This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
APPRECIATION OF ART, CULTURE AND LITERATURE
COURSE DURATION : COURSE CREDITS:
2 hour per week for 15 weeks 3
SECTION-A: APPRECIATION OF LITERATURE Lecture 1: Introduction Essence of Literary Thoughts for a Manager - Creativity: is of utmost importance to a manager. She needs to be foresighted, take decisions, generate new ideas, is responsible for the growth of the company, has to face stiff competition, manage, delegate responsibilities etc. perform all d functions of a manager. - Open-mindedness :in order to keep d interests of d company above his own, a manager needs to b open minded. He cannot let petty prejudices tar d efficient working of d
organization.He should b open 2 new ideas n b able 2 incorporate dem in2 it’s working.2 solve conflicts etc. - Value-systems : No matter how fast a company wants to climb d corporate ladder it needs 2 keep d value systems in mind. Our forward looking president APJ Abdul Kalam insisted on this. Ethics, morals, respect, honesty etc. - Stress Handling ability :A manager needs 2 keep his cool under all circumstances ,as not doing so ,will b detrimental for him as well as d company. A good manager knows how 2 deal with stress n situations that lead 2 it. Managers r taking the help of yoga
Tai-chi, playing games, attending workshops, reading self- help books and keeping themselves mentally and physically fit, in order to deal better with stress. “ Laugh n work better “is d new mantra, as being light hearted @ work helps 2 keep stress at bay. A good manager doesn’t take his domestic troubles 2 office and vice versa. A Brief on Literary Thought Leaders (Global and Indian) - William Shakespeare :William Shakespeare (1564–1616), `The Bard of Avon', English poet and playwright wrote the famous 154 Sonnets and numerous highly successful oft quoted dramatic works including the
art. and film and is considered one of the best English language writers ever. culture. Hamlet. Farewell: my blessing season this in thee!" --Lord Polonius. And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. From the Preface of the First Folio (1623) "To the memory of my beloved. "Neither a borrower nor a lender be. For loan oft loses both itself and friend. theatre. Thou canst not then be false to any man. William Shakespeare: and what he hath left us"--Ben Jonson. Hamlet Act I. The Author. . And it must follow.tragedy of the Prince of Denmark. This above all: to thine ownself be true. Scene 3 While Shakespeare caused much controversy. he also earned lavish praise and has profoundly impacted the world over in areas of literature. Mr. as the night the day.
while thy Booke doth live. authorship of and chronology of the plays and sonnets. which is also the day claimed to be the birth date of . without a tombe And art alive still. when they were written. adapted or revised and printed are imprecise."Thou art a Moniment. And we have wits to read." Over the centuries there has been much speculation surrounding various aspects of Shakespeare's life including his religious affiliation. This biography attempts only to give an overview of his life. while leaving the more learned perspectives to the countless scholars and historians who have devoted their lives to the study and demystification of the man and his works. sexual orientation. Many of the dates of play performances. sources for collaborations. and praise to give. England's celebration of their patron Saint George is on 23 April.
The infant William was baptised on 26 April 1564 in the parish church Holy Trinity of Stratford upon Avon. but a decline in his fortunes in his later years surely had an effect on William. He lived with his fairly well-to-do parents on Henley Street. churches did record baptisms and burials. John Shakespeare was a local businessman and also involved in municipal affairs as Alderman and Bailiff. Although birth and death dates were not recorded in Shakespeare's time. .Shakespeare. who also had four daughters. the first of the four sons born to John Shakespeare (c1530-1601) and Mary Arden (c15401608). usually a few days after the actual event.
hence why he is buried in the chancel. and Lord Strange's Men. There is also the time when Queen Elizabeth herself visited nearby Kenilworth Castle and . come to Stratford to entertain the local official townsmen. Worcester's Men.In his younger years Shakespeare attended the Christian Holy Trinity church. the now famous elegant limestone cross shaped cathedral on the banks of the Avon river. In 1605 he became lay rector when he paid £440 towards its upkeep. including the Queen's Men. Leicester's Men. studying the Book of Common Prayer and the English Bible. Early on Shakespeare likely attended the Elizabethan theatrical productions of travelling theatre troups.
said to have been duly impressed by the procession. The next record of his life is in 1582. Baptisms of three children were recorded. Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway (1556– 1623) married in the village of Temple Grafton. as well as Latin literature and history. Susanna (1583-1649). and Hamnet . but there is also mention of his being a school teacher. recreated it in some of his later plays. when still a minor at the age of eighteen and requiring his father's consent. around the age of eleven Shakespeare probably entered the grammar school of Stratford. who went on to marry noted physician John Hall.Shakespeare. Although enrolment registers did not survive. where he would have studied theatre and acting. When he finished school he might have apprenticed for a time with his father. King's New School. and twins Judith (1585-1662) who married Richard Quiney.
beautified with our feathers. and his involvement with theatre troupes and acting is disparagingly condemned in a 1592 pamphlet that was distributed in London. possibly as one of the Queen's Men whose works were harshly anti Catholic in a time of rising Protestantism.(1585-1596) his only son and heir who died at the age of eleven. but he did go to London and worked at The Globe theatre. supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blanke verse as the best of you: and beeing an . It is not exactly clear what Shakespeare was doing in the first few years after the marriage. attributed to Robert Green the playwright titled "Groats Worth of Witte" haughtily attacking Shakespeare as an "upstart crow". that with his Tyger's hart wrapped in a Player's hyde. He was writing poems and plays. "Yes trust them not: for there is an upstart Crow.
absolute Iohannes fac totum [Jack-of-alltrades. which gave him time to pen many more plays and sonnets. O that I might entreate your rare wits to be employed in more profitable courses: & let these Apes imitate your past excellence. Stratford. the popular public entertainment of the day." By 1593 the plague was haunting London and many who were able fled the teeming city for the cleansing airs of open country. they were often shut down and forbidden to open for stretches of time. Master of none]. is in his owne conceit the onely Shake-scene in a countrey. and never more acquaint them with your admired inventions. and the provinces. While it was a time for many upstart theatres. Shakespeare probably spent these dark days travelling between London. Among the first of his known printed works is the comedic and erotically charged Ovidian narrative poem .
They performed frequently at court. The Passionate Pilgrim in 1599 and the allegorical The Phoenix and the Turtle (1601). who bought and performed most of Shakespeare's plays. The troupe included his friend and actor Richard Burbage. At this time of prolific writing. and in the theatres that Shakespeare was co-owner of including the Blackfriars. and The Globe in London until it burnt down during a performance of King Henry .Venus and Adonis (1593). the young man that some say Shakespeare may have had more than platonic affection for. third earl of Southampton. dedicated with great esteem to his patron Henry Wriothesly. Shakespeare began his association until his death with The Lord Chamberlain's Men. It was followed by the much darker The Rape of Lucrece in 1594. The Theatre. It was wildly popular. With the accession of James I they became the King's Men.
though they appeared more voluminously after his death.VIII. that being on a sheet of paper folded four ways. Histories. It is said that Shakespeare himself acted in a number of roles including the ghost in Hamlet and Old Adam in As You Like It. A few of his plays were printed in his lifetime. First Folio would be the first collection of his dramatic works. Shakespeare wrote most of his plays as `quarto texts'. The approximately nine hundred page manuscript took about two years to complete and was printed in 1623 as Mr. sometimes plagiarised and often changed at the whim of the printer. It also featured on the frontispiece the famous . and the memories of actors. & Tragedies. playbooks. William Shakespeares Comedies. a massive undertaking to compile thirty-six plays from the quarto texts. transcriptions. one of his many real estate investments. In the late 1590s he bought `New Place' on Chapel Street in Stratford.
and Shakespeare took steps to bequeath a sum to Judith in her own name. but in 1664 the reverend John Ward.engraved portrait of Shakespeare said to be by Martin Droeshout (1601-c1651). In 1616 his daughter Judith married Quiney who subsequently admitted to fornication with Margaret Wheeler. Under the favour of the court The Kings' Men became the eminent company of the day. and lies buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church in Stratford upon Avon. William Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616. While there is little known of her life. dying in 1623 and is buried beside him. It is not clear as to how or why Shakespeare died. vicar of . Anne Hathaway outlived her husband by seven years. dealing with business affairs and writing and acting. according to his monument. Most likely Anne and the children lived in Stratford while Shakespeare spent his time travelling between Stratford and London.
The order. Many have claimed . some printed at this time as well." His tombstone is inscribed with the following epitaph. and itt seems drank too hard. for Shakespeare died of a feavour there contracted. Drayton and Ben Johnson had a merie meeting.Stratford recorded that "Shakespeare. Others were written or revised right before being printed. 154 sonnets and "A Lover's Complaint" were published by Thomas Thorpe as Shake-speares Sonnets in 1609. Good friend for Jesus sake forbeare To digg the dust encloased heare Blessed by y man y spares hes stones And curst be he y moves my bones Poetry It is generally agreed that most of the Shakespearean Sonnets were written in the 1590s. dates. and authorship of the Sonnets have been much debated with no conclusive findings.
there have been some unfortunate projections and interpretations of modern concepts onto centuries old works that. Evoking Petrarch's style and lyrically writing of beauty." is said to possibly represent the initials of the third earl of Pembroke William Herbert. while a grasp of contextual historical information can certainly lend to their depth and meaning. W. mortality. or perhaps being a reversal of Henry Wriothesly's initials.H. The dedication to "Mr. and love with its moral anguish and worshipful adoration of a usually unattainable love. can also be enjoyed as valuable poetical works that have transcended time and been surpassed by no other. the first 126 sonnets are addressed to a young man. sonnets 127-152 to a dark lady.autobiographical details from them. Regardless. including sonnet number 145 in reference to Anne. Ever the dramatist Shakespeare .
Romeo and Juliet 1594-95 (1597). followed by approximate printing dates in brackets. Othello 1604-05 (1622). many based on English or Roman history.created a profound intrigue to scholars and novices alike as to the identities of these people. Tragedies Some probably inspired by Shakespeare's study of Lives (trans. . Some are reworkings of previous stories.1597) by Greek historian and essayist Plutarch and Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles (1587). Hamlet 1600-01 (1603). The dates given here are when they are said to have been first performed. Julius Caesar 1600-01 (1623). Antony and Cleopatra 1606-07 (1623). Titus Andronicus first performed in 1594 (printed in 1594). listed in chronological order of performance.
King Henry IV Part 2 1597-98 (1600). based on the English Kings from John to Henry VIII were a tremendous undertaking to dramatise the lives and rule of kings and the changing political events of his time. King Henry IV Part 1 1597-98 (1598). King John 1596-97 (1623). Some were printed on their own or in the First Folio (1623). No other playwright had attempted such an ambitious body of work. Histories Shakespeare's series of historical dramas. King Henry VI Part 1 1592 (printed in 1594). Coriolanus 1607-08 (1623). King Henry VI Part 2 1592-93 (1594). and Macbeth 1611-1612 (1623). . derived from Plutarch Timon of Athens 1607-08 (1623). King Henry VI Part 3 1592-93 (1623).King Lear 1606 (1608).
King Henry V 1598-99 (1600); Richard II 1600-01 (1597); Richard III 1601 (1597); and King Henry VIII 1612-13 (1623) Comedies, again listed in chronological order of performance. Taming of the Shrew first performed 1593-94 (1623), Comedy of Errors 1594 (1623), Two Gentlemen of Verona 1594-95 (1623), Love's Labour's Lost 1594-95 (1598), Midsummer Night's Dream 1595-96 (1600), Merchant of Venice 1596-1597 (1600), Much Ado About Nothing 1598-1599 (1600), As You Like It 1599-00 (1623), Merry Wives of Windsor 1600-01 (1602), Troilus and Cressida 1602 (1609), Twelfth Night 1602 (1623), All's Well That Ends Well 1602-03 (1623),
Measure for Measure 1604 (1623), Pericles, Prince of Tyre 1608-09 (1609), Tempest (1611), Cymbeline 1611-12 (1623), Winter's Tale 1611-12 (1623). Biography written by C.D. Merriman for Jalic Inc. Copyright Jalic Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved. The above biography is copyrighted. Do not republish it without - Bernard Shaw:George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was born in Dublin, the son of a civil servant. His education was irregular, due to his dislike of any organized training. After working in an estate agent's office for a while he moved to London as a young man (1876), where he established himself as a leading music and theatre critic in the eighties and nineties and
became a prominent member of the Fabian Society, for which he composed many pamphlets. He began his literary career as a novelist; as a fervent advocate of the new theatre of Ibsen (The Quintessence of Ibsenism, 1891) he decided to write plays in order to illustrate his criticism of the English stage. His earliest dramas were called appropriately Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant (1898). Among these, Widower's Houses and Mrs. Warren's Profession savagely attack social hypocrisy, while in plays such as Arms and the Man and The Man of Destiny the criticism is less fierce. Shaw's radical rationalism, his utter disregard of conventions, his keen dialectic interest and verbal wit often turn the stage into a forum of ideas, and nowhere more openly than in the famous discourses on the Life Force, «Don Juan in Hell», the third act of the dramatization of woman's love chase of man, Man and Superman (1903).
a historical play filled with allusions to modern times. The Doctor's Dilemma (1906). not as an individual. in which he rewrites the well-known story of the French maiden and extends it from the Middle Ages to the present.In the plays of his later period discussion sometimes drowns the drama. In Major Barbara (1905). one of Shaw's most successful «discussion» plays. Other important plays by Shaw are Caesar and Cleopatra (1901). is really a comedy the humour of which is directed . in which he exercised a kind of retrospective history and from modern movements drew deductions for the Christian era. in Back to Methuselah (1921). and Androcles and the Lion (1912). the audience's attention is held by the power of the witty argumentation that man can achieve aesthetic salvation only through political activity. although in the same period he worked on his masterpiece Saint Joan (1923). facetiously classified as a tragedy by Shaw.
. 1969 This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. and the social corrective that gives Shaw's comedies their special flavour. a witty study of phonetics as well as a clever treatment of middle-class morality and class distinction. Editor Horst Frenz. Candida (1898). proved some of Shaw's greatest successes on the stage. Literature 19011967. To cite this document. the comic. Shaw's complete works appeared in thirty-six volumes between 1930 and 1950. always state the source as shown above. Elsevier Publishing Company. with social attitudes toward sex relations as objects of his satire. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. It is a combination of the dramatic. Amsterdam.at the medical profession. the year of his death. and Pygmalion (1912). From Nobel Lectures.
visual artist. Hugo's literary reputation rests primarily on his poetic and dramatic output and only secondarily on his novels. In the English-speaking world his best-known works are often the novels Les Misérables and NotreDame de Paris (sometimes translated into English as The Hunchback of Notre-Dame). playwright. essayist. 1950 Victor Hugo:- - Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced [vikt?? ma?i y??o]) (February 26. Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles stand particularly high in critical esteem. In France. human rights campaigner. 1802 – May 22. . Among many volumes of poetry.George Bernard Shaw died on November 2. statesman. novelist. 1885) was a French poet. and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. and Hugo is sometimes identified as the greatest French poet.
Hugo moved to the political left as the decades passed. he was forced into exile during the reign of Napoleon III — he lived briefly in Brussels during 1851. There was a general amnesty in 1859. and his work touches upon most of the political and social issues and artistic trends of his time.Though extremely conservative in his youth. However. the rise and fall of the First . Hugo's early childhood was marked by great events. Victor-Marie Hugo was the third and last son of Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo (1773–1828) and Sophie Trébuchet (1772-1821). his exile was by choice. He was born in 1802 in Besançon (in the region of FrancheComté) and lived in France for the majority of his life. he became a passionate supporter of republicanism. his brothers were Abel Joseph Hugo (1798–1855) and Eugène Hugo (1800–1837). The century prior to his birth saw the overthrow of the Bourbon Dynasty in the French Revolution. in Jersey from 1852 to 1855. He is buried in the Panthéon. and in Guernsey from 1855 to 1870 and again in 1872-1873. after that.
Hugo's early work in poetry and . Weary of the constant moving required by military life. and the Bourbon Monarchy was restored before his eighteenth birthday. who was executed in 1812 for plotting against Napoleon.Republic. The opposing political and religious views of Hugo's parents reflected the forces that would battle for supremacy in France throughout his life: Hugo's father was a highranking officer in Napoleon's army. Sophie followed her husband to posts in Italy (where Léopold served as a governor of a province near Naples) and Spain (where he took charge of three Spanish provinces). his mother was a staunch Catholic Royalist who is believed to have taken as her lover General Victor Lahorie. Thereafter she dominated Hugo's education and upbringing. Sophie separated temporarily from Léopold in 1803 and settled in Paris. As a result. Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor two years after Hugo's birth. an atheist republican who considered Napoleon a hero. and at odds with her unfaithful husband. and the rise of the First French Empire and dictatorship under Napoleon Bonaparte.
Early poetry and fiction Like many young writers of his generation. In his youth. become involved in politics as a champion of Republicanism.fiction reflect a passionate devotion to both King and Faith. Like Chateaubriand. The precocious passion and eloquence of Hugo's early work brought success and fame at an early age.” and his life would come to parallel that of his predecessor’s in many ways. and be forced into exile due to his political stances. during the events leading up to France's 1848 Revolution. His first collection of poetry (Nouvelles Odes et Poésies Diverses) was . the famous figure in the literary movement of Romanticism and France’s preëminent literary figure during the early 1800s. that he would begin to rebel against his Catholic Royalist education and instead champion Republicanism and Freethought. It was only later. Hugo would further the cause of Romanticism. Hugo resolved to be “Chateaubriand or nothing. Hugo was profoundly influenced by FrançoisRené de Chateaubriand.
but the boy died in infancy. François-Victor (October 28. 1826). 1831. 1830). Against his mother's wishes. Between 1829 and 1840 he would publish five more volumes of poetry (Les Orientales. Hugo's other children were Léopoldine (August 28. Les Chants du crépuscule. it was only after her death in 1821 that he felt free to marry Adèle (in 1822). and his second three years later (Bug-Jargal. 1824). 1829.published in 1824. and earned him a royal pension from Louis XVIII. Hugo published his first novel the following year (Han d'Islande. it was the collection that followed two years later in 1826 (Odes et Ballades) that revealed Hugo to be a great poet. when Hugo was only twenty two years old. 1828) and Adèle (August 24. 1835. a natural master of lyric and creative song. Charles (November 4. Unusually close to his mother. They had their first child Léopold in 1823. Les Voix . 1826). Though the poems were admired for their spontaneous fervor and fluency. Les Feuilles d'automne. young Victor fell in love and became secretly engaged to his childhood friend Adèle Foucher (1803-1868). 1823).
and thus sparked a fierce debate between French Classicism and Romanticism that would rage for many years. Theatrical work Hugo did not achieve such quick success with his works for the stage. In 1827. . an experimental play from his youth based on the Walter Scott novel Kenilworth. Cromwell was followed in 1828 by the disastrous Amy Robsart. and Les Rayons et les ombres. he published the never-staged verse drama Cromwell. 1840). which was produced under the name of his brother-in-law Paul Foucher and managed to survive only one performance before a less-than-appreciative audience. 1837. which became more famous for the author's project than its own worth (the play's unwieldy length was considered "unfit for acting"). cementing his reputation as one of the greatest elegiac and lyric poets of his time.intérieures. Hugo urged his fellow artists to free themselves from the restrictions imposed by the French classical style of theatre. In his introduction to the work.
Though initially banned by the censors for its unflattering portrayal of the French monarchy. The play was largely condemned by the press. the play that Hugo produced the following year — Hernani — would prove to be one of the most successful and groundbreaking events of nineteenth-century French theatre. However. Conformists. However. Royalists. except as the basis for the Verdi opera Ernani. It also signalled that Hugo's concept of Romanticism was growing increasingly politicized: Hugo believed that just as . performances of the work sparked near-riots between opposing camps of French letters and society: Romantics vs. it was eventually allowed to premiere uncensored in 1829. and Republicans vs. Liberals vs. but without success. at the time.The first play of Hugo's to be accepted for production under his own name was Marion de Lorme. Today the work is largely forgotten. Classicists. but played to full houses night after night. and all but crowned Hugo as the preeminent leader of French Romanticism. the opening night of which became known as the "The Battle of Hernani".
Drouet would go on to play a major role in Hugo’s personal life. Incensed by the ban. While Hugo had many romantic escapades throughout his life. Drouet was recognized even by his wife to have a unique relationship with the writer. but then went on to be very popular in printed form. It subsequently appeared on the stage in 1833. However. Romanticism would liberate the arts from the constraints of Classicism. Hugo wrote his next play. used by Verdi for Rigoletto). In Hugo’s next . and was treated almost as family. to great success.Liberalism in politics would free the country from the tyranny of monarchy and dictatorship. and an actress named Juliette Drouet played a subordinate part. Lucrèce Borgia (see: Lucrezia Borgia). due to its overt mockery of the French nobility. The play was promptly banned by the censors after only one performance. Mademoiselle George (former mistress of Napoleon) was cast in the main role. in only fourteen days. becoming his life-long mistress. Actress Juliette Drouet. Hugo's mistressIn 1832 Hugo followed the success of Hernani with Le roi s'amuse (The King Takes His Amusement.
to great success. at the time it met with only average success. 1833). Théâtre de la Renaissance opened in November 1838. Hugo’s Angelo premiered in 1835. losing audiences to a competing drama. Supported by a small pension. Soon after. Hugo did not produce another play until 1843. It would be her last role on the French stage. it was not published until . with the premiere of Ruy Blas. Though considered by many to be Hugo’s best drama. in 1947 Jean Cocteau adapted it for cinema. she became his unpaid secretary and travelling companion for the next fifty years.play (Marie Tudor. Though he would later write the short verse drama Torquemada in 1869. the Duke of Orleans (son of King Louis-Philippe. with Jean Marais in the title role. thereafter she devoted her life to Hugo. and an admirer of Hugo’s work) founded a new theatre to support new plays. she was not considered adequate to the role. and was replaced by another actress after opening night. The Burgraves played for only 33 nights. Drouet played Lady Jane Grey to George’s Queen Mary. However. and it would be his last work written for the theatre.
and was never intended for the stage. But Hugo’s first full-length novel would be the enormously successful NotreDame de Paris (The Hunchback of Notre Dame). Le Dernier jour d'un condamné (Last Days of a Condemned Man) would have a profound influence on later writers such as Albert Camus. and was later considered by Hugo himself to be a precursor to his great work on social injustice. whose style he tried to emulate in his own dramas. Mature fiction Victor Hugo's first mature work of fiction appeared in 1829. Claude Gueux. which was published in 1831 and quickly translated into other languages across . he published a well-received essay on William Shakespeare. Les Misérables. and Fyodor Dostoevsky. Hugo's interest in the theatre continued.a few years before his death in 1882. appeared in 1834. and reflected the acute social conscience that would infuse his later work. and in 1864. However. a documentary short story about a real-life murderer who had been executed in France. Charles Dickens.
It also initially published only the first part of the novel (“Fantine”). Les Misérables. which was launched simultaneously in major cities. The book also inspired a renewed appreciation for pre-renaissance buildings. which thereafter began to be actively preserved.Europe. Portrait of "Cosette" by Émile Bayard. Installments of . which was attracting thousands of tourists who had read the popular novel. but it would take a full 17 years for his most enduringly popular work. One of the effects of the novel was to shame the City of Paris to undertake a restoration of the much-neglected Cathedral of Notre Dame. issuing press releases about the work a full six months before the launch. to be realized and finally published in 1862. The author was acutely aware of the quality of the novel and publication of the work went to the highest bidder. The Belgian publishing house Lacroix and Verboeckhoven undertook a marketing campaign unusual for the time. from the original edition of Les Misérables (1862)Hugo began planning a major novel about social misery and injustice as early as the 1830s.
the book sold out within hours. Barbey d'Aurevilly complained of its vulgarity. He telegraphed the single-character message '?' to his publisher. It is said Hugo was on vacation when Les Misérables (which is over 1200 pages) was published. Taine found it insincere. who replied with a single '!'.castigated it in private as "tasteless and inept. The critical establishment was generally hostile to the novel. and Baudelaire ." Nonetheless.despite giving favorable reviews in newspapers . and had enormous impact on French society. . Flaubert found within it "neither truth nor greatness. television and musical stage to an extent equaled by few other works of literature. The shortest correspondence in history is between Hugo and his publisher Hurst & Blackett in 1862. adapted for cinema." the Goncourts lambasted its artificiality. Today the novel remains popular worldwide. Les Misérables proved popular enough with the masses that the issues it highlighted were soon on the agenda of the French National Assembly.
 The Guernsey word used in the book has also been used to refer to the octopus. which at the time were still considered by many to be mythical. and Hugo himself began to comment on the growing distance between himself and literary contemporaries such as . Dedicated to the channel island of Guernsey where he spent 15 years of exile. Nonetheless. which was published in 1869 and painted a critical picture of the aristocracy. L'Homme Qui Rit (The Man Who Laughs). the book was well received. perhaps due to the previous success of Les Misérables. to squid hats and parties.Hugo turned away from social/political issues in his next novel. the novel was not as successful as his previous efforts. Hugo returned to political and social issues in his next novel. Hugo’s depiction of Man’s battle with the sea and the horrible creatures lurking beneath its depths spawned an unusual fad in Paris: Squids. Parisiennes became fascinated by these unusual sea creatures. However. published in 1866. Les Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea). From squid dishes and exhibitions.
Though Hugo’s popularity was on the decline at the time of its publication. His last novel. He was later elected to the Legislative Assembly and the Constitutional . Hugo was finally elected to the Académie française in 1841. Political life and exile After three unsuccessful attempts. Quatrevingt-treize (Ninety-Three). many now consider Ninety-Three to be a work on par with Hugo’s more well known novels. and in favour of freedom of the press and selfgovernment for Poland. dealt with a subject that Hugo had previously avoided: the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. He was elevated to the peerage by King LouisPhilippe in 1841 and entered the Higher Chamber as a pair de France. Thereafter he became increasingly involved in French politics as a supporter of the Republic form of government. whose realist and naturalist novels were now exceeding the popularity of his own work. published in 1874.Flaubert and Zola. where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice. solidifying his position in the world of French arts and letters.
and three widely praised collections of poetry (Les Châtiments.Assembly. Among the Rocks on Jersey (1853-55)When Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) seized complete power in 1851. Napoléon le Petit and Histoire d'un crime. He also composed some of his best work during his period in Guernsey. He convinced the government of Queen Victoria to spare the lives of six Irish people convicted of terrorist activities and his influence was . 1853. He fled to Brussels. Hugo openly declared him a traitor of France. The pamphlets were banned in France. but nonetheless had a strong impact there. then Jersey. and La Légende des siècles. establishing an antiparliamentary constitution. While in exile. and finally settled with his family on the channel island of Guernsey at Hauteville House. where he would live in exile until 1870. Les Contemplations. 1856. following the 1848 Revolution and the formation of the Second Republic. including Les Misérables. 1859). Hugo published his famous political pamphlets against Napoleon III.
" he wrote. Although Napoleon III granted an amnesty to all political exiles in 1859. Portugal and Colombia.credited in the removal of the death penalty from the constitutions of Geneva. He was in Paris during the siege by the Prussian army in 1870. It was only after Napoleon III fell from power and the Third Republic was proclaimed that Hugo finally returned to his homeland in 1870. he was a founding member of the Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale. as it meant he would have to curtail his criticisms of the government. Hugo declined. and food became ever more scarce. As the siege continued. famously eating animals given him by the Paris zoo. Because of his concern for the rights of artists and copyright. which led to the Berne . he wrote in his diary that they were now reduced to eating things even though he was not at all sure what it was: "we are eating the unknown. where he was promptly elected to the National Assembly and the Senate.
due largely to what he saw as the Church's indifference to the plight of the working class under the oppression of the monarchy. When a census-taker asked Hugo in 1872 if he was a Catholic. and perhaps also due to the frequency with which Hugo's work appeared on the Pope's list of "proscribed books" (Hugo counted 740 attacks on Les Misérables in the Catholic press). he identified as a Catholic and professed respect for Church hierarchy and authority. and expressed increasingly violent anti-papist and anti-clerical views. On the deaths of his sons . Hugo never lost his antipathy towards the Roman Catholic Church.Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. and in later years settled into a Rationalist Deism similar to that espoused by Voltaire. he replied. In his youth. A Freethinker". Religious views Hugo's religious views changed radically over the course of his life. "No. He dabbled in Spiritualism during his exile (where he participated also in seances). From there he evolved into a non-practicing Catholic.
he insisted that they be buried without crucifix or priest. he never directly attacked the institution itself. denying the usefulness of churches) and. and the Power. violently anticlerical). although Hugo believed Catholic dogma to be outdated and dying." Declining years and death . Christianity would eventually disappear. The Pope (1878. He also remained a deeply religious man who strongly believed in the power and necessity of prayer. The End of Satan and God (1886 and 1891 respectively. Hugo declared. Religions and Religion (1880. he predicted. Hugo's Rationalism can be found in poems such as Torquemada (1869. However. but God remains". about religious fanaticism).Charles and François-Victor. published posthumously. and in his will made the same stipulation about his own death and funeral. "Religions pass away. Soul. in which he represents Christianity as a griffin and Rationalism as an angel). but people would still believe in "God.
Juliette Drouet. (His other daughter. Léopoldine. Despite his popularity Hugo lost his bid for reelection to the National Assembly in 1872. On 30 January 1876 Hugo was elected to the newly created Senate. On the 27th one of the largest parades in French history was held. Marchers stretched from . had drowned in a boating accident in 1843. To honor the fact that he was entering his eightieth year. His last phase in his political career is considered a failure. Within a brief period. his daughter Adèle’s internment in an insane asylum. the traditional gift for sovereigns. and the death of his two sons. Hugo took on a stubborn role and got little done in the Senate. The celebrations began on the 25th when Hugo was presented with a Sèvres vase. In February of 1881 Hugo celebrated his 79th birthday.When Hugo returned to Paris in 1870. died in 1883.) Despite his personal loss. the country hailed him as a national hero. His faithful mistress. one of the greatest tributes to a living writer was held. he suffered a mild stroke. Hugo remained committed to the cause of political change. and his wife Adèle had died in 1868. only two years before his own death.
drawing became more important to Hugo shortly before his exile. The paraders marched for six hours to pass Hugo as he sat in the window at his house. producing more than 4. Drawings Many are not aware that Hugo was almost as prolific in the visual arts as he was in literature. down the Champs-Elysees.Avenue d'Eylau. the official guides even wore cornflowers as an allusion to Cosette's song in Les Misérables. usually in dark brown or black pen-andink wash. Hugo worked only on paper. and all the way to the center of Paris. (Some reproductions can be viewed on the internet at ArtNet and on the website of artist Misha Bittleston). Drawing became his exclusive creative outlet during the period 1848-1851. Every inch and detail of the event was for Hugo. sometimes with touches of white. and . and on a small scale. when he made the decision to stop writing in order to devote himself to politics.000 drawings in his lifetime. Originally pursued as a casual hobby.
foreshadowing the experimental techniques of Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism. Hugo kept his artwork out of the public eye. ink blots. often using the charcoal from match sticks or his fingers instead of pen or brush. Rorschach blots).e. lace impressions. "pliage" or folding (i. Sometimes he would even toss in coffee or soot to get the effects he wanted. often in the form of ornately handmade calling cards. It is reported that Hugo often drew with his left hand or without looking at the page. "grattage" or rubbing. he enjoyed sharing his drawings with his family and friends. fearing it would overshadow his literary work. a concept only later popularized by Sigmund Freud.rarely with color. However. many of which were given as gifts to visitors when he was in political exile. in order to access his unconscious mind. He would not hesitate to use his children's stencils. puddles and stains. or during Spiritualist séances. Some of his work was . The surviving drawings are surprisingly accomplished and "modern" in their style and execution.
Guernsey and 6.shown to. Paris as museums. The Avenue Victor-Hugo in the XVIème arrondissement of Paris bears Hugo's name. This square is served by a Paris Métro stop also named in his honor. he would have outshone the artists of their century. the latter expressed the opinion that if Hugo had decided to become a painter instead of a writer. Place des Vosges. A number of . The City of Paris has preserved his residences Hauteville House. and appreciated by. and links the Place de l'Étoile to the vicinity of the Bois de Boulogne by way of the Place VictorHugo. contemporary artists such as Van Gogh and Delacroix. in 1871 has also become a commemorative museum. The house where he stayed in Vianden. Memorials Victor Hugo cabinet card by London Stereoscopic CompanyThe people of Guernsey erected a statue in Candie Gardens to commemorate his stay in the islands. Luxembourg.
htm ^ www.. in 1808. Leopold Sigisbert Hugo.bnf. Avenue Victor-Hugo.org/caodaism.htm Online references Afran. when reuniting with his father.streets and avenues throughout France are likewise named after him. (Originally published in Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. .fr/hugo/pedago/dossier s/mort/reperes/signe.) Retrieved November 2005.religioustolerance. Italy.9.0. Reference ^www. Website: Discover France. was named to honor him.1. Canada. Charles (1997).. The school Lycée Victor Hugo in his town of birth. 1997. located in Shawinigan. Quebec.". Besançon in France. In the city of Avellino.expositions. “Victor Hugo: French Dramatist”. Victor would later write about his brief stay here quoting "C’était un palais de marbre. v. Victor Hugo lived briefly stayed in what is now known as Il Palazzo Culturale.
1906. Literature and Influence on Civilization. Website: Misha Bittleston. “Hugo’s Cromwell”. ed. 1906. 203-6. Literature and Influence on Civilization. "Drawings of Victor Hugo". 401-2. 1113. Alfred Bates. London: Historical Publishing Company. Website: Theatre History. 2023. Website: Threatre History.G. pp. Philadelphia: The Rittenhouse Press. (1896). “Amy Robsart”. 9. pp. Bittleston.) Retrieved November 2005. Retrieved November 2005. Bates.) Retrieved . ed. Alfred Bates. vol.Bates. vol. 9.) Retrieved November 2005. vol. London: Historical Publishing Company. ed. 1896. Website: Theatre History. Alfred Bates. 1906. Bates. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History. Alfred (1906). London: Historical Publishing Company. “Hernani”. Alfred (1906). “Victor Hugo”. Literature and Influence on Civilization. 9. Alfred (1906). (Originally published in Victor Hugo: Dramas. pp. Website: Theatre History. I. 18-19. pp. Burnham. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History. Misha (uncited date).) Retrieved November 2005.
Retrieved November 2005. Peter (2001-2004). New York: W. (1998). W. Retrieved November 2005. Norton & . Books and Writers. Website: The Victor Hugo Website. Website: New York Times (Books). (Excerpt from Graham. Retrieved November 2005. “Victor Hugo”.H. Victor Marie.F. Meyer. Columbia Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 2005. Website: Ronald Bruce Meyer. Liukkonen. Great Books Online. “Hugo. Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions. Illi. Karlins. Victor Hugo: A Biography. Website: Pegasos: A Literature Related Resource Site. “Victor Hugo: Plays”. “Victor Hugo (18021885)”. Ronald Bruce (2004). Website: Bartleby.W. Retrieved November 2005. Robb (1997). 6th Edition (2001-05). "Octopus With the Initials V. Graham (1997). Retrieved November 2005. Website: Ohio University. N.November 2005. Vicomte”. “A Sabre in the Night”." Website: ArtNet. Retrieved November 2005. Petri (2000). Robb. Scott (1997). Haine. “Victor Hugo”.
(2000-2005). Uncited Author. “Victor Hugo”. “Victor Hugo”. Uncited Author. 2005. “Victor Hugo: Biography”. . Website: Présence de la Littérature a l’école. Roche. Retrieved November 2005. Website: The Literature Network. Retrieved November 2005. Meet the Writers. Retrieved November 2005. Isabel (2005). (From the Barnes & Noble Classics edition of The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Uncited Author. Uncited Author. “Timeline of Victor Hugo”.Company.) Retrieved November 2005. Website: BBC.Bertrand Russel:Biography .) Retrieved November 2005. Retrieved November 2005. Website: Spartacus Educational. Website: Barnes & Noble. "Hugo Caricature".
and after being a very high Wrangler and obtaining a First Class with distinction in philosophy he was elected a fellow of his college in . daughter of 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley. to avoid this he was made a ward of Court. and brought up by his grandmother. Cambridge. and thus acquired a perfect knowledge of French and German. In 1890 he went into residence at Trinity College. 1872. His father had wished him to be brought up as an agnostic.Bertrand Arthur William Russell was born at Trelleck on 18th May. His parents were Viscount Amberley and Katherine. At the age of three he was left an orphan. Instead of being sent to school he was taught by governesses and tutors.
Alfred Whitehead proceeded to develop and extend the mathematical logic of Peano and Frege. But he had already left Cambridge in the summer of 1894 and for some months was attaché at the British embassy at Paris. After the first World War broke out.1895. After spending some months in Berlin studying social democracy. He was impressed with the ability of the Italian mathematician Peano and his pupils. From time to time he abandoned philosophy for politics. and with his friend Dr. In 1900 he visited the Mathematical Congress at Paris. The Principles of Mathematics. they went to live near Haslemere. he took an active part in the No . and immediately studied Peano's works. In December 1894 he married Miss Alys Pearsall Smith. In 1910 he was appointed lecturer at Trinity College. where he devoted his time to the study of philosophy. In 1903 he wrote his first important book.
1918) but was prevented by the military authorities. His college deprived him of his lectureship in 1916. His Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy (1919) was written in prison. but was refused a passport. His Analysis of Mind (1921) was the outcome of some lectures he gave in London. In the autumn of the same year he went to China to lecture on philosophy at the Peking . which were organized by a few friends who got up a subscription for the purpose.Conscription fellowship and was fined £ 100 as the author of a leaflet criticizing a sentence of two years on a conscientious objector. In 1918 he was sentenced to six months' imprisonment for a pacifistic article he had written in the Tribunal. He intended to give a course of lectures (afterwards published in America as Political Ideals. He was offered a post at Harvard university. In 1920 Russell had paid a short visit to Russia to study the conditions of Bolshevism on the spot.
which they carried on until 1932. In 1927 he and his wife started a school for young children. he accepted a five-year contract as a lecturer for the Barnes foundation. They lived for six years in Chelsea during the winter months and spent the summers near Lands End. Merion. When his appointment to the college faculty was cancelled. He succeeded to the earldom in 1931. On his return in Sept. Pa.. but the cancellation of this contract was announced in Jan. He was divorced by his second wife in 1935 and the following year married Patricia Helen Spence. In 1938 he went to the United States and during the next years taught at many of the country's leading universities. 1921. In 1940 he was involved in legal proceedings when his right to teach philosophy at the College of the City of New York was questioned because of his views on morality. 1943 by . having been divorced by his first wife. he married Miss Dora Black.university.
In a paper "Logical Atomism" (Contemporary British Philosophy. 1897 A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz. 1. and re-elected a fellow of Trinity College in 1944. the Nobel Prize for Literature. vol. 1896 Foundations of Geometry. 1924) Russell exposed his views on his philosophy.1 Principal publications German Social Democracy. Personal Statements. Lond. He was awarded the Sylvester medal of the Royal Society. the de Morgan medal of the London Mathematical Society in the same year. 1950. preceded by a few words on historical development. 1900 Principles of Mathematics. 1903 . 1934. Barnes. director of the foundation. Russell was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1908. First series.Albert C.
1920 The Analysis of Mind. 1912 Our Knowledge of the External World as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy. 1918 Roads to Freedom: Socialism. 1944 Principles of Social Reconstruction. 1919 The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism. 1910 (with Dr. Whitehead) Principia mathematica. A. 1916 Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays. 1922 . 3 vols. 1921 The Problem of China. N. 1910-13 The Problems of Philosophy. Anarchism and Syndicalism.Philosophical Essays. 1918 Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy.
1936 (with Patricia Russell editor of) The Amberley Papers. 1923 (with Dora Russell) The Prospects of Industrial Civilisation. 1927 An Outline of Philosophy. 1937 Power: a new Social Introduction to its . 1929 The Conquest of Happiness. 1934 In Praise of Idleness. 2 vols. 1924 The ABC of Relativity. 1923 Logical Atomism. 1926 The Analysis of Matter.The ABC of Atoms. 1928 Marriage and Morals. 1930 The Freedom and Organisation 18141914. 1925 On Education. 1927 Sceptical Essays. 1935 Which Way to Peace?.
1950 1) The matter for this sketch is taken from general English reference books. 1938 An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth. 1948 Authority and the Individual. Editor Arne Holmberg. its Scope and Limits. 1946 Human Knowledge. 1941 History of Western Philosophy. From Les Prix Nobel en 1950.Study. 1951 This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les Prix Nobel/Nobel Lectures. Stockholm. 1949 Unpopular Essays. The information is sometimes updated with an addendum submitted by the Laureate. [Nobel Foundation]. To cite this .
always state the source as shown above. Rabindranath Tagore:- - . The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell. For more updated biographical information.document. Bertrand Russel died on February 2. Bertrand.) Allen & Unwin: London. 1967-1969. (3 vols. see: Russell. 1970.
essays. He is probably the most prominent figure in the cultural world of Indian subcontinent and the first Asian person to be awarded with the Nobel prize. Even though he is mainly known as a poet. the Nobel laureate poet. such as. painting etc. novels. short stories. writer. have an eternal appeal and . philosopher was the ambassador of Indian culture to the rest of the world. his multifaceted talent showered upon different branches of art.Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore. dramas. And his songs. popularly known as Rabindrasangeet. articles.
Went to visit Northern part of India and Himalayas with this father. Bengal Academy and St Xaviers School. He was first admitted into Oriental Seminary School. He was a social reformer. Dwarakanath Thakur Lane.the national anthems of these two countries are taken from his composition. At the age of 7 he wrote a rhyme. Tagore was born on Tuesday. India and Bangladesh . Calcutta. 7th May 1861 in a wealthy family in Calcutta at the address of 6. . His grand father Dwarakanath Tagore was a rich landlord and social reformer. But he did not like the conventional education and started home study under several teachers. patriot and above all. a great humanitarian and philosopher. Later he went to Normal School. Even though he was from a very wealthy family. but all lasted for brief periods. He was the ninth son of Debenadranath and Sarada Devi.is permanently placed in the heart of the Bengalis. in those days Jorasanko house ( Tagore house ) was a center of culture.
His first book of poems. In the beginning of his literary works. Poet's mother Sarada Devi expired in 1875 when he was 13 years old. For the first time a poem with credit to his name was published in Amritabazar Patrika (weekly). Two magazines. there was impact of his elder brother Jyotirindranath and his wife Kadambari Devi. his first published poem Abhilaash(Desire) was published anonymously in a magazine called Tattobodhini. he sailed to England with his brother Satyandranath. Retuned to . Kabi Kahini ( tale of a poet ) was published in 1878. Following the style of Vaisnava Padalvali (verses). He got admitted into the University College in England and started studying under Prof Henry Morley.were used to get published from the Tagore house and he regularly contributed to those. he wrote Bhanusingher Padavali under the penname of Bhanusingha. He translated Macbeth into Bengali verse which was later published in Bharati magazine. In the same year. Bharati and Balaka .In 1874.
In 1882. Continued writing in different forms. Wrote two musical plays Valmiki Prativa (The Genius of Valmiki) and Kalmrigaya (The Fatal Hunt ). Acted in these plays too.Raja-o-rani ( King and Queen) and Visarjan (Sacrifice). Also wrote dramas . Later her name was changed to Mrinalini Devi. he wrote Sandhya Sangeet ( Evening Songs ) which impressed Bankim Chandra Chatterjee so much that he conferred his garland on Tagore in a function.India on 1880. Got married to Bhabatarini Devi in 1883 at the age of 22. Wrote a famous poem Nirjharer Swapnabhanga ( The Fountain Awakened from its Dream ).Mayar Khela. His first child (daughter) Madhurilata was born in 1886. In 1890 daughter Renuka was born. Wrote musical drama . Left for England in 1881. but changed his mind and came back from Madras and went to Mussorie to meet his father. In 1890.Kori-o-kamal (Sharp and Flats). In 1884 wrote a collection of poem . Tagore went to Shilaidaha (now in .
Established Bolpur Bramhacharyaashram at Shantiniketan. a school in the pattern of old Indian Ashrama. He strongly protested Lord Curzon's decision to divide Bengal on the basis of religion. The demise of father Debendranath happened in 1905. a collection of poems. wrote famous collection poems . his wife Mrinalini died. In 1902. dedicated to his wife. Composed Smaran ( In Memoriam ). In 1894 . Son Samindra was born in 1894. His youngest daughter Mira was born in 1892. He introduced the . Got involved with freedom fighting movement. he was influenced by the natural beauty and simple but elegant life of rural Bengal. Wrote a number of national songs and attended protest meetings.Sonar Tari (The Golden Boat). Within six months from this incident his daughter Renuka expired. Attended session of Indian National Congress and sang the song Vandemataram on the opening day. Here.Chitrangada. Wrote famous dance/musical drama .Bangladesh) to look after the family estate. In 1901 he took the editorial charge of the magazine Bangadarshan.
Illinois. In 1912. symbolizing the underlying unity in undivided Bengal. May Sinclair. He was first introduced to Rothenstein in Calcutta in a gathering at Abanindranath Tagore's house. a noted British painter. . Rothenstien was impressed by the poems. He met William Rothenstein. In 1909 started writing Gitanjali from Silaidaha. came to Urbana. made copies and gave to Yeats and other English poets. Composed Janaganamana in 1911 which later was selected as the national anthem of India. Tagore sailed for America ( for the first time) from England. Ernest Rhys etc. in London. Reached New York. Was shocked by the sudden death of son Samindra in 1907. Rothenstien arranged a reading in his house where Yeats read Tagore's poems in front of a distinguished audience comprising of Ezra Pound.Rakhibandhan ceremony . journeyed to Europe for the second time. On the journey to London he translated some of his poems/songs from Gitanjali to English.
On the way gave speech at Rangoon. Harvard University. Delivered lectures in Rochester. Yeats wrote the introduction for this book and Rothenstein did a pencil sketch for the cover page. In . Ezra Pound's Poetry Magazine published from Chicago had the honor of publishing first English poem of Tagore. In the mean time. 1912 issue. Tagore was traveling America then. His six Gitanjali poems appeared in Poetry in December. Singapore. The book created a sensation in English literary world. In 13th November of 1913.gave a lecture and then went to Chicago. Received Knighthood in 1915.Litt. Boston. Hongkong. On 26th Decemeber. University of Calcutta conferred on him the honorary degree of "D. Th epoet returned back to Calcutta. India Society of London published Gitanjali (song offerings) containing 103 translated poems of Tagore. Indians came to know that the Nobel prize for literature has been awarded to Tagore for Gitanjali. Proceeded to Japan in 1916.".
Call came from Europe again in 1920. Besant at Adyar. Los Angeles. Boston. he wrote a historic letter to Lord Chelmsford repudiating his Knighthood in protest of the massacre at Jalianwalabag. New York read translation from his novel Raja. Philadelphia. his eldest daughter Madhurilata passed away. Returned to Calcutta in 1917. Trichy. In 1920 he went to Gandhiji's Sabarmati Ashram and visited Ahmedabad. the poet started a tour to South India. Mysroe. Surat and Bombay. Detroit. Lectured at Portland. Kumbakonam. founded by Annie Besant and stayed as a guest of Mr. In 1919. Salt Lake City. Tanjore and Madras. Ooty. Cleveland. In 1918. Delivered lectures on different topics at Bangalore. Palghat. Sirangapatnam. Salem. San Fransisco. got invitation from different institutions in USA and reached Seattle (Washington). Milwakee. Chicago. Toured different places in . At Columbia Theatre. Iowa. Santa Barbara.Sep 1916. At Madras spoke as Chancellor of National University. In 1919. Punjab. Coimbatore.
He continued talks at Geneva. Prague and in other cities. Florence. Berlin. Travelled from Europe to America. Frankfurt.England and Paris. Went to Bombay and from there to Poona. Princeton. Met Argentine poet Madam Victoria Ocampo at Buenos Ayres. He gave all his money from Nobel Prize and royalty money from his books to this University. Venice.Vijaya and wrote Purabi . Cochin and Colombo. Mahatma Gandhi . established Viswabharati University.a collection of poems dedicated to her. Went to South America. Hague . Brussells. Visited and lectured at Mysore. The poet gave her a name . mostly because he was seen as anti-British and pro-German. Delivered lectures at New York. Got invitation from China and visited Sanghai. Zurich. Peiking. Trivandam. Stockholm. Humburg. Chicago and came back to Europe. Vienna. On the return journey visited Italy and lectured in Milan. Copenhaegen. Visited Japan again in this tour. 1n 1921. His effort to raise fund for Viswabharati was not very fruitful in America.Coimbatore. Bangalore.
visited Santiniketan in poet's birthday. In 1932 Iran. In 1927 went to Malayasia. Visited Europe again and this time went to Norway. Moimonsingha. Bulgaria. Greece and Egypt. In 1926 visited Dacca. Czechslovakia. Thailand. . Huungary. Lecture 2-10: CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF LITERARY . Comilla (all now in Bangladesh). 1941 in his ancestral home in Calcutta. Rumania. Sweden. In 1930 Russia. Denmark. Java. the house where he was born. And in 1934 to SriLanka. In 1929 Canada. In 1940 Oxford University arranged a special ceremony in Santiniketan to honor the poet with Doctorate Of Literature. Tagore passed away on 7th August. etc. Iraq.
THOUGHTS THROUGH ANY 12 TEXTS AMONGST THE FOLLOWING: 1. Great Classics • “Moby Dick” by Herman Melville . Ideal ideals • “Les Miserables” by Victor Hugo • “Wuthering Heights” by Emily Bronte • “Lord Jim” by Joseph Conrad • “Don Quixote” by Michael Cervantes • “The Fountain Head” by Ayn Rand 3. The Social Equation • “Man & Superman” by Sir George Bernard Shaw • “A Brave New World” by Aldous Huxley • “The Republic” by Plato • “Roots” by Alex Haley • “The Sane Society” by Erich Fromm 2.
• “Ulysses” by James Joyce 4. Did we Take the Wrong Turn • “Skeptical Essays” by Bertrand Russell • “Dances with Wolves” by Michael Blake • “Zen and the art of Motorcycle Maintenance “by Robert Persig SECTION-B: APPRECIATION OF ART & CULTURE Lecture 11-12: MANIFESTATIONS OF ART AND CULTURE • • Attire and Customs Performing arts . “Releasing Hyde”-A platform for catharsis and growth • “Julius Caesar” by William Shakespeare • “Death of Salesman” by Arthur Miller 5.
• • • • • Art and Architecture Ethnic History Language Social and Religious Adaptations Social conflicts Lecture 13. 14 & 15: CLASSIFICATION OF CULTURE AROUND THE WORLD • • • • • • • Indian Subcontinent Far East & Orient Central African North African and Mediterranean West European North American Latin American .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.