Attachment Between Infant and Caregiver

Definition Infant attachment is the deep emotional connection that an infant forms with his or her primary caregiver, often the mother. It is a tie that binds them together, endures over time, and leads the infant to experience pleasure, joy, safety, and comfort in the caregiver's company. The baby feels distress when that person is absent. Soothing, comforting, and providing pleasure are primary elements of the relationship. Attachment theory holds that a consistent primary caregiver is necessary for a child's optimal development. Description Attachment theory originated in the early 1950s with John Bowlby, a child psychiatrist, and Mary Ainsworth, a psychologist, who both became interested in young children's responses to experiencing loss. They began studying the realms of attachment and bonding. Their theory was developed and integrated over the following 60 years by researchers around the world. (For attachment as it pertains to adoption, readers can consult the entry in this encyclopedia on adoption.) Attachment theory is based on the idea that the bond between an infant and his or her primary caregiver is the crucial and primary influence in infant development and as such forms the basis of coping, the development of relationships, and the formation of personality. If the mother is absent or not available, a primary caregiver serves the role usually assumed by the mother. Attachment refers to a relationship that emerges over time from a history of caregiver-infant interactions. As adults nurture and interact with infants during the first year of life, infants organize their behavior around these caregivers. Attachment is a phenomenon involving physiological, emotional, cognitive, and social processes. The baby displays instinctual attachment behaviors that are activated by cues or signals from the caregiver. Therefore, the process of attachment is defined as a mutual regulatory system, in which the baby and the caregiver have an influence on one another over time. The caregiver's presence provides a feeling of safety and security for the infant. Once this relationship is established, the preference tends to remain stable, and a shift of attachment behavior to a new or strange person becomes more difficult. Some theorists believe that the attachment system evolved to ensure that infants and caregivers remain physically close, and that the infant is protected. Thus, in order to survive, an infant must become attached to the primary caregiver, who is stronger and wiser regarding the dangers of the world. The caregiver is a safe refuge, a source of comfort and protection, and serves as a secure base from which the infant can explore. Research has shown that babies and caregivers demonstrate an instinct to attach. Babies instinctively reach out for the safety and security of the safe haven they have with their primary caregiver, while parents usually instinctively protect and nurture their children. Children who

start their lives with the essential basis of secure attachment fare better in all aspects of functioning as their development progresses.
Attachment and Behavior

From a behavioral perspective, attachment is represented by a group of instinctive infant behaviors that serve to form the attachment bond, protect the child from fear and harm, and aid in the infant's protected exploration of the world. These behaviors include:
y y y y y y y y

reaching crying grasping smiling vocalizing clinging sucking moving

All of these behaviors assist in facilitating the maximum physical and emotional development of the child. These particular behaviors may vary from one culture or society to others, but the attachment relationship appears to be universal.
Attachment and Emotions

From an emotional perspective, attachment is the development of a mutual bond in which the primary caregiver positively influences infant development through the interactions and relationship that person has with the child. Babies are unable to regulate themselves and become overwhelmed by their emotional states, including those of fear, pleasure, and sadness. Babies are unable to keep themselves in a state of equilibrium, as they lack the skills to control either the intensity or the duration of those emotions. In an attached relationship, babies rely on their primary caregiver to help them navigate the world. The primary caregiver serves as a secure base that is used for exploration and learning. At the same time, the infant forms the necessary skills of self-protection and intimacy. Other important functions that a secure attachment between an infant and his or her caregiver serves for the developing child include the following:
y y y y y y y

learning basic trust, which serves as a basis for all future emotional relationships exploring the environment with feelings of safety and security, which leads to healthy intellectual and social development developing the ability to control behavior, which results in effective management of impulses and emotions creating a foundation for the development of identity, which includes a sense of capability, self-worth, and a balance between dependence and independence establishing a moral framework that leads to empathy, compassion, and conscience generating a core set of beliefs providing a defense against stress and trauma

Children will display distinct attachment styles, which can be loosely defined as either secure or insecure. Secure styles show a child consistently connected to the primary caregiver, with a firmly established sense of trust and a nurturing response; however, insecure styles of attachment have features of instability.

Several milestones occur over the course of their first year as infants form an attached relationship with their primary caregiver. These milestones include the following:

y y y

In the first two months of life, even though infants show little observable preference for a particular care-giver, the warm, sensitive, and reliable responses of the caregiver to the child set the stage for the developing attachment relationship. From two to seven months, infants tend to interact differently with primary caregivers than they do with strangers but in general still do not display solid preferences. By four to six months of age, infants begin to develop expectations of how their primary caregiver will respond to them when they are distressed. Between seven months and one year, infants show a definite preference for their primary caregiver. They start to exhibit a wariness of strangers and symptoms of separation anxiety.


From 12 to 18 months, as they start to walk and crawl, children use their attachment figure as a secure base from which to go out and discover the world and as a safe haven to which to return when frightened or alarmed. Children with secure histories have been shown to be more determined, enthusiastic, and competent in problem-solving as toddlers.

During this time, the attachment relationship is characterized by an increased tolerance for separation and an ability to cooperate with others. The child is learning to balance his or her need for independence, self-discipline, and exploration and the need for love and protection from the primary caregiver. However, as preschool approaches, children are still susceptible to a variety of dangers. Therefore, attachment behaviors, such as wanting to stay close to the primary caregiver and displaying occasional separation anxiety are adaptive processes, not regressive ones. Western culture has often portrayed this type of behavior as controlling or attentionseeking. Attachment theorists believe this is inaccurate, as these behaviors help serve to ensure the child's survival and socialization.
School Age

School-age children with a history of secured attachment histories demonstrate an ability to be more goal-oriented and often display positive leadership skills. Numerous long-term studies have shown that in the following areas securely attached children do better as they grow older:


y y y y y y y y

autonomy ability to manage impulses and feelings long-term friendships positive relationships with parents, caregivers, and other authority figures effective coping skills trust, intimacy, and affection positive and hopeful belief systems academic success in school

Common Problems Insecure attachment develops when a primary care-giver does not consistently respond in ways that are warm, affectionate, loving, dependable, and sensitive to the infant's needs. The three primary insecure types are resistant attachment, avoidant attachment, and disorganized attachment.
Resistant Attachment

This pattern is characterized by an emotional ambivalence in the child and a physical resistance to the primary caregiver. The infant is often hesitant to separate from the caregiver and is quick to display anxiety and distress in an unfamiliar setting. This classification is often referred to as anxious-ambivalent because the child will demonstrate anger towards the caregiver at the same time they are expressing their need for comforting. This type of insecure attachment may be an indicator of risk for the development of emotional, social, and behavioral problems in childhood and later in life.
Avoidant Attachment

The key behavior in this type of insecure attachment is an active avoidance of the primary caregiver when the infant is upset. These babies readily separate from their primary caregivers in order to explore and may be more affectionate with strangers than their own mother. They exhibit little preference for and appear emotionally distant from the primary caregiver.
Disorganized Attachment

In this type of insecure attachment, infants show a variety of confused and contradictory behaviors. For example, during a reunion with the primary caregiver, the child may look away or even display a blank stare when being held. Other babies may exhibit confusing patterns such as crying unexpectedly after being held or displaying odd, dazed expressions. Parental Concerns Healthy attachment is the key to healthy babies, and healthy babies are the key to healthy adults. It is crucial for parents, however, to understand that each parent faces times when things do not function flawlessly. What is important in the development of secure attachment is that the primary caregiver is available emotionally to the child and sensitive to the infant's needs.

2004. 2004). 2004).shtml (accessed October 11. 5 (October 2003): 364+. Christopher A. Alan Stroufe. "Implications of Attachment Theory and Research for Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics. TX: PRO-ED Incorporated. 2 (2002). Nashville.attachmentparenting. Bringing Up Baby: Three Steps to Making Good Decisions in Your Child's First Years. . Resources Books Blackman." Camping Magazine (March-April 2003). Rene A. 2005. Infant Development and Mental Health in Early Intervention. TN 37204. Spitz. et al. Periodicals Carlson. (accessed October 11.findarticles." API News 5. Austin. no." Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 24. Claire." Mothering (July-August 2003). 2906 Berry Hill First Year of Life: A Psychoanalytic Study of Normal and Deviant and L.When to Call the Doctor Parents should call their doctor if their child exhibits any of the behaviors of an insecure attachment. 2004). Elizabeth A. Oxford. et al.findarticles. Gavin. Sampson. "The Science of Attachment: The Biological Roots of Love-Family Living. "The Chemistry of Attachment. Lauren Lindsey.. Thurber. Web site: (accessed October 11. CT: International Universities Press. Porter. DC: Zero to Three Press. 2005. See also Adoption. Washington. "Roots and Wings: how attachment and temperament shape development²Revolutionary Studies in Child Psychology. Available online at www. The Blackwell Handbook of Infant Development. Linda F.attachmentparenting. Organizations Attachment Parenting International. James A. Available online at www. Megan C. Lerner. Web Sites Palmer. 2004. Available online at www. Bremner. Madison. J. UK: Blackwell Publishing.

commercial products. Linda Eggbeer. or organizations imply endorsement by the U. s 2 Brooke Foulds. Department of Health and Human P 2. and Sandra Petersen Child Care Bureau Office of Head Start Administration for Children & Families 7/08 The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. You may reproduce this material for training and information purposes.S.S. Environments. Tweety Yates. Government. Administration for Children and Families (Cooperative Agreement N. nor does mention of trade names. The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.7/08 The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Infant Toddler Module 2 Responsive Routines. Donna Wittmer. PHS 90YD0215). Amy Hunter.1 Learner Objectives Suggested Agenda ‡ Participants will be able to discuss why it is important to be intentional about supporting social emotional development in infants and toddlers ‡ Participants will be able to describe the importance of caregiving routines and identify . Department of Health and Human Services.S. and Strategies to Support Social Emotional Development in Infants and Toddlers This material was developed by the Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning with federal funds from the U.

Working in Partnership with Families 45 min. _ Flip chart or white board and markers _ Video Clips 2.strategies for using them to support social emotional development ‡ Participants will be able to identify key ways in which the physical environment can promote social emotional development in infants and toddlers ‡ Participants will be able to examine the environments in which they work and begin to make plans to enhance them to meet the needs of infants and toddlers in care ‡ Participants will be able to define emotional literacy and describe the kinds of interactions between adults and infants and toddlers that support emotional literacy ‡ Participants will be able to identify strategies for helping to build social skills in infants and toddlers I. Responsive Routines and Schedules 45 min. X.3 Adult supporting children in difficult encounters 2. VI. in Responsive Caregiving IV. IX. 20 min.vanderbilt. Strategies to Build Emotional Literacy 60 min. Summary and Action Planning 10 min. Environments. Materials Needed Module 2 Responsive Routines. Provide enough books for everyone in the group attending training or ask those attending to bring a book with them. V. Responsive Environments 60 min. VII. III.1 Observation of interaction between 9-month-old and two adults 2. Careful Observation: The First Step 30 min. VIII.4 Adult encouraging socialization 2. Strategies to Build Social Skills 60 min. Total Time 6 hrs. Bringing it All Together 20 min. and Strategies _ Agenda _ PowerPoint Slides _ Facilitator¶s Guide _ Books for infants and toddlers that focus on social emotional literacy.5 Walk away . A list of sample books can be found on the CSEFEL website at http://www. Brief Review of Module 1: Social Emotional Development within the Context of Relationships 30 min. Introduction and Logistics 20 min.2 Responsive greeting 2.

provide a brief overview of who you are. introduce all speakers. Or use another introductory strategy depending on the size of the group. and the time available. toddlers. assistants.13 Tips on Nurturing Your Child¶s Social Emotional Development _ 2. bathrooms. Have each table of participants introduce themselves to each other. Environments.1) and other resources. The process by which .6 Socialization Example (What Makes Me Laugh?) 2. administrators.5 Infant and Toddler Environments Planning Document 2. Introduction and Logistics (20 minutes) A.2 1 2 3 4 A. Slide 2: Agenda. trainers). home visitors.. C.6 Mom playing with her toddler _ Handouts 2. where you are from.11 Vignette II: Tomika 2. E. Distribute all handouts including Participant PowerPoint slides (Handout 2. lunch plans). B. F.2. whether this is a group new to one another.12 Vignette III: Benji 2. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Encourage participants to ask questions throughout or to post them in a specially marked place (parking lot).9 Infant and Toddler Peer Behavior 2. Review the Agenda and Learner Objectives (Slides 3 & 4). Then begin with a welcome to the group. Show Slide 1 and introduce Module 2 by name. and Module 2 Responsive Routines. Address logistical issues (e.3 Infant Toddler Video Observation Tool 2.8 Cooperation 2. Ask for a show of hands from the group to indicate what role in the early childhood community each represents (e. D. teachers.2 Social Emotional Development within the Context of Relationships Review 2. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt.14 Session Evaluation Form I. breaks.. early interventionists.1 Participant PowerPoint Slides 2.7 Using Books to Support Emotional Literacy 2.10 Vignette I: Fernando 2. Slides 5 & 6. family care providers.g.g. Point out that the CSEFEL infant-toddler modules are designed to help participants learn about babies.4 Responsive Routines Inventory 2. and information about your background that is relevant to this training event.

The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. we all need to understand how typical social emotional development unfolds during the first three years. B. Slide 8. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. State that this module will focus on making the most of routines with infants and toddlers.infants and toddlers become socially and emotionally competent is full of challenges ± challenges that occur in normal Module 2 Responsive Routines. Remind participants that in order to understand and effectively respond to behavior that center and family providers. Also make the point that some of these skills will continue to develop well into the preschool and school years.3 5 6 7 8 II. Brief Review of Module I: Social Emotional Development within . home visitors. and parents experience as challenging. and developing a repertoire of strategies to support the development of social emotional skills in very young children. early childhood providers and other professionals can use to assist children birth through five in developing social emotional competence. 1. CSEFEL Pyramid Model: Review the levels of the CSEFEL Pyramid. CSEFEL Definition of Social Emotional Development. We move on to individualized interventions only when the bottom of the Pyramid is in place and some children continue to engage in challenging behavior. The primary focus of the training is on promotion and prevention. Social emotional development begins at birth and continues throughout life. challenges that signal unmet needs. creating responsive physical environments. Environments. Ask participants to look again at the CSEFEL working definition of social emotional development. and for providers. Remind participants that the Pyramid is a model that represents components of adult behavior and strategies that parents. and challenges that are particularly difficult for children themselves. 2. their families. Remind participants that we also need to spend some time examining our own emotions when certain kinds of behavior persist despite our best efforts. Slide 7. 3. B.

11 and 12 to review the answers and restate the major concepts covered in Module 1. Let the group know how pleased you are with the information they have retained from the last training day. As we have said before. caregivers who are intentional about providing responsive care have a powerful influence on the development of positive The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. problems in behavior can be anticipated and prevented more easily and that individualized support can be given to children who need it. When time is called. each new relationship is a clean sl ate and working with i nfants and toddlers will bring a caregiver an opportunit y to m up for a ake lifetim of unhappiness. 3. Slide 9. Ask the whole group to respond aloud with true or false to each statement.the Context of Relationships (30 min. 1. Have fun with the questions.g. D. The goal is to become more intentional and responsive in caregiving so that social-emotional development can be promoted.. 2: Rel ati o n sh i p s Re vi ew S o ci al E m o ti o n al De vel o p m en t w i th i n th e Co n text o f Rel ati o n sh i p s Re vi ew 1) Few inf ants are born bi ologically ready f or relationships. Environments. Let them know that today the focus is on the many ways that infant-toddler providers can be more intentional about developing and expanding relationships with the infants and toddlers who are served in their programs.4 9 10 11 12 (continued) M o d u l e 2 Han d o u t 2. Use Slides 10.) 4. read each statement on the review. e 3) We m not always k now why we do som hing wit h young ay et children but there is a ri ght way and a wrong way for children t o behave. even babies and toddlers. Module 2: Social Emotional Development within the Context of Relationships Review. The goal is to revisit the importance of relationships for infants and toddlers. 2) Even if a c aregiver has had a very dif ficult upbri nging. Give the groups 10 minutes to discuss the statements about infant-toddler social emotional development and select the correct answer. Verify the correct response yourself. Be prepared for multiple groups to have an equal number of correct answers. vases of flowers for the table or any other small token). 5. 4) Three major elem ents of social em otional development in . Module 2 Responsive Routines.2. You might provide the group with the most correct responses with a prize (e. 4. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. bookmarks with photos of babies. chocolate kisses. Activity: Use Handout 2. Have participants divide into groups of four and work on the True/False review.

2. home visitors. to make guesses (which you will test out) about how that child is doing with regard to social emotional development. When carefully examined. and activities of babies and toddlers at different times of the day and with different adults and peers. Introduce the subject of observation by noting that entire books have been written about the topic. 5) Temperam is som hing that should be elim nated f rom a ent et i child who cannot st op crying. 7) Regardless of a f am cultural beli efs or what a f am m ily¶s ily ight prefer. In this first stage. questioning. they should focus on the behavior. 1. a parent should understand t hat infants and toddlers m be expect ed t o behave according to the care provider¶s ust values. expressing and regul ating em ons. Observations are critical in figuring out how to proceed with children for whom there is some concern about development or behavior. 3. Really careful observation entails an ongoing process of thoughtful looking. 8) There are so m infl uences in children¶s lives that the loving any m essages t hat a responsive. f orm cl ose and secure relationships. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Point out that when infant-toddler providers. The second step is using this information. we will focus on two parts to observation.5 III. T also m understand that all rules are put in hey ust writing so that busy caregivers do not have t o be delayed by talking wit h parents. Observational data are invaluable for planning and supporting the needs and interests of all children whether they are in a socialization experience. a center or home-based program. listening. sensitive caregiver sends t o an infant or t oddl er cannot possibly impact that child f or m than ore a brief time. Careful Observation: The First Step in Responsive . or other adults observe. interactions. There are multiple aspects to providing responsive care and the first one we are going to think about is observation. a. or any other setting. information from repeated observations can help caregivers think through whether a baby¶s or toddler¶s actions The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. 6) Attac hm is som ent ething a baby either does have or doesn¶ t have when he m eets other people. So Emoti o al Develop cial n ment T e F se ru al (Handout 2.2) early relationships which are so important for healthy social emotional development. Point out that for the purposes of this training. and bei ng oti ing able t o expl ore and learn. it is important to train yourself not to assign meaning to what you see. The first step involves looking at and recording just what you see and hear without making any guesses about what any of it means. Responsive caregiving involves following the lead of the child. These observations should be done for all children in a setting and by each caregiver. and looking again.infancy i nclude experiencing. Module 2 Responsive Routines. Environments. A. in combination with what you know about a child and his family.

Slide 13: Activity: Use Handout 2. Obviously it captures just a few moments in time and only begins to suggest some things about this little girl. Elicit the following: .1 (Slide 14) as a typical interaction between a 9-month-old baby. the questions the observation generated for them.Infant-Toddler Observation Tool. Ask participants to write down only what they actually see and hear the baby doing. 2. Caregivers can discuss these observations with parents and get their input and insight about their child¶s development.) likely represent normal ups and downs in growth and development (e.g. her mother. 3: V i d eo O b ser vati o n T o o l I n fan t T o d d l er V i d eo O b servati o n T o o l Record what you actually see or hear: Write down what questions the int eractions the baby has wit h her m other and the home visitor raise f or you: How do you t hink it feels t o be this lit tle gi rl? How would you find out m about how t his child is doi ng wit h regard to social ore em onal development? oti (Handout 2. Play the video clip a second time. This is particularly important if caregivers are concerned about some aspect of development or behavior.. There will be much more about this topic in Module 3.3 . How would they go about learning more about how this child is doing with regard to social emotional development? The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. and an Early Head Start home visitor. 5.g. Introduce Video 2. ask participants to write down what questions the observation raises about the interactions the baby has with her mother and the home visitor. and the strategies they would use to find out more. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. a 2-year-old may become more clingy with a parent when a new baby brother is brought home from the hospital).Caregiving (30 min. Play the video clip. repeated biting episodes that have become more frequent and during which a 21/2-year-old who bites becomes increasingly agitated).6 13 14 M o d u l e 2 Han d o u t 2. Environments. b.3) 4. Conduct a discussion with the whole group about their responses to each step of the observation. This time. Or perhaps this information will indicate to caregivers that there are other needs that need to be attended to (e. 1. Observations of babies and toddlers interacting with their parents or family members at different points in the day are important as well. B. 3. Now ask participants to jot down how they think it feels to be this little Module 2 Responsive Routines.

and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Frequent observations allow the sensitive caregiver to gather information that will allow her to adapt her own behavior to follow the child¶s lead. ‡ Take the time to observe a child in different settings with different people at various times during the day to get as clear a picture as possible about the context of children¶s development and Module 2 Responsive Routines. Observations are particularly useful when we are focused on making the most of the opportunities to build nurturing and responsive there are in most situations in which you observe children. A. A 3-month-old may signal by fussing that he needs a nap even though The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt.7 IV. ‡ Talk with the child¶s parents and colleagues to incorporate their observations and thoughts about how the child is progressing.‡ There are multiple relationships to pay attention to in this short clip . The sensitive caregiver seeks to understand what the infant or . ‡ Regularly observing infants and toddlers in care is an extremely important activity whether you are an individual caregiver or are part of a team. ‡ Make a list of questions you might ask yourself about a child to better understand the meaning of his/her behavior. Responsive Routines and Schedules (45 min. A caregiver who is attentive to the 2-year-olds in her center group will notice when one of them needs some time away from other children. ‡ It¶s not easy to stay focused on what you actually see and hear in a situation because there is a tendency to quickly attach meaning to what is observed.) the caregiver had planned a nap for him later on. Make the point that our observations of the behavior of infants. Environments. toddlers or young children allow us to better understand how they are getting along and what kinds of experiences will support their development. ‡ It¶s important to take the time to record observations so that you can go back and think about them. 1. Write these observations down and date them so that you have an ongoing record.

She might move more quickly. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Responsive caregivers use every opportunity to ³get in tune´ with the infant or toddler. the ways we greet them and their families in the mornings and say goodbye in the evenings. A caregiver might move in a very slow gentle way and speak in a soft voice with a toddler just rousing from a deep sleep as she picks him up and moves to the diaper table. 1. B. Being ³in tune´ is another way to talk about responsive care that is based on following the infant¶s cues. Environments. Make the point that as we think about the needs and behavior of infants and toddlers over the course of a day.8 Slide 15: How Schedules and Routines Support Social Emotional Development. diapering or toileting. 2. the things we do to move infants and toddlers from wake to sleep and vice versa. use a higher. This way of interacting with infants and toddlers shows respect for their unique needs and the intent to model the respect that we would like each child to show for the needs of another. louder. routines that arise from their care are the foundations of the curriculum. Make the point that for infants and toddlers. we mean the regular and repeated things we do and the way we do them day . and the things we do in transitions to and from one activity to another. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. more upbeat voice with that same toddler if he was already wide awake and was jumping on his bed. By care. By routines.toddler is communicating and to respond in a way that communicates his/her understanding of the cues the baby or toddler is sending. If we were talking about a schedule and routines for an individual child in a home setting we would use the same principles and supports with a parent to design a routine based on the needs of the home and the needs of an individual Module 2 Responsive Routines. it is important to think about the role of schedules and routines in supporting social emotional development. Responsive routines and schedules are ones that are designed with close attention to the developmental needs of all children in the setting and are adapted to the needs of individual children. we mean such activities as feeding. Matching the infant¶s or toddler¶s mood and pace of activity is an example of getting in tune.

Predictable routines. we tend to mean what time we do something. Your ability to relax will affect what you can take in. 4.´ 5. If you feel more day. leads to a sense of competence and feelings of confidence about his ability to be successful in his world. Provide an example of the need humans tend to have for predictability: For example.9 15 relaxed now that you know what to expect? You notice that we provide an agenda and a predictable style of presentation. Make the point that babies and toddlers learn about people and the way the world works through their daily routines. He will be freer to use his energies to explore his environment and learn. This sense of security allows them to relax and to explore and learn from their environment. What people say. If this is the second time you have attended the CSEFEL training. but rather the sequence or order for the routines of care. A child¶s ability to predict what will happen next and how he will be treated will lead to greater security. older infants and toddlers benefit from flexible routines and schedules. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. give infants and toddlers a sense of control and a sense of security. 2. what they do. Perhaps today you will notice something different from what you did the last time and your learning will expand. the time is not really the issue. which in turn. how they say what they say and how they do what they do ± all of this is the curriculum. provided in the same way by the same people. it may be because you feel more secure and have some sense of what¶s coming Module 2 Responsive Routines. aren¶t you a little more The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Environments. On the other hand. Generally with infants and toddlers. a child who is in a setting where adults . When we talk about schedules. 3. It is more important for the very young child that we engage in the major care activities in a regular order than it is that we try to keep to a time schedule. Make the point that while for very young infants individualization is the name of the game. ³Just think about yourself today. Routines and schedules create predictability and help older infants and toddlers organize themselves around what is coming next.

Ask if they have other ideas that they have used. Activity: Use Handout 2. Discuss the following points.4 Responsive Routines Inventory. Many centers and home based care settings have decorated their special good-bye areas to make it easier to say good-bye and start the day. if the fam desires ily (Handout 2. This means that the sensitive caregiver uses her presence ± her voice.´ This will give a designated space for caregivers and children to say good-bye. Tell the group that this is an opportunity to think more about routines of daily care for infants and toddlers and to look for ways to support the social emotional development of each child. don¶t provide some advance warning about what¶s coming next. Show Slide 21 to give participants some ideas for using routines to support social emotional development. or who don¶t work to try to match their care to what they see the child is experiencing. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Environments. Our support as teachers and caregivers can help make this an easier transition. ‡ Special Good-Bye Area ± Have a special part of the room or an area outside the door that is the ³special good-bye area. things suddenly. C. ‡ Family Photos/Objects ± Have family photos or favorite objects displayed around the room so . eye contact. Responsive routines and schedules are used by caregivers to enhance the quality of the relationship between the infant and the adult caregiver. insi deoutside) ent so that toddlers learn t o predict Provide a daily routine that follows each infant¶s and toddler¶s need f or feedi ng and sl eeping Use routines as opportunities f or em onal oti interaction and l earning Provide primary caregiving Resp o n si ve d ai l y ro u ti n es W h at I d o n o w / M y p l an s P ro vi d e r esp o n si v e ro u ti n es fo r W h at I d o n o w / M y p l an s i n fan t feed i n g an d to d d l er eati n g Pro e respo vid nsive ro utines fo i n t feed n r fan i g an todd eati n d ler g Provide a private place for fam m bers t o ily em feed an inf ant. ‡ Allowing time for hellos and good-byes ± Hellos and good-byes can be hard for some children and adults. her physical proximity or nearness to the child. Show Slides 17 ± 20 as examples of typical routines. 4: Re sp o n si ve Ro u ti n es I n ven to r y Resp o n si ve Ro u ti n e s I n ven to ry Im plem a flexible routi ne (eati ng. 6. Slide 16. and her touch²to provide security and to assure the baby that the world is a safe and interesting place. Module 2 Responsive Routines. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt.10 20 16 17 18 19 M o d u l e 2 Han d o u t 2.4) 2. finds it more difficult to be prepared for what comes next.

Caregivers can point out the family pictures. It might be a fun song or a big hug. ‡ Talk about feelings ± Acknowledge the feelings of children and adults. talk about how loved the child is and remind him Dad will be back to pick him up after snack time. infant . Suggest that participants gather in groups of four and. The title for a book for a child who is dropped off by his Mom might be ± ³Mommy Comes Back. 3. Each group might want to select a specific routine to focus on or go through all routines with a specific age group in Module 2 Responsive Routines. I¶ll be back to pick you up. for children birth to three. especially when they are feeling a little scared or lonely.11 21 ‡ Books ± Make books about saying good-bye.children can see their families throughout the day. 1/03 P 2. Ask participants to reflect on the most important routines. mom might help her son hang up his back pack and then give good-bye butterfly kisses while saying. from the perspective of social emotional development. and Strategies Rev.´ The book goes through the schedule/routines of the day and shows the child leaving the home care or center setting at the end of the day with Mommy! You might also involve parents in making the book and have them take pictures of their morning routines to add to the book (what happens before the child comes to the center). ³Here¶s my special butterfly kiss to last throughout the day. so go and play!´ Good-bye rituals become a signal to the child that it is time to say good±bye and reassures them that Mom will be back later! ‡ Games ± Have a fun good-bye game that you play as infants and toddlers are dropped off in the morning. Environments. For example. Talk to the children about their feelings and what they can do to feel better. ‡ Rituals ± Talk to families about having a fun ³goodbye´ ritual that they can do everyday with their child. The inventory includes routines across 5 areas: responsive daily routines. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. This is a great way to get other children involved in helping each other say good-bye as well as practice social skills. using the handout to guide their thinking. identify specific things they can do to enrich those routines.

and hear. B. Go through the slide to review each of the criteria. Ask participants to reflect on the following ideas: Caregivers decide what babies see. A Well Designed Infant-Toddler Environment.2 (Slide 22) to illustrate a responsive greeting of a 15-month-old child and his parents. ‡ Through these things.feeding and toddler eating. 4.12 22 ‡ She helps him say goodbye when his parents leave. diapering and toileting. Show Video 2. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Ask for volunteers to provide examples of what they would do to enrich routines in any of the five areas and specify the age of the children they are referring to. she lets his parents know that she has a genuine interest in their little boy. Ask participants to add their requirements for a responsive environment to this list. sleeping and resting. Write the additional suggestions on the flip chart. Caregivers of infants and toddlers create the physical Module 2 Responsive Routines. Ask participants to comment on what they see this caregiver doing to make the morning transition easier. choose toys and other materials and provide the interactions that make up their learning experiences. Ask participants to take 5 . and exercise the baby will have. Make the point that a well-designed infant-toddler physical environment can have a major impact not only on children¶s social emotional development but also on their language. Show Slide 23. Slide 22. ‡ She elicits information about how his morning has been so far. They make decisions about how much fresh air. Elicit from participants both what she does and how she does it. Show slides 25-28. sunlight. After about 20 minutes. C. Responsive Environments. D. ask participants to come back together to discuss this activity. including the following points: ‡ The caregiver stops what she is doing and greets the child by name. ‡ She expresses interest in what he has experienced since she last saw him and asks additional questions of his parents to clarify. and greeting and goodbye times. touch. cognitive and motor development. Environments. A. D. and Strategies 7/08 P 2.

adult-size couch for adults to read to Module 2 Responsive Routines. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. 3. soft spaces to sit or crawl. etc. Responsive Environments (60 min. Give participants about 20 minutes to do the environment evaluation and planning. Some of the group may not have time to complete the evaluation or plan. walk. blanket on floor for infants. things posted on the wall at child¶s level. Suggest that this tool may be finished later .minutes and talk with another person about how the environments pictured meet the criteria above. ‡ Is developmentally appropriate: ‡ age appropriate²materials in environment look age appropriate ‡ individually appropriate²places for infants to be on blanket. Go over the content of the planning document discussing the support that each space and its components provide to the social emotional development of infants and toddlers. Use the criteria just discussed to explain how the components support a quality care environment. Slide 29. things to climb on. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Ask participants to work with another person at their table to discuss the potential improvements to the environment that their program provides for infants and toddlers. toys for children to play with together. places for one or two children to go to get away. mirrors to see themselves alone and with others. and motor development²child-size furniture. 2. ‡ Supports the social-emotional needs of infants and toddlers as well as their language. hats for dress up.) 23 E. soft spaces. Environments. etc.13 24 25 26 27 28 V. ‡ Encourages responsive care from adults²rocking chairs for one-on-one time. child-size furniture. etc.5 . Activity: Use Handout 2. etc. ‡ Supports peer relationships²spaces for two or more children to crawl into. climb. places for toddlers to crawl.Infant and Toddler Environments Planning Document. 1. cognitive.

Bring the large group back together and ask if anyone came up with a take home idea that they might add to their environment to make it more responsive to the needs of infants and toddlers or that might be particularly helpful in addressing a behavior difficulty evolving from a limitation in their infant or toddler environment such as needing a soft space away from active play so toddlers aren¶t as likely to ³run over´ infants. C. supportive relationships with adults. or finger paint s ‡ Paper and ot her interesti ng m aterials t o manipul ate and create ‡ Large pieces of paper and other int eresti ng m aterials t o draw and paint on ‡ Short easels and brushes for t oddlers to use by t hem selves or with other children ‡ A low shelf with safe creative m erials attractively display ed and at available for children to use ‡ A plac e to display children¶s creative work Sp aces fo Infants andTo lers r dd Yo r Plan fo Imp vemen of u r ro t th S o al Emo o e ci ti nal En viron t men (Handout 2. and books ‡ A nest (or create a nest with an i nner tube) with a blanket over it ‡ A space with boxes large enough f or a child or two to crawl i n and out of A sp ace fo i n ts an tod l ers touse creati ve arts materials r fan d d ‡ A space for coloring or painti ng on paper on the floor (pref erably near a short si nk not used f or f ood preparation) ‡ Short tables for clay . Strategies to Build Emotional Literacy (60 min. 1. E. away f romactiv e play for staff to sit on t he floor (with back support) and hol d a child or children ‡ A loft ‡ An adult-siz ed couch ‡ A m on the floor against t he wall with pill ows with washable at covers ‡ A rocki ng chair/ glider A q i et sp u ace fo i n ts an tod r fan d dlers ‡ A soft space away fromactive pl ay ‡ A soft space for two children wit h fam photographs books. Now we are going to discuss strategies and ideas for providing additional opportunities to support the development of specific social emotional skills. Point out that while emotional literacy is not just about language. 5: I n fan t an d T o d d l er E n vi ro n m en ts P l an n i n g Do cu m en t Anen viron ment th is at ‡ Safe and free from hazards ‡ Clean ‡ Has natural light fromwi ndows and other soft lighting ‡ Aesthetically pl easing ‡ Unclut tered ‡ Indivi dually. Use Slides 30 & 31 to summarize the responses. Ask participants for their definition of emotional literacy. ily dolls and blanket.and may be useful in their own work settings. language plays a large part in emotional literacy because language is so important in a social world. 4. soft toys. We use language to give common meaning to something. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. A. age. Introduce the topic by saying that we have talked about the importance of creating routines and environments in which infants and toddlers feel safe and confident. puppets. thick crayons. Take responses from the group. quiet toys.5) D. such as a feeling. Language serves as a tool to communicate and much of what language communicates is our feelings about ourselves and our relationships with others.) 29 M o d u l e 2 Han d o u t 2. B. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Social emotional literacy in very young children develops as a result of having respectful. nontoxic pai nts. caring. play dough.14 30 31 VI. and cult urally appropriat e ‡ Inviting and int eresting to chil dren Sp ecial p aces fo nu ri n ch d l r rtu g il ren A com fortabl e space. An example of a parent teaching a 12-month-old the meaning for an emotional experience might be a . Module 2 Responsive Routines. Make the point that emotional literacy refers to emotional communication or communication about emotion.

her mom says as she reaches for her daughter. The infant¶s or toddler¶s developmental level will determine what is said and what response the caregiver can expect from the child. G. is the primary strategy that we use to develop emotional literacy in the first months. she says ³Oh Mia. as the baby¶s face crumples. As the baby¶s face brightens. acknowledging and labeling Module 2 Responsive Routines. The mother makes eye contact with the baby and smiles a greeting. Talking about shared experiences. Use the following examples if needed: Using the adult/child relationship to expand an individual child¶s awareness of his emotions or feelings: . Go through each strategy and provide an example.´ 2. and letting infants and toddlers know that we see. The words used to acknowledge and label an emotion may be well ahead of the child¶s level of speech but the expectations for the child¶s response must be in line with the infant¶s or toddler¶s developmental capacity. Slides 32. This type of exchange. Ask for examples from the participants.15 language expands. labeled her emotional communication to the mother. This mother read her baby¶s cues. and she starts to sob.scene such as this: A mother arrives at the end of the day to pick up her daughter who has been left in care only for the third time. The caregiver¶s gentle. As the infant matures and his understanding of the meaning of The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Strategies to Develop Emotional Literacy in Infants and Toddlers. understand and accept their feelings many times a day are all major strategies that all caregivers can use to develop emotional literacy in infants and toddlers. Environments. you waited so long and you were afraid Mommy might not come. positive tone of voice is an important part of the message of understanding and acceptance of emotion for all young children. and then acknowledged that the two of them understood how the baby was feeling. within the context of the relationship between the mother and the baby. H. 1. F. the caregiver intentionally extends the conversation about feelings to encompass new concepts and words. hear. you are happy to see Mommy!´ Then. ³Oh.

and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Would you like to sing Itsy Bitsy Spider? Oh. You wanted to keep playing with the balls. Aw. I know that it is hard to stop playing with the bubbles now. I can see that. you bumped your head and it hurt. Let me hold you for a few minutes. Slide 33.16 32 ‡ Rocking a baby who is tired and can¶t relax and go to sleep: ³I know you don¶t want to go to sleep right now. Do you wish you could take those bubbles with you? Do you wish you could put them in your pocket? They pop don¶t they? 2. but I will hold you and rock you until you feel more relaxed. It will be all right. Here we go up on the diaper table. Talking about the fact that feelings can change ‡ Letting a child know that another child who bit him is still his friend: ³Benji bit you. and made you mad. We will go away from that counter and find something else to play with. Verbally acknowledging and labeling feelings expressed by children in care. Discuss strategies and use the following examples or ask . Environments. You want the apple sauce that tastes good right now. Strategies to Develop Emotional Literacy in Infants and Toddlers. ‡ A feeding situation with a 10-month-old fussing as he spits out food with a new texture: ³Oh. it hurt. you don¶t like those beans. I¶m sorry you¶re mad.´ c. didn¶t it.a.´ ‡ Interrupting play to change a diaper: ³Laura. let¶s stop playing with the balls and I will change your Module 2 Responsive Routines. Ouch! You like Benji but he bit you and you¶re mad! ³ d. didn¶t he. Using questions about feelings and wishes to see if children can respond ‡ Asking a toddler if he wishes he could play with more bubbles: ³Juan. there¶s a smile. Are you happy now?´ b. Are you feeling better?´ The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Tyrone? You wanted to touch his pretty monkey and he bit your arm. do you? Those beans make you angry. Assisting infants and toddlers with regulating their emotions ‡ Calming a baby who bumped his head: ³Oh Ethan. Benji. We¶ll have apple sauce next and you will feel better.

clothing. Show Video 2. hair color or texture. Do you like red? Would you like playing with a red boat? ´ The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Kiki wants the boat.g. Tim. Juan was playing with the boat. I know you were playing with the boat and it makes you mad when Kiki takes it. Slide 34. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Staying close and supporting children in difficult encounters with other children. I can see that you like Misha¶s glasses. Ethan likes the bunny. Juan. Sometimes it might be nice to have a Binky yourself. too. Let¶s find another boat.´ ‡ When younger children have Binkies or bottles or blankets that older children seem envious of: ³I can see that you pulled little Cora¶s Binky out of her Module 2 Responsive Routines. etc): ³Kerry. Environments. Taking advantage of teachable moments when children experience difficulties with peers and need adult support to resolve them ‡ Speaking for two children who want the same toy: ³Juan wants the boat. Kiki. Tim.3 as an example of staying close and providing support. Maybe you wish you had some yourself. You like to play with Misha and you want her to let you play with her glasses.17 33 ‡ When children become aware of things other children have that seem attractive (e. too. Let¶s take a moment and watch a quick video. hearing aids or wheel chairs. Finding opportunity in the group setting to talk about feelings a. right? Is that how you feel? We just have to be sure that Cora doesn¶t lose hers so maybe you can help me give it back to her.participants for examples.´ ‡ Staying near two children who want to pet the same bunny: ³Gentle with the bunny. You are sad you can¶t have it. Maybe we could make a pair for you out of these circles here. Tim is excited about the bunny. Ask participants to comment on what the caregiver does to help . look at Ethan petting the bunny. John. Ethan! He wants to pick it up. Two boys petting the bunny!´ b.

We can all play with the blocks!´ e. We will find a place for everyone to play with the blocks and trucks. Environments. Kiri is crying because she wants her Mommy. Letting children know through your calm approach that conflict is to be expected and that it can be resolved with help. Helping children learn to put into words how they think others are feeling and to express empathy for those feelings. Everybody find a place to sit. here is a place on this side. ‡ Telling a child who is not crying why the child who is unhappy is crying and then telling her how to comfort the crying child: ³Mia. We can figure this out. Showing positive feelings for both children in conflict.these children deal with what is a common situation in child care. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. One for you. one for you. we have lots of blocks for everyone to share. Kiki wants to have the book in her hands. Miss Peggy loves two girls on her lap.´ d. Slide 35: Strategies to Develop Emotional Literacy in Infants and Toddlers. Kiki. ‡ Putting your arms around both children who want to sit on your lap while you read a story: The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Do you think she feels better? Do you feel better now that she¶s not crying?´ f. ‡ Telling three children that it is hard to share: ³Children. Do you think she would feel better if she had her Binky? Are you worried? Can we find her Binky? You could give her the Binky and then she might not be so sad. Mia likes to read this book. Encouraging children to negotiate so that they . Let me hug both of you and then we will read the story. Sometimes it is hard to share blocks and we get mad. c. and one for you.18 (continued) 35 34 ³Mia here is a place for you on this side and Module 2 Responsive Routines. Discuss strategies using examples below or ask participants for examples.

two more ups and downs?´ g. Encouraging toddlers to draw pictures of their difficult or scary emotions (e. Choosing Module 2 Responsive Routines. Tyrone. I know you like the Olivia story. Using enriching language tools a. Do you want to ride. tell Teddy. Slide 37: Strategies to Develop Emotional Literacy in Infants and Toddlers. having two puppets struggling over a favorite item or two puppets that have pretty hair that no one can touch). b. Do you remember that we don¶t tear books? Remember we take care of our books so that we will be able to read them again. Ask participants if they have favorite books. Using puppetry or felt board stories that retell common social experiences in the child care setting and that emphasize feeling vocabulary and stories about conflict resolution (e. Baby Einstein for infants or See How I Feel stories like The Rainbow Fish for older toddlers). then it is Teddy¶s turn for a ride. tell Tyrone you want to ride? Two more ups and downs. or finger plays that they use with infants and toddlers. ‡ Telling both children you know they want to go on the rocking boat and that you will make sure each gets a turn: ³Tyrone is riding in the The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Modeling positive relationships . Teddy.g. music and finger plays with a rich vocabulary of feeling words. music. Clarifying rules. c. Reading stories about characters that children can identify with who express a range of feelings (e.g. then asking about the drawing). Let¶s put that book back on the table and let¶s find another book for your grocery cart.g. Slide 36: Strategies to Develop Emotional Literacy in Infants and Toddlers. if a toddler heard thunder and saw lightening. Teddy? Tyrone. ‡ Asking a child if she remembers that books are not to tear: ³Cate. Teddy wants to ride. 4. too.feel that they have been heard and their feelings have been taken into consideration.´ 3. Environments. Tyrone.19 boat. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. d. talking about it being frightening and offering an opportunity to draw.

for home visits. Environments. Between adults in the care setting ‡ The emotional atmosphere among the adults in a care setting sends a powerful message to very young children. for programs that offer parent-child play groups. mirro tomake funn faces. laughing with children and letting them know that you like their personality or their antics also sends messages about how we treat people. p repare aninteresti n en n g viro men u n ob t si g jects and activiti es th th p at e aren andch d h en o to ts il ren ave j yed geth du er ring p sessi o So sug ast ns. letting them know what you like rather than what you don¶t like. 6: PIWI/Develop do mental Ob servati o To i c (DOT Plan n p ) T Center on the Social and E m he otional F oundati ons f or Early Learni ng Vanderbilt University van derb Module 2 Responsive Routines. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. ts il ren an sh h i n o a d r o streamers ona bo to p peek-a-b . me gestion are: to th h anelement o s ys at ave f su rise such as a jack-i n rp -the-b x. pu et bo withpu ets. With children ‡ Saying only positive and constructive things to children. b oas. b. materials or interactions make their child laugh. everyone comes back together to talk about what happened (the closing discussion). o rs y ³Wh M at akes M L gh ´ activi ty sh taped to a mirro (includ e au ? eet r ed inth h do fu d is an ut). ‡ Explain that this example focuses on having parents follow their child¶s lead and then join in their child¶s play to observe what makes their child laugh! Point out that the example begins with an opening discussion to explain to parents what the focus of the group will be and why the topic is important. n ress upmaterials like h ats. mu c area withau tap o a pp x pp si dio es f variety of so s wh p ng ere aren andch d candosi lly d ces. Speaking in kind voices to one another. the environment is set up for parents to play with their child and observe what types of activities. which focuses on supporting development through caregiver-child interactions. saying hello to everyone and greeting parents with enthusiasm all carry messages about how we treat someone.The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. c. With parents and other adults in care settings ‡ Refer participants to Handout 2. eet ang g n oo r x lay oo . This resource may be useful for socialization time in Early Head Start programs. After the observation/play Module 2 Responsive Routines.21 M o d u l e 2 Han ut 2.6 Ag Ran Birth± 36 m o s e ge: nth DEVEL OPM AL OBSERVAT ENT ION T OPIC: Wh makes me lau ? at gh ENVIRONM ENTFOR PARENT -CHIL OBSERVAT D ION: F r to o day.6 ± Socialization Example: What Makes Me Laugh? Explain that this resource is from a project called PIWI: Parents Interacting with Infants. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. scarves.20 37 36 a. for parent meetings. Environments. and for adults in care settings. feath ers. After the /csefel H 2.

Ho are yo . Oftenwi th very you ch d . vi g s p wn r layingti ckli nggames. Ask the participants to divide themselves into small groups of 3 to 6 people. Tell them that they are going to practice using books to support social emotional development. they are th inkingab t what th see. and things that happen. like pu o a fu y h o walk i na fu y ing t n nn at r nn way. ation i n lve anad l t o o s vo u r lder child whois in t onmaki n them lau . the group identify the feeling words used in the book or feeling words that might be used by the reader if it is a book that is not . The primary outcome of the group is (1) for parents and children to have fun together. W h at m a kes me l au g h ? (Handout 2. Even al ly. As ch ren g o d th also b in to in tiate ild et l er. andtolaug at th as well. Ho are you We¶re so g tosee t¶ w u? w ? lad yo We¶re so g to see you Co an p ay! Co andplay! u! lad ! me d l me In ucingth Develop trod e mental Ob servati onTo We have b pic: een tal kingab t emo s an ou tion d tryingtofi g re ou o r ch d ¶ s si g u t u il ren nals andcu es²what they are trying to tell u To we are s! day g i n to h o g ave funlau i n tog er! We are go totalk abo th d gh g eth ing ut e ifferen kind o th n th t s f i gs at make ou ch renl aug . Environments. and h w these chang as ch d g old T k b r ild h o e il ren et er. Give each participant a book and ask each one to trade within their group and review at least three books. ‡ Give participants a few minutes to look over the handout and ask questions. (3) for parents to learn something new about their child that will help them become better supporters of their child¶s social emotional development (especially emotional literacy).You may want to use table groups or smaller groups depending on the total number of participants. 1. Suggest that adults in care settings might use this same type of environment to observe the infants and toddlers in their care. hin ack o th past ver e week o so r ²what canyo th n o that mad you ch ld laug (F u i k f e r i h? acili tato reco th ³lau ing r: rd e gh ´ situati o ona b g p ns i iece of paper that youcanrefer b ack to d ri n the cl o n d u g si g iscussi o n). Our goal with infants and young toddlers is to use language that links emotional language to Module 2 Responsive Routines. andbeg ntosee h m o ini d ou ey i u r eas. J. Th b i nto n tice thing g i n onarou th h ey eg o s o g nd em. Pretty so th also b r ro g d on ey egin to laug at g h ames like ³I¶m go a g yo ´ b nn et u ecau they b in to antici p th ti ckl e at the en se eg ate at d! T ey al so th n it¶ s fu y wh yo doso h i k nn en u meth si lly. and build on emotional literacy skills. eco very interestedin hearingan tell ingsim p j o d le kes. ey p rds r s. they l aug at th ng th see. oo OPENINGDISCUSSION: HelloS o : ng Hello (ch ild¶s n ame). 2. As th h ese ey g even o et lder. (2) for parents to observe their child and see what makes them laugh. T also like au i to hey d ry stimu ati o . An p h i s ey d retty so th lau at wh on ey gh at th th is go to h en n Often these situ ey ink ing app ext! . learn more about what makes them laugh. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Ask that as The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Reading with children is one of the most powerful tools in expanding a child¶s awareness of his own feelings and expanding his awareness of the feelings that others might have. laugh o rs mo ng il ren ter ccu stly when youare d i ngso o meth ph ing ysical to th l ike m o n their leg u anddo o p em. people. Slide 38: Activity: There are many ways to be more intentional about the development of emotional literacy with infants and toddlers. and (4) for parents to learn fun new activities and games to play with their child. Hell o(p aren s name). like when youmake po i n n l n pp g oises o g wli n soun s.6) The play group example gives some ideas for setting up the environment. Then ask each person in the group to share their reaction to at least one book and talk about how they might use the book to enhance social emotional literacy in their infant or toddler setting. fo examp th will make u wo fo thing andth goi n gales of eir wn nn r le.b ks. j u as we st d as ad o ults.22 38 each book is discussed. ey eg i th o fu ies. as th beg nto d ten g gh tu ey i eveloplang ag they will b me u e. en to laug ter. Wh th g a l ittle o en ey et lder.

edu/csefel Module 2 Responsive Routines. Older toddlers. Elicit from the group a short list of the caring and helping behaviors of infants and toddlers that demonstrate their ability to understand what adults and peers might want or feel. Strategies to Build Social Skills.23 39 M o d u l e 2 Han ut 2. Slide 39. Tell participants that the CSEFEL web site has a list of books for children birth through five that will be helpful in enhancing emotional literacy.7 to complete the activity. K. ask participants to bring a book with them to the training that they think might enhance social emotional development). ick oo en ss e ll wi g estion s: Nam of Book: e What feelings/ emotions are discussed i n the book? How would you use t his book wit h infants and t oddl ers t o support em otional literacy? 7/08 (Handout 2. you might have each group look at one book and complete the activity. 7: UsingBoo toSup rt Emo al L do ks po tion iteracy T Center on the Social and E m he otional F oundati ons f or Early Learni ng Vanderbilt University van derb ilt. Look for responses The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. need to develop social emotional literacy skills to manage or regulate their emotions and to be successful in solving the social problems that will naturally evolve as they interact with other /csefel H 2. If time does not permit having each participant read 3 books. 3.necessarily focused on feelings. Environments. Begin this discussion by asking participants to describe some of the types of positive peer interactions they have seen with infants and toddlers. A. with more language and more opportunities to be with other children. Remind the group that an infant or younger toddler with developmentally appropriate social emotional literacy is in a better position to expand his awareness of others. develop friendship skills. Introduce this section by saying we want to talk more about the development of social skills in infants and toddlers. 1.7) VII. Have participants use Handout 2.) from the group that identify behaviors that indicate that the infant or toddler has the capacity to . (Note to Trainer: If you do not have enough books for each person. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Have each group choose a reporter to list the feeling words and ideas for each book. Ask for a specific description of the child¶s behavior and when they tend to observe the behavior. Ask how they believe these interactions develop. Use Slide 38 to remind participants about what they are to do. Strategies to Build Social Skills (60 min. and move along toward a higher level of social play.7 Withyou small g up p a b k toread andth discu th fo o n qu r ro .

Examine the physical environment for spaces for two or more children to enjoy side by side activity and for adults to be seated close by for . and adults to engage in social Module 2 Responsive Routines. B. toddlers. Build on comments from the group to make the point that peer relationships are complex. 41.24 40 41 42 43 b. 1. the need to help with something or the need to cooperate.empathize (respond compassionately to the feelings of others) and some understanding of the need to comfort. Make the point that we have talked about some of the ways we can support the development of more advanced cooperative play or friendship skills. Slide 40. Make the point that when we think about social skills and the development of friendship skills. how we as adults interact with children from the very beginning fosters social development. 2. Use the examples provided if needed. we often think of older children. & 42: Development of Play Skills for Infants and Toddlers. in soft nests where the adult is supported. Yet. Give examples or have the group offer examples. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Go through the age groups and talk about and expand on the progressive development of play skills in the typically developing child. The way we interact with children every day. Examples: on the floor. Remind participants that the primary play mode of the child under three is playing alone with objects. His skills in language and his desire to interact with others are growing but he still has limited ability to negotiate or engage in extended interaction without the support of adult caregivers. a. Examine the physical environment to ensure that there is enough space for infants. rockers/sliders. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Use Slide 43: Setting up the Environment for the Development of Friendship Skills to highlight some of the things that have already been discussed in the routines and environment sections of the Module. Environments. provides a model for how they learn to interact. How we model interacting with others is how children learn to interact and behave toward others.

25 45 44 d. etc. Look at equipment choices for items that encourage two children to interact. c. brushing teeth. Highlight other strategies that we can use to encourage the development of friendship skills in infants and toddlers. c. climbing boxes or play houses. kitchen equipment. Examples: ³Maria and Tasha. Encourage toddlers to help each other and do routines together. Examples: hand washing. Two toddlers together are more likely to successfully interact than toddlers in groups of three or more children.´ ³Tasha. puzzles. Examine the schedule for multiple opportunities to develop play skills each day. e. you are doing such a good job rolling out the play dough together. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. or other manipulative materials. block areas. trucks. dolls. Remind participants that turn taking is an important exchange both between adults and infants and . playing together. cars. Read books about friends. a. play times.4) that illustrates this point (Slide 45). Provide examples or ask for examples from the group. blocks. Practice turn-taking and sharing. cleaning up toys. Examples: reading times. will you take this book to Benji?´ The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. e. Environments. Module 2 Responsive Routines. b. eating times. dress up hats. Let¶s look at a video (Video 2. d. Ask participants to discuss how the adult involved both children. singing a song or reading a book together. Examples: stacking toys. books. Examples: getting ready for snack. Slide 44: Promoting the Development of Friendship Skills. Ensure that there are enough materials for two or more children to use at a time. Examples: lofts. doll strollers. Set up activities for two children rather than more than two.supervision. helping each other. please hand Maria her spoon. Examples: grocery carts.´ ³Gabriel. rocking boats. Use examples provided if necessary. Provide positive guidance and verbal support for playing together and helping each other.

set a lim "I¶ll put t he crayons away it. etc. T baby is learning his that whil e he m sometimes need t o wait a bit . especially at eyes. "Look how fas t we set the table. and build relationships through cooperative play. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. the other grabs. Tell participants that Handout 2. 2003) ‡ Inf ants as young as 6-m onths of age showed m ore interest in peer strangers t han in adult st rangers (Brooks & Lewis. Exp nyo r reason fo limi ts an requ lai u s r d ests. we need t o hel p them understand how our requests and rules are good for ev eryone. You are a great scrubber! Look how bright and shiny you made our car! " (Handout 2. most chil dren use and understand language well enough to handle simple explanations. Point out the advantages of cooperating. " y ‡ Ask a questi on. When you place a block in the bucket. give himti m t o copy you. m omm says no. ‡ By 2-3 months .26 46 M o d u l e 2 Han d o u t 2. sucking on t hem or sitting on them . Why don¶t you come while I put it in the washing m hine? I¶ll lift you up so you can press ac the button. Between 6 and 9 m ake onths. " ‡T hen re-direct.´ When interacting with infants. ‡ A 14-m onth-old happily drops socks and t -shirts from one laundry basket int o the other. have participants watch Video 2. both of which are accept able t o you² perhaps eit her paper or a cardboard box. approach other inf ants . his ay needs are im ant and will be m port et. He shows them how one can bulldoze a pil e of dirt. my turn. Hi s grandm other says. You can hel p your ol der ake rob l two. We often think of c ooperati on as children doi ng what adults want.toddlers and between two children.9: Infant and Toddler Peer Behavior may be useful tools for staff and parents and may be helpful as they do the following activity. When it¶s ti m to clean up. "Where else could you draw?" ‡ Try a solution. 2006) i ‡ Inf ants m i nteract wit h peers wit h their whole body: ay rolling i nto t hem. They often look very surprised at the reaction they get. m other. I fi nish quicker and then we can play. T ears follow. an infant will sm e at anot her infant. anot her baby to ay see what that ot her infant will do. handing a red shov el to one and a pl astic bulldozer t o the other.´ Ask for examples from the group about how to help toddlers learn to take turns. T develop a cooperative ut o spirit in children. Remind participants that children learn about turn-taking and sharing gradually within the context of responsive and nurturing relationships. Environments. 2003). take turns putting pieces in t he puzzle. / 4±8 M hs ont ‡ Inf ants m poke. At three years ol d. ‡ Six-month-olds showed m excit em at photos of ore ent 6-m onth-olds than at phot os of 9." "Boy was it f un t o wash the car with you.and 12-m onth-olds (Sanef uji. The same strategy was used in teaching her how to share. Then we¶ll go for a walk . F ollowing are exam es of ways t hat cooperativeness pl grows across the first three years of life: ‡ A 3-m onth-old wakes and begins to cry for m His ilk. T is a great tim to encourage t urn-taking his e as you play wit h your baby. ³T hank you for hel ping m sort e the laundry. It is one of the beginning concepts in infancy that will support an understanding of communication or conversation and is a beginning social skill. These children are learning how to resolve conflict. 8±12 M onths .5. This is how infants start to learn ³your turn. C. T turns. They also learn to im itate." "When you hel p m put away the e laundry. which t he other can shovel into a bucket. il ‡ A 3-m onth-old inf ant lyi ng on his back will reach out to touch a peer next to him her. Off er two options. ‡ Inf ants pref er t o look at faces. clean up toys. For example play games that involve ³your turn. Let your child grow up experiencing the benefits of cooperation. As he gets older. ³I¶ll be with you in one m Module 2 Responsive Routines. T ogether you can set t he t able. ´ The baby quiets a bit and sucks on his fingers. m a e ake gam of t aking turns placing t oys back on the shel f. 9: I n do fant an T dler Peer Beh r d od avio 0±4 M hs ont ‡ Inf ants like to l ook at each ot her. T cooperation m rue eans a joint eff ort²a give and tak e that is m ually sati sfying.´ T y oung his toddler is learni ng t hat part of being i n a f am is ily working together to complete daily chores. pat. ‡ Inf ants like to l ook at. help clean up. probl em -solving skills to your child: ‡ State the problem "You want to draw on the wall but . play turn-taking games by imitating infants sounds and then waiting for a response back from the infant. 8: Co o p er ati o n Cooperation is the ability to balance one¶s own needs with someone else¶s. T is com hat pliance. Ask participants to note what the parent does to support her child and teach her what to do. ‡ Inf ants sm and l augh at each other. honey. cope with disappointm ent. who is just putting the last dis h in t he dishwasher. or shapes in the shape-sorter. push. crawling over them licking or . & Hashiya. Now we have ti m to read a e book before di nner. Most young children need hel p findi ng accept able ways they can channel thei r desires.. As an example. I know you¶re hungry. ask for observations and comments. We need to ³teach´ them what to do. e T e experiences are opport unities for him to f eel the hes pleasure of accom plishing something as a team . ile ‡ Inf ants cooed at each other (Port er. T we don¶t l ose our toys and we can hen find them again." Doch res tog o ether startingat anearly age. my turn. After watching the video.and t hree-year-olds com up wi th sol utions to e everyday dil em mas and encourage cooperation at the sam tim Here are steps to try to help you teach e e. or wash the car. ´ but they also practiced walking away. It is very important that we support toddlers as they begin to learn about sharing and navigating play situations with others. says.8) M o d u l e 2 Han ut 2. and initiate (Selby & Bradley. Below are ways you can help your child experience the rewards and develop the skill of cooperating. Ohgam . until we agree on a place to draw. Point out how rules benefit t he whole f am "We all ily. " T time to p lem-so ve. Make sure that participants notice that Mom not only taught the child to ³walk away. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. ‡ T 30-m wo onth-olds reach for t he sam bright red e shovel in the sand box. Slide 46. "You can put magnetic lett ers on t he refri gerator. If she i nsists she wants to draw on the refrigerator. Explain that the little girl in the video had been biting children at her child care center when they got too close to her or tried to take a toy she was playing with. 1976). while each assures the other: ³M ine!´ One chil d¶s fat her steps in and gently separat es the two. babi es can begin to engage in back-and-forth interactions.8: Cooperation and Handout 2. Take t urns put ting e objects i n the bucket and dumping themout. One grabs. .

4. ‡T oddlers share at least 12 themes in t heir play (e. This aff ects how they ³get along´ with peers. gest ures of f ear and retreat. 2000). and crying and then increasingly through words. 2. ‡ Inf ants will i m itate each ot her at t his stage (e. & Z ani erwas.and 9-m onth-olds (Sanefuji. Activity: Ask participants to partner with someone. Gul. ‡ Actions are carried out wi th the int ention of attai ning a goal . threat ening actions. Pines. When parents talk to their babies and toddlers and then pause for a response. and intense peer i nteraction occurs t han when an i nfant is with m peers. aggressive actions. Environments. children learn about how emotions can be communicated by the ways they are expressed by family members. Ask that they discuss the child¶s developmental needs and develop an informal action plan to intentionally promote the child¶s social skills.g. 1984. T ay his m be a positive initiati on and interactive skill ay (Eckerm Whatley. 2003). Suggest that they choose a child in the care of one of them.g. ‡ Friendships: preferences for another child began around 12 months (Howes. 1979). 1984) ont 12±18 Months ‡ Inf ants m t ouch the object that a peer holds. It is within the family that children first begin to learn to read other people¶s responses to their feelings and behaviors. the baby learns that he is being heard and that what he has to ³say´ is important. oot (Handout 2. 1982). ‡ T love sand and water and playing with different hey sizes of safe bottl es and balls . positive affect to share meani ng). When the baby responds and the parent mirrors the baby¶s tone and demeanor and responds in turn. ‡ Inf ants m gesture or t ry to talk t o another 12-m onth-olds pref ered to look at ot her infants of thei r own gender (Kuj awski & Bower. Slide 47. ‡ Children are lit tle scientists at this age.9) D. A. play goes m ore sm hly. goals can change from m oment t o m oment (Jennings. any ‡ Inf ants can understand anot her¶s goals and use this awareness t o govern their own behavior (B rownell. ay ‡ Inf ants i nitiate play wit h another infant (Porter. 1993). 5. c ‡ Inf ants show or give a t oy to another chil d (Porter. ‡ Nine-m onth-olds preferred to look at photos and m ovies of babies thei r own age. 2003). T encouraged each other to repeat thei r hey performances by laughi ng and/ or s m iling (Brenner & M ueller. ‡ T will enjoy looking at books together by form hey ing an inf ormal group (this m eans t hey m in and out ove of the group) around the legs. Slide 48. When each has his own bin or tub of wat er or sand. they ore m push anot her infant¶s hand away f roma t oy or ay crawl over anot her baby in order to get a toy. rather than at 6. i. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. 2001). Have participants share some of their ideas or their action plan. 3. 2003). Here is an example (Video 2. 2006). Ram . ‡ 14. & Gyalls . & M Gehee. m aking a joyous sym phony of spoons banging on the table at meal ti m T com e).to 18-m onth-olds c ould i m e peers both 5 itat m es and 48 hours after they observed t he peer inut (who had been taught particular acti ons wit h toys) (Hanna & Module 2 Responsive Routines. ‡ 4-18-m onth-olds i m itated 3-step sequences and im itated peers bett er t han they i m ed adults itat (Ryalls. ‡T oddlers com municat e usi ng t heir bodies (Lokken. and arm of a s favorit e parent or teacher. about whom the participant has concerns regarding social relationships with other children. This ³dance´ of communication tells him that he is worthy of attention and that his parents will respond to his efforts to communicate. ‡ Peek-a-boo is a favorit e gam at this age. com ore plex. 1993). initially through coos. lap. T are constantly doing thi ngs t o hey other children to see what response t hey will get. ‡ Prosocial behavi or is present. grunts.6) of a parent who asks questions and listens to the responses of her toddler as they play together. T children use he laught er t o indic ate underst anding of each ot her¶s actions. ‡ 10. actions that produce is olation (M agner. and Strategies . they send a message to the child that they are interested in his response. hey municat e with each other by i m itating (T revart hen & Aitken. 1. Children learn about acceptable social emotional expression not only from what family members say but also from their facial expressions and body language. 2000). ‡ Children begin to comm ate in a variety of ways: unic actions that pacify. Port er. 2000. Remind participants that from a very early age. but an e adult m need to start the gam ay e. m f requent . however. 2004). Point out that families play a huge role in supporting social emotional literacy in very young children. an. are important to the adults he cares about. ‡ Because inf ants are now m goal-oriented. Ohgam & Hashiya.‡ Inf ants like to t ouch each ot her and crawl around beside each other. The baby learns that his efforts to communicate. 2006). ‡ When an i nfant is pl aced together with one other infant (pai rs). ex peri m ng enti to see how t hings work.

of course. The challenges that families face as a result of poverty.27 VIII. a. is not always the situation that babies and toddlers encounter in their families. The same skills used to develop relationships with infants and toddlers are needed to develop relationship with their parents. Module 2 Responsive Routines. social isolation. 10: Vign 1: F an do ette ern do Qu o 1: What questions do you esti n have about this si tuati on? Qu o 2: What do you think that esti n F ernando is experiencing? Qu o 3: What do you think that esti n F ernando¶s parents are f eeling? Qu o 4: What do you think that esti n Lilia is feeling? What do you do when you feel this way? Qu o 5: What suggestions do esti n you have f or Lilia on how s he m ight find a way to comm unicate wi th t he parents? What st rat egies would you use to engage with t his fam and ily address F ernando's needs ? How m thes e strategi es impact t he ight developm of Fernando¶s social ent em onal development? oti V i g n ette 1. Make the point that in order to offer the most support to the social emotional development of infants and toddlers we need to first form an alliance with the child¶s parents. b. and speak only m al English.10. drug abuse. An indication that you see yourself in the role of a loving secondary attachment figure rather than in the role of the expert or teacher may be helpful as you work to develop a bridge between the practices in the home and the practices in the care setting. Distribute Handouts 2. and other stressors may make them less than responsive to the social emotional needs of infants and toddlers. 2.28 M o d u l e 2 Han ut 2.) 47 48 B. and fat her.12. Slide 49. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Divide the large group into smaller groups of 4 to 6. F ern an d o F ernando is 15 mont hs old and is cared f or i n the fam child care ily hom of Lilia Pott er. Our role is to assume that each parent wants the best for his or her child and to respect the expertise parents have about their children. Juan.7/08 P 2. have lit tle formal education. Activity. C. In general the goal of this exercise is to encourage the participants to consider the fact that there may be multiple explanations for the behaviors we see between parents and children.11. Working in Partnership with Families (45 min. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. In such cases. 2. 1. c. are atim im igrants fromCentral Am m erica. who speaks only English. is pretty inim . The development of respect and trust between parents and providers of child care or home visitation services may present the most challenging aspects of relationship building. infanttoddler caregivers can play a very important role in partnering with and supporting these families to better meet the needs of their young children. F a. F e ernando¶s m other. family violence. Lilia. Our goal is to partner in such a way that we will be able to understand both the children and the parents. Environments.

Ben j i Benji is 25 m onths old. Nina is e struggling t o thi nk of a way to begin a partnership with Loretta. He races into the center everyday with a big sm and rushes up to grab ile whatever is out on the tables. the l ead t eacher i n the classroombut her com ments have been loud enough now. is lyi ng on her back. his gi rl friend and t heir baby. looking at t he ceiling and drinking her om bottle. inimal and he uses singl e words t o express his needs. ore but she is not clear about what they unders tand. exuberant boy. He may never have been away from his mother and father. as she goes. who just li es qui etly. On the sof a at T ika¶s head. When they drop off and pick up F ernando. Loretta has told t he worker who enrolled her in t he hom visiting program t hat she is not sure she is a good m but e . om she is not sure she needs som eone com to t he house.11) M o d u l e 2 Han ut 2. Ask participants to take a few minutes to read the vignettes and to think about how caregivers could help support the parents in the vignettes in ways that might enhance the parent¶s long term ability to attend to their children¶s social emotional development. 11: Vign 2: T mika do ette o Qu o 1: What questions do you esti n have about this si tuati on? Qu o 2: What do you think that esti n T ika is experi encing? om Qu o 3: What do you think esti n Loret ta is f eeling? Qu o 4: What do you think esti n Nina is feeling? What do you do when you feel this way? Qu o 5: What st rategies would esti n you use to devel op a partnership with the m her in behalf of T ika¶s ot om social em otional developm ent? How m thes e strategi es impact t he ight developm of Fernando¶s social ent em onal development? oti V i g n ette 2. 12: Vign 4: Ben do ette ji Qu o 1: What questions do esti n you have about this sit uation? Qu o 2: What do you think esti n that Benji is experiencing? Qu o 3: What do you think esti n Vivian is feeli ng? Qu o 4: What do you think esti n Claire is f eeling? What do you do when you feel this way? Qu o 5: What st rategies would esti n you use to devel op a partnership with Vivian in this sit uation? What do you think the social em otional issues are f or Benji at t his age? V i g n ette 3. F ernando st ops crying i m mediat ely and stays focused as Juan approaches. Benji is on the go all day and does not sit except f or a brief ti m at e lunch. Fernando may be feeling very much abandoned by his parents.12) 49 (Handout 2. Loretta. 2. ³You om bs stink. Fernando¶s fat her is usually the one to pick hi mup in t he afternoon. Lilia has noticed that if he is f ussing when Juan arrives. ³ ³Your head looks like a dust rag. it (Handout 2. T parents do not bring anyt hing. The following examples of responses may be used to guide the discussion about parent partnerships. ik Nina is concerned about t he t hings she is hearing Loretta say t o T ika. uch M o d u l e 2 Han ut 2. though she usually looks at B enji absorbed in play. His m her Vivian. who takes referrals f rom a social service program has agreed t o . has nev er been eat. to hang his coat and put away anyt hing she has brought fromhom e. He l ooks unhappy m of t he ti m ost e. s nack and nap tim Benji¶s use of language is m e. a hom visit or m om e eeting Loretta and T ik a for the first time. the room where Nina is visiting Tom a and Lorett a. Loretta¶s voice is gruff and s he is delivering one negative com ment after the ot her to T ika as she pulls sm bits from om all T ika¶s hai r and gently com the curls around her finger. f or he F ernando and t ake nothing hom at t he end of the day. Claire knows that Benji is not ready to use the t oilet. c om in behind ot es him often fusses at himand drags hi mby his armover t o the cubies . He is an active. 3. her older brother. F ernando¶s mother usually does not m eye cont act wit h Lilia as she ake places F ernando on the carpet in t he center of the room T . Fatima and Juan may be very shy and/or feel ashamed of leaving their child in someone else¶s care. He may believe his cries will bring his parents to him. Lilia usually speaks t o both Juan and F a. she can buil d a part ners hip wit h the parents to ensure t hat she will be m abl e to underst and and m Fernando¶s needs. He j ust removes F ernando f rom what ever he is doi ng and goes back out t he door.´ Lorett a does not m Nina¶s eyes and does not respond when Nina says eet she has a blanket and som t oys in her bag. 6 m om onths old. She doesn¶ t ore eet know how m longer this si tuati on can go on. Q3. whil e dri nking her bot tle. e F ernando has been c om to child care l ess t han week but has cried ing the better part of most of thos e days. f or two days. S he has answered som questions with one or two word answers .´ ´Eat your f ood. she does not s peak to F ernando and m oves quickly out the door as he starts crying. He may be confused by the lack of communication from his parents about the new care setting. Efforts t o engage him in exploration of objects and m ext ended pl ay usually are not successf ul and he will m ore elt down into a tant rumif he is held back from conti nuous activity. While his m is usually ood positive. In t he morni ng. is sitti ng on a chair across f rom T ika om om and Loretta. He drinks a great deal duri ng t he day and his diapers are almost always wet. T o m i ka T ika. when they arrive. She has not approached Clai re. His bowel movem s are irregular and his ability to focus and ent tolerate f rust ration is lim ed. Vivian has begun t o tell Benji that he is to use t he t oilet. Lilia. she always checks the menu or asks about lunch and oft en com ments on t he presence or l ack of m Vivian. She has not l ooked at e the program m ateri al that Nina has brought with her. take t his toddler on an em ergency basis. He does f all asleep quickly when he is as ked to lie down for a nap and typically he sleeps longer than most c hildren in t he cl assroom . Ni na. She rarely has anything to say t o the caregivers and will leave without saying good bye. Their failure to respond to Lilia . Benji is always clean and usually has on caref ully pressed clothes. (Handout 2. is her m om other. but atim she has not been able t o get themt o respond or stop to comm unicate. that Claire knows she needs to pl an a strategy for this sit uation with Benji and Vivian. such as a speci al blanket or t oy. ‡ Vignette 1: Fernando Q1. who is busy picking lint out of T ika¶s hair. How much English do the parents understand? Who has been caring for Fernando and in what situation? Do the parents know why he is crying? What does he like to eat and how does he sleep at home? Does he have a Binky or special blanket? What makes him happy and what does he like to play with? Q2.sure t hat both parent s unders tand m English t han they can speak. Ask that the small groups discuss a vignette and answer the questions. if she f eeds him but does not drink froma cup and does not even take a bottl e easily. the ot her m embers of t he f am are i n the adj acent kitchen and in and out of ily. ypically. heard to ask Benji about his day but will f requently tell himt hat he has gotten dirty.10) 1. He cries when Lilia puts hi m down and has done very little other than sleep in her arm He will eat s. they are brought by a social service agency representative and do not stay long. Write out responses on the flip chart. Lorett a¶s ing m other. I n the aft ernoon when Vivian picks him up. He may spend most of his time in someone¶s arms and he may be a breastfed baby who sleeps in his parents¶ bed. Bring the large group back together and develop a discussion with the total group about the role of the caregiver with the family in each vignette. B enji uses fleeting eye contact and st ays with one activity for only a short time. but is st ruggling t o care f or F ernando and t he other children i n her hom She is wondering how e.

She might be ready to press the parents to sit before they leave to look at the camera.29 Fernando might begin to love and need Lilia more than he loves or needs her. so they leave them where they sleep. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Q5. in particular may feel that The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Lilia might want to take some videos or photos of Fernando during the day on a digital camera. Environments. She may want to have a friend or the agency translate a note that she would write about his first days with her.may be because they don¶t understand what she is saying and they feel it is better to just leave. She may feel angry because the agency is not offering more support. They may be so upset by leaving Fernando that they cannot stand to hear him cry. They may think the caregiver¶s house where he stays is so much nicer than theirs. She may want to get some Spanish lullabies to play during the day and to have on when the parents come. that their things would be meaningless. she may want to insist that they find someone who can at least sit with her to do a parent interview so that she can find out more about . They may not bring anything for him because they do not have a home and have had to abandon their Module 2 Responsive Routines. She may be wondering if they are taking advantage of her generosity. Q4. Lilia may be feeling overwhelmed and angry that she agreed to take this child who cannot stop crying. If they do not have an interpreter. She may first want to call the agency and insist that there be someone who can provide interpreter services by the next day. She may feel that she can eventually comfort him but may be feeling guilty about the other children and impatient with Fernando. though she will need to know if they are literate in Spanish. Fatima. She may be angry at the parents because they don¶t try to communicate and they seem eager to get away. They may have things for him but no way to wash them and they are ashamed.

She might wonder who the stranger is in her house. Nina may not have much experience working in homes and may feel insecure. their circumstances. She may feel very sad about seeing this child and her mother with so little going on between them. Vignette 2. She may be very upset about what she hears Loretta saying to Tomika.the family. She may be frightened about what she is seeing in the house. Environments. She may not have much to say to adults but she trusts that her daughter loves her and listens to what she says. I see you drinking your The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. She might have had a hard night and like just . Q3. Q5. She may be getting angry that Loretta is saying so Module 2 Responsive Routines. etc. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. Tomika Q1. Q4. Fernando¶s eating habits. How old is Loretta? What is her situation with a job or school? Who takes care of Tomika on a regular basis? What does Tomika like to do? How does the family feel about having a stranger in their house? Does Loretta read? Q2. She may be afraid to say anything for fear that it might be the wrong thing and that somehow she could lose custody of her baby.30 b. She might enjoy having her mother close by. She may feel very insecure about her ability to mother her daughter. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. It might be useful to try just making an observation of Tomika and run a gentle narrative: ³Hi Tomika. She may feel that she does not have control over anything in her life but the baby on the couch beside her. Tomika might be enjoying having her mother ³play´ with her hair. She may resent anyone she thinks may be trying to tell her what to do with her child. She may be so used to her mother¶s voice that she is not negatively affected by the words or voice. Loretta may be very shy and uncertain about having a home visitor.

Benji may be feeling very happy to be at the program where there are things to do and other children to be with. Environments. sitting on the floor and reading it to Tomika and Loretta. Q3. She may feel guilty for leaving him and may not be sure that the center will care enough about him to feed him well and keep him clean. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt.32 She may be worried that there is something . It might be useful to try wondering out loud if she plays with her cousin when she is not playing with her mommy. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. She may use his cleanliness and his behavior as measures of her self-worth. Who are the members of Benji¶s family? Does his mother talk care of him all by herself? Does Benji get to play and be active when he is away from the program? Has Vivian ever left Benji in a group program? Q2. It might be wise not to stay long but plan to come back in less than a week and stay another short time. It might be useful to empathize out loud with how early it is to have a visitor. He may be happy that his mother brings him to play. Environments. and Strategies 7/08 P Module 2 Responsive Routines. she might try moving in a little closer with a book.31 bottle. Benji Q1. Vivian may be feeling very overwhelmed with the care of this active little boy. I see you mommy fixing your hair.Module 2 Responsive Routines. a stranger I don¶t know coming to my house. She may be struggling to work and take care of him by herself. I bet you like having your mommy playing with your hair. Vignette 3. ³ It might be useful to try observing and finding words for strengths such as talking about how calm Tomika is and how well she is tolerating the visit from a stranger. Benji may be anxious about other situations or other relationships that are challenging for his developmental level. If Nina got any sign of interest such as eye contact from either Tomika or Loretta. c.

edu/csefel Module 2 Responsive Routines. Q5. She may have other people in her life that are pushing her to get Benji out of diapers. Then when there is privacy and hopefully a more relaxed setting. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. She may wonder how Benji is treated at home and if his activity level is a reaction to something going on at home.wrong with him because he is so active and does not talk more. Claire may want Vivian to like her but is challenged by what she views as Vivian¶s tendency to avoid her. She may feel inadequate in comparison to the staff. it might be helpful to first support her perspective and her values. Point out that Handout 2.Tips on Nurturing Your . It might be helpful to acknowledge how nice he looks when she brings him and how dirty he is when he leaves. D. She may worry that Vivian will feel negative about Benji if she tells Vivian that Benji is not ready.33 issue of potty training and ask for an appointment to talk about a joint plan for Benji. It might be useful to arrange to be close to the door when Benji arrives in order to greet him and help steer him back to say good bye to his mother and to help her get his coat off. etc. it might be useful to talk through Benji¶s development and his readiness for potty training. It might be useful to approach her and raise the The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt.13 . Rather than being defensive or instructive about the need for children to have on play clothes. Claire may feel dread about having to deal with Vivian because she has negative feelings about the interaction between Vivian and Benji. She may be desperate about money and very anxious not to have the expense of diapers. Q4. She may feel that Vivian will be angry if Claire asks her to wait to toilet train Benji. It might be useful to join in with her when she comes in the afternoon to examine the lunch menu and to empathize with her about the dirty clothes. Environments. She may feel she is not in control of him and barely in control of herself.

and Strategies 7/08 P 2. face challenges. responsive care. and entertain to get t hat wonderful baby sm ile. comm ate. Major Messages to Take Home. and out offers Jessica cereal herself to suppl em her ent daughter's efforts. "You smell so good! What a pretty baby you are!" she says as she wraps himin a /cse 7/08 H Relationships are the way babies c om to know t he e world and t heir place in it. ate d rtu g Sonya scoops littl e Jacob out of the tub. it may be useful to keep the slogans to use in future training sessions. generosity. respond t o Jessica's needs both for food (nutriti on f or her body) and for a chance to try something new (nut rition for her m ind). Activity. and als o notices t hat Jessica is not actually getti ng t oo m food in her uch m Module 2 Responsive Routines. and oti explore and learn²all in t he context of t he child's fam ily. and being intentional about providing opportunities to support the social emotional development of infants and toddlers. A. and fi nd a way t o e. How often do you observe what your child is doi ng? Sounds lik e a silly questi on wit h the answer being. schedules and routines. etc. but she m anages to get a few spoonfuls into her m h. com munity and cultural background. play. it is t he developing c apaci ty to experience and regul ate em ons. which i ncludes the ability to f orm oti satisfying relations hips with others. but instead. and carefully l ook at. e uch else can you splas h and play each day in a big puddle with toys and all of the attention focus ed on you?! Jacob l oves his time in t he tub where he has a ball playing and where mom takes care of keepi ng hi m safe and getting hi mclean. compassion. 13: T p do i s T Center on the Social and E m he otional F oundati ons f or Early Learni ng Vanderbilt University van derb ilt. gurgle. Jacob s queals with delight and then s nuggles down into mom arm Bath tim i s so m fun²where 's s. Remind participants that no matter what we are focusing on. and l earning about your child's individual way of approaching the worl d (is he a jump in and "let's go" child or a sit back and "take it slow" child. most of us c an find our f eelings of love and desire to nurt ure li ttle ones even duri ng t rying tim . slogan. Slogan: Respond. and help us as parent s and caregivers to respond in a way that is productive and supports t heir devel opment. relationships that young children develop social em onal wellness. whether it is setting up environments. They can make slogans that mix the assigned letters or do single letter slogans. It provides us with clues about what m akes our chil d tick. F eelings of affection can be a little harder to com by e during prolonged crying spells or tant rums² but fortunately . singi ng and ouc f talking t o babies are things that may seemt o be the natural way to pl ay with a baby or to comfort a distress ed young child. Loving touches ulati T i p s o n Nu rtu ri n g Y o u r Ch i l d 's S o ci al -E m o ti o n al Dev el o p m en t (Handout 2. protect. rocking. or jingle using as many of those words as they can work in. Assign each group two letters in the word ³relationship. encourage. respond. Slide 51. When children feel responded to and underst ood. Bringing it All Together (20 min. e or observe. Example: R-words: read. Jessica's t ry at feeding herself is a little sl ow. "Hey. Elaine sees that Jessica is really out involved i n tryi ng t o feed hers elf. com orting. It t akes ti m t o slow down. waits to see what will happen next. I want to t ry to feed m yself with a spoon! I can do it!" Elaine had to be willing and able to take t he ti m put up with some mess. Environments. "I watch hi mall t he ti m " However. I n this case. we often are with our e! children without really observing them Observi ng . and f offer a buffer against stressful ti m I t is through es. Regulate and Respect = Rock¶n Relationships. holdi ng. warm towel and gives hima hug. Review as a . Her solution? She gets anot her spoon. In addition. If this group is meeting again. or prompting emotional literacy²it all goes back to relationships! 2.may be a useful tool in assisting parents to support their children¶s social emotional development.Child¶s Social Emotional Development . T hese i nteractions are more than m eets the eye²they also provide precisely the stim on t heir growi ng brains need. is he a "high reactor" who let's you know how he feels when he feels it or a "low reactor" who's pretty laid back. physical environments. respect. hard. es T hing. What Elaine did m seemsi m but it can be pret ty ight ple. Jessica was saying. rock. formsecure rel ations hips. involves looking at what your child is doing. em ent pathy. Jessica grabs the spoon out of her hand e and proceeds to f eed herself. The product can be funny or silly or serious. T aking time to really sit and observe what chil dren do can tell us a lot. T hose clues allow us t o make better educated guesses about why they behave as they do. ). Pro e you child withresp si ve care.) M o d u l e 2 Han ut 2. T provide the loving hey context necessary to com ort. In a ent nutshell. Ask the groups to share their results. B. Slide 50. Then ask them to create a bumper sticker. they develop confi denc e and good self-esteem . regulate. what your child is doing. vid r on Elaine is feeding her 8-m onth-old daughter Jessica som cereal. Be affection an nu ri n . 1. The goal is to create something that will help them remember how important relationships are in working with infants and toddlers. T si ght of a cute baby m he akes us want to coo. Elaine al m grabs the ost spoon back.34 50 IX. listening t o what he is sayi ng. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Social-em otional wellness is often known as i nfant m al health by early childhood professionals. He knows he is safe and special t o this person he t rusts so much. and conscience. Remind participants that today we have been talking about the importance of relationships. and experi ence emotions . routines. nurturing relationships are crucial for the developm of trust. unic learn. and very messy. Ask participants to divide into six small groups and give them each several sheets of chart paper and several markers. in order to learn what the behavior m m ight ean.13) A. 3.´ Ask each group to come up with all the words they can think of having to do with social emotional development that start with those two letters.

Lieberman.The emotional life of the toddler. A. C. E. & Thorp. (4) I have increased my appreci ation of t he i m portance of using routi nes of care to support the social emotional developm ent of infants and t oddl ers. Infant and toddler development and responsive program planning: A relationship-based approach. g n Head St art Early Head St art Child Care Other (please list ) Po o (check one): siti n Adm rator Education Coordinator Disability Coordinator M al Healt h Consultant inist ent T eacher Teacher Assist ant Other (please list ) Please respo toth follo nd e wingqu o regard th trai n : esti ns ing is ing (8) T best features of this t raining sessi on were«. Cradling literacy: Building teachers' skills to nurture early language and literacy from birth to five (2007).. Lerner & Parlakian. Review each message. Sanchez.H. DC: ZERO TO THREE Press..C: ZERO TO THREE Press.zerotothree. Used with permission and available at www. leave it wit h your t rainer. Kostelnik... Guiding children's social development: Theory to practice. (2007). (1993). D. Center for Child and Family Studies. he (9) M suggestions for i m y provem are« ent (10) Other com ments and reactions I wish to offer (pl ease use t he back of this formforext ra space): M o d u l e 2 S essi o n E v al u ati o n F o rm 08 T Center on the S ocial and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vand he erbilt. (3) I have increased my understanding of the impact of the environm on the opportunity that infants and t oddl ers ent have t o ex pand thei r soci al skills.3.14). Environments. DC: ZERO TO THREE. & Prairie.A. (1990). L. Osborn. Upper Saddle River. Whiren. P. Resources Butterfield. California Department of Education. Emotional connections: How relationships guide early learning. Ask if participants have others to add. Used with permission and available at . & Petersen. Im... Soderman. When the survey is completed. NY: Delmar. Wittmer.) L cati o Date: o n: Pro ram Affil iati o (check one). J..S. Sanchez. Ask the participants to complete the evaluation (Handout 2. Cradling literacy: Building teachers' skills to nurture early language and literacy from birth to five. Fourth Edition. Child Development Laboratory. Videos 2. A. K. Summary and Closing (10 Module 2 Responsive Routines.. (6) I have increased my awareness of strategi es that can be used t o buil d soci al skills in infants and toddlers. K.Y. Video 2. Washington. Gregory. A. C. Strongly S om ewhat Som ewhat Strongly N/A Agree Agree Disagree Disagree (Handout 2. D. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. Im. S. . (2003). (2006).6. Washington. C. & Stein. B.H. New York: Free Press. Osborn. D. S. DC: ZERO TO THREE. Thank participants for coming and for their attention and participation. The program for infant/toddler caregivers. P. Albany. Check the box that corres ponds om in your opi nion t o each st atem or c heck N/A if not applicable. y (2) I can describe t he i m portance of bei ng int entional about supporting the social em otional compet ence of inf ants and toddlers. ay Please put an ³X´ i n the box that best describes your opinion as a result of at tending t his training« (1) I have increased my understanding of the import ance of m rel ationships wit h the infants and t oddl ers I work with. & Thorp. edu /csefel H 2:14 Please tak e a m ent to provi de f eedback on the training that you rec eived. NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.14) Video Sources Learning Happens: 30 video vignettes of babies and toddlers learning school readinesss skills through everyday interactions (2007). M. Washington.summary of the day¶s training. (2002). Washington. (5) I can define soci al em otional literacy and desc ribe t he kinds of interactions with infants and t oddlers t hat will support the growth thei r soci al emotional literacy. and Strategies 7/08 P 2.4 and 2. Pleas e add any additional com ents t hat you ent m m have at the bottomof t he page. CA.35 51 X. Sacramento.

8) There are so m infl uenc es in children¶s lives that the any loving m essages t hat a responsive.zerotothree. f orm cl ose and s ecure relationships. a parent should underst and that infants and ight toddlers must be expect ed to behave according to t he care provider¶s Module 2 Responsive Routines. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Vanderbilt University vanderbilt. 4) Three major elem ents of social em otional development in infancy i nclude experiencing.36 wit h in t he Co nt ext of Re lat i ons hi ps Rev iew 1) F infants are born biologic ally ready f or ew relationships. Videos 2. ore . each new relationship is a clean slate and working with infants and toddlers will bring a caregiv er an opportunit y to m up for a ake lifetim of unhappiness.Video package (2001).www. e 3) We m not always know why we do som hing wit h young ay et children but there is a ri ght way and a wrong way for children to behave. Environments.1 and 2. Washington. 2) Even if a caregiver has had a very dif ficult upbri nging. Used with permission and available at www. 6) Attachm is som ent ething a baby either does have or doesn¶ t have when he m eets other people. 5) Temperam is som hing that should be elim nated f rom a ent et i child who cannot st op crying. Learning and growing together with families .org. T also must understand that all rules are hey put in writing so t hat busy c aregivers do not have to be delayed by t alking with parents. and Strategies 7/08 P 2. DC: ZERO TO THREE. sensitive caregiver sends to an i nfant or toddler cannot possibly i m pact that chil d for m than a brief expressing and regul ating em ons. even babies and toddl ers. 7) Regardless of a f am cultural beli efs or what a f am ily¶s ily m prefer. and bei ng oti ing able t o expl ore and learn.

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