a(!:be d~:~i&aJ.~ ,!;nio m,u::i,"~~ .bnportant~ df) ~ g;em.e<lic~: eie,~ d.e~u,e~dn

i! '_-IlDi,~enal., .

o Q[.dtlgt~, ge~nel].co .fiJi dJe<:ln,MliD ern 19-64: pm!' N:ir:emhe:I"g ,e· LBd."el~ 'que: s.i]l,te';~7l~raa:n as 64" 'tt:in.c~, :pu;ssJve;b e' del'm:i.r.',~$. c~~ ':P[)~u.8. :re:]a~§.o ~n!tJ:"e

~~ " . ·~..o.;'d

as '~uas Ii;! as armn'l1'D.~l ~a.,

:' ;i'!;; esouema i!lil~,~ 'I'~"" ""'.rl1<c" .... :w"..,,":i.i"'i~ .... i;!' "",,;' ,:.ill1"iii'li.:!" ;r.l' ~,r.>~ ~'~ ~'n";/B'i!'i'''''d. .... ~ )~;;-;';::I"

• '~ !.;;II ~~~IIl;·-~ JI.JIfl"1. ~,"I:J.rIll- .'!li.",r 1\;;;t~'liit.1!f'lir ' .. ,.. blu~. 'PIJI~ ~IUIU,""I',._iI_i.;lh .... "-"I~,~I;~ !~IJI.Il='1 JlAl,U,a,.'!.",IIUVill!o!

'[fr: C~o ~. 10
U' IJU[J I: lICU' 11 'UAU' I. UGlJ ~ U'
UDe I Pfue' HOC S'ew- lIAC ~ ~' 'OG- I Cy~ C
.
rnJA I DCA UM. I UGA, I If]_u.l A.
. - 1_,'
lJ1IUiG [ ']JLe,l!J., naG nAG :11 FIm" uaG ] Tm G
,
C ,COO I COO t~AU ~ CGU' I U'
.. .,
CLTC II one GA(j I f]i~, ecc I c
eUA, [I ClCA,. eM ~, eGA .. I A.
.
CD'G J Leu: GCG_ .1 .Pm -dAO I .. Glm GGG I rurg: G
A, AutJ ] ,ACIf ~ AAU' A,GU ~ U
AUC I n~ A,eC I Me Awn, AGe I Ser' C
e I, "
, < ..
A:Ul\ II AreA I MA. AGA I A
, _.' ,
.AU(~, II: Met, ,AUG r t1b]!" AAG ,Lu AHG I Arf! G
Q IGUU' I ~CU I GAll GG'U I U'
aUG 'I nee 'I GAC 1 .A$p .GGe II ,0
....;.. .~.".
GOA, I BCA I OM I GnA II A
Glla. I Val HOa. I iAht GAH I f~]u GOG ~ G'J:v' G
,,", .S,~ --=-- ,s(j'riE)a. lift. = Tirro~

A~,~,A~~WM L~-= Lisiioa Va;l = Valina

..-. -; _.

~ ~.- ~.,

!.-.. '_' I' . ". I- - •

"iiiiiii • ". , , '. a~ : _' _' I_ :C'O

tBs; =<F.nstidirl~ (.J ~ ~ 'Glutand'na.

o]u ~; &idto :~llU't~mi.w' IO~ - GUem_a

~ ~ J\s,paragill2t

~,--- ."",_...

,t-~~ = ru~Dmn~

O. p;.eOH. e· ~:QS!,JI 100,([10, ptutfE.fnra le_ M ·pE(rwi]:us~,. pD'W" ,i!1l1rn v,{:!(Z - clut "'FI!lIiJlnaM 'Q_iOSSOS ,ea'~~<ct--~~. 'P~~~"t~l g~·ne '!j),U ei8~;R e qt.iruqu~Ii" ~:u~~eitw da molii~ul18 ds DN4 fu::Jrnnad:O. 'pm: urn, c~,oo :rri1mlJ~OI de' ,~~e1!lda ~ ·hnJcitootid.e~51; cap'~ de is.er bi'a.dll1~.do em' :r~ d'e p~:0mn1_:Et. No etllt.."1I.l1]'It~1 eTI !I[il.a'Dl 'WI o:~ ge:tl.f'..s esbi.o b:1c:~~i:t~aalJllS '['J,n Dddeo de lI.J:n8 cEllula, ,eu'caniolllm~, as, .P~~~ .8810 ~int-'~i~~ada$ ne ci:~:phlsm~ C~m'QI -:c, mm~,d ilillhIEEUllonraj g:erl'slilie() COifuiJlegu~E!" se 'e~rel3S81l" lli6 f(~nna, de p~l~lll~?

~'i'T~m, lJS 'rnll'ilesmos ,d!ds_prooe8~8' qu('; a. ,g'eil1te ,~)b-$ie-n~ Dai "~Olll~~mica~~; :~. 'CCtdHi'cafag, ~e~:lida da dec0dlm,eac;§,o"

t:!f..... _I

,1\. eu d'ifi.C'patQ_,lo ~ ,[; acaet e. rill,a d a pe lao tnuiEirf1lrencla daiJol"n:t~aO! ,ge-netl.cSL de DNA ,ptElra ~ R::N'A" nt1!'avG.s de urn, fiB'FJriliru,@THl diM, t~cd,pio.,

A: segl;11t:j',a: infOlEJna'@oo,(,.,6.{lfficada ']1.0 '~ltm. ~ (hl,~ no' .RN'Ar· 'C'OIU' (ii ,~u;t'UJo d,(!i !r' At! dietenntrnl'a!l!lliLo, assim, ilnrt~:iSeq,ti,e;nci;;l. eajve~1]ea de, ,F,jlrmi nmicidfls PM,t!l1 eenstitndr a mw.e~uJij d~, p~'!Ijt~j'Urm'i' fe:nol!)l@nU ,e~rt~ 'eli ~nl~dI'O l~du~((I! (,d~odmc~fio,)~

LogU~ ~t!lrafilJte. ,0 :~{j~s~ da: ,~n~$~' I~roteie~' 101 t1r,~:ba]rb.,o 9 tr.t=aiiZ~.~k.~, em conjm1Lt:d:,~ peloa ,direoon'~ .1ip,iQs: d,~ E::N' A •.

",;. ~l.N'hri' 'ffl~'1TI.~WJO no '~·ucl~o I~ ai"Iillaz-eroad'{J ~:"LO ,n1!1cleolo, migra p:am 0 IcitQP]a,ffilla'e~ ,ilIl~riadl] 'B: p'rot0ftJilaJjJ~, 'Furm ~ os lilbrns~omg5. q:u@ -fk!JlciQJlarn como ~-enOO\l'e$lt mo..tdcm·[iJ1ftclo It} aoop1:a:met1Lto do: iIf:nti·~6[1~n UINAt) ~, dC:l t\odiHl ("RNAm) .. 0 RNA;m, 1t:f!1le! e. '~b7rm;ad.o. ~l leeais eS.lP'~'(~ifieos n$'molJeeuikt :de. UNA-; des] ~.!Re' piu"~ i'J. ci~,plasm~ !onile' se 'Ii,~ aos rft.hos is,Q(OlOS, ativando -ns ~ ~ forman.dQ 0 ~

:.. - . 't...,_ - .. 'II ~ 'I d.

'In;o'Jini_UiiSSO_M~ El'])~uantijj 'U51!m as lIl11lO.~.'iE'CllL~ as . e:

Ir· ~l

RliAt ~i)[~ ,atilo~~. po~~ en~itl1 as· ef!;p~cifiJc~-

:almirtnt(Nits,iil:ii,tJINA,l§int~we - lem_ P['i~~f~ dle ATP" I~ 8@" li:6:ta.JIl~ ·eada"1.1Il1J1 a l~mi amm.micidn·Ja~{rmoo.

(), ltN'M ro.m seu alu]:nmicido" eacaminha-sa' '~~, u-ma-:re~o e~p~d'frt;£I. dfJ1,ii"'ilmssG'ml', !(![C_iijl am Jqu~ n ~Eru a.llfi~Q-dt\in. '~)~QmplemenWr ft um dos ,c6rlooH .do. 'RNArn;,~ d.ll~~ ~~oc'ulas ~frew lim 'proC9S30 ,[1:'13 ~uopl~flnto CfW...Amn e RNAu! 'pol" P(!! H:te·~ dYe 11j.d.~,~g~nio po ~:~.hf_ ·'i~a.lJL,d~ acs 'ribo~.samiJ s ~ eJ'rt~H:~H31 ,[I D' rea~iU), ent]:"!!. 06 a,m.Lll.~ 'c i d.oH S U.:~ ~,el[l U:et1 .. 't ~ S~·! po:r: 1 iga~.o·~ ~ ,p~ptfd1rLM, ,at® ~)i che,gar ifljO CjodolJ] q!llJl! iiep~ento 0' ,fjfm. (setn. ,~eitni:'.a1o da ,m,ol,ectd a p~~.'YJt~ No entanto, a, ,~ilucijo 00' uur m[J~.e-eu.bl cle RN~ruu sempre inidn hum mdlpt1 ~a;pm:li'liro'~, AJUG"II ~lJB t'Qwm(;'f1 Q, ,emm_jIH.li~lc~d,Ol ~D;f#ttig'lflLi:Qa~ LQgO:" a 11t1L~ti;iJTIina ,6 Gil primeiro ,s:mjno.a.'ci~1 de qu~lque]i p,OOpep.ud.eo. ]?'IJ,T--ci.:m;; no-afITil ailm~Irlj~! a 'm~ti{lni]j:a e !IT~!1)\dd,~.

antes da, s:illmae tda :~([~mln.a sa OOllllPte-tu ..

T'~'[,JIr~ n ~: da Q, 'fiQ'rm (!t ~~ '0 a a cad e ~,~ 'lPu\lil~~rnitfldi!I;a {I'HiJt~lI]tll),~ ~l7;rttt:li, ,e· liberada IJ· 01 rotnp,]~ltO HJi,Am.~r1~JlP~(,!mdi' ~-e def:1£~li~.

AT '1FT . "~" '~,- 110'"

)~JI~_. ~ JL~- .~

:METAB:O:LISMO ENERGETICO

H~: dODS dEl:S~'~ b~siCD~ para ns o;rgMisIII(J~

• ,..11'. ~ i, "'" ic~~ • ..J'.

i!!T1.vl}.Q;: t:~JiJ:'il':I.!j IH:rdu:ll::;n]~ 'm.aten.~, Gf~i!ilt:Jfi,C3. 'L1!:l','-Wt~, ,~nm,n

'~;IDjae' a ma.'~i?t iti.Q(rg&nlca_ e q:u~, I~ malm2: energetic:EIl, utiUzada, para ·tsLll 'Ie, '~oos.terio([m.e:rjirt.e·1 p~ra, 1!fJJ mRUl1!ll!t.~a lim:; - ~~rl~n.lLllJ['G vi~,ftS.

-

ThdD' @'rgamsmo que ~j$.:p~,~ d~, 'um_,e;Ii, m2lLtri~

energetJ,e~ ,~nclo ,capaz de .pI'od.u* ma~~a. ~.:Ci:Ii,~ bm.do eomo .mflWlli~]JjJl'im.8 ~b5tmciw; simples, ~ wmadn .ar1l'l!6troio! ..

:Em. 'm~nJQ.t' eseala, ; 3Jgum as, h'~cM;:daa cOJll!Iegu·etmL [lttilizar- ~ ~(l:"W';ii de eompasms· ·]tlJl~t~,th:iJ i,oos pat:;t l!l'TlU,ij usir ~1!las m ol'~g.l a~

...... ....&, - ~ .. ;!o,e II"..,......;"..,'-m""-.... ..,.'L, ","...-ri"a, J.1..... ii'I!" ·-lI·'m"li ..... ;!!;"""'.- "'i!ui!j,"'" U~, S:.o;a.:IlLh .. a!ll'I'. H::,~ .. ~O : IO[1U 'L.U,a..uuiF~U!l.!1 ";II,U,." luall:l]D,Ii=~,.

N'o &1:t~l'l;~~ ~ ~a'!.';r.i~ eIle;rg,~'lI:i~:!t ~ada eem- snce~' e' a, ellW[,gia, t~l1l1m}o~BI! .. dO" sol ,A, 're~aQ ,qUI!! uti ]i~a ~,d 'W~;1" @ ~uerlgdtic~ 'Se eham a,

L;II.~~ .0' jj..

'u_"~sIDjlte:se.;

o ]l]'oCl,U'~o. enu~tiDQ d:at ,fot!l)ssinbeSl! I~ a 'mu]e~la de gHEiUS~ !¥91Uh~ve'[ b~,~e de to'~~' '. ciilutkts,

EDergeti\CHll~noo lb1ando. a. IDtossm~~ e a

I ~ 11 - d -

-:re~p;:ua~,ao C'iI3:J.ll ar aao .: UH8 ['llBia.'~JDas:

C(II T:f~ ]i]~:m, e D:I~,~,:r.,~,s .' e'mlb 0 r,\t- gum ttdiC,a~ e:n: e al'liag{jni'C~~. JI1~nqua:nb) 1;1, ,rotra.ssfil,tese possibUita ,3. Ijjnu:1s:f.b,r.ma~EiJo de. ~:nergbL I rmiiooM ~ le1I:Jlerjifl

• I _..!i, 'I~"""", ,_, •

QliLlliIlnca. arm;EJJ~natua.ool8 IJL~$ ~.L.~,~:oBS qll.llEllI:iL'il::-ftS

d~"ll 'lIuJiJitula~, .a~ gHC!l}6~1' a N.;sp.jr~~ao 16 um~, cO:fl1blls:tal~' W¥iM:rniI, .q.u.e .I~em.ci'te ,a len:t~Ubet;;1A;J.o de.sta ,~nLe;I'gia paL1:a ~e1" ,SlClim\IJ'U.J.ada. ~m fflU1,p.na.titJS ooma Q MP ( A~no8in~" TF[fuSf8!i.fro~.

As~:i.mj eonelr 'i']fl®; ~,-!f:'otossnrt~~ D ,:rmit~ n

-"ij·~"'.IiI..!ll... ~ll.i'i; ~,- 'iM""fi.... '-"i'I" ei'·.a;b ..... '"_oi'ii,~ .... ',.",...... iI!o 0lIi

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,~!e.Sni ~~;BJ:C\lio cel'!Li.]ar noss~mU~ ,Bj, l1Dtilii!:a~,o, ,I".I1e.ial'lal

~ ~ ~ I~

. d~ta 'e!.D,eigiSJ,~ -.tran8~il1~O-a,. ,aJ.os Po.riooa.B, para

m.ol'~cl1JRs de AT1~ :fbn-fe Irlbreka ~, ~tlJ.ergla ~d;iU~4t~~ em 'trjdto~ ~ p'rn~~ vi.tal$.

lJ'I'O·I'iI'_~~i'~')""'~'D &~ . !IIU~~~''''''~~

A ~otQ6~]n~l!Se ,~ ii, prhu;~'pa] po$ d.{l' mtr,tJJd.i;1!; l!tttl, ml.e:rgia e df.a 'm8iWIlll;. -pm',~, lOS' 5]s~Dl.lIS viv.tm .. deste .P'~8n®L~~,

'C'on~iste ·nm.i1J, tlljlalj:Uf:!ib) dle' l~a\-'fl~s: Iqlll~ uti]i:za.TQ, :[1 :eTI!~gi~·liLl.rttill~a, do ~l e'm 'OF.~ttlsmos d:«-ofIhd,os rto~ qJl,~i~ !iii produ~ib .• ~ ,~IJ.~ILi!l]ci~;~ nrgi:nims, ~ ])llrtir d;g ~~ Mr~:o:mCo !J' ~~.

~ !pril1mprii~ It£l'oro:fil ~s :~~o a clof.\o:61,;J ,ilj iC5~;U~205'~~.Mi:~ :pre:il:el$iOO nas algas ~ nae;, l~m-ntEui S:iil.p.e:rt{)~~,. ,e'. a !c!l~,:fibi; h, 1(lii5~lOO,d,N4l\1;g~ .[]_l!le' I~"" . 'Qa,~ ,aJ]g~h~' ,~et1de~ Ie· :DOS: veg~tr.:JJd sill;~erio~, A cl~~]:a JJ1, pR~eall~' nOS, ilte.ge:l;.:ai~ .s'1!lp.etilu!~, dni'(~£iwa;s e ,~gleu{~6t®.9c '~l !OI't:.e 'if"m.J[!!1 ,pi ~en'fr,o,

~ ~ • ~. '~I"~ ,;r: - ,..;il •

,e?:!!(;osso:n;o. ]_::g; _01 G, ,~mp'~];RlC!!.!i., a laJ.l(!tI: Y;_~ 1~~3)~

[l~IID]m(l~[';l; ~ffi,p·a~ d,~ ~e:tr' utlH'z~£la na £bWSS]JiL't~M~le" Tod a, G'Il~ ~;um.in~ absornda :vela clm:oum b G tranferida 'pmraJ .iL ~forl'Qf.i1~' a, T.rJl:El~'] 'ptdt1 1b:,allsfo;l"m[ll.~~EF er:t(] 100 ~I"giiit :qtiimdLca ..

Os: cm:.'1i),t~:n)gid~: a;prooentn.m oololrn;viO" 'VI®:rm,~UJi.~'1 la~fIt a ,~IIUl'~~~ .. Est:ruo p-ro&H).ms en)L tedos 00: ~]~ropl@lBto\S ,e nas ci:anobm!lterlna. Pertencem ~ elasse dos C31:r.o'teD.!U~~ o~ Icmvtmi05 e as, X.Bn'i1JimaS~ p're:s.en~~3 .erri bl~ ns clQliPfb']_lUasi;ljs~ portan.to, aiUlsen;t~~ ron 'bnc~~"S ~ ~amob~rl3lS'" f.'tJil~ ~Mp[P!.O ~e!tg-caEifo1ie:n~ e a: prm'~ip.aJl '~b:,[Il1te de wt~lljr~B, A..,

A;~, f.tlc u'll&ll!in,;as ~ ti ~o'd anina, azul 'e 'fi.6oeri.UiIl3, veI-jJ.u~U:Ulr, . ~io ,e:[]]contra.dM nas ci~litdbfl!Il'~·Iii,3S ~: 'em $i.trpi.u'~as d~ :rod.oJliooaJs.,

.rrO]'18p(l'rl~Or.e~ ·,de Er~

,0 s eampos 1:0$ -brgaIlico8L ao S[)fJrH' "em oxid.a~.o ~ibe':raID]:. a~tonlos da [lIit4T-og,~m.,p que d.even'l

SeI' t~ptl~r:'~i1®a e 'GWdU.2idD!l pal':a a:oo"m~.e.s J"m.aig,

.Aa duas princiJ) 3] $-. ii1·nb~·c ~.nci:asq.ue e_x,eu,ul:.a:n:u 1;JI p~pel de, t.1E' a:D~polt' ~a,d.o:ife·.~ c""Re :hjidrog@niJo~, ~~:a 0' NAD (N".k~ol!:.:in.amidlt Aden]Jla :D.ioud:eo:tid.eo' .e' Q FADi (Fla \cina, .A.dBnlfii.a "I}inilc1~inidoo~'.

Saro dtoi.8 'n~leotfd.eo:s, que' .faeilmente se ;redu . .zex[~, 3D it"~b~,:r' ~tn:JtI\[}S' dec, l-nit~,~t.ni\fl;"

QllJ.irnli~IiDte f.aland:a Q ~'Ill!1litlla :l1jui~ 6 [db ~8.1e 1ll"t!t3 .Dl~ji,Mcw.a dii:!' I.lr,lLlcleQ'tl(te()~ :ri.bOlS'~: t 'b~e .!i!Ii:U.~j}gie,n~ -!fr' '~r;es, JIlIil!Q~['oo'lda,s,. ,d,e k~id.o .rfru-Jl6l-Ji,col '(H~,P04J",

Chamarn~ ,ad.eD(l~irna, an re~tilI:tado, ,da. 'mu:lo ,e.Il.~ .a 3l,d~11H I~ il ribose,

88 ItOilve:r' a Iim:ii"{~'D ,~, nm. acicl.o ,.iiam~ a,

b'~..1~ -

a.dem:{~~in.a.. fo:rnl,lli, a ,:!tdenn~ _~fM~91:tu

IW1P~ i HfJ liDiLl~':r iliIi ,~t~;i6 d~' mais :Uin ,acldD' ;iJ~fm!l)O". 'te:r-e:e:£toa. entan, a. 3!d,entj~biia difQ~f~itu ltADP) .. O la£r:~r;::ilLno de uroa w~b:'3 filQ';lit]C1lli&t ,de 'ei~lo ,f~)~f6,rit'ud ,fonn:lilJ a ,ad.e<no!!(ma 'b:jfu~:E3Jbt ltAW),.

:Res~,~~ '~x,ob~_i:ll11m.s, 'que 'QC"(aI"I~~~n, llU c~h]jlit~ l~lEIJ, p,~m de sua ei1.e'rgja apoovejjtada, 'e a rm a Z rre':n,a.d.,~ e m, '~HD fit']? 0 s,t us eh 8:[0,3 d O:S ;m,t~-J,':it:IA;:dt=-b:t{]~. 'Doo 'rn;ln:I,~U~9, iti,te'.E1Ilea:a~b:1,~s. 'u mais ,i]]l,partidl.D.'te.~ (II ~ ,A energia ,3:Cu:m;iL1JJjat~ no ~ 6; p~lsrer[O~me.f.ii,te~, tiberrnda, p~~, ser wfuiliz:a,~, ~ 'tndiC!s us pi:'DCe~~10S: m~[ab6HlDo~ iCeh.lh:n.r:es.

E'qH~un ,flunl ita ,(ott1!l8.l'J'l"tese.

A !fo~~nre:!1:l;e :podc' se,r' ~p,t.-e;SS,imL p"e:la ~,~~ ijti~ ,SEi[fWe<:

GC'02 ~ m~~o 'CGH1Z0'G t; 60\2i ~'lDI~O (1M *' ~llEJ'I.'Ofila)

,EtfJ!P'~ I~n, fnlfirnslntti'Bf!'

o ,6e~n'~nleli1Q d~ ~atrl;s:S.futege" pfJd!.e ,~et' 'ente:JLl.d.iJrlCl [11 pm,rt~r de fluas ;ei'!Jaj_rjD:

1[1 J llumnto.sa .ou, :Fhfog'munca, '=' ,LIt.U:n'le ncs tila·cm,d:es, ~, ll,ocal~z;aido..~ [jjjas:]arne18,~ e para a qual .:21" Iua ~ ioW,~pens~,vl~l.

1(2) 'q1dm'ica.t ~stl:!tIF.a nl1l. I~UD:i,t~~, awr.d:Jece: no e!i.trOJ!Il:a;( m8:W' do clor.u ~

~ - - - . ".- - - -. - . --

pl:isbD,) e' ,fi§,~ de'"pen:tlJ~ dh;;elam~n;lte· da lilZ~,

,E',fif;!pl0: In::"~I,n,;f).i5l,,aj fotDq~'UI;imi c,p [(J',~~ die' mu

:FOtali&e; d:a [61f'.lJ,9

A fi~r~.o de f[k~6fu;e. d.a ~~, fai, rn~~:i3. pOt" Hill, ,em 19:87'! ,!]3, D'W.'v¢tmidide de Ca:Dl.1nirlge~. TltgJla:~etl.Ta., ,A, ,gpande l.m,pu:rUil1da ita hr.i.b:Mo 'd~ lIUI.:[oi fiI.em«l)jglrar I~u.e, a Ube:r:a~a.0 .fotO:~,ullrti.eiiL a:o O~ .~, urn prrocessra -1.ll1.Ql.epellil.etJ,te· da red:ll,~&.o .aD CO'l d:niT.m:a.t'e' ,[a, .f~'Mtss;tn'w:se. ,-

SOb :aJ, ~,ci da.Ius J!o1ar. a mnJ.OO11.lta, d2 :tlgua [~ li.'tepaIm.ent~ que-br,ads em ,~eu.~ eot!L"L~co:ner.liMQ hi3:m.c~)"s, £6.I'i~, u:' ,q_UJe' ~era!o tTa!11~~"(::ri,dtiiS ~_al'a 'trarus.portad;o,r.-,es ,~re l~.id.E'og~ni,o'i {) . Nl:ADIP' hucetinar.micla· adenina d]ili1.fic!:eCfiUdieo ;~gfato) e o. '~lri,~lllio U:v:re ~, tiber,ad1} ,pUl-.a1 a a;h[llosf~['~.

!D2P + 2N:AD'P ,2NAD'P~: ,+ 20~," Pbd,e,mo'S resumlr 0, pI"O~O ;e'm. [t~ p;a'fS!iH;)$,: :]~,

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rlua - clfft~lma)

A ["Ooofll~fa[':ji]{a~ill e diJifhiid:a_ em d'hla~: etapla~~'

,d£ti,ea, e I~idical~ . ~

,Pode'ml~' entander' de 'fOrm'a sim:;p'ies, I[) b,ansit@ q;OO ,~1i§:~1"41n~· au hn:ig~' lIas· dt;Eas. ,e;C!li!.p'a.$. Qu::1Dd:u os 'pi,~piIten;Itiif~, "trO'ltl~Sm,tebl~!::lJ.m,teiS. abservem ,etl~.a, 'liD.Il'iino~~. O~l sew e]~tru'nA fleam euita~s

;",-,'1' ..... ""~;,;!i!Ii~; ... ;!I( ...... ;o!rl,!;'I;;ib.~, ~ a'l,l,.,~n .d';-;;,'o'Ii ~'O¥i ~, ~;""1",::-~".'1 ~ !Iii.

wt!1lC=.!L b~t:.J,~.~~,IlA::!W IUhD,J.JJLI.t..!l.LI~ .. w,JjIII I~j IllU!I.It ~.:;[lj--! ,£1..

IlPatrltir d1:u.l os ·e'.],etl"~ ~am po~~~ a~lPt6:t'te.s. '[perde:ndh ,eij,e:r:g[a eada 'V,e-z q,ue pulam d,~ um ~ptot" pa:l:'a out!t)o. Ea:b. le:ner~~ 1:ab~ e us-ad,~, pflr;il ~~il':r:wai1' ADP em,"A1F, POiJ,"l:anltv, (~ , ,e16trmri!ij 'it~O sendQ t"Jav,~p'm'tadt!ls, em mVeila ,..lI~.......... ~n'i'A~: . .::1IA. - 'e-t'fF1:"J. Iii':'l,- 3- . d,C! - _ .. :td:e- ,ttl h"j.61· ,II; ~~~'l;iE:1t, __ ~!l:I ~ W, -'iBl.-'~U _lJI __ ,_, ,lJe!" __ .~! -e-e ,I __ d __

"'R&~ e);;tr~r $'rci'"i~ ,~cei~os por' um ,acep~oT' :{];m4\l. Fahmlom '~m I~~(ltoofoili'i~~":io' cicli'!:;~, ,tJ,~to b el@b;'Oft vol~ ~iQ!1 ~~PQsto, d~ . IJi'ig:o.m. ~8€l!m:' d~'ta Ifi~:bj{{!Isfori]~ ~.~ i~,~tclir.a quomdo ~s l~M-tra,rrs ~Wj [} voltarem ao t!f.mSmQ IOO[tlpO~"b) d~ .oadl8' ~J7!.'l1m.,

I~~) l)'otofiM(o,,.i;l'aG>Rni Cicl'j,eu'

Os; D,'~grn{ll]]'tos: totos~Lm mt] Z'!aDt~s' '8sti-o meJI",~e::tdi:'JSl' :o~s ~clBs lipl1'm~~ da 1Ill,~brl:U'l!n' d.,oo 't:j.htoorume'&. illulos !ls' ,j~:ml,ms, '88.:0 ca'piri!Ldm,"€s illP,:. !eI.'!L'iE'rtiri'il ~ umfnesa e' ~C8.bBl1I] a;j.l:1ie811d(~ ,~a. enf',r-gta ~~V,;a iI.;iOOl3 ~l~la M' tih:lll"oma ,3. :FmTtan:tr.~,~- iUoda 18. ,e;f1,~gitEt ab~m'V,ida,. aeaba na mol'ea_ilit .de ~tm-Q,,6l_a a~

o ~i9:l;enl~. dB' M~ptaJ!;ao d,e. !I;m,el'gi~ Ie I~ d~ ~ae~j :tta" F:i~itiea I a" eJQF05]~" a .. ,tnno2tm, um Iiin.~!~(~ ~om.'[JJ~();. OO'm.II.J' hi uma 1II,1O'1~CJ!.;1]a ilJ[J,; c~om·DJ 9 ~,iEJt que aa"S(IlNe! I), oottiJJjJ['mJterutu !Je ouds. de h:i.Z c1a

o:['d!~m de' '100 n~allume1!.;\EOB esta romit 10

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fufo-sslste'!IlUII. I e a mri]COl-ifa. d~ 'e'ioKifiI:;.J ,jil\t:!'~, ehama-se P 7(tI).. W um tiUWQ bpo dl~ cla[,~8 ~~~t~ ~ dita P'8.s0' (~b.SO:Fll~ 100nl'pri:rt'ien:to~ de onda de, ]1!l~'

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!Si~::mEr c1l:pt~ulo['t 0 fut~ss:~te.mn ':11"

Cb.a.ll1D,DlDS: fb,'t'llS~is;litm}ils. ~ uIrldades 00 m."guiza~aCJ fOt.'ID:hadu' pelos' pigm.eJ1'tc1S (clo!roHlafB' e OU'tro"s 'p~Bnt~s:) :Inergulhadns n4J~ iilam,iiIDB:tl. C'a.da. fotos:El.]!8tem.a Ie fn;rnnado .pO']: dora oo:n~.t]'~u'ill:te~.;: um ,~~:ftj.~~, 'Iille ,~@.:p;o ('OOl'fTeSp~):llde· .1'.1. 'urn 1C1iJ,--'-ilcx'~1 ---r".,iiI'efo -.~'--",;tnnn;- -.C,~'i:ill e urn

, __ _ _mp _.0 P ~-'!L _~:a pJ!!bfu .. ell!!:i_ _ _

Il!omp'~o Fottiico' ,8'iilt~"

o OOlTIltnl die ,re8l~io M ;ID:,1tdss,tstmnta i~ fOl1rJ1JLad.o· pur um pal: d~ mol~c:ul.m'.i de cwtdila que ~ 'ca.pai:l: die aplmvei'tar a en~!i8 a'bsorvmda 11M ;~~Oe$ fob~l1Jul:oo[eas, ,J~, ,0 (~filh--pJ,~Q pmt.'§'ii,c~!,

arntGilJa' I~' Ibnn~clo ~ wd~ as- QtItrns 'yi-gmijiJn~, QlU!' abso:rvru:nl (JJlIDl!'gi~; hmrinasa 8-. diret-~ iO<U ~nm.l"eta.m,e1l:t,e; t.T~e:r£m.-1::JJa IP~ n ~en'~ d.a.

re,~l~ri Q" .

Na. fum:fuslor:Ua.~ao cid['eta ~ha, lSi. p,Sl.m.c1pi!3i~a,a apenas de ~futo9!iislie:-ma L-

A, cl~'m,ma, a P'700 a'b-s'Onre IDtmls, de J uz ~ p-et-die eMti.'TInst com. ',M[iii ,mvw ene~tic~,. ~teg ,eJ.'e~tb.'M I~m g-tllnd.e ,q~ntidad.e· de' ~fii.e;I,iia satl! C,&JJ1Ita.d,(i!,115 pOl!" t·[-·2fi..t;JPO(id;;ado:r,es de ,elela ens, :P'rh~i~l'fo a '.~do:Xina QWC' QS bfaIDl;fe~~~ :lPItt];1l, 0 l~toerO:imIi)! 'h6 ,e esrm' J:±ill.'ti 0 ,m"'to~anltO 'L

N ~ b;,~])'H~n~,' clll um ,~toO[~(m].Qi l'il'a]·,~. ian'~, h~ a tp<e.t'iilia dJtf ene:fgia, pur' p:au~~e" de' ~dillL IE!Je'1t'ron ! en~rgiElI 'e~ '1Ililli~~dEiJ I;UW',aIj iru!arporar' fost~,t~ ae A, " p~ pnul'UloiIlldo ATP~

'Ql1sndlo . c~da ~trn!L1 'rewnlll ~[) seu ljL]Ve.~, 1e.~'iU~::r'~~: L"':] ~n ri,jt~i gin a n I' a,'(i ~ .Il as ~,a.r 'p. al O@i' 'b:-EtIl8}wrtaJdo.res d~ elet;,f.;@11U!i s~!8i' de:vQ,Iv:tdo, :p~lrs !ffil -ll'ol~'Cum ,de clO'rof.dib B~

Ji otorfl.ii1i1brito,rJi.m ,rr lllltt':D

oI'i;,ll'-l~

.:,"'

bml'lllin

A.n-

(:bJ FOl;(jfbitif(Jri~fkj, - c1ftJlicd

Os Pll.'OC€S'SCifi ~e IDtmnsfilrl]agao I' 0 de fbb~ltise ,ft altUo"f i~il;."Q~~t~, :m:wtd:~lle8'm,a11:te., '"A, fotofoBfuill • .a .aillcti.cs." Ill!) e:ntrtm1!n~ ... 1 'nfl~ Q. ~~a, Ie. . q:Ule' e5t~ !diretall'H;;.;nt((t reEacioo ~ih.} a 'f(~t6.Mse d,~. :~guaJ,!,

N:~ f~I' ,i-1dc':l]~~ ;~, Cl'ftt'~m~, 13:, ,Pifj"OOl a~'r.,e !d'{!!·i-s· Ja1tmrisl cl!~r 'hlZ' Iif!i l.ilJljera: !~oia, ,el~tro'llS com ,8],1;0' n iv~.1 le]l~rg6.ti~r(J q,Ul'J $tJ:ra,hre(j.~·~ldJ.()lS . p ~,~~ f~~i;i,iI}xlg.!iI~ e~'t;till ~6 'tnJ'fisf0re 1j'M~, a. :a~.vi.Da ~

~ .~ :~

~ ~ N'-r A.'T"il"D! L

i~J,k3] ',pa-m"gt Q .'c, _~,;Jr"~ q~ re~eiJi;e. pelf'" sua. .~z. ~~5

P,ri6toDS m:+'~ . 'libera:d:Ds: na fnt6Ut~e, dlaagt~a. 'tT.Hn~OOl'ttland!i]=S!~ em. Ntlil)PHn~

,,,:,.

AOI inlW'S'UllO' "timl:pn ,~ ,e:loronlll'a, lP,~ 1t1!'~: d~o(fi~ F6'r.o,jJ:i.S d~ Itll2;i e ·Jlthe;ra. dais e1!em~Qn&i .m~u!.l'llit~, !~xei;truJlO's ~ll~rgetl.came:l]te. Egte8 ~~o' tranafmdoSi

.11... _. ";III~.""+~ I , • _'I

para a, ;P\llDsill(ltqmuon~ B UL~W tJr~[0181UUn fi.:!:J.O

,8:ii'srt~glUl, 't\I",p.'n(s,pl'D,r't~d'Q:r d~' ~'llc"tl."oll'iLS.

(I'itacr -mIDlR 'b ",i."fi._ ' . :r....:!I;- - 1 ;I,,,,,,; I - i--",a I a-, a'

e_,_ _ __ ,!:J _ _ ,"'''''"! ,lJi®"~· u~n,.!l-WI' M ~'l-~. q~ _

'utill:i~~a ,parra' ,a, stob;:se df; ,A1rP; ·U~ 'V,~~, ft>r:lb a: eI:lergj;aIt extra I~g e,]etro:n~' sin me ebicws pel~:

iclJJ~,m9, ,Il P1oo~ ~abU]zmlclD~a;.' .

n 1 ~ ".1]. oJ /! 1.b{:II.! __ , ,;] "_, ;i.

vIS, ,6 1il:l:tI;'>Q'lIS Qn1iUu'~ lilJ,E!!i :;IIO",,-ij~ ,~, :;.;gua

E\8h':b]1m~m' .,~, ,c~om,6bl a 'P'8eW1, ,M' ~!Gm POi"; ela ,mp~Ul.'l~LdrJiSl.

(;onc~:t8_ii.o' du. flJtfijfosf(j,ril~,iWl

()b~rm'Ve' que >@ ATP' ~: IQ ~prod,Ii;tQ ·llila I dln lromrostbrna~iifj ,~clica;

J~ at l:oto.ri):db,rllaJC'lio ~f,ll:lh:a U~m eome

~ ~ - - l1li - - •

ptQd:U'Wfi . finai8:., 0 _ATP~! 0 ,N...ADPU:2, e e O~ (.ie:~lie

~"$lldtmnte_ da tut6H::lie ,dE! ~,gl],~}i .

:Nh tdtal iSi~1 'f~~cl~ 1,8 'mol,Ik"lilla$ de ~,!\T,P tE 12. ·m?ltk~ul~-,~ d~ NAD.P'fIJ,

E~o eSeItJra;, ,q,ui'miC1a o;U ere,l.o,tile C(llvL'l Og ~~,lO, aft'S'; I!JfJf1'tM:CIJ!

E~~a 'e"lapa 'wi descrita na d.ecada de 1'~i40 pOl Me1.'Vlin C,~ vm . :receb€11(1Lo _pot ~gi~;()i· I[)I Dllm~e. de ,~ido de, :e~]"Wi.I1 ..

A etapa 'OCO'fie .t'1Q. sstroma 010"15 .doropla.stQ5, lei p~, ,get" cSira.et;eri"zad;a, ~l:a, ,absoJi.-Oi.u" 6xa~:io e

:~d;u~o dOl OO~, --

o ATP' :pW,'ir1t~1I1.iidJ[) f:lh8. ~up~, cl:l]',9 ~, ,St ~!itD.:t;~. en.~rgeti;e& ,p'~. a eta_pa, ·eSC:I1.ll:·a" e, .,Q~ ,hlrlt~n.:i.tQ;~; b'ari~p[)r!i~,~-~pe[,oNWP ~m '~'~,a 'mcbj~]r 0 ,pg car]'i:Kli'lltioo, e Fr2l:nl'll,3JI" ,~l~cose.,

. J~~le,nl_OSl 9fuJ::t;pMear 8IL re~~jtJ lCQinf(J(l"Ul,e a eq1I$l'~a.0':

ii""i\'O" . ,.Ji., ~~l!i.:lF A.lr"I~jlA" ~ ......... 1,i""'!D -o,,~, ,Ak 'K' O·'·..a- "1!'iio:'r i\.1R_'I~1 !\.,;!: ':l) '," ~~,,,,,, ,!I.''"''2;. _' 'L-'~"'1!:' ,~ w '- -2" . .,c ,~"'_~."I:"~

'ATPl

IN,o:,~~~ . r

() Pl'eJces5r) inieia com Bei'S n1olecma:s de :gu, csth&ln.r,('lo ,que parlieipa.m, de uma :;;e1];i,e de .l"'eSLW'OOs ~m qu,e·to91nrem agem aJgtILm~ffii p¢nW~a\t. ,al~ne~s' d~, 'cimloo, li.'roJU1£!S de OOL~-W~D.fi.

Iniciai11l1.if:t1.'te -seiis moleculas dB Ribuil.nse '~Sf:J,~~OI ~Rnnp') .r~!'J!ge:_m. 'oom S.e:it~, 'mo[,~~ d,~ ,p..s cm~ini.oo,. ,'teDld~, OOmif.l' Ul1'O(]1tl!ro, fint:lT doee mlOU~Cll~ de acido fosm.g])werieo (PGAjI"

Diles daa do~e :mnJth~UJlaB de :PGA s'io usadas . p.am p:r~d~· 'g~~', ~:u:u;~~to a~ OUh"9B dn.

.formaltl Itl'o1ec:ruas de ,gIi,OOt."'ddeiidID...s:..:fo.slat!l!l' (G3'P)j :r.,m::pO(fl:~mi.v.m pela ];'Qg",(~ri~'r~,o fie ,~u;~i~· mnIeciliLw;i, de BlliDP; earaetenisandc ~ 'cirin"

Aol L~lill1gg· "das m'~'~t}:Si ..sallJ ~ill~rad~ ,IS~~S, 'moll~'1U] ~~; :,g;~ R~a,

Ohserv,e, (Il' esq'IilJElnlJfi ,~bi8iix.()~

.OBBERVACi'o:i: E m nlmto~ H.vros v~, i~'OOJ'i;'t-r.filt:t:~em we~ I~ ~lO:f\n!lRa, !!l~rl'_P7M"'. ~pe'Da~:

IclOO,"QfilrfJJ, ~~~ ;pooc' 'o~tro 1lndb, ~ \',l!\Z d~ cl~.pmla ~~a~' :p. 6fiMi' !~ (f[~trQS ,a_nto:TId8l C'lornfila ~~b;';'. S.~Yimo_s ,quei IV~ M~i'te .as ,dURSI ve11's5~ .. ~Lemb,~ 'f;:l!J,1e v.ol:l~ S"e1."-a, ,nrie'o:t3'd:o &E:1iln'~(['e pEdell 'mxtu ,~p,]',esran:t9do naa P]~V~.

,A fO'ji~ll1~t.e~.t:!l .~ urn, p!oI~~ iofiuBIlt:uado 1_JQ,r 'f,hlb-~~ dn :tIDr~iD ,a.mhD,~e e l~or .:f~:to"re~ -:D't.-n.~erosi itt "].- ma-

l- - - -- .. . .JiUl- . ~ •

Deml'h'l!Z!' OSl faiillu"<e'5 internes (dra 'lfijrnnris,

lir" ~'

'p]-, ,- ,~ ...... - - -;'J." - ~;, ;_;jl ... -,1,. ..... _-.-; !ill' -""10 ..;1._ m:& .... ~..,.iiii-. , _ ~ ~ j' :pou_e:rolJS !"II !l;l.:i5~ar _ gl:"a _ ~ __ . _ 1I;j,!1::I~~ a.

!dos, ~mUit8ito,~ 81., qo.anulbuie: d8 le:lo:rofi191, e' le.s'~~ da !lIoJlh3H, P!Qlf. eXe;fJ.i,p;1lt~"

Os :1~:to.1!!e:$ e2ter.nt:lSI ~fl 3L btt:z, a ~at-:u:ciIi.

~::a\ ~Oil~~i"~~O d~ oo.';t", - '

U111a [)JUw d~ 'i®n~'rgW radbm.~' qu@ ineide 8~b!~a a Te'ITa dh~g~ na ibnn~ rlla 1'l1z. Alu~ luan.ciBl d,C! so ~ cmn vna'e.n.d1e hu~; ~QDl dlifiBT1e:nte s loomprinlenws·d_e rinda:s~, iCll qrte lCar~terl~R-~ .co~~. .A Lu·z ~rml~~ _quiUld" d.~OOltllPQ5tEIJ ·,apOOqel1Jta as I~res- priI1m~~'a:g vlo1:,et~ anil, aaul, ~e['de, aJ,lllMM1J.I, ~~·:EI!.~ad,o e· Vlewmellu:;l.

M llllIidad!3's de' p'nJ]J!~g~tc~o a~ lu1,;' rillJ Icl1nm~du: :£6to:us" Qmmtlinn "e ~-;"tJu9JltirnflJ,de de, ~Ilie:rgj,mt. tr.'8.llSpu~md;a p:i(t" 'CSll-a [OtDll.

A f~, de. ~J.J'$o~ilo de Ius palog pr:m.e:iprus, ,~~'ll1nll~O-81 que ~ utikiJuda 11~, :fQ~ntese '~er~ !e'~I¥'SSIT ~ segmr:

.. C]'O(l"\{ii:fila:a '~. ~~ U~:l[n:prifi-tell'tos d.$ o.nda d~ ab~or~ao '[119X]n:a:a estRIn) prmnm,l(tE= d!.a 430iun ("vi~eta,~ e GUlli1ml r '~-ern]J~lhoJ ..

.. C.lo~fiJa 'b ,...., 00 POHltdB, mantn[;~. de ach~,·

6:~J': [(;:~:it~~~a [de ~Sfuun (azuU ie

!it. e~(!Jten6ides ,""_, camtel100 e ~nto,filil!S a;hsnii."V,em na f8n~a de ,400 ,'l. 50QilllO. r~uD,

• Fi[(!oldili n~,.".., ~~'~~, m~[~lr .de ~hSlr}l't!io ,e:ll~

~.,~ [inn ;n; 6' iii·O· Wif'Wif'j 't.,'~j!!i'~,."]!~ 'I!i Q'ii"!r'Io arel #i.) .

li;l.ll. ~ " ~:u l~ . ~ . ~,oIl.lI~UI' !a. 'f'!.:ll:U!W' .al~I;.l : I ~JL~\.I

~

r I \

I ~ : I

i x. ~

I I "l~..r'

, I I

) ./

~~-

.!!i:Mo

EXl'f!:nenil:,~'O Ide B.ltlle[l,iKUi_1i

thJ1i~~ b~cb~~ JmI1 'S'M)~':tsao n:l!JlI:fIl~.gQta d':'~lgb~. ~Q; oon.t~mll~. rm .tUame~ d~ -a]'~, verdE' .. ·P11)JGt.a~SB :StbM a, a~ga tID] [lame 100 lna ~r~.m· a~W$SH U~']1J '11[i8m~.[ l~go! softrendlo doooo.1P~~iJ da IlIZ brom~ enl sef~'. d:l&nmtes OOO1tp;rmle1~S de Q~.

~ b~!Ct&.ciu,.s:e ~U~ '00 ](ll~al f)~ld[~ hauvw' :m.awr ] me~io ~ r.ttj~i~. resultante aJa,

lfu,~ns~fnt~se, .

O:b'~e~~a-:!~ie:, [eut:e.o,~ gUbe' as ba,eted.a.s aC'illlDu.Jil'an~ leXH't::unH:rJit;e (uide a.alga. es:t$1l $'Ib ·.atAtj

dwi1 Iuzes vermelha e azul, .'

/1[OBM, de :su;IR~,~ao[ [If_ontFl-t'ui;!l)

A 'It~x:a dl.e' .foto.S,s:f.Hl.'te,~e ,il!l.U.m.~'n.t8.

,p~~O'ij)1"·cio(o.aJ.bne,]l'OO: ao 1BJ.lil.1'nJi::n.to cia b1,'r.e~d;;aj~ mu:rn:m.as~1i' pj(H·.;e~, 3'~ (';'e,tto ptl,]],WI.

A, p,artil.'" I~ '~1i!li." CJletar.t1:w:ilada ~utensid~, :hunino;sSL '8. IDt;Oi~l1JteEe ila.O mais a wm!lrnt:t\ ... , Exat8JJnett-oo' . a esse' pento ,~ ~oo file d,enMnil18 ,p.o,u:t~) Ide'. ~a,'hll~'~,.~jo l~I)$O~

M, d.:iiil!~lQ~e' ,~. q[ooo:t!tid~df.l! 00 "~~i~nri~ qPID liS 'd[e~~!1fldLd(J; M ]~,]~·t!ita. "ml ~.m ,~tlInroinado t~~rnp~. Ib{;~·si' a ln~d~da d~t ]n:t.m1.si;dad·~ d:a fO~~~~~RS~,

P~R'll [de ,~mllpe,m~ao. fij~, (,lunnnosco)

A iIMntSid!ad~ [umin:oo!BJJ. em Q_'!i.]~ 'm? t~5' d~ futQ,8lslinte~ [e de: ]!'esDir~~ao se ,~~[M1! ,c.hR.Il11tmO$ ,p'~I1:tOI de· Icu:mpensa~io b.HDliiUMo.

,P;Oc~.e:mos [oouiClmr iQI1!0. &0 re~eib!3!t lu~ no ~w jpll]\l]W de 'CQll]ip®UiEla~o; ,~, planta ,ro~nm' na 'lLiE!5p-irQ!~ifu): 'meta ~ ,g;liJOO5e e todtbl, {]I o::rig,en.ljj, l'U.1l~uZi.dna p.els· f:bt~'[Idte8l~., A..,~m 'i~·tlr:L~ml Cli g&' CEIIFM'lllOO Uhemtfu ]lela, Jli"esptrap-o ~l.~ u.illi:zado prua. FO'Ii~te.s.e-+

'V(me pod.8I. ~o~:u;~,],uiir qm;le .,~e a :p'~ ants . 1o(t mantlda no seu prn:mto rl~a oom,pensagWJ' ou ·aiJm.o[ d~l,~. n iB.'o te,]!,i I€On.rl:i ~o,e iiii d[BI S Q b!'~ervi'v'er. ,oolllSide:rando que· 'ruao Jtm'Ver~. dj;8[lm::uMlidade de allmento pMf:IL a sua TIlan'ITte:n~o' MS, ~mitl5 de. BnllSi~.1.d;a.. de l1ii1l~ G'i~ Beja, sem ·fniJ:osmmtese.

PICE IOOUQ htdDi~ ~ phutt~ Fj!oduiirii.· g1:iW.8S ~ loxigemo 'a.cl:n.1,~. d.o Mill ~~n$tmlo' 8.0 'for 1i.na..ntid@.J. 'Il~IDla mwnstd~de 1tv.mriD.@sa ,~eimm do. SeiJ.ill POu.w de, ,oo'mp-~Q'~iLO~ Dessa '~@i eJo ~'DJ5'@gITini sa manter - e .rli'~Ge:r 'pur' 'ba:V\eI' UlT1]1 l,mero 'PDglnico[ Idm~>D,ru\~,~I.

Em fiJ:ilfiaO do 'POlilib) li\fu,· C~Jibl1ipeR6~~O as ,(l~:~]lhs. pode._ru;1 81M' elassifieadaa (j"l;n'l':

,ii Be.f'i[6:fjJl8~, !("de S!o~) ."". ~ROI. aquelaa ,qne ,Biptl~5.en'l:arn. elav9Jdo [pm1rm de 'COjjL][pe:Ma~'

f~·(~· .

,ii 'llmb:E-0:ffias (d,e s.!:))mb11"a;) ~ saD'<.a:s plan-· tas 'Cam bruxo ~oofu de ,~om:p~.o~

N.~ ,~t.mode'l·a .a tiEtixa de CO2 e' ~],e Q,,~m.ad~e11I;~ 0,04%. N 0 Efll.tEW],~.G); ,~- tasa hlea.l

!t'ii"""""" "'" re .... 'ii'lL' "'8i";[;;'''''' )Ji ..... .t'i<"l.-4" ...... ~lE!!(..-.-Ih....;; ...... ",l,~ .tIi1>Tiiii :j,n""""' .... ,.!Ii '"" 1~.r;.II.£ OJ ,9, .t:l.L 6'"_ :r.EJu ~l l'~l?~.Jll.,llA::::dl!i:i' ~1iI.~1i.<tL.. !f:iiJllt1;~ L~~_l!:iLJJJir. nl_~ I

I) 2 a 013%. - Lo@. m..amtenoo-se as orut.ra_g variive'ls ,(lOl'l.iitante~ ae ti!I~. ~e-nt~ ,i@j, tasa de 00.2" meU,o:rs."'I'Sil:f; 10, rendirne.ll·oo ~9, "lbti~1te8e~

N g. ,eutfiI1rc'O] se ell!iil'Val·']'fH)'~,. dj6 E~1"Ji1lUJ, pr(J~V.a 0 gas e-arbo[]Liicn. a .. tax~, d_@. famssiIWe<Si;L aumenta ate OOEtQ Ilmite, alsm do q,l,tal d.iIf! passa 8. ser ·t6~dt:o, prjJ'~n)o;v,e:ndo. 0 <riecha,UJiTEmto dos 'estQmflw6!. '~e6BmIdol'l po-daniro.: [I Pl1)Ge.s!;O;

~~Q:u:ij$~3 eom CI;Jr.t(l(,Li/l l\'~~tW:Si,'loo:m!O 'twt],iiIi;tc~ !3 ])~p:in(l~. jij,] ost;r.am ilJ,Uii1' ItP ttt],l't1:V'Q @ 0,,:Jl % de CO~ d·lLll.PrIic~, ~ 'i"elOli[dt;ilU:j,~ cl~ [ll!'cill~'iil1l{ID:to rl~st<'llS 'phu[ta$~

A. ceemCi3 ~;plicac~. em ~"M' ffit~s 1~-::-lU~' oon:rl~:[.e, na e1ie'V,~hl dtl 'lie(H" de C021 e- de]lf]milla:da

,gd,lII1lla~a.o pot' IVO::!!; " .

b;r-oo ifl~ rO;l"Q~~~'

Cone. dl: CO~ t~, ~Hi ~hLmiil)'

,A, n1iHzi?il;5.o diD CO2 pel,o ;elJD1.f'O!lhl$~;O dirnin:iLll sua (;fltlce_r.uba~io ID'(~ ill't~i'iiO([' da rQnl~. C!J)mo

"""i'1'lI """'Ii1~'i';'"""....iijJ~ ~'"V!i;.,,,.!I'::4t-f~'~'::";M;. I""" ,('(t'-,. 84-.,.."i ..... ...,~iI:"I"1I.·,"'o"il

""r;..u.~,",o~.l "'J!§:i'.Il.Ll!or.I.qi;, l~'" ~~~~ "'" It.. u2 .hI[iLJ::wb.tl.'b.!l_ "",',",,,

PeIl'etra Q:!La folh~. a.b;~ves .d:M esWmBi:WiS.

0: 002 jl,g]l~ad~: vca:rOOea~lI!JJa.:r'bidf~:tmd~ ~)~ ,Il, 'rG"~7io ,1[1 e~~'

002 +, ,8'2:0! Q :1I2:C"0.a ~ 'IJ.+ of, HCO;3~~

, , [)e~f:a fo[ma: os u :OifiLa, H.oOa• ~ en] :[1l11~'o (ilia

dii~~,~at 'de ()CKi])!)ent:r,~aol.; '3limge.m. (Ii eleroplasto;

A. 't~ln~:rar.atItl!F8 :,i'11:1A$, de .:(i:n:D],::i ]}llfj.poJttan,te: ~Gllt.e ,~ l[illq:~]utl.ament©l en~imH:tiou. ThmlliE::m ,~~~ ·~r:.;ijuen~a tn,~~£lr na rue· Idt,.~. ~'g1ltim.iC3 ~ .dQ (~'ll~ n~, filse elm ffQtn!tUintil;;!;Il.).

:A m.f1j,(I!eM:~~, da tem-Pe1.'at1l1l:,:tiIL aeguH os pritlLciplos 'b~Bim$' dat rltLl:rnti:ca~' flU' ~~a!, ~ eSJda . H'w.ne:ot~. de -1 (lPiC 1 8'[ ~eli:Il!(ida,de· idU [I'~~GeS

en~ti~_a;~, debra, .

A, lemiperl~hJttt dtinuit pAra. a 'm~_~'~ ~,a; fulio~te_se· ,est:ii e.ntre 30~C e .tone! Voce' dave lembrar ,que rem te:m~(f;a'ttuM m.ruto· ,e1,ev,aJclas. '!EI£im~' {ie ,4{l'OC, p::hl" e,~e:mp[o. :SiJS· !IE!.~:S ~:&em, desn,iBl!;tnl'ja.~\r ~' 0 'fe.rrt11Lueno eeSSR.

P,-;'ci]Ji'o IrbJl ,f-Q-tVI"' ,lb~dta:fite

FaW,l'BS CC!lnQ' s, 'mte'IlBidruie ]UI:l:l:il":IJosa~ a:

OOillrentr:3I!~MI de ,i~,' ~m.~1 e ,8. bEHlIpe:ml;ura ,aI:'truILm .de .fon:na. mWarla, po]_\em.-, ,!f\eb~ £tbbre 10 111em:lO· Jn~cegao ,~. e a fotOglltultes-e .

. 01 prin~~Ji',ID do {'a:fOr 1.:ii.mit3.El,t-e Iffi..zj na.sua de.nm~twt que ,quando urn deteJ;1l1iI:lado P.[(\ooeS~I~· Influ e'n ~iad:o po:r' \.'I'arios, fatnres que :~~e:m :isol~m'8ifll'te, ";3., VleI!QcidlOOe· do f~8m,relooi e.star,6

iI • • j, ,.,. ..l' "-, (;', . .=:11 ,. 4'..... .. ,.a' ,.::,:

,~tm'if'funaJ ,3.0 II::atnt' UiB menor 'iUl.u:l'thl;lu3iue;

~s,im! s,e analisar nl:'~S dots a Dlu:ds! poderemes ei3bld .. aw ;() ,efBim Mma~t6rio, desde qll~ ,0: 'tiE!mirelru 'pemt~a co msmnt;e", Defjl'ii!~sel' it1.'oota. lol-um .. qrtillaiL cls[2,S e :I:hm.tanlt,e soh~~ 8.. 'l!LreJn-ii.'dBIJ:le da fotQ@l8jj'n:~se"" is:t;o ,~~ quaI ,i;'iaffU,e.Ii9· momento :e~ki em. menor i'llte.nSlid'al.(~e:

'TestLi€ 1

Ui~Mdo~oo" aJ var.ia~~8lD da t;e"mpe!1~lrHIJ,1r.ttE~ 18' ida 'm:~,tliFiliidilde·l~n~a~ e~~ a ~~Ut],eent~~;B;fi de

IOO~ ,eon,$n~an~. .

WilD i'l1:'

f(!~!MiOlrn~ III ,1--------- D lR1i~liaI! Ull~l.h::lI~

, ~lflniME!

An:a"f:is.arulo;·

• Nus intef.'\il'Slios A-'B ,e'A-CI '0 fcato.r 'liindtantiB a ~ ·'~riir~"'Btl!l:r.a, ;P~Sl' fa~' ~ "WfJnwudQ ~t~, a m:mfj,g.~~de Iuminesa, ~"e, e][evsa,~a;o .dBlL tem,pel".&tma hcnlve. aumenta ~1iH ~, de £ot~~lt:e~e..

" Nos tm:~a1a:s ll",D; 18' e~lE" ~dje:F31JJd:t) que.ao ,se ru,i;:iN.8Jr at '~m'~~t'blEEl a, taxa [lee fQto~amt~Itl' '099 8llllw.oo'j ,~qlitela ja nj,P!~ '0 tfi.~,to-!L' 'Hmi.~lD,'!;e:., Lo~ ~~~~, i1!l.terv;aillo!!!:. II) t1li:bJIf:'" b([bitt~1l1te p~ij;Olll it aer a 'intensidatde. l urrri l"l~ s:~ ~ V 0, c& 0 bscr V~r:L qu e se aume.D'lt.amn.os .. a iill~ermid-ada luminesa !baven~,8J., tamIbe.ml, (II aamento da [a'XiIDJ, de

-1';' ,j.,~ ~ t

;[:O'ws.smlB'J$@I.

Tesl'te .2

V~.D:nJ~' ~mruJttiw., a be]l1pera,Wn1 ·,oonstanta e allWiSM ~ @ooU..c ,d~s ~i9f9a~ dn ,ClP2 ~I lila, mwnsid.a.d~· ~'~J]lll1I'.KOSB" !~ta -em mtemm,dade b."ElLma~,

m :<:__jI;, "', .... .-!'t*-..' .

Hru_~, ~ WILn.,

G Li=~11

CIL.I_· _' _. ~ r i..u;r.I'i~&JJIJ

:·i,-I----

r;!'t

Cm]i¢r:::llib-:o~[] ~ LO~ 1 ~coIi "'L.1llll1li1!J

II. 'IN

,ProC€.$~(;uulf)1 a !wuili.~·e:.

i~ Oba~J,"i!'e oorn,~ 1'1.08 hrti!3:I"Vld:m!i A":_B. AAJ e A-D I ern .s~ aumentandc ~ ~rtCMI'tr.tl~yijj, d!l' ,COo ]ti iQ ,amn:~;tn da taxa cle f'Cl,tiO~si'Il'~ese ..

" • " ~, '., -. - • ~ - _ _'.' , . - - .-..... " a , - _

IC~,n.clIl'!l-S~ili 'eJJLtBd!. que nesIiI3s lrnte:rv:aiiiJ8. G1'

,CO~ ,e 0 failQr lmrltQw.

'. J~ It'W.~ m:te:rv,ailiGs' :lH=E'- C":~' e' D=Gi 6 ,3J1l~ 11l8!Iifio da ,oonoontrafiROI a.a eO~_"i.i, TIl.so Pf.(F, 'V,9Ca 0 a'u'm'~n~o da 'biKa d~ 1!b,w~~iIl'~e~e·. N"~~ 'jJEtt.efi;~.lO!S 0, :~]Wli" 1Limit8il'i,'L~ p~'~~Otii, ,~ ser a ii,'otien;s:ida~. lurwnosa.. Vtu~;e eempmVJf!, 80 i)~nnl'" il;T:tlQ int~d~s, ,~g.s,,"' '~'L'tt1:S d:e·' ]um:i:[[o~da.de ailiQ aealm,pat~]_~das do ICl">e~ciIl1en:OO.I4a, 'taxa cll"e,. fo-ros~fu~ese'~

A- l' n' .~. iI!!II:'m -1'

I 1'LJ~ JL;"j="

,/!'

ft~I!"J'lA""D,O- i" TQlI.JI'iO- '. El-: .J",~on'E- T- ··i)"Ij(;'""'1,Q.-. ' ,U'~JI..,__a..n_- _ .' ~J.,'1:,I. . _- - 1~~ . I Jl..'L' " -_

RE:SI:lDRA'CAO' CELULAR ARBO,BI,CA,

~iiiilil~-J'iI'j1'.t'J1j~_ ~~'~~r~~~1

A, gnnld'E!! putts de' BllJlttada d~ ·:ntEaitPX'.La e' da I~~er.gi-!lll, :fI,'[:Jj9 :si'!ilte~~ V~vU8 _~e' Pbin'eib~, ~ a fo:~o,sEl1111t,ea:e. Q,udlllir araeri te ~ s ij,p re B~ole iii, aJl't,~.gff.nita~ i IHJFI~m:j . e ne ~'geti,~,~,jW ent e ~oiJ[) p:rn(!'e5~ijiS, COD1:ple.m~ntS1]',e,5i

A~VB~ ~n fOtOSM'OOS-e :MJ ,e.iu~m radianta d.'@; '~J e acw"IIJJ1illad;~: na ·m.olec~Ra, da gli~'{~se sob fin:ma de e'il~,t'g,ia '~rtlfl:ai'lE:a. A pmitir ,did 68'0 . 'Prgdt~.~'id.a~ 't(! d~'lli' ~:S, Oii"l:t~,.~,~ rn 0'] ~Ct.b~[ ~ ['OJ d;~ :eamQi·cib:stos, de 1ip.~illna, e lHiJteiiias.

A e'l1le,rgia. armaseuada nas _] ig:~ OM '~O:'!I,~]e:nte~ e_l1t~e' (i~ "Wmb~, de uma mclG~u&l ,~~ fi~ lel:tt'an.m; 'Inuits· alta, Poderi.ru:llQ£il, ·ate· ,eom;pa'[~: ,H ,m~:rgia el~m., !.~ ~[u!e ~ 'tr,~_ns.[J~d~, das- It,1!$i'n a!.~ el,eu.iea:s ]lar·g!; 'M eentros CO!nS.u1l~ddm:;!B;Si: alta, ~nnt}[~-n.t~',a_ca{) e.n~Tg,t~tn:C~ .. Jln-in~m. d~~ d]·ft[i~ ,aCeSSID_ 15~. si,~-,M q1ue a. len~rgia. armseenada nas 'mo'[,~'i as ,o,lltjn~i:~3$ iq~ ·nl~. 'S~e:an d~ 31~menw;, ,~nCBtEe5~ gor(mr~' a pw.t(JttemEIJ~j ua.o.~ta disprmJive:l :par~ ']]n;s~..a~,'r.,.~h,d ~~ Po]" r~tLmp'lo~ ITlU];l rna:l ire .l~UcGBe:,lexiBte:m :EU:-ml~lTh~clas 112'm 'toI110 dle 690 .oo~, ~~]OiriM de fl~e~, It,nt~~]al. Se :£0$.8·0 Jiher~v!a d,~ uma s~ V~. ICO([·ll!E!_PQttderia. ,ii J~]:lftmda .~ . e:ner.gia

I el:~ de ~]-Ca '~o~tag~' :oa ijua ca~?~,uejm~:ti'~ '~D.

EUI,I:1t;~11.tO, q,ubJI, .t1i :8 fo [lEe de ,a:nl:!i,~gi,a

d"·' T' d '~1~ da

n~o~~s"~nn 1kiti:g,z~ _~, pe: .a re,~,-_. -_, Juxra' W-IS as, ,~~,re:,

,ettvidacles,'!

N'05 ,~e'ntfQS '~{mu3um]_.do:re',a, de energia e.Mmea ha ~l"ans:fonn8d,oJ:'\es qrq.u; permit/elll :8 _pai:f.i'g;~,ge,m lIa e;u.et'~~, tr.dn~I#(J(("tada lem, al ta 'vott-agent (alta ,tel::rs:aOi), :EWE; Pm.1.@G:B. PlblI',SJ, baix.a, V~U:~l~_ (b~,. te;~r.l}~pa~~ib~li' '!:l!.Etda'.(l seu us-o.

P,'fJi s, ':OO~!'i oo1'Ul~g ,Il)l)(j~ ,~,gQ ,~~rl11,e-.1harttt_~:, J;'i, !~l'l:'{;l~! ,aj eJ),erg-ia aeureulada nss nl8.cl-"Q~:Di~le.-eulaJs ~~ mtl1oo" ·~l~ e~. ,pO;r.t~:~iCJ~ r.-..il" i~~e~·yrel ,~ e~Hul~1~ eeerrem re8J~e8f de o~d~ao qne ~it€im, :~~ 'PfJUCQ~j' a pi'iS$~,e~'l! d,~s'ba :~]el""g)'a ~pa;ra os. ,d:t.a.madM eom;p'.Oi~rtn'8 iiI1 te:rn:m'6 Mibio SI N,estes,

CO'[~-p-Ogt,t)~, 11",. uma pequ'en,s - c o,ucen,'trafAol ~D.'~I"g@tiC8~, pOl!!B'ln. de: 'SaU a(1ess(]' p.am a ooll.1.b..,

Da 'toa08 0$ ~~ll1],pQe,W~ m,~rnmm;fuio~" !] :r;[~ah, -~mpo;rt~[~'tiB 6 'u Al'P; 'Ca.da v~~ ~lhl!.e l!.J:Il~,a, liga~ao tomato '@ .If'mllpi,da .. "trans EOI':l'i!1mn'IJ' (II ATP mln. ,i.M)p t: ~~ M a }jbal~a.~M ,de ~gha. i:lll'.'itre: 8UO(]

- O~OO ealeeias por mot 0 ATP '~~ p1;~e-l]_.t(('em '~od~,~, M ,C~ltlillM, 8eAd~1 que ~llas, du_ '~.i,ga~e~ 'Qm.mi,c;~; 'ter.ml]nm~, t&m 'enerJllja "'F}Q-wncioo bern m~i(!j]_' do q:Il'~ :.'3;ff on,bas liga~e~ ,qufmiea~,

~o. -', fi".. ..... --..:.~~.::i."\'i, i!"!'ii'ii",p;, .f'",,;"'\'" "']' nanel , .. 1 .. ,( ,~--""_~,,,,,jf";".'iFiI"iiil".,d' '~'lril" __ - ,t"_I~~~~ ":iI:,,--"-,';;".,i,~ "" ~t'"~t"""'-' u, ... , ~,~"L<!I,~''''''~,-,!,~~'''' .1. ',.,

e a l"esp:ir,~i~' ce4llilaF ..

P,oij""mo:--s entio ,~~,ttiJctm';i!;n1" ,~ re-~L~~o iJ e.lu tart' ~,g'J"nO P:QI ~U."D ¢.eS,$ g de 1 e:H.tal, com.'JiU8't,ato re,~, lII.u,e Q3.IiJ' Uhe·r,ad.,tIJ,s'Jl g1I~:M1lU8'I'mien't.e" 'CO~ B20 '~ leneJrgUt.,

,,a 'respiI~io 'oaluw ~ um p(fO[i"a~so de' O'.d:J::a,~~U\;~:Or q_UA;! 'li:beW:iaj, en,::~g]a· ,~1)Dl um aeep.'oo([" iTnru1 de' ba&''Oge1m,05), q.1lJ/iti' l~ 'un:w.;. ~l:!;bst~llCj,~ Itlo:r~illi,cifiJJ ..

. :Se (lr.H(~tfi[" ~:oal fOIl" ~J u~igaflJl_i'Ck~ 'a, If.\~,F,!ir,;a~&~, ret mtB.. ;EL'~mca; se for "tlD18 eutra sl.lbs;t§..ncl,s, e li!aO e fixi.rU':i:rutrb. :a: ,Fi~O'iT"~f'-M, ,e chtillmada: ,ttruifM:6hic3.

,6~ 'r ~+!' 1t ~

Vale le"["mibl~~~' iJ:tiJ# a !j)xi.dt;[~oo (llt)~r]I~I~s:te, na r'i3"tir~dE. illB SEUo:t:li3 de um ~ompQSt~~ L3~ fie(b]~,Q~ . I~ ~ adi~:rl@, de ,e'[etl'ltlniSi. No e.ntitlJIb,w,. a l~ida~ju de i(}O'm.p·ostoB lQrg-an.ico.s :e~ll1 ~iste '.laO n,a' ."elu'O!;iO de el~!tDO',n,fS Iivres, m~~ :ritH ~t:il~,nda dB' "talmo.s· de lrdclnlgin:dQ t:B~,~;' Logo, toda '0 oQiz:[d ~.,yao e {llbr-i"g:a,l!;oJr,j:a,m,e~iIL,t1;e' a,compl~n:'~l,~,d~ d,e ~1'In3

,,::i,' ~

,ir.,e.tdJfRO',

:P,~'eSSO' de nrit:¥ed~lu 'Bm_ ,q'~' . a g'lttOSB, tmn~1EtiVial 'bBBe.j ~ .0 d.o.fl.dM' de H2, e 0 01--.a'gi0iriJ~ e -(0 )~t:~o:r ,;fjn~

J\, equ.a,aEl ger:_.il da tel"JPit,ata'[l ct:~lu:llw pu~ ser ~res.~tI. ~o:mD ~e:

,B'lapru itJ,a; .,Re~p:ma~, Ceil'lI'!~l'la:r

. N'(]]II!l~~ila:miBfi'te, us ,a.l!],'lQ(reg, de e;D.tilfiO m6dlo rlij;!!,!!idem. a F.-ea"p:itra,~a;Q ,eelular. iBm, t~~, eta:Pt3~~ g:H~~a);lii.ls"e·, eiclJil' de :Klr.'liib~; ei' C",a.d.,ej,~ ·~sPira'liiifi:a.,

,EmihorOl. nao baja. m.Man~a. s11l:'bs:c,anf(.':~ '\1amo~ 3a:e~t'· UDll3: cl.~$it]cac.an~ ~nt'h} ereJ"noa", d1_d3i.tica:me.[iJl~ :m!a~s, elara, \a[f.!OO mvld3iJ." em.

- . ~ . - . - - - - - - - - -

I~Use B iilKi,~:iJn .fosf~.tiv9 ( f{[jrDcil.'~a.u tbl· aee1ill I}m~~A, 'nido.' d:e· ~s·' e

'~~£~ma. :~~)lort3~r. I~e el~b'u(IlS)~

Ness~, pruuei3Sra b~, e e]1;'j,tohr.i:nl,e:ll00 a~ um ~~ln '~i.iI:2limjtltt:j] tIe atPl'.\oID.ma.d:un:eJ11~,e O'M~'

•. •. ."l·~~, 1~,,~.= 11 ''II

el~mas. "Sl~:~~ ne .J:IIJi..:i:iL1IU;pJ!3sma"

.P3]:f;:tIl ilj]iei~ e pro~~rl'a gH50~e.~],i,gs. a. um g~t!l_~~en:~!o JtP~:f.a ~o~, 'fQ!'f.dan.d:(J1 'a g~s;~~Jf~daDt!rll!~ ffii, rnl (.\t~J}~tl:mo de .~ ,JirP~;~ 'uUi ~eja~, 20{)O(.h~a.Vm.ol~ ,q~[lje ~iCl trangfi:H~lil.iad{la !;l:nt. ,2;

,ADPs,. . ,

Q'1;linliGjaJ.m e n~t;e' cada :mon16(: u.l~. de g~i~.ose4l~:fm.~3tllil' (]le~se) ~ ~l~aD~form,adiS! I~IU, d'1JlJas m~'L~ulQ.S. Ide aQid~1 :p(iriivi~~o (~Viam~' "= ca~~q~ , ~rJiO.se).

Eb:ue],',geth~a:r.r.l~~Jl:~ esse ~b'lEijunl~ l1e JceaJ~g~s ].ibel:,"a.Ie'~lergbli. p.aTH ,[t 'f~ufia~'0 d.e 4· B'l.fi~6t.'·jJ],as die' .A7r;p ,3 paJ.~ lde~ 4, :i:l~LfIi]~cnjalS dk: All~ B~ ,H ·]j:bffi·,?t~ao: t~.b~: d:e 4 D:hl]f~~,mos' que S~ ,t5~~~IU, .iw.-es fl!"}~(l' a: reJuJa· pm,gog3mle:ll'L~ a'cidra. 'b~n1 1;011).0 ~®e:p"OOrr ,6:n,~] fi,N~. I~~}fleuo earla m61!Cllla, de :NJ\D se .1i:gEL. a ,dri,i~ ,fiL~£fm(H~, de hidro;~1l.lins H.~res" Mta]:i.2~do :2 ,rl1!ol~laJ~; cle Ni\DEI2 ..

Podemos .r;egitlLr-.o:ir' a :r~~::

9';1'!i.':I" ''''."8''11' . ~~"'2"

.Assntl! ,pademlo's rep'r-e&en:~ Ii:ii i[l)t~,]~jli11_tO de .reaJt:0~' eemo Re~::

2L~\ ... JNAD\:' ',: 2NAD/:',.,,_H~.ca~~

VgH1PG / I •....••... (

2ADP4ADP ~ C~Oil CUDsidl~Ir,~""JS!!3! Ique· em ba.'\!,~lldo I(} 001]~~ d~. ,2 J.\TP~ para ,que ,3, gU!e:6li~e· .ocilrw,a i . .L\ ·~fi~diL~y.iO de,

- .. ... .,

4 ATP.'~~ o lu~e:r.aL,~:ae:rg-et;ltlO roeaJ. ~ de apeM~ 2,ATl?s..

Cemo at. gUetU ise· oeorre Rem a ,pr:esenp dn (1rigemo ]ij~1' e' m.'ta a ~e· ~er.'.hiC;3. dl.a. l'eBpL1i',tiIJ~iJO ceIohr=

E: ~,:ta· ~ 'il a pa u t::1();j['![",e _1:1:0' i. n'te:r I Q r d a

:;mlitoe~la. e ~r.untl 'ke~ a 11Iani,cin,$~~, ~iJ'r

. . ,I:" ~lL ;~"lj

,o:lcige:ni!~~i r~ ch..~m~da. C1~ ,f-a!!ii~' aer6'biLc.3, da ~p.i:l'a'cooi. ~i91tiiill:a;l!

FiO.!I:'iWacao ~ Ja:e6-tik:oe.lD!Z'iim~ A.

A. :pii"Odu:~il.o ~:a:.' ,~cl100e11zi:nl~ . .A. ~ny,olV'e a p~~t;i.d.p~~o da ,ooeJl.zima ,A e do i,l2idLo ,aooti~o, (,ri,cetat.o) qUE" i.W,r sua 'v.ezt clte~iw3. dos pi,!f'tt.~:a:to~ ~ri,gIDru:-iQ,5 d.a. glMloUse· 'Oll da o:i'.aa~iaJo do:~. 4doos g-~p.s.

JfJa, :DO i"D:re::!;lio!J[" <fIs. .:ttiiooefindda;. ,0 pb-u.V8'titJ, tt.'otn. ,hrM r:::I.lrbllno~)· gmTe uma a~miIDnt3J{!ao. tpeti:icle (11m .. fioo,'filC' de t:aii::hMjJo '.e ~, 1iira;n.s:ifo:r:m2L e·m ,aceta.to (!@D,m dois 'w;j;:nos de ~bo:no)"

Para Itltle f~~e p'ii:'~ltle.a,~(~ u(:'orra h~, a palll:.icipa'&.~$n die UQ:l: ~np:)J ,de' q.lia&:ro ,enzim;at* I~ de

.... ....:, '. 'iii.. "ii' ......... "" 13." B

iifiro:u:.:. .. as eu~i'llZim~ UOJil'iI:u as v.~!Loat.m4l!.i::1l2! " :[. ~2~

'btio;Ei.n3~

,0 atCeta.tD'j entiliiio,~ leorLu.bma~~~ jml.WI a. 1~3 .. ,A. 'Pm',3 :~{1l:maJ" ill ~!C'j:lciTIjen,riDUl ,A-

'0: ~~ •. l1l]):ba·d;o eJJ~,tJ€O d£n;;~te Pl~~$Q' I~ ,:B, jp:['1[]{illu.4}&ot]; fIe $_€,'ilS, :mnleC'II]..lida,:"gT,~ ae. ATP po[' m(jl~cwlfS,·,granl,~ ~ _ g:[~co~e' ~m:ii:~u.lil1d.da., S·.~o( J;1:i:ioaL1Llz'9.da:.iI :~b~m. 2NAln~.,

Ci],do Ide ,lUeb~

o clcl@ de '~_b~ II:am'.1'Jffirm p;ade, iller ehamado de ~icl~o dQ' ,~iido 'Itiriei;lFbo~,oo I~ m:o]u diD, ,a.eidJo c:i1! Fi eo, -~~;te .ci.Cld, ffii d.escrciGto em ][981por Elft[l~, Kr-.e:b~~ ':b:ioql!lirr.U!oo ingl&~.

A. f(a]E:a~D Ida. ,8cetik'Oe~nulJ, A. ,e . c;idn d,~ -Kt:-ejb,fi, OCUUlet'il It3! matnjll. ,mlJcij.'ro~ilnrl.r:iaJ ..

1"1 Ii, • A" ~

.. n.l\&E.,~"I .. ]}].e~n.li'e a !C·O if! B nm.a ',' . . S (] ,':.rtl'

I~(J [ulen f!l a:¢,~.OI p e,l: g) ',3J.C ~,~,g oxa'1 :~:u!,et i.e U"

If,¢J,x;8:ta!ce~;:tto;, CQ·mpu~b} eem J~~;atri~1 ,"~,mfis de Ig;:ar~mi},}~. pii;-odti~:C.fidim·. tnri 'rum;p[~~JO ,~fi_mjnado '~ii.d.lo ro't-ri'COI I(c.i~",~; com. seis ~.'[;:orr]fIlS ~lie.

I~m-'ho.n{]~. .. .

.A. p31:tiir d;,p !Li'U'a'i;{} h~. a a'~8t!i de enzTttl3s dH~u ,desidro~:riJs~; e ,des;iJM'1bQXiJase~. ,~. df!Si.d.J;Q,~~~e3' retir~m.· :hi_di.rr:t!illemog. q;ue_ ~n1o '~"O'mpMb}!Ij. em p:wt~,DS e· e.let~~iOS, el'&'lf'm~ s

""~.... ~' .. ..ri."",,,,, ....... 'Ii.I~,,,,, _l'~!I:l: ~'\J"I'" ~ __ 1 .... ;jC .. ,~'1 =,~ """,""" ... IJii.Tr ~:'I"'!i; 10'" ,~ii1\i1! lId:.,o:u.:~~,[:Ah. ,~IJJ,iI,J"'; :It""~':I:' 1:[!:WJ,t::~11l.U:I!.il!l 'I,.L'U.Il:i,1(] ILcJI ,l '!!l~,= ,a'

~!~~ ~~.~ ~lo ~eI'~dn~ ~ar~ 10, :~e~~" ,J.\s

,,1 "",,., "'" o!!i ..... ]" .-',"""C} 1 =. ~"" "" 't'I .... '."...,..., h~ -["f'; .,. ,;""'11':'; ". i"',·.il.... ..1"':11, ''''''''r.;;b,~ ~l""''' In~fiLJI_,L"u~~G~ Jt~.:l:.ILJJ..Ilr~_;Ji;l !~J ,iii ~~;LJL '~,flIJ I~, .~J!~l.J!IJ!JiI. ~~

que, ,:se:~,o ,e1imJ1i;;i!~ s~b a fiJll"IDia. d~ '(}(l:~!' , A~s esta ~I~rie d.,E!: ,rea~o'e~, ·h.3'Ve~a 8. p~Od.U~al.Oi' novamente, de ,~ido. 6~3:I.~tic~. !que·. ]por ,~I..:1f!J, "we:z, ';r:e;i:mda (JI eiela,

:El"JJet~~ti~3me:Q,'te ·11 pr:~~s" e' p(jbrre'~,~u~s, [~ra. Mmgia. P~l\'a. a ~m-t~e d,e d.llfaS mruk(::u.tl~ ,if;}' ATP ~~f:" moleeula-,gram.,~, a,e gli'oose, t:~U.i.l1i.da.

,[\12snl'O I~~, Lm1 pape], lUndau:l'l'e:H'k"1l paiI':R 10 FCices~fi1 da l:e~pllraL~a~ eelular, 0 eiele de :r~_s ,e uma das vias U]},et5!i.bolucM, mrus inl.J:Xl1(1~"lr,res dla ceb.da ~ fumeeeado, po ~ exempln, s:ubsiEAnci,a8 ~®es5l~i~ pm~ a PWQdJLlCs'O de ,BIlmillotici,do5 e ,~ltt,lJod!d:ratM'"

M3I]" ~H3i]Jh(lo 'a,wmica_m'itnjt~ I . ~~ ,g]:'(indG ~mp011iincin do icadClI rl)~ Jilllls ~ ttl ]JI"Od:u!;iMI des hid:n;ogreuiofl;ll ,d~cO'm(p~OiS' em jJf.lot;ons. Q m~f.i1'101Jl.$"" e ,~. carb~~- Sao elabozadas G .(J;I"c~ de NAD,D1t 1~,'2 IBOI~;f8. ,le ,F.ADD;2,.

, I

,SisteltM, ,tl"-mu]Jfii-.tiaJtlfJ7' ~. e,'i.tt'f),Jt'8' (Ciudeia ,rrE'spi;"B.,liJ,ri~aJ

·0 ~PfQc9~ 'Ooon:e r,l!!3..:S eristas 'mft;ooGndi;ra~;El ,s'Bn,l~hl q!u~ ,~}ti ler:ITZi'In.H~ t'E'!s_pons~;i{"~is peh} aeoplamentoda ,~l'gm. miera,tl9 para 8 p:rOOu~a:o dil? ATP ~~t§.o DOg ,Cifi!lpOQ elemeJ]l,tarl":es· ou 'F' .

~ 'n]o,~~~UJ]~, ile NAD:~ e F.AJ1H -'j ;geradu

• . 1 ...,. 'l....:!)l· r;~~. .

nas e:[a.plll:S,a:~!~:r!1.(fr::ea\~ (liBIl:JJtilnl, us ,l1:!1.U~u'tilij~m!os pati--a, ~

~."g! .. ~j.o~ Ca,~a .. :~~~~'a fa:pa~'"de :ge[",u 3Ao7P'S~,

enqu t!l1'!1.'tt::i1 'lure iI;:~d1Ht FAD~~:t!;I :2. ~.. .

o NAD:I'L.!, Qf:lde ~~g' et~I~T.{lli1~ ~fi hi~,~~[tin IB'rn, a:~a(lo de . aJt~ l\'l)"WrgJa. Plll"Ut 08 c~:~'m6Si, (.CJ~O'nr:l[g[J(["O'tei]Jl:a·s q:ge 'cmltcm 'ren~, ns molicula) e

est ~B ~, 'Q_'U,le ,~~in:n:am ,a ehamada ~,adeia itr:am;pnrtadnm de eMbtOD..8ij on eafi,aiE. iIe_spirat6riEu.., Se. 0 'N ADH,~ tl'm:irsf.e,rlEl,se' u is' ,eletrnns des

'L,:~ L" ..l:·-t· t . .~.. l!.... "

~£t.u'rQgenl:(fS an e: ·3,lUeU e pM,a !jJI mng~mo ~:laV@n8!,

llIDR, ,gra.l'tde, ,1.i.bHm~io d~ ~nm'gi~. qra;.e D, a~lma .[']ao poderia ·,apt6v~i.mr;

.os cillo~"OmnEi fiSC) di;~OB de 'b~ ,Cj a. e ~., 'Carl,~ V'ez f~;u.~1 um, ~]~tITI11 ,e' ~ r .1t:ngfA3lrido. da' 'om. lci;t@;l:~mn p~,ra I[) Ollrwo;o ,ltlJ~ ptassa }!at'fll. u'm n:[V'e~ 1r.l~e"~ti(;'TI' :rn~dis baj:xo~Jog)O ~me"'£lli~rgi~~ PUJr i:8~I)}, p.O'dl~m:Qs c j~~t ~{, os C4~n8~ no si stem ~ 'b"ail1sPJ',Jt.:;,doir . d~ ~'li"tronBl '~~rnns~lbJm'· ern n1i'v~~'s, d~C]!{l'setnbi's ·'de ImiJ;~l;;gi~.

A, ene'rgja ll"ber,a,da ~ utlIizaQra para a di.tat 'fbsfo,~-~'!l oKidJ.g,tiva, om 1C("UJe ka ,t;lj, produf,iQ de· 'mQl~l-eJj~~' AT.P~ if] 'vm:tir d,~ A])P e P. 0-15 0lit;rQ:[]lS. qlllm')~o· lII'Gklbu'eml . ~ ~imd!lJ '~lu!1.--gj§tk't1 ~la:~l; J5e:r,~o ,f~:bid.~s p'e:~j] .~ge ni~lt [OOnnftfl(l;o 0rr.~ q,~'el 'pn't Slua ;re~,,· l'.w~,ge, j1li1'iit~ ·iBiOS pl'tO'wrls ~ ~. 'iI'),. ]1a]",~,

fot:mar '~O\. ... .

. ,P-ort.f~ll1t.o~ 10 Vf3rtb.d]ehrp; PfllJQ ~ do ~~D;io TI~ respil"3:~.o eelnlar' e seJf .0 :8!i.1:e:pt~ :firnaJ de bi"!!ho!gb-iQ~,, ~em ~ p-:I~e en,{:'~ do !O'I~ !iJ~ 'trillli'tFg~rfiiO-~ a.cinn.:u"bu;a.rm na ~]:ul~ cleV~Uldl!.l :im ,~]d.e~ :p~ p~i't~·1li:at~5 inSil$t~f~f'v!fJil$.,

Outr(l, ~:.nl'ffiLi'QliLfllmJl3fiW' h81Bta[lIte ,rom,1!lm.~ d,e IDrlOO' V'eI(m, esta 'Em,e~a e's1xtaJ, do a, eM.t:r(ij]S, qne 'p.~~~ pclo ,~iBb~m,ii!L, ,de:' clt~cr:O'mOJ;~ Est3,\ 'er.IH:~rgt~

i~u]:ta cla. ,b9~:a:~~ !~ 'tr~f~~M da en e-rg;i at ·hmlt[dn(J~ll.~, do; ~61 ,~m~ler--gi,illJ~miua, pela c]o[ilO'f'iJa, ,ai, P''ru~1 li"~ai'i:~e: ~, >et~p13i "~L.l~l'ka da fMe cl~ ida, fDb~stitim'~~e7 Logo,:; 'tedtls· os eletm[1JsqlMfi' trao::;;;j't~ml, ~;e']o:3 ~.~~mas l;rr.ar:lIlgF.~]rt..·ldoij\~ de, elet~)H:3 de

'~ ... E1:F.i1':;, """"'" m'~'t·u(.~i.'I"iI· ... L..:!.}a"'" ~':r'Ii'I!'I1 ...:!Ilia "In." ;::,,,'-n.·o!iI ""'r:'" 'iIiI, s, I,;:'i:

1Ir~ ~ !J..ti.~ __ =-l!! _ ~1i ... \~~urJ_ -~\.i ~J!~ ~ ~~~~:_.a..~ ~~JlJ! I~~!ii~

Imto:sdn'oo\Se'~

.0" mtema, 'tg:-anSllj].1'1l:.ado11.' de ,~h~~;tm,m e a. ietapa m:rls rlea dill. ·,i;esp!ir,~~o ,ce~,I[(]:~~, Sao ~~H:",od.uz[d.O'9 ~6 ,mol~e:i!1l~i.s de ATP pOl" :nlo])~c1UJa'''ga:'ama, de' g'li(."Ose' eonsumlda,

'n,~~_·_'IIt dI ~ ~, . r

I~U_-·.11 _~!lJiilili et1Q~tltiCOi 'tl!l'tm

'Be. oonill'EttEriJo'S 1)s::2 ATP~, do lL~c;ro len~etiCQ. d. a gih c:6 s ~ m ,09, 6 .A1. Ps da l!l1f'm,.;a,e i1~, da ,~.(:etH.coe:r.l2ima Ai, as :2 KrlP's do di;]_o die KID~~ e: es :26 ,ATP,g do ~~s;~]]Ja, Ei'''!w~S"-P1iE'lr:.ad:01i'' .d~ ,eIettr.-tl,~. '~~e:m.Q~ 'U:n), ~pnrvei,ta.me:n'vo· t@bil dte 3'6, ATPg, [Xlii" 'J:m·jjO'lJ~c,!j.d a, de: g.1iOlJi.1iie ~"n~l"lumida

~E5te saldo enerr~e:tj'~1 4re' 36&TPs, ,~,ne~.pDlr

1":"" .,-1; :" P:;r..'I'-,1 '_'-" ..• ~~~~"""" >-" ... ,],.,:ii......:; .• ~ ·'1 - .... ,.,

E!!}LeiUP o, em, ,!LW:~ as- m'!l:lSC~ eEfiruE .!.:;"'-I,CH ii2! nos

,~'ieUJ1l6mO:!i!t '0 .fato lBLt'io:n~; pOTfrUifl:!' 0 ·'NAD~, for-m,ad.n,~ na g:li~,]js~ nan CBn~~gllerll, $1Ta v;e.Slgm;; a, membrana T[J]iiLooondrid .A.him:! l1~ clel1n:m~ ~ao :~~]]~rewid~ p,~a tun; .lou'rn"(] ~r.J,~,p~~~dmf f,10 '~n;tren,or rda rn:n:toC)~nd.ni!:l1jt. n q,ue 1~~Slona pe:rdi!JL IM~'~i~, C~nlt] ~T.1geq_uaneiaj ead~, NAD~,

P!L.Qd,Li:z 2ATPa e ,nAt t~.esl Cfiiill'O m~TE!'miatme.D:~e Slau ,~,MO~

h~ outras te]l1tb:!J~" eqmo ,as llrt~~pHtirElls~ hna18i

,n ,;"1""'1,-.:1.( 1:II.m;n,,,,., ';"ru'!I~li\6 :i:""''''''IIl''ii",,..j[,,,:·,';f;..~''';''''ia in ,ii-."",rtJp!.,;,li ..l",,,,,,

p ~~xu:~~.~.. ~~.JhlL.JJ,'G ,~CIWL..I!..I'iJ:I!J~ l ~JL~'JLqj ~1.(! ... ~~ .. llD~1L U • ..-!~

~Nj.\nH~ 'par,9J ~,"m:ii;wllifil.1tb:~, ,!;!;)U ·ffi:u]~iW' .d;~ um ,siste:m.i: eD~fltiOO proprio'. ,&a:im . .I"sio produzidlQ~ 3AlIPg pOO'" :NJ.U[J~ da glliOO]Jr::iei totalisand» TI!Q lEin&] do 'l).h'o:c;e~ aMTPs., T-rac1l:uc1.o:J.'laln,'e.rnte os ·~,to~ !i1.hideJll, .8Jj, :reapk~@ eelular nas etapas; ,g]ic011se·,~ cicl.o ,de. Ki1:;bs e cadaia re~i,mt6rl~. Tlsam J~, 'eettiLa p!"tlcl:i1~r,~, die :sSA'fP,~ ,~aIIU]l' mDde]n~ J?Oirmn.W~ ,~ ,gUCmiR p:lloonz. um saldo en~~g,~:tiool de 2 ATP's~ 2.A;TP~ l~M~ ',ij cicIo de &ebs. e. 34.ATP~, na eadeia, ~~i:I~a)Uiri..a~ eom um ,!1l~hid total de, ,as A:TJ?s;~ Voca ;PQde O[J(r.t~i'derH 3. .§egulu:V.e ~Jfel~~o tm.dicio]],aclt

· :r=.n:9C~~~;~rij~~=~~

~T]pg~

- "!II

.II!, LOW1!! wrtall dn '!5\is'~~"a, tr:mns:ptt1~acl.orr ~

•• 1J·~,h""" TI.:j. "],.. ~Ff'!Do,.;' ~ ~ lid [I.l!!!I:J~~IIi' .~~- l~l~l~~

~ GlioolBe: ,2;A:TPlS~ dc]o ,de, Ri~b.5: ,~p'l::;,; • Som~_ iot~il: :3SATPs.,

'L~e~:[nelllte \voei§. va! ~~e:tt'a;i~ 10 fr.e~:t{k mesme p01"qtIJ~ hac ,~t'ILL1ltWeS que, .:I~O d~SC!i1illl:a'M O~: 2ATPs g,as!lOOs: pa:ra q[tll8.IOC,(H"m'fR a. g,li,oo,1is;~., fe~harnd.o sua (~(f]l'~, em, -S81 em ~OA:TP's.

";!,ml..sj.:ciI!el~e' .ainila . q'!J.I~ IE!:llI bfUit.e1lr1.as e' ~hactreriaB1J_0:'['~ P.Q~_:mit[tOOiD.drias" 85, dnas U]1timru;. ,et8;Pas cl:a r.espir~~.ao eelular' ~, na parte, h"ll.m:m:na c~a .lnelrnhrmU[l ·p.];asma:t"lca € "no nles~Qm:Ed. () salda e.nerget.iM' n@Si~M .m:;gsni~m.o.8 I~ Gf.e .3SA'r.Fg~

I

AT "11"1'" ,.It, '~'Iroi -A I;I.J~ i"'J- ~I

. 'a -,_ "

C,- T:'Cc Ir" '0'- ", 'C'-E"" 'If'lfT'.iI, 'D . ··AI .. ·~ ... ~, _, .. - ,-,: -"lU'r~~

:1ntr.od:u~I"o

1'1 grande maBia da.s oeIulas Viv~cla ,dbis, mfift'ii,~ntos W~ tiotos:: ,00 ,ooL~ em div.is;a[} eelular !DU ni;1~ e~bi em dirisao del WlsJ:". A taR' ,(R1T ~B ~, ,a@lwla

• ". 1!~ - -

u.iiJ es;~" ~ e:nddtnd{ii s~ ch:~jJnla .hdi,mue I~: a ~;vjj~!;,~ ee'h:da:r pode ~r 't~b) ~ :mrS;oo11e'.guall1ro, a nILe~l]s..e..,

Ct)tU si:d,~e' 'Q.M' umtl] orpnism,o ,~~rm,1l) 0 ]jJ.~O hnmane pM~ttri ~ t],pm;, [he ~el't1.las,~ ~':Ongid€lrtmdQ g 'hi.1merQ d~· 'B"'OOU!i8Sg'm.o5~ H' ,00101 os lu}'lmitf.c:u ~ :~ ~.6hdM ' RP~to~_8 ~g;MD~~J. ~ ~el~ 15,mndtk:as. C{iiD~tit[.[em e mautenl, (;. fi"OSSQ O:~~b~nis~!lm '(1iIIl'llUEiL1'l1(,0r 08 g~:itll~ta!e ~io p1'\Ocl~idJ05

II"ii -<:Ii j"a' ,1fN '-i ,,," ;,. .,.. "" ""', ... "" · .. ,"'t"H; 'Ill m a 'i" .... "iT .,.0'1l:ir"'" ""I '" ,:;; "':,

It""~ . ~J !! .. L!u D~' [t:j.'~' ~,. ti:a . - I I , .iUI,U ,0 b 'E:i~:J.J. 'flIl;~!i;I.Y. .'

-'~11nitIJJandJfl I) DN-A .

AFJ 'O~ihd~_s ~tieas pnssuem es deis lot.§s riu.~Lm)oss&m.i,oos~ .. um. de o l"ige:m, ,pa:beil"nR .~' ~lI..!Ii:t,ri!! (leO p'ri.~m matema .. !1Ielltl(jl ditsS· d.ip16i,des, eu fi,2.n:'lI'

• F

'm;mDiJSSlJllll:OS, J~ 'OOi!l ~metu FO~'SlllE!m urn 'dDlk~o

co:rljlu).to Cl'"Q:m:(l~s~JmLh.1f), O,t~ 00 patel'TI,o OlL'i. o m3Jte~I-, ·s eudu tl 1. t 0:9; CI~'[ ul as ,h. pl ':;:,d,e s, ou 'tJI',m._~'ii liin'.'Omosmm.os~

A 'mntm;ce e B. fffi.],visiil ~hj]ali: que ilcome' :paT-a, for-~~Q· d~t. loolu.i_l;~ 8o:m;~ti.M~- '~fJdG' 'I.n'J,[!~ ~~ m vid,e e P~"OdU2 duas fjU:t'1":M ~],lJjl~, 'C(i~, Q MJes:m'fJ

,nltme,t0 de c-ro,m.o~OO]nOS~ A, mi~ e (; p:t:ooo§o q:ll:ie, gm-a,n)~· '~'m; :h,: !"eptOdt1L9M a:ss,~U-1ldB -em • ~ nii'ehlllalt.M, (.e.i@S1Epa:r:ilLlde:) . .Em. phlI.:i~]u1~1ill a,

mU::o~e !~ 1~t!SJ1~\'r€l PQ~ fmm~~~'j creseimenta ~c :ro,ao,lJi,teD@~' do .}iE;gallj~W.Ul.

A, _l]le..h)~~j POy 'm~ V'e1lj r.oo~, n,a~ re'litili9J~: geu"IiJ'rlJ;mtiv:oJi8 l]Urra ~ Pl"Qrl~lll~ d.o~, gtm.1,~tru;! ,ptS.,rtfu:u:k~ de uma celrua iti.p]6l:4e;·1:"Jlav;fe,tfA, .s~pa:r@!.cao dos lctes crom1]ssomico.s lonnamdo quatro ceWl-as ha:p,\l6~d.,esl j]~1 Bnait

'Q.1l1ruldu ~fa]!aHUjSr ern, ~icl:o ,eelwiaT:' det"emo~ ~C1lit9ide¥a.],'" cl!fl] 8, mIOIDir?ntoo:, ifi- iint,edMe e' a. iniim..s,e .. ,A d.t!ll"a'~:Q do cl.cllijl !l::Bltda:r d,epe:ru,h:~ c]o 'liipf). ,de ~hiLft ,~onsia~,d~ I~' do ,~tadJ] fhJ.oo~6,gt,(;'Q ~ que a 1IllleBDla. ~e' eneontra, H,i ,~luJ,as c~je ciclQ ,~'l1..d~r e' cnrn.1!:j[,irttl.O"o 'mn ~pOut:o ,n'J;,'~~lis, de' um ~ b~i ~t~as.! [lpn!m~, l\f)'V.aool,~ ~TM~'m~ dias, 0 etrJ!o eelular ,~J~bal q~clo ~~'3 ee fi',".alm~TIt;B 6e' :div.id~,

,n~'DI'D''''',O'EI .iliJ: "Ii j( ,C.rD.r~»

F15ta- .~ ,b, ~~. nan:n;a]mm~~, ~m, ~:U@ ,!t!J, Ic.Gl~, passa ~ m:alo'f ]Jarte do ~11 'tem~lo ~, d.fJ' '~ij% dla sOO cic1lo}, Ne8UJ. ·'~t~piZl a nBiula '",~c81 ~' i[+x~mlW a\ moi~iII" parte d,~ .sua!:;'. ftm~OM_', [ogo. 1~'a,("I:.-@I·]za-.s~ 8, infieri8se' PO]' ~:!- g, momento ,de,

malj~:r atirridade' 'mctah'Uc~ ,~~~g]ar~

D urran,'1r.e a mtie1rf~· :M tr.,~ wb.m~ !rfl!le'

'~"al]"jJ 0 ~IPJIJI'I.nru'v.irmGD:W' ,Qsh,dar: G1, S ~' 'G2:+

PAS! Gl'("g~l~1 one" :~' primeirc int~n'~]ol

f"'!1 "le· ,iC: .. 1' , " 'i~ .oJ • ...'1 ..;:!I\~

ILOlllS'Uil.w,.",se...]j;a !:131~ !uf! mmor V:':n"J].8u,ll'I:,JJatllil'

IIElD teemos ~ d;um~o:~ ·1FJj~:n,do [lJ f~ p-owmiltQti:c~\o

P t· ~~ ... d' . t 00- "

I .'. . .' I " ._ . " -"[ . • . ~._' '/ ._' I ,'. II' I • I_ I "I I " . . :;' " .',

r;re em.os car,at: .. , , n.zar .0D1:liI!@i rQ ,pelH,n .0 5,1 . tli ,0 aD'Ii.:re

g, ~ • . , ,g=,;I!'. -...:1I.r. I(;:!' N ' !I.'i

to _J.!Lm_ 0.8 mrtose if: 0 ~~ Ul:i31 .I;~ d.. • .e~ rase a

IL~,ltthl ereaee p8.f:':tiiI: ~, '~Oi1"jl~ :a~dliLi1:1:," par ~mEJ~!!D. IC'at."at'teri~~·I8~~ IKH'ta,nt4;l~, plj] a j:n:l;A;!m~ ~i.te~~ ~' JtI!iliA..,e d~ pJj~€lJtem8s~ Nai3 ~e;lwM libels ,i. f8L6B G1 lei 1':ehli~tV,Slnente d,e' IJ~ ldaH.HI.~80~ O' ;eplW:llo dQ ~.'l'!Jte@it;ina d,e]gado, pall!' :e:x:emp.~.Q,;. ~i renQva~1Q1 lSi. .eada t~~ diss, -Uin oureo ~:pJfi de 'lJeci~, em: qlU:~ a

f;;j,'~'EL G i. mnito ..,. ,,_';j, "'j'I;''''j;!;''''''':1''I~'_.]''' 'a .... ,;;ij'oI!I, ....... """",1~ .. ]- Ol!j, )~... . - ]~ ilC' ,.IleU, I ~.,Ii!iJ.! ..... ~ulJf,~ !I,.,-'~1J,;:,~, '~-~U_..Il .. UD .' l~ • u:~ ~~:L'~~JI,_LI ,.:a],

I~~). Fea,p(J(11LB8'v1e\1 pela fO(rD1};a,cao dos e'[f'H~r§1l}citos e des leuo6ci.W! granuJ6citos. A'epi,d~~ml.e.l!! l"f'.JJDVlil~le1. ~ ii:ada ~t_e dias,

Hd teci{Ws)o po:re_rm, 'em qtl>i31 ,BJS miwa:s sa

.... ""'t!r"' ..... -1~~ sem m ~'11;'~,..._ ' ... "",....,. ........ ;'-"""'i<e ....... ..,,"'-"" 0,,,, .....,;;111.,_'1"'"' '"

.lL-~ ~.Il. U!-!1lUJE::i~ I"_. . LI.o.J.l.Jj, W. .!L ,~_Jj, ru-"Lll'!O.LIl~' i !I.f!l.J'.I._ll_~~l ,IU,C' ~J1WNli3

loortiMas 'no· uaule das ~pl!B1:D.t~.8~ 'Out~C!'B· ~md8" ,i3Jqmel~ '~~adnt3 por c€,hilif!J$ pmmane.u,De.s; em

11

que ,M ~]:tl1as: ,na,f:), se re,p~~e;m'l C~illd pOi' '~en~pfu 09 .1!lel:U~r.irtas;_ iC~:mo ',M ~l~~ MO S:e, div~dJem,., lPeffiiJal'JJ~,~\ndi) ~mp'~e em if.d.ta'Ji"ali.U~., t~.hl~$~ qu~ ,c5:s:tae '[SlLa 'l;~~ Gf I ilG-Z@'ro)",

F'ot. gu' iIll~''; {'.iU ';1;.=&. ~I' ~ -- - ....

,.Hio_:u:.. -~' " ,-,~.. e~, ':::;:, ,s:ro.te~.,

Na fi;l5l~ "'Stl ,o~"fiIT.e :~, dttIli].ilca~i,o 110 DNA, ,~eluJm;, 0'11 5e.;]a",,~ dlIPJi.C~-O do matrB,riru. genet:h~o d~, e6].tila." Si'mllJl;~ea:rneid'!~ sao :fabri,~a~ :lPll[}'tt;tm~5' cl:l..ammas his,mnas. ~e Be ~ para OO,ml:al'" 0 fil;~~eQ.~ ~]r.ll)W!~(ltm:i)oo bki,CQ, 0 Cfomtlssowu, oegm., £8001 ()htlpl1icado~1 emll::o:~tm:-'5e frn:n:l,lJJd,o p.or d~as 'Q6p]~~ M: ~{lfmii:tiid~g..i~iis't I:~ga~s' "p~]}Q ~J11I'biii.meoo.,

N~rnmeDro, tRndj~m n€lSt~ t~~s~' !iJ0'CliI']':G P

dfutPlilt~o dos ,oenncl'oIo\S;.'

'C!."" ~I l;f"j; ii'''i~ - ;1;-' It - , .:Ii ., +~-.,~, ~ ..r.~~~ !Ii..il',j!, \'1!II""";:'P1 IIIWO' ,e ,!3!J.gunoo ]n~'!.y~,I,Q~1

E~t.a 'f,"srS!l! ~ ,chanloos ,de [[,n~'·~miiJt01i,c., u

~~,~ 6, o 'pmoo.o ~e &e'pam 9 flm da f~~ S d~ co:m'6.~~ da nt1'ft.Qse. Oco.rre;~~1( ;aJqui l-odos es

, ,JI" iI'..... ~ >' • _ ~ ~l' ,

p!i:1:1ce~,d:m,~tlL'I._,jJ,~ "Ti1t;ti!f~«;ga.I'I(liS! ,(Ji!!il1:'3 qTl~' itd, iOfr~ UII.=II,

~'"qlelr.imentei' a ,mviisio ~1u19i.:C" 0' 'nJv1;1l[ m'2ta1(dt,co

..:!I:~ " ".11 I~ 'I_..J, LT'...t, ~' j. ,~ .J!

!'!!"!.Wl!'IDlU 'u'e I!;lj~,~ !l{.."e.lt"-U.~i~a,, 4:R,!i!j. ,[pQu.ca ~n!LI~~.L'lI!;il @~e

RNA. e da' 'p'roteh~Ui!li.B,~ proees~Q~ ~l'!J.e' '~el'ao im-'~n:u(;f!l:J(jdiUS- dUl!"r3!.]l:~ a di;~S<l.O ~enm~V"., N~t!f:l ata\ps. pOO" exenJipl'o~ h.a a, sm'te.s·e des eomponentas p~a (~S, mim~ltlj1lu]~ 'q'QiI;-z :iria forn:rll't' ~I f[a.so"

ill"'" .t:'IIiD ,;j)i,iI' iII'.,IC!',';,ri, ~'U"6~.~1~ !I.JF-U

'Um, dD~, '~~,en.t0'5!, sem lCjualqlLe'l." CkUfldH~, msia '~:u~lG,pnrt~nt~ ~b, ~Iht.6rl'aS:E (Jj, ~ (ill,lt1P:~_I(;~f~t~ 'dos ~O~~SSQi~O~ {DNA) ~Elie_s da di~M celruru:

A.~$im" ,[J!Qae!Ot~ oo(fJ;Sgmr um grllicQ mD.'iband~, a q;l1amtldade de DNA no nl1deo, d:e uma oob..d[IJ, em ,fim.,~!!.o dn tempel'" and,e' 'e'~ ~.d.asT mcl];LSlrve~, 9P! et.a:~9!E i~, :mitiOlSEf: promJ:!e, m~tca~e, ,alli~ e

lool~r~, ' ,

V~.~, p(Jdl~ irlh:s~fvar. ';no, 'grjfiofJ ~1m~ QJUe a qUW1ti:d,8.d~ de' DNA duiaI!lt~e ;BL raze' G'~ e,~ '. C[nili) d:UYIlU,te :~~ ,fa$e .8 1OC"{!l'rre tL~lh;~'ao do UNA, nuclear, ,~ q,tlfi[[](MIllRade passa ;II 'Her' u:~. De a,~ atler,Q tli1na1 I~la, !m,e,tii.rase_ 0, 'LelHf1' de DNA, ee '1,'iU'Iill!l.'IEe:m, em '1!;2;,t,'N'", Desde 0 ~]liw da BUwnase; IRe '9, ,]lJ]'lO;m.1L'irIJiI m't'l1:~~e" ~, ~.riJ].an;t.ia.ade' d~-, DNA 'vulbl a ~~- ,u)f.~.

MIT: "0' .···.S··· •. ,T;!I!

_ ". • •••• __ r In.iil

ll,~'rOOy@ii,o,

.A, :mito8€ ~, ,!ill: dJvitsiQ celub;:r, q,1J;m OOlITe BID ,oo]ui3i9 ,som:i'tic8s, e em, ,l3llgll1'lo~, tlptJ.s de ~,ul:a~,

:germin_~U'vaE de animais IS de v~getEJis"

'fJ..!iI' 'd -', ~"-"II J;- (Ii u,~ m 10 s .'. e 8!t:a ~~ r eom e 'p:rn'1.tl'[p 8. ~

I¥at~i't~rigtic~,s, d,~ nuih~Be a ,~tO(l'm~:io Ide I(N~'1t1l:l~ .. &lha$ _g~eti~dgDttt: id~at:iI;~as '~" luelnla .... ·mi,e-~ TI,eS.'~, :forn:taLi 'to dI a1\l:, ,8if;1: ,~st'ti:itli.'Il:,'ur.~·~ oelularas -e- 0 nt;~:["o eromossomieo ~.o nantld:os.

A";;~~b]]Jj~ :reEl]]ni~DJ.t.eI~ llJ1L~ ,r;eMa mph11W3: pruiJ!,]fL d'U~ c~h;il!a'S"J:ilh~ taa~1!Jbel:1l di:1]:](J.:Ecl~~ e, ULmJa rie~ll]:a h~p~aide 'Pt'O(~UZ duas ce,luJ:ifli£J,"tal1i.lOOm 'ha:plml:'IM. '

J:t'i '~h8e]rvanllJS que ~, .ml~s~' g~fant~ :m! :f,ep,rocl:l'il~Q e,ml I(lirg:BCu:i~fli~ ~:]n'i.'cel~.~~ .. , ~N O~ l~uisn1i()..~, pJ:u:lrio~l[!11~l'rn8 a, 'mJws€r g,acraE'te a f\1U,"llrI!~ioi,.n Ic~im.~t(!j~ a mm,u.~,,;i~, ,f!! I~i:~~t~~ui:'o e a :rei.m:e;I';a;F·io 'tecid'Iil;;l!lL

• ~(~ r ~

,A" mtt~ae 6 -~ :P:~SSQ ~L!fil.'t[[lf.1l:i.O~ fl-ml, d,_nra~iiQ, :~rp~oxrrn'iiJa~' de 1b1l.m8, bora'. Ma:5' pam ,:tm,1:t1l

]] _..., ,.:Ii ,G' ~ ,II:': • oJ':: ''',;~ .',,;]

'm,e.; :\cDr OO!J]]:preefll,fU;tQ' QiU 1!.Y;m,O'men.a;'~_ J;mrl 'w,V~IZi!]~:at em

!~triO ~apas, :~" 1.}aJ~:r dog ,~ns 'evm1l'OOEf mmm:, ,ma;:r.ClIl..n:w®S: 'p',:~i)'fas;!2' Mlda:fas>c:!, ~afa.:5.e' e' '~'['4-D""~Ei' ,

_~ gr'!~_!1

A 'wiioose ~m±m~i e di'ta Chlt"r..i.C~ (:P~Y1~

...... _ j.- .~ .110.... ...,.,.._="11' I - .,Il! ,I,,", ,,~.~ - ,- . j,,,",-

10$~,I~f:j:i!iJ!.Q~ l1i a~~:a!JI. ,~r):[f.iI ~S,II.&;:'l1' = ,!W!.ar.n,en'bII).~',

pmteicns que p.~ nos OOD.~, c~I:~81~s. .

:Pr,O'Uie

Etapa jnieial dEl mviE§o ee1lJ.ilru, cujli],~pon~ .ile . pM I:.l.dla ,~ :m.a~dj]1 pelo oo:n1!eifu d~ ~~.[1I.d~E!ilSa9iol l~rDmosfJi"wett. Os l; litO mOSSlilntoe!i i . nrolam .mbre a i mJes'mlOS, (esnp"b:,aliz~~aoJ ~ dmli~"I!.1..i.rld,[) 0 'e on"l]Ol'J.oo,ento ~. aumen t:f:ln.tlC] fjj dJ~]]'letro., I~Qr:nm:uoo,,;$e 'cisiveicS. Sai:O 'o:b~e:t<'i{aaas..~a, d.uu ~6.pi8.s dQ mesmn eromassomo Ugadas. pelo "®nb:6n~'i' as ,rn;--,oj[lli;itiiC'.s ... irtni.'8.

C on ~o m. H a:O.c.e7l1.'e,i,n.t.e '3, ,C.ttl d e-:n:s,~.~ ad !J[\om~&mic;a. ,~ R1I-ei ~~l~, V3ij11 :S.e ~!.tn,M 'tnenQS ~vliclientE".s., 2I.JTIe qu~ ld!eciS~pi8.l~'0em. pO(J~ ~(!impI,eto' no llinfiL1 Ida. !lt~f:aoo" 001110 d.m.a~ teo a m.i[mae a ,el§h.n],:8 t~O ~inte:M2a. pJrlr~)'~einaJs~ I,etg,o, na..o· 11' neeessldade. dEl: ,~rod:~llzir ltNA:oo'li. {j£::'positooos :[1'1:,]15 :n:[tcle~l~. eulminando.. ~'PttreWil.t!~, eem ~ '~el1. ,e1):fi'ip,le'~o de-H.p'uec;tmB,tYM~

.QcorI'te di Vi.sao do, - eentre oe·:~,olM. Havende cellt.r.f:olI.osI eles ~ofi~itlE. d.npUM\t8D\o, A..as.im .• ,cads nmi'Q CSJ1Uo ee['~' 'tera. rdmis; ce.o;trlritQ~;

o~ :rnr~'~r6'hiib!JJ DS de lei-to ~~ql\ll,~] ~t(ll ~0 tie:SQl'g:HJEILizaii1l:Jl pa:r.a lilk~,,[,M 861l'S monO:m~o5'~. as FmemM ditas b;lbufutrtUl;\, ql£lJl3' $@[,Rii) td:jJizadas P.a:.1"Sli, C'G,mpof' 01• a_o mitoti,6~, .. SliJrge-nl as fibr,a;s: d_'Q li~w e ~. 11.bm-bl [po[a[1E!:s. Os ee1ll1r:O:ffii ~elmi3lJ'E$i. [Unt::i.O].'uun eonro eensres ~.~·g,iill:n.i:Z3 . .dff~ [lo~ ~icriol'tWbwflg, ·6,r::ieuta..:nd~ .as ,B.l:u~as,~ A.s fi:b["~ do {l;~ter tFiJcamo lru;$po~ta~ ra;dialmrem,te em 'liOlf',QO de eada ce]ltwo icel[~al'~ & du~~ ~'9;'trtlttiLf~'l~~l :~n~ada~ rer:ehe'lll, (1 L"I.ome de iSter (oomh"o celuJml" 4' p:rote:il19.a dispest 1318· ra,dtalm.e.lltw e ii.eom. ~~<dalizadas~ Iade iii Iado, hem [[n:uiXbnu, 8. earioteea. 0 re~llilt8,d(D da inte:r.as~ao cia~ ti.br.:;us, de tnn ie.de GnJ[fi:ro ~EI,WT ~ Q ,afasta:meli.to dos 'Cl~b.1]~ ~clul:~s' paJl~1I os: 'p6jQ~. 'O~Q;s:toSi: .,da c:e1u1a . .As ifribr~a lO~6i' qtlf,e: parte~ d:-eo eada litiOOr ·em. di1N~~ ae e()I~d~' Cia ~~lul~ ~M' ditr1S 'fibr~:

p!l)~@f9:. . .

Ni~, fin~J da ]Jj~O£a®e' hi 0 a~'\.~irn,'enb" '1],0 ,~Jlbrcrm~ro' d~ eada Q1Im:0S80.mO du~plimd'()~ de litlalB, estruturas jenQ~~5 Icmlet6eOl"(H~" ~~;i!eu:t~os, em ~~~es oposbi E.Q] verdad~ os ,ci~g,t6co;ro~ Ie:Ot'I~~~~']TqJG:i'Il a um :I:ttm~Q ~~~m f1rganizadu~ d~ 'nt~:u~bw'r~~~ .e- a. pm "ri]aJJ "h~~ri, B :CQrnta.{:'Ro cllR:ii. Ii bl"a,~ 1c!I"O'])],6'SSOJID.i eas ~;clDie;{lD~o.:rJi~s;);;; Aq:s1mJ'i ij 111..ia~ nd.t-6t],OQ I~ @onst]:t.uifrlo ,~~, fibre: p~taII.~ e lJela' p_stlJl: (or,gaLll 2 ados . pelo eentl~~) :eeJ.nlar.) e ,pe'la'51 ,6brias '~m()$mm-ll~ (m~g~Jliiiadas p!cl,O;.'5l' cm~ro151',

Rom.pe':"~e, ent~o~ illl eny'O,:~t6n{l; ~1:lu~'ea:rI' .th~aurl.o ,tle ba\p,elf;' .lbt'ti:Ce ;flsi~, entre· I) ooo.te:(td.o .n.nIlie.OO,:'· e leit~pU:~lIico. Os ~n;b:'oE {le.hi]jat'~ r:hegam, m')S ,~]Gs. O',Po,sto:g cla. ,eetlula., ,pfi.'d~lind·o. d.os 'me.s~!fji.. ~s .6.bra8 p~hflres, que '$I:;!' :posi'e~ i):liLilDfi $obrepoot~ Q!Q. t'iqlL1~d'oJ;'" l1elti~~E ..

A .ilDtemt,aii:i, da,s .. '6hra:s, ,ooDmllss&ndc,as a

,l!!!'11:....... _~1I " .. ," 1 ... :11- - '" . ··t - ~~. -

ltl;W~~ ~~S I~. :r.espg-DSa~C' p~. i!!);n'1,cn;. ~~~'

dos ,.o~ntos ,CinJrDlO.6micos ,ililWr.anlie i8. !di:rid,o ,ce;llullaJ~~

:C'{l'll~J'lli,..g_e·t U!11iDll" que I~ Cl'OI:IHJ8Srul):OO sg prendfmltl fhs' ubraB lID.lIar,~. a.'trav:~s das :l1brM' ~:r.(]m.oa~~m.h'ea.s. lIma vez, ci1~g&niz;ad,o~ C!'l~. iC1YJ']]lO~nm~, s-e mfft"m:l;l£m.'~. em di·~ •. o ao !eq:oodtll' d;:t ·,ccH~:a:. toln,o reS1L]] tadc Idb dJ.e.sHzanmil.w, das rm:br:a~ ~mos~wica.s, ~(]'!bre as po:r~ m_;,~'qu.eiIa. ,dtt:e~oo\,.

A. ~begad1l do!], ,eromo"S&oWJos' ,i\ ~iQ le~t0.riaJl da mM.'Ltht ,1l1@[J'~a (D. TIm da F'@fase

1J:JiJfQTI1lJ15iIKHll1 0. Si lila ]ntert';:5:e. ~nfeiio d:81 mi1tOisa'~

C'mm BsScMo fgnTIlEln~ pot. dU99: ewD.maticl~-s1l' in~'!}l'll!i1l do IB' eEN1IdEm~8~CIi

N~aleo~'~ '~~fl~!['~ndQ

M tii"fi

i!7i;-··Q·,-\iIllilD;;rn;;.

~I Hi ·1ItJ1J:I!~

N'o inillc:io cia 'mlllrt~~~e Q :fUBo 'wi"t6tico Ot], ia:m'O~.t!k~ii1 ,~sta' eompletamente :f.ol'"lRad.ID\. .~ 'fiihr.r dn ,fMO ,ocnwm'Q Meat eJtl.'b:e·o~: ilois, cen:tros, celularea egte~' S'i;til,13.,diDB, ntis. !1101M O~,'bO~ dat IOOlula .... ~tiga~e:D:Le~ aCl:'enItav,a . ..1se ,q:lJ)~ a. plie5~a; dlm~ '1~:n'lt'}:o1ns era fIDldalnen'La] p~,at,~ .f)O'r:D1~ao ,~~ fu&o e :pam:,;a. a di.v'umn ~1.ula:r.,. AlalrumJeiIl.l1e. sabe-sa que na.'t.. Ge]u}I;as ~eg:et;~dlS ,~IB di ovi!detn sem ,oo.rl'Lrlrn(ls I~ relillJ as ,aninta:lls ClIj(l~, centri)[,KI,o~: "fo:m~~, d '~~ t I"'u_id' {) s _p ~U:. 1I[.";,iju 8 ~ ~ 8'e 1'~ t:~) :r.'1"[1,:a.:w a.m i nO! "!.~Jrumm1t~ 0' :E~ ,~ ~TI.tTatam c·m divj~ao.

Os Cl~.n-~n.~~~ pel:m.anieC~. I~~ ,a,;tf filibra's po]a"re~ POl." b:l:te]:",rf'.iJ,edJJ'6 das n.bl"ata, (~mllllO:liOOn].i(l\8LSl e .atlli.ll11h3do~ num .. mesmo p]inlQ na '~egi;§j(J equatt)dw. ~~ta, c~h.:uJ]aj sen40 eS'oo femliL~menD a .. grande .. m.u-.ear ella m,e:W'-a~eit ,'lim ',itl,a:nd.Q a ellamad~ 'placa, £q;uamrin] mJ ~tam.sie-'4"ll: A [Qifmlil. 9O\01Q;. lOIS (!1"'OJ2ll0s~Otir'Irn .ss P'll"EMHi(:2f,n no lfus~ pe:nmllite. o· ~XIlI~~tzi) ~(}joma..me]ltQ !ht6 ~('Omi:Ud€i~'irmim~ Icad'R qual vQJ.:i.wfa :para unl'JJ· ,[los- 'p6Lo~ 'da 1~']llJ ~'!'

O'~!:T'nm rj~·$nm.('::5 pe~a:l1leiC.etQ.. a:ii

iest3cicm.a,~~ .pO'r who '~FlO relliatij,v~~nrtt ]O])~I len; (!'Crn:par~iic' &5 'f[)'!J:l-:r~. ii~PM' da n::rmto~~. ,Neff:~~ :ij:nw1DJtV;",;i.l~o ds It_ ·mp~ ,lit~, lIIm;~, nljci<vimmJta~~Q d,g; l~rurl"Ur,as ~luares~, d~ :fb;_nn~, ~i1at~iii'tl, P~d oS :pd1o;~!" ,!)}P-08,W8 ,~. (elu la.

A m~t~fase' r,ep~e~t.1, ~ E,:I'bp~ ;etm q,ue os

I II ...-fi

cromossom I] 8 :~:t.l ngem (I Wii"Z_:illlO !U e SU,a,

OOIJUl~,ng1lJ.~_j). E}t~Wlllente~ per iSHt~, par;nl BShlt]a,_l" eromcssomes ,siio' usadas ~Thb.sta'D:ci9s~ como a ~olcmciD_a qns de!1;0 rrgnniZ3Jl]:. as p~OIte'm$ db :fuso~ p3J:I'al~:sar:tdo~, m:i,b:!se 11;~ :metriira:siE'_ ~tt:aco I3ste',que, os I~'hij"n.'ti ta:s a'p'T'!QIV'litit~~m: '~a:~"a esti!uia_'- o~ ~lt:)m~O'miQ~" P~,. 00 IDasti:ado [t._o~ . ~~t¥mIOMom~J~ humanes, em;p.N_g&:-SB CO~cl1.icl.nSl parS! par,sJ_i~~r ,8, di~aD Cl1:e Ieueeeltes em met~e .

. Q :fiInal da 'met-ar~, ® nuu:.eado. eoma m\Q;siio do c.~m,h~o:anerQ e I~ afatllhul;L.a.nta dla,s,. e:tlom'tide~'=inn~; q.lIlm iele'r,:§:Q' ~Wicl.IJ.U.M~ para 0_8 p6]irl$, o!p[J!i1~ d#. ~h:al~

pata paos DPOiS~~, da o~Mula"

A.$sJim. Iqn~ M ,a::cl~lllnli':ltideg~in:ll~s 'se g.eps.'rmn.,

"""n' J:II " -

P~§B!i.DJ a ser -, 'U'li[[[QillluWJ! '~lml:.Il~:mn~s."·'lIJ"'WaO!i·

«~U 'hlbu)s:'), O~ q'uai~ ~erifJ; JHJJ1l.':acln_,S', ~;~)b m;i{~n't~j,~ d;E3-,-,~ p;rot~i'[]~ d:6 £~~ '1P~·ra 1U8 'pt)l(l~

n~;fu,,,". ...!I'!!;I "".=i;'iJ., • .'Ii ...... !U!I;-!'~~ ~-o ~~-IIJ ~~,ojJJIWH.

~ . - .

A. bl:lJ{)r.~iSe iltnal p~:nl ,eltpliqa.r ~~'$I~. d~iLooam~t:Q f~l!a '00 de~li7iam~]]bJ da'! 'ifjjJ.t[l8! e~Qlno~oDii'G~a: sobra ,~S flbras pelares, (tat$j)r .por Rlg:t1nt1li mtDtiv.t1" 0 -r~ IlBO '~a formadol~ a: lUit~ ~egue ,~ehlJ I~Ami~,e :Dfinn~] at~ ,jffi ~tM~~; 'Q:U~OO~. ~mQj ,r.;I:S c..TOln,ltid~s I!!;aU ,8~ 5leI-par.::tll'lJ.':]l ,8 ~~ IJfilJieoo.JjEJi p-~.Hsn-

CQiIno j~ o'b~ei;"!{am,l~ a.]:i'~~cri(Dllli])!eriite eom 0 '~', PQi!' 1~_j;"!mp;I(jli" da oo']().hicin,~,.

Oi fiim. d:1. aniifu~ ,Vt mar,C;a,do, p~hI I~egaoo In'os: 'lill.~~_mosso:m(Js~b:tm;a(Js: ,Qi!OIi, pilus d. lC'ilul~.. D'estfl. forma (indo p6h~ [['~o~b~ BXatamen:W' ,(I JDEBctlU;i· tnat~li ~enhgco"

Tel6fase

(~'o~te' 'ns illtintIH ,eta;pa da: mitose liE!! :~nd~s SJW '[mbl.r" q,ue 'ocm:'-~~ ex'B"tamenf.e c loonh~M1o- da :profEse~

O~wIT13'·,a r~argani~a.~~b diQl' en_"'\Qlt~.r,i.~ nusleae ,~~tl"~y1ib OO~ fr,~~~il'em~ m.emka"!:JQs~ ern IOOMO (]i~ dm~ ~mll1'jru.1JItoF; (:'mmo.5.--mm.icQs ID"lurn;do.$, tm~ p(jl'fJo$', I~b~i, '~;ulanw~ 00 :~~pt.wa lm:vi,clliil na 'pt6f~; &s~ ·&a,t.,qnOTlli(;QS. Itoro~.lm pus['~io 00' '~"0d01" d.os !mm1US~~ III fornJJ~ 'runvos- 'mVlllto-~rio8 nucl~.

'D',§: cr.om,OS8g':I;1!U)~ ,s,:~'f'fem

i~~spb·,91iu:~i.o ~dese~~91D ... :se} a imcia a ~;:E'od,u~aa d,el RNA-l"'i! :p'I'o'Vocan,a.o 0 1l"e{tp~hmeQ:t~) d,o~ n,-wriMiol.os. 0 cim~' ttc~)I!X], e .. ,~. -5b'l'fli5' t-"J'O"mQ5:somita~ ,deI;~a~alf',e:u~'m,

A',k d~_ .. ~:m..;a ~,_",,"lr~'jI' '~- ....... I '- • '1 . t· .....

fiLII t:uL:i.w, na .~l~:hRS!EL~ln u01S1Jl]c]eo.e mill' !eIUJup

ma:te.riaIT. ge:netfico id~tioo~ e cam. ,~ mesmo :I:lf!!,pecm de um n.Ge:[eo ]nb~:l:fa~re-o. E'ss~ Pl'OOOSfHl de d;tJplirC.~,~ifjl cllo fi1.icle@ cl~: ce'iu]a,,~ d.i~o iCarioome~,

Em. rehillH; de :a]gmr.l.S1 pr{3iW~,mo5 e de animais ilmrre um e~b~ill'l\gllllaraneJl.'lt:o da t;egiio mediana (mv~gnl~o cl!a. m~m,bra.:na. p]a,smi:lti,ca ,~.o l'ed(w ila Jl18~. eq~I:M:ori::ll ~ da C~bl]_8.. E'!i:j,t",e 1~~b~amgu]aInento quand.oencou~a. 0 ~ue re~tou. I~~' fihr-a~.pri[:~ref:h, fu,~U-3 um~. pmnte 'mui:OO, e~L1'1.eii.'ta I~n:ble ns dbic~ ])tmtos: d~ 'me~j·JbM.lll.~ de f¢'J~~),ua I~ :;'llS, ~ntti~~~ '~~]IliI~ aeaham sa.' ~ep'ar~,d,f'll"

°Es.ia dffi:vl..sa:o resul 'Ita. dg a,~aoi d,6S. 'mi~J[\o:fi~lne:rnto.sJ, de aetlna do eitoesqueleto que .. :~c!!.~iadoS!, a .I~o\Sma!. s'e «gw~iZ1f[m ~!jJ'~ ,ft Ulenii:U:''8ll!S ipl~mJ~1Lti~ ~ef:u, tonw d.a p,]acSil i~.U!Ji_a:tori~;~. E~~, fOI1Tl~~i~1 ~ l~le:lIlomht~da ane], icoDfuatill A fID:rp de conrJ~~-.ayan gemi~ ;pmilll, f'ea~io ,iIDTI;i:ll~-mii')B'ina, p1;'ii]1'VQea unia O)lltr,~IDj, slliflci:e:'am: pa:r;8 ,9f]llllill.lLir~ pl'Ug;r:B5~vruit1iente, 0 difbnetrQ ¢to. :mIE1J" ,am,ganoo a ce~m!3IJ. a se di:\1.i~' 1jE!111, dt~,

A m~-sijOi fin alm(iirn,t~; do C±topla3m~: e' mam.ada 'iI1i,tollln~~ 'que m~area 0 'DniliiJ], d~ '~e16fi;11~ Ie:. ~I pI'o,piio, ~Ce'Ji!rarm.en'.b?' do ,p.mcB~8o de dj,vit;8Q eeluler, ~fi!tiJder,at:ldo que s, di.WSilt1 do ditropla..~.a Ida ~e[U]2!" animal av,:m...c:,a da p'erl:~a, para ,Ill !o~~Q. IQ pro'tesso foi ,[b~lfOt[ljJJb~,do d~ e~, Tu;:lH,'~·se !c@D.b~ipeib.,

M@· §I lui .

,m,tose· ,em. ee :_'11,8 've get ttl.

N:;:l9i erU,u]as vegeu1ffii. f~ na a p:~aen~ d~ ler.en:L~l00 _, m j"h:t.Se a"e~urtri~. - ,B rltfu] ,M.

If'Q:Jr.m;:1fAu do a.s~ar.' - ,:tnijtD~"e· .aD$traL A eltoeinese du e~[ul;il~· 'v'eg;e;t.rus e:- de ,mtiJ.iJ:~~, ,iHJg~~. 'ocor:Fe;a :p8m~ d:e· uma plaea ce].ti1~, po:rlaJr.i,'t;o~ ~, ,die~],t~'n ~r',!3i :fu[',aJ. e dita, por asoo',., ~1'1!;~~e! Iff~n'triJiUga.,

D m::am'~' .0:1. ~el,~fa&~ a -cQulla '\f-egetill ffn7J]:1I,at "v'eliRi~rn:af{ membranosas, ,8, parti:'r.· du gnlgjios~omifjI'Ie.p]-etas de .pecctin;ll. 0 ~~nrjrujjrdjo :de~t&lS 'If~~f.cuI@;a, :~, dieilommaJdn fra:gJlIEJI,i,]asto.. ,As. ''!reg](.ma~. de lEec~a se fjJA;:i.I1:rnl1a-.:(t .1D;a .. re:g.-6i.n ct;filIkal da cehaJ!:al 'fm_"'[!l~andD' 'wn:;s. fil:aca celiLu]:.H: e :HIJvm;'iJ~run .em, ~di~~~o a: ~~~M Pe:~:~~ri~ I~ ~l'Ula.,~ tl~ginandD ,8 ll:nnellil. :m,e~" N3J, seql1kn~ia &0 P~gfiiltl lYfi 3 ril~m~A,il cl.a pru~e(le ~·'].'Illl~~:

~~I,IO"~,'I?-

,L'~ ..... L1~

_l: ,-#. '. 3", ~l1iJ;:liD:l[dJCOf]'

- - - .... - .1:11 •

,A, .~]ei'~.,~ ~I tipQ ~l~ d;iV[!:it8.'[} oe~iulIDr q'!!lJ~ ltlcrrn:e nas ,oMul3.S .g~~:.I.llu1'aM~~ 'paJra fun]:uir os ;g3fil~I~~S,. A Pli~A~~k:paJ. learad:Ie,r.liBti!c~ d.a: :me[,~e ~. "roo~Q da j).ittnel~' d;~. crOn:U)Ssm:rfHlg ,acl t_'miiu, -QU, :sej:a~l ulna. 1;~11L113J ii.ilP1 didili ~ com dois ,I.o'ltes IC['O~~S) p-v-otbiz t]uatif\QI celm1!_a$ :baP;~.,6id.eB·

e ad 3.. q CL,a:] e,~:n't en d ill .ape nas n.l'm 101t.eIc[\[}nl,Q~OO'f.iri~.} ).

Mairs.! j

,A., g-Eai1lde, im.pti,rtiI:l(l:dt da wei.~se ,e ii, lli1iaDu.'t:en;~am' Ida, [C:O'n'sl:in~iB dm' n'-meF'O. de reJNmusso_o,S 8.0 1Ihiligo ',das gera,9i-es. N:oo 'Il!ou'iil~e ~,eii!0!S9' 0 :oilmeni ~. crDm'Q~~fi!:itOO\S de eada e~,p~:ie··dobl1':a::na ,at eada grer,at:fW~ QnmltllQ d~ ru~:ir;l c]ijS ~l]l,eJta.~,. {lU(l'3JD.te, ,3.. f~d'a:~iJOl~ pCOi'Ile' a. FormaJ(:!io Clln ~nbo que ,~ urna ,~eI:wa l~p]6jde" pois ~~~be e~[ilIJ .. 'lll]'li.'[.ote. ,ef.lO:rJ:l\I:=mie.<:. ~:le .'U!aJ!ilia gptmeta., m.a.sculili:1~ e :fe~nit110i re1hz.e]li:lln 0 .TlJltl!m_e,Il)· 'i:.tl'It.a]:. de' C1-o.m(J,S~6ron·S •. e~peci.e,. ,A .par.lliiil~ drHli .8, ,nutose ',e 0< P'il'DO~,~ a'liE~ve~, d.n 'fj,I1ai].J[) ,~iCli~ ~aige, di'miIir eas ci].~ etn;b:r1t1(a'.traria..1l 'l:tillllb!i11.! a:ttG q;u~e a~ ;J.1iarnw·

lIm nfJVO in.diViiluo.. .

A .meiose OCU1Sta de' (ttH:I.:.~ d..i.V:i~ije., ee]ul~re2l: ca~ewL;;va:s. ~nduj, w.M;l1icam.e~, diYidida, ef!1. Mei~, ,I e Mei.£de ,0: :i! $6,pa.r~d~~ per 'lUE!3. llreV'e:

ili.t...~.da.se. (tbJi:EF~ese)., '

~tE"Jl]'lI':r:o' .' ,[]'ifi'!! l' ,~~-,: .. ~ .. ,

A. ,m:ooJ~ ] ~ di'tin Iflivisiio l"edu"don:,d. pcn,"g,ue. ,~ e.Kati!:IJm,en:1;e :L1es:L-m, et'8,pa q,ue, oe~ ~, l'l;Id:llL~ao ,dol iil:Dmr.€iitO de cnUj['H)SSlfmOf~L Tanto q)ua:oto lila lti'i.t~Et, ,elrfL. est~; mvidiih:li. n,as ..:rnB'.'f:!lmfIlrl etapill~~ :.a:.q w: ~mada~.:: p:rn&$e ~, :llf:tertitfa<se,: Ii ,srmiiase ::r Ie' ttel.6ifue L

A. p.ro.fa..t::.e ] ~, mcm.'oo, l@;n:ga, ,. bem ElMS C'-OlD,Jlle:X'a q.ue l~~r-t'iif~,e ita woose. :lElfii fe:nrbm211lus I~ pirofase I Q:.ue :U:IJ.69 do ~d.'llsi~OA .. lait~nJE].o i:lLtmem:lte, ,M, :unMBe, 1001\10 ,0 ;e'mp.-eIh~D;tf;;l!' ,d'IlS' !cM,mosSlomog,bID,nii.olo.~ e ,(j 1ii',c.ro~~ng:;.i!ll've~,.

~,m 'r;tJJ.D.~ai.a dill Icnmrple.xid\lde pMH q;ue p,uMsse.mp.s c:'O,mphlE!e]tle.t 0 ~PIDoce~l!~ 3; meluse I tp:i' siUlldivid~:i]a, em cinoo S:i1~fa$e:S ~ .lept~lten.;o\! .z.igtfit~I.bO" .. 'pm.,.q_teBO" di;pjlil'teD!i)1 ~ Idli:lem,esel;, .

al ullto:~eiDJu

illiil;iia .1EI!, W.:lj~::':H:i'~tlij) dv\Si: ![,:n;~'mt~S[.ftl']n(~~~ 0 1qt1!.e· caT;l11!~ter:iza <e'$l8i. !itibEjlfiiie:' t:i6 ~rnmD~S{fmDS: mp~oom" emn~ 'llOij,g(HJ e :fil'H}S J]ti$~.U,m3 dlf~r-.e]~,~.

• .~ r. .~ ,

pM;iiJ! ~:I1l :D1.1:to..-qe, :rnalJLI!.e ]l,(i! ;.:a.'oo, we qfi1~ 'iElaO ,r];(."CID:ltqlr:~:m.

,e;9pb:,alilZa~fiD.]i,(j\r.mjo~.a Q09l emmossamos, ,D,(t,sta .~ u ~e,~ q-,ue !Re ronaetJtgartl:1L pI.~tillleit'lo fOr3.ii'li. :l;u~qu)~m.a~ igra:f1I"ul~~6e~: d,enom:i,:rn,aidas 'UU'mi.J:mije~, Situ~8, ~W, re~ ruS,tiI1't~ d,~, eada 'Cil;10miQj$~'i)m'9., Os II~lnrJIm!O'm£lro!3 d:a lC];li)miQ&iOroos hom610:~ apres~~ 8 mesma mstribw~a e sau, observados ~m mB~O' llUnnrt'·O.

1b'$P1j~l,nD'

Fibms do

Nm el,eol'D !Ai$.ter

:'\

b)' 'Z~"su:DmiO

-L! '~i~ ~-, .. -_'-_

Oba:e~:r'v';a-,~re 0 em'pa"reIh.amen;tfJ des '~~rnn;OeD:mJt1iS ~hnm6~!E1g.DS1 :Fen,[km,ern!f) di.~~ ,s1n3J,pSe '~6mQ~~mj.cil,., 0 ~mellQ G 'jdlo tw~~'~' qu~ os· !~s R1~oo '11cam d:ispci:stet5J brl.o R l~o. Cootinua B eSp1ializa9&,a des !l::mmOl3'~rmlo~.

~ -;tllt- ';!'Ii :pi~'bra,s

£~:g'loll'II.";;L 'Ii!' ,

'~~ ~~ffi'S;

~~ :P.aqm'tenn

,I%. e,G01'ldeH$a:i.i11[J, ja ~ H,tonbl~,d.a O!5 tw(}m,o~o:m~ ~,axeo~' ;OOlll'G!1 ~(J~~ "Hmil. Ie ~ aDlp~Falhfilll.,ento se Co:wpiBtiill. A" eondens~~iQ. Rtinge' tar l){.1ntQ q,u.e es 'erontome,lt~8 ~fi nfu:n, silQ ebservados ..

C(Jrm~ I fin 3.1. do I e'm:_,p~ll!il:b.ttJ]le:n to es

, , mf.0'~~· h'" '] ,';!,. nt:'L."" , '1,.",.]"" J,;o...:II, ..::II '

,~v: ,~I~~IH!LJO _._a:mQ' OglJo:! '~l!.atI' ,~a'Y\,lil ii, ~!.],O 'ii;~u!.;!~a

t,lm {fUliliIJ suas ,C'~cim,~tid.'~s-ii:m ds.i ,~oimaac~!Q eonj un tQS ,d,lhama,do.s bilvaJent'B S (os d,ois itmm,lfi~Mm1S; h(!,]'Ii '6~,o~(i~' esUtj empare1bit~iOfi0 (],1ll It!~'ttiades (:si{f \<istve.r~ RI1ll. qruatri(~ crnrnu1.tii!lAEls}.

'N'o p~uitHiEllo., e'vell'W~]nuall,lte. ian:~~ do thn ,ic, ~'i:g6te'r:l'o~ fH;nthnn, ot6:rl'c't' j[ra:' UrU n as ~1riom ~bdj~~ d~, I~~)~ymos h~I1log:<n$ ,[ e~trm ~mpa.T-l{!Ilhad,os) q,1!W' Sao 's~,gu.i(ljijs PQF so:ld~dl.il.11'n1~ ll'G,p-aJ:adot"d'li!l. Add~in:~ln1,~nt~" no '~flih~Jin:to~, a !Sotdwium pode i~,.]11!'\f2~ntM 'b!~l:r;. 'ljJ.m,~, ~tTI']II!~:tld,~

g~ 'Sfilua ae r~en;oo de. c.t'ttl;r.(ha:Hde hom61og,a 01jJ, haa~intl~L e rire,~v,el"~ ,E~l-.e feJmmenn ,crn:ts:~l;~ num des m,aii! ·~:f.i.'i.l)CH;taQtea e espet~f'Ulare~, I~W[[ti~ ilia hiho'Xo~s "e' ~ dito '~'!l.!;rossi1rig"8'V.c'~J; ,per-m'Um~.o O\J~ r.ecnuinma~'iJ' ,pDeti,~a., E leXHtame-nte a ,[J.€I'Jnut~~ao quem Jio$i~.ib:]li~, uma ID"lWi ID'I" v~ri~.b~lidilJde ,ge;nliSti:ca ,ias es:pee..ie$j' per g~r,M [JrOVfl,S, oo(llllhdEja,~OO~ .de g~e~,.

Na, :v(['iitlca i?.$~~ .~ fl~ Sf'..gjlDl~B'nwS' {UjtT~' lc:t'Om1itid~ bom6logas !OOllS'Htui lID 'iqG!~d'~'~.n)' it;~18~J'iEIleJj!;to ,ggr,I[et:r~Q; QS. g'C~[il;e8 dQS pa] ~ - S6'~m 'tL~ mi~!Ir;~n'~$ antes ([U'ie :8G'j:rz;m1 'p~,flil(lS' a fr~nt:B.

IP,aq;ill~

, Ctomll~ _:_' . homoJDfTm

__ --

dr, D.iplllll'~enm,

N~BSta. ,~tiatpa ~ea, vis{v~" a,!T; m]CTi]sc~i~ oP'tica'I que o~, eremcssemes ll!iS't8.Q e.o11i5tltmdna, po(r dU91S, c:r.omaxi,des,

Em clet~ii~Hdos 'puil11kR!!l' 61~~J8sf~'1 obs~r.v(tr' 10 srib~J;r'l;nZmmle'lllk1! de CJl~Jiilll~tj,~lQS h~mlo~ob~~; 'p~.',~ndo WId ~X~'" E~tes ~~ d~; CIuzBa_ffinlrbj, rmmn denouii iii SIOOti; qui3SmaS. 0, qniasma. e. O(Hmeq,t~·nd8 da.peonllta;rao crmnoo~,n:rica., Lego, 10 numL~M ile qiJ1.a~ilQ. Indiea e :iI:'iJ1Jlmern de' ~eEJlm,1!l't~~fi~s oOLl'lTidas. Jrucia ill 8:fa\St~menM' dos lC'romllsso,mo~, llaEll16~:og,~,

Dip 61elflol Q~..a8R1a

'~:~I Di~m~~

Continaa Q afastamento dos, cnDimoaSamnot1 no.m6Ji1,gos. ,,&8fun ns Qlmasm,as ,det1]i.:z8.1I1 parD, ns !~lIDiJtemo'S dos c.romOB~6mOg" ,fen&mmo ,cmhe~_ido, :~iI)t 'tem1lil!laU~~'O c!to~ ,qui0J~as ..

A desin't.e.g~a~a(lh do e:oy:o'it6;, ,to, mI;urijle3l' ta'CQrre. ,1ll.1ll 611~ desta' fiL..~ 1121, 09' pm."Si8 I~! "er(OlU~I)m!OSj mnda llgat.cLns, peli:n:aneoom ,~, regja)l) 18lq,lH'B.:to:rla.], da. loolill,~~ I~Ia~ t3.'m,l~~mili 0, t1!es!;~:!:l8.rec[me:~:lJ:~' do ~ljJG, eo:1:o.

16

Nm citoplam1iJl '0 cen~t.ro '~~h:illar se' d:!l.q:dics!1

_,~L.!_, =~,,I,,.,,,;"_1 '" -.' C~;:~. l:':.!!I'

tHWJJ~ ill DIi:WL:.t..:J:,Il'W'Qi" illill_CI;Eida_~ .f!l JI,or:DlR~aO !lJL:B!B,

[cUn'as "l]~bu~s., ,M. mn diBJJ ,et~pa OS' 1cell't!i:iQIos chegal!u 80S pdJia.s. SlLlrrgem es cinero~ e saQ fo:Ema~& ss flbras 1~O'JI108~-GmicaS~

o @i,i'iIiv.oltoldo nu,~~lea.r rornpe-se e, o rnudoolo, d~~i,.

,1fe.tdf.'Se I

o~ cn;Dmomcml0181 cll,1lIPn~oo~' .<iB '~arI~8!dos ~pmn.8: '~',egiao equaw,:rla.! fiat .cel~, mantende-se ~m:idom I~-~]OB 'Cj'!1riiaemal$'. Atingrgm, '0 :mllixbM ~]B, .

t~O'Ilde;llg:BfRjiJl -

I •

Hrl; iHID~,~n~ s 'b~'c~s, entre a mclaj"~ C1Ja

i!;III,~io:~ [ ifii ,~ mlims-e., NLifjl 'weIJimrel [U'8" crQm~!O\.'Sl bW1Lolo~~ Sa ~]ieU[rt,T,~1li emJ~aro"lIJlta(l~ ,~ URh)Jfj~ pelo qui~,sm1,at.; n~· -ru'E!!t~:raJJ'~ ,~la, II1tit~S~ os· eI":~m:H~'S'~Qmn5 hQ,uHi.logos ~i(D S~ !e:ml COllL fmHDl eID'pH:reJU::. a do~' na pb(:-EJ e qu 8 turia1 ~ On tra dlli'e're'D:~'a e que, n a. m.'eiose 8-S -rID];' as e rom D,S s ~mJI~ a ~ (c:ine,toc,oI"]"C a ~ ~ !JlBL S ~om,lRtid.e8l~];rmij~, i:rll~Miam~se., para, 0 ll'g,esm,oQ lW3[Q; Ja :08 mLto~e as fibraa ,c.ro~5B.OitITi.c8S. dfl' esda ,[jJJ!)OUl '~de .. ,mna ,in",~dla:roi"~~: lent oontidQS opQ-ste3.

M-1fdfIBBI

~ Rsgiao .e~iIJ8tQrh3~ da' c~lul,~

A "'#:n.,,,,. I nOJ'."e' '.

Aq:m: 1liii ~lm(il, ,diJ~~, fu_n,d(j_n~~n~'I' paI'~"'H.

at: d ~ " - ~ _ n' ~ d ,. ~ ,_ d

" _. " . :'-"1 . I' '-. , . • . I I ," - • " .• - ' ' .•

an ::8.819 ;Efl, 1111 rose: 091,0 J 8; . ,![V1Lsao .' 10

,,;. ... -n·: .. "[['-·.t.J'-''"''''r','''"j ,~,,,,, ;::;.']~'·ml ... !!:o .... 'P,.,.'Dii'~-.",,"","", .. -,.- ..... ,;;::;'

~"1.P ~,y,~~~'IirI __ ~_~II~ ~~,g, I. _:.. v''_' ~~I!J 1!\..~~_~~.J!Ql.i;I!l""JIIl~,~~II~

b.oHUilO~G 'fol."lHadios, IH)],,' I3URSi el"}ill,uut,Jt.idcs~ mlig:ra,illFl, ,p~,a. P.alM ,~p!O_~tQ8 ds, Cle(~Iu.1la.. N a 3~:U"~~ .. d.:;t 'mi~- fi1i,~m ~9' cmml~sSlllmo.9-_in1lai~$l,

6.lh~s) '~~,~ as, 111_6hl'J;, .m~u1;[eudf~. ,a..~m.~, '0 irt~eW-\o

.. ~ r F. "

diplaide ,de e~tnt:!V~D]n,ro,,_

,Emlimenlte llPr. ItsOO, R luei.ose 1 ·6 ,dita; l~edtl(io:~ cOltlSider,ando' qljJ_i_E! as t.e]~ fOlnnad~s :l1a~, ter8io ,Wiiais ns h,QRltQ,llOg-dS. mas um !C1umosSGmO

.J I..j...l. ..!I- d. ". "d-

'aUl:U1C:!IIHiJLO ue' CHuM pID~ • com suas '_ UfIlS c:ro:m.at[ ~ "eB.

Anal,ase I

(1' il1i1~m da t~l6f'iJjiSe .,Eli 'mHroElJd~ pe!']B~,dilaga!da, des erernnssomos aea polOcs. 10 mso miUilllied deaapa re e e e iD ~orl"',e 'rBJl d,e s e nnd en 8 a ~.io ic.I"{!m(Jl~iirgGi\miea. Oeerre :II ree;:z;tru,tnral,.~ao (to. 'E!lJlvultOrro' [1I.'[lC~a.r~ reaperscanda, talube:mJ !j)~, m:-I!.cll~o.t.o.s., Desta ·rb.1Dl~~ ,eomplel.a::SB: a ,crnj)dm~:se.

A S~.1t 'ot'QirT0 a lcitQai:i'1~ ~ a: ·f.ormoa~M das

t "'~:".:,'If~_ c'l'l!.. ~ '1,;!;~.l . -

1iIT_~ ~eJiI~ IIJl uOls ]cmPIIW!i.JBS:.

·FI' :~, .P~q,~'11o_iUJt@rva,1ti11Ie,n,~,:at ,we]·ose I e ,ElIJ, ~e I, d~i](m:uih:mdu :b;d;_m~u~.,

~E" H'

ttl[iIi~\&ose _ .. '

D ~'~""' ... n:'

-:l:=rot~~' ,:' ,

IComo,_ ~corJ.teoo na milloose,. nas dhl8..S oollUlas, resultantes dB mei:o~e II !:]~m:re ,~ ,oQind,e~~ao dos IOTOU1.0 S~ om 0 a de f~r m a b onl~lg~'ll e a~, 11. SO apareeende, In]rtant,o~ .es .c,~:-,'om,,[jmetliJiS. ]Je~aIJztl"I~m 08 [L1:1cifeoloo, e! a ~ar.i,G!ilee8 ~f:'e, &agD':tM:!11ia~ao. ASSlilll ft.e.rminilJ 8. ,~lt'tlf~ I1.

'1!~~ro..:l1 C>'!l'm{'IIRI1!11:;<,1T.!1"r~~ (.imul~l~ UI:I~~. ifliml~." 1U:IIIDIo IiI!NlIJ~~l

a.nH.:U U II:JII U n LLIII

p_ .... k.! liD ~IJjjQu. ~IJLflrlllrill.i,t" ~h!r ....... _~I I

·~.Jp;Jllmln"'illi'i

b"l~ .. illtr!1I. & 'Illnoli ti.!+~..:i

o Jii~O 'ncit6tt~u 'tc~u'pa a., ,:ret.1:fuJi C~Dt~ d~, oolula. Os "Ct'UmH~mlljji)Sr sa tlJm.i!m_.'~ p[\[iiLelti:B~ dill fuoo, de :[t)ml~, qlLle ~dlliL cruim;;j,tJJd,~ se ml[ll1,'l!enh~ v,ol~'tStda p~: t1Di. IdQ~, 'p6,]o~: d$ (i~hi]la. Frrl:rnt:i.~e: a pb:~a ,eqt:l.aJt.ori:al,E:: ,Q$ cmm()SSOtl'M')~ '~io ,ma:u.~lrl,~ at d.U1".:1iLn:~" ~oo temp 11"

O£;!' ~tr,5m)E~, .. enj~i'@'. divkle·m,"ISe ~ i.1i1icia" {Ii daa]Q~~l1uen.'iJo dro~' ~.nm'~~Dg pm'a, 'll~ p5,]a~ (]post~till". :fulruizand:r~, III :Ll1i.,~~Mi:lIlse It

An,Q:#hge II

C,a.r{J,'~,'~,e lL":i. ~ a ~'~'~ , e:l til Jlli g-.x a'~a,u d.'o 8 tTOlDWs~([mog' ~~; (ou ,r~njj;~S,} pam, Org p6,]q~, ~'iP~St{iri13 d~ c61u]a,~ .A iihegadil!iJ, d~ aamu:i]OOml:~~~: nos :p(Hos ~3f:'~ ,1:1' ,ewce:w.,3tllu,en:1101 d~. :m.MSlse IL

,i'1!i'..']!' ,"#,' . H' . ,.I t:"I!D:1 Di5iE' .. "

J a. m~g, ,[J~illo:iil' i[]f]~ia. ~ ,<:l d,ese$.Pirr-a]J,Zl.l;il:!=,i1JJll dlo!:'5 . cr,;:~o~Stlmtj~" IOeonl~ ~, _\"e(il1"'g)::ull.iz.arau dJ[}~ ~,n,\!ifi1:t6:r-:ins jl~i!lem-:e'~ cn-rt] 0 ~~a:p~iIl'ed.meDJJOO d.¢~ ~on~J.~o]G.S, ,Fill,~;]j~a' d~tta iQ,nila ,~, ·'l:ariDI.:ine~t:,~

·A seg:-uir 'U!lXl'Ere ,a. ci~d'[ie3e' O\r.:~g;i'nan,cl,o, d[lLl8L8. relru,~~ .. &Uh~~ li,a.'Pl6:ide~, para cada C~Ht,1J3 ItrUe' ri:3'J:I,'t[!Q:U em. mej.'a:,$~ U'~ Otli. sej'i1;; qttatflil c~~.wa~ ha.,p16itte'$ no ,wi~. 'CO;[1rC11llindo. P:~~~ carta.. t:~']:~1a Icli:pl6ide q~e imidoti 0 pr.(!!teSsu. de nleiG$le ,~j§(jj, ftk'HtII.a.tt.ls: qua'b.n. ~1t[J.a:s ba'plt~~~.,

;l;J.nme-i_ rn~jl'il~llJo.li IIhP-Qilll!l.d~

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! IIrrn.!l!i:t'~ li,jl!!1t!'r ~hll~j'~

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EuJ. .tun!;;a~l' do :r.n~l\IIl,e-]].tn dc: .. clGlCl' ae '¥i:daJ, em qttte ,i3! mei~se' ~O~)111er;:e, 11'odLe Seli" c.l:a'ss)fii:i3llffia em..: giamLe;ti~ Lmgot.i:ua e' e.spib:i,ca,.

Acqu.e_fu, que 'ben!. :pu!i1" .£Ulllf.jo a '~~l~ de g.nne:w., O~T.e .nb.s anlmals 'bd:n'i!em,. pOF'

~e-mplo ~ ,e ~lgtlniu, algas, .

,N,~~'1l,e ease, os ~rldlvfcl,u~SI ;;kbiJjIL~J~ ,sfio ~p'Im'(les. Os, 'g:I:Ln_etas Jfm!El~adEl~,' !~, q['IL1ri siLi h~,pl6;ide!. P,m- m:e~o da &cittda~~ II -,~ero m.pldide ~ testabe[Qc:blo, :D'Il dgoto. A :p_::n;~ 100 Zli~to a. [ni~~se sera, ree:'pon~&1.f:e] peb, :Ilo:nn,tar~l_ cl;e~e.rJi.\i'o[vime,n.'L'O, e ::r.na.rubl'tellpn ,do :i10rV.li ,indj:~du~,

O~, ~~e~ . q~, ~r.es;e,n'tMul. m~~~e; }~~l~~ie,a '~m_ wm e[<e~)Oi rl~ '~JJda ,~h3l'irUILd]) ffipl,gbu)uote, O{~.

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OOll!.d~ clip.16..i,.d(:j dn 'P:1I'~;!i~~;" Oe~;:u:rei' eln ceIta;!!l

algas, ~J:!l)'~O:-?~i¥i~D~' e fLli~S;.

o~ 1Ildb,[duO,S, fi:1~~ lllia:pM.ide:~ e a :prod~§.~1 de gJan~eb:iii;h en.'l.'Iro~ Oe(~li~t-e POl': :m.i.moo, ... D\$:, ,fu.sNo duSi giS..rl!cl~tM ~i[1l1·ge· UI!]]], YLigpl:o d]p.[jjide q[U~1 '~[Jfff.eT.1a: .nleil~liu~.

o ci.clu ~ ricl::a em ~u.e·,a, ,me:~nS£ii e, ,zj~~ic~ cfuAma..:~e :b3!;,lm'bim,D.'E_f!l, OU, haplo:o.'te..,

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o olljet'U~ 'H' d,~ta. 1Il1tliQ;i!i~ ~. ,~. fuT'liE!a~Q [cleO ~pt_DtO:r;, OC~>Bl' em aa:gtlJll~1S ~.ga'~ ,e :033 'pl~nti1s,

N~sli_e;· ease hlii. ClJn[('l 'tFjp[)iS de iodiv~dUl.O.~:~ (D' espurr.6:fi:cn que ~ di.p16hi,e e' .~ e9_PIlh'Og hap'Mid,~ por.' fiU~riQ$~ e if) g:amJ!~·t6fi.to q:ue e·. h~,p'Mid,e resulha ,d:2l ~t::rfUn~'o dos ~~.po:t-.os:} e·' fO:[".~na. gc~H~~t~ h3.p~6ia,e~· p~~ _m:ih}~f;;L Os gar.Ilf;H:,a~, sa: fi.lnlLLam. 'na .f'8c]m:[l~~ilG p1f]:;~. opp~ar' iLtm .. z~gG[f:j] Idip']6iude qltlie vai. fo:nllu ~. ,~.po~n[~, dlp6rJd:e.

10 €~(:h-~ d.e vida- em ~.l!]je a me]Qse eintel!n:n;,~dj;i!lrla. . .e ehamado de baplniii:plo]iJ,iomte, lUlu.. .bapJ.Dtlip;lom'.:e' .•

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