2 hour per week for 15 weeks 3

SECTION-A: APPRECIATION OF LITERATURE Lecture 1: Introduction Essence of Literary Thoughts for a Manager - Creativity: is of utmost importance to a manager. She needs to be foresighted, take decisions, generate new ideas, is responsible for the growth of the company, has to face stiff competition, manage, delegate responsibilities etc. perform all d functions of a manager. - Open-mindedness :in order to keep d interests of d company above his own, a manager needs to b open minded. He cannot let petty prejudices tar d efficient working of d

organization.He should b open 2 new ideas n b able 2 incorporate dem in2 it’s working.2 solve conflicts etc. - Value-systems : No matter how fast a company wants to climb d corporate ladder it needs 2 keep d value systems in mind. Our forward looking president APJ Abdul Kalam insisted on this. Ethics, morals, respect, honesty etc. - Stress Handling ability :A manager needs 2 keep his cool under all circumstances ,as not doing so ,will b detrimental for him as well as d company. A good manager knows how 2 deal with stress n situations that lead 2 it. Managers r taking the help of yoga

Tai-chi, playing games, attending workshops, reading self- help books and keeping themselves mentally and physically fit, in order to deal better with stress. “ Laugh n work better “is d new mantra, as being light hearted @ work helps 2 keep stress at bay. A good manager doesn’t take his domestic troubles 2 office and vice versa. A Brief on Literary Thought Leaders (Global and Indian) - William Shakespeare :William Shakespeare (1564–1616), `The Bard of Avon', English poet and playwright wrote the famous 154 Sonnets and numerous highly successful oft quoted dramatic works including the

Farewell: my blessing season this in thee!" --Lord Polonius. Hamlet. And it must follow. Mr. The Author. culture. From the Preface of the First Folio (1623) "To the memory of my beloved.tragedy of the Prince of Denmark. . And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. "Neither a borrower nor a lender be. as the night the day. and film and is considered one of the best English language writers ever. Scene 3 While Shakespeare caused much controversy. he also earned lavish praise and has profoundly impacted the world over in areas of literature. Thou canst not then be false to any man. This above all: to thine ownself be true. William Shakespeare: and what he hath left us"--Ben Jonson. For loan oft loses both itself and friend. art. Hamlet Act I. theatre.

This biography attempts only to give an overview of his life. while thy Booke doth live. without a tombe And art alive still. while leaving the more learned perspectives to the countless scholars and historians who have devoted their lives to the study and demystification of the man and his works. adapted or revised and printed are imprecise. And we have wits to read. which is also the day claimed to be the birth date of ." Over the centuries there has been much speculation surrounding various aspects of Shakespeare's life including his religious affiliation."Thou art a Moniment. and praise to give. England's celebration of their patron Saint George is on 23 April. when they were written. sexual orientation. Many of the dates of play performances. sources for collaborations. authorship of and chronology of the plays and sonnets.

Although birth and death dates were not recorded in Shakespeare's time. usually a few days after the actual event. John Shakespeare was a local businessman and also involved in municipal affairs as Alderman and Bailiff. who also had four daughters. the first of the four sons born to John Shakespeare (c1530-1601) and Mary Arden (c15401608).Shakespeare. . He lived with his fairly well-to-do parents on Henley Street. but a decline in his fortunes in his later years surely had an effect on William. churches did record baptisms and burials. The infant William was baptised on 26 April 1564 in the parish church Holy Trinity of Stratford upon Avon.

Worcester's Men. come to Stratford to entertain the local official townsmen. and Lord Strange's Men. In 1605 he became lay rector when he paid £440 towards its upkeep. There is also the time when Queen Elizabeth herself visited nearby Kenilworth Castle and .In his younger years Shakespeare attended the Christian Holy Trinity church. hence why he is buried in the chancel. studying the Book of Common Prayer and the English Bible. Early on Shakespeare likely attended the Elizabethan theatrical productions of travelling theatre troups. including the Queen's Men. Leicester's Men. the now famous elegant limestone cross shaped cathedral on the banks of the Avon river.

Shakespeare. as well as Latin literature and history. Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway (1556– 1623) married in the village of Temple Grafton. and twins Judith (1585-1662) who married Richard Quiney. Susanna (1583-1649). When he finished school he might have apprenticed for a time with his father. where he would have studied theatre and acting. Although enrolment registers did not survive. said to have been duly impressed by the procession. recreated it in some of his later plays. Baptisms of three children were recorded. but there is also mention of his being a school teacher. around the age of eleven Shakespeare probably entered the grammar school of Stratford. and Hamnet . when still a minor at the age of eighteen and requiring his father's consent. King's New School. The next record of his life is in 1582. who went on to marry noted physician John Hall.

supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blanke verse as the best of you: and beeing an . beautified with our feathers. and his involvement with theatre troupes and acting is disparagingly condemned in a 1592 pamphlet that was distributed in London.(1585-1596) his only son and heir who died at the age of eleven. It is not exactly clear what Shakespeare was doing in the first few years after the marriage. possibly as one of the Queen's Men whose works were harshly anti Catholic in a time of rising Protestantism. but he did go to London and worked at The Globe theatre. "Yes trust them not: for there is an upstart Crow. He was writing poems and plays. that with his Tyger's hart wrapped in a Player's hyde. attributed to Robert Green the playwright titled "Groats Worth of Witte" haughtily attacking Shakespeare as an "upstart crow".

Stratford. While it was a time for many upstart theatres. Shakespeare probably spent these dark days travelling between London. O that I might entreate your rare wits to be employed in more profitable courses: & let these Apes imitate your past excellence. the popular public entertainment of the day. which gave him time to pen many more plays and sonnets. and never more acquaint them with your admired inventions. Among the first of his known printed works is the comedic and erotically charged Ovidian narrative poem . is in his owne conceit the onely Shake-scene in a countrey.absolute Iohannes fac totum [Jack-of-alltrades. and the provinces. they were often shut down and forbidden to open for stretches of time." By 1593 the plague was haunting London and many who were able fled the teeming city for the cleansing airs of open country. Master of none].

At this time of prolific writing. It was followed by the much darker The Rape of Lucrece in 1594. the young man that some say Shakespeare may have had more than platonic affection for. dedicated with great esteem to his patron Henry Wriothesly. and in the theatres that Shakespeare was co-owner of including the Blackfriars. The troupe included his friend and actor Richard Burbage. The Passionate Pilgrim in 1599 and the allegorical The Phoenix and the Turtle (1601).Venus and Adonis (1593). It was wildly popular. and The Globe in London until it burnt down during a performance of King Henry . Shakespeare began his association until his death with The Lord Chamberlain's Men. They performed frequently at court. The Theatre. With the accession of James I they became the King's Men. who bought and performed most of Shakespeare's plays. third earl of Southampton.

sometimes plagiarised and often changed at the whim of the printer. A few of his plays were printed in his lifetime. though they appeared more voluminously after his death. It is said that Shakespeare himself acted in a number of roles including the ghost in Hamlet and Old Adam in As You Like It. a massive undertaking to compile thirty-six plays from the quarto texts. playbooks. Histories. In the late 1590s he bought `New Place' on Chapel Street in Stratford. one of his many real estate investments. The approximately nine hundred page manuscript took about two years to complete and was printed in 1623 as Mr.VIII. & Tragedies. transcriptions. that being on a sheet of paper folded four ways. It also featured on the frontispiece the famous . and the memories of actors. William Shakespeares Comedies. Shakespeare wrote most of his plays as `quarto texts'. First Folio would be the first collection of his dramatic works.

Most likely Anne and the children lived in Stratford while Shakespeare spent his time travelling between Stratford and London. Under the favour of the court The Kings' Men became the eminent company of the day. While there is little known of her life. In 1616 his daughter Judith married Quiney who subsequently admitted to fornication with Margaret Wheeler. according to his monument. vicar of . It is not clear as to how or why Shakespeare died. but in 1664 the reverend John Ward.engraved portrait of Shakespeare said to be by Martin Droeshout (1601-c1651). dying in 1623 and is buried beside him. Anne Hathaway outlived her husband by seven years. dealing with business affairs and writing and acting. and Shakespeare took steps to bequeath a sum to Judith in her own name. and lies buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church in Stratford upon Avon. William Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616.

154 sonnets and "A Lover's Complaint" were published by Thomas Thorpe as Shake-speares Sonnets in 1609." His tombstone is inscribed with the following epitaph. for Shakespeare died of a feavour there contracted. and authorship of the Sonnets have been much debated with no conclusive findings. Drayton and Ben Johnson had a merie meeting. and itt seems drank too hard. Many have claimed . Good friend for Jesus sake forbeare To digg the dust encloased heare Blessed by y man y spares hes stones And curst be he y moves my bones Poetry It is generally agreed that most of the Shakespearean Sonnets were written in the 1590s. The order.Stratford recorded that "Shakespeare. Others were written or revised right before being printed. dates. some printed at this time as well.

can also be enjoyed as valuable poetical works that have transcended time and been surpassed by no other. the first 126 sonnets are addressed to a young man. including sonnet number 145 in reference to Anne.autobiographical details from them. Evoking Petrarch's style and lyrically writing of beauty. Regardless. or perhaps being a reversal of Henry Wriothesly's initials. mortality.H. Ever the dramatist Shakespeare . and love with its moral anguish and worshipful adoration of a usually unattainable love. The dedication to "Mr." is said to possibly represent the initials of the third earl of Pembroke William Herbert. W. sonnets 127-152 to a dark lady. there have been some unfortunate projections and interpretations of modern concepts onto centuries old works that. while a grasp of contextual historical information can certainly lend to their depth and meaning.

many based on English or Roman history. listed in chronological order of performance.created a profound intrigue to scholars and novices alike as to the identities of these people. Othello 1604-05 (1622).1597) by Greek historian and essayist Plutarch and Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles (1587). followed by approximate printing dates in brackets. Titus Andronicus first performed in 1594 (printed in 1594). Romeo and Juliet 1594-95 (1597). The dates given here are when they are said to have been first performed. Some are reworkings of previous stories. Antony and Cleopatra 1606-07 (1623). Hamlet 1600-01 (1603). Julius Caesar 1600-01 (1623). Tragedies Some probably inspired by Shakespeare's study of Lives (trans. .

King Henry IV Part 2 1597-98 (1600). King Henry VI Part 3 1592-93 (1623). No other playwright had attempted such an ambitious body of work. King Henry VI Part 1 1592 (printed in 1594).King Lear 1606 (1608). Histories Shakespeare's series of historical dramas. based on the English Kings from John to Henry VIII were a tremendous undertaking to dramatise the lives and rule of kings and the changing political events of his time. King Henry VI Part 2 1592-93 (1594). Some were printed on their own or in the First Folio (1623). and Macbeth 1611-1612 (1623). Coriolanus 1607-08 (1623). King John 1596-97 (1623). derived from Plutarch Timon of Athens 1607-08 (1623). . King Henry IV Part 1 1597-98 (1598).

King Henry V 1598-99 (1600); Richard II 1600-01 (1597); Richard III 1601 (1597); and King Henry VIII 1612-13 (1623) Comedies, again listed in chronological order of performance. Taming of the Shrew first performed 1593-94 (1623), Comedy of Errors 1594 (1623), Two Gentlemen of Verona 1594-95 (1623), Love's Labour's Lost 1594-95 (1598), Midsummer Night's Dream 1595-96 (1600), Merchant of Venice 1596-1597 (1600), Much Ado About Nothing 1598-1599 (1600), As You Like It 1599-00 (1623), Merry Wives of Windsor 1600-01 (1602), Troilus and Cressida 1602 (1609), Twelfth Night 1602 (1623), All's Well That Ends Well 1602-03 (1623),

Measure for Measure 1604 (1623), Pericles, Prince of Tyre 1608-09 (1609), Tempest (1611), Cymbeline 1611-12 (1623), Winter's Tale 1611-12 (1623). Biography written by C.D. Merriman for Jalic Inc. Copyright Jalic Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved. The above biography is copyrighted. Do not republish it without - Bernard Shaw:George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was born in Dublin, the son of a civil servant. His education was irregular, due to his dislike of any organized training. After working in an estate agent's office for a while he moved to London as a young man (1876), where he established himself as a leading music and theatre critic in the eighties and nineties and

became a prominent member of the Fabian Society, for which he composed many pamphlets. He began his literary career as a novelist; as a fervent advocate of the new theatre of Ibsen (The Quintessence of Ibsenism, 1891) he decided to write plays in order to illustrate his criticism of the English stage. His earliest dramas were called appropriately Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant (1898). Among these, Widower's Houses and Mrs. Warren's Profession savagely attack social hypocrisy, while in plays such as Arms and the Man and The Man of Destiny the criticism is less fierce. Shaw's radical rationalism, his utter disregard of conventions, his keen dialectic interest and verbal wit often turn the stage into a forum of ideas, and nowhere more openly than in the famous discourses on the Life Force, «Don Juan in Hell», the third act of the dramatization of woman's love chase of man, Man and Superman (1903).

one of Shaw's most successful «discussion» plays. in Back to Methuselah (1921). in which he exercised a kind of retrospective history and from modern movements drew deductions for the Christian era. facetiously classified as a tragedy by Shaw. The Doctor's Dilemma (1906). is really a comedy the humour of which is directed . in which he rewrites the well-known story of the French maiden and extends it from the Middle Ages to the present. not as an individual. Other important plays by Shaw are Caesar and Cleopatra (1901).In the plays of his later period discussion sometimes drowns the drama. the audience's attention is held by the power of the witty argumentation that man can achieve aesthetic salvation only through political activity. and Androcles and the Lion (1912). In Major Barbara (1905). a historical play filled with allusions to modern times. although in the same period he worked on his masterpiece Saint Joan (1923).

It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. with social attitudes toward sex relations as objects of his satire. the year of his death. . Editor Horst Frenz. and the social corrective that gives Shaw's comedies their special flavour. always state the source as shown above. Shaw's complete works appeared in thirty-six volumes between 1930 and the medical profession. From Nobel Lectures. a witty study of phonetics as well as a clever treatment of middle-class morality and class distinction. Candida (1898). and Pygmalion (1912). It is a combination of the dramatic. proved some of Shaw's greatest successes on the stage. To cite this document. Elsevier Publishing Company. Amsterdam. Literature 19011967. 1969 This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. the comic.

Among many volumes of poetry.George Bernard Shaw died on November 2. In the English-speaking world his best-known works are often the novels Les Misérables and NotreDame de Paris (sometimes translated into English as The Hunchback of Notre-Dame). 1950 Victor Hugo:- - Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced [vikt?? ma?i y??o]) (February 26. playwright. human rights campaigner. and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. essayist. . 1802 – May 22. In France. novelist. statesman. and Hugo is sometimes identified as the greatest French poet. Hugo's literary reputation rests primarily on his poetic and dramatic output and only secondarily on his novels. visual artist. Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles stand particularly high in critical esteem. 1885) was a French poet.

his brothers were Abel Joseph Hugo (1798–1855) and Eugène Hugo (1800–1837). his exile was by choice. The century prior to his birth saw the overthrow of the Bourbon Dynasty in the French Revolution. Hugo's early childhood was marked by great events. He is buried in the Panthéon. There was a general amnesty in 1859. after that. he became a passionate supporter of republicanism. However. in Jersey from 1852 to 1855. and his work touches upon most of the political and social issues and artistic trends of his time. Hugo moved to the political left as the decades passed.Though extremely conservative in his youth. and in Guernsey from 1855 to 1870 and again in 1872-1873. Victor-Marie Hugo was the third and last son of Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo (1773–1828) and Sophie Trébuchet (1772-1821). he was forced into exile during the reign of Napoleon III — he lived briefly in Brussels during 1851. He was born in 1802 in Besançon (in the region of FrancheComté) and lived in France for the majority of his life. the rise and fall of the First .

his mother was a staunch Catholic Royalist who is believed to have taken as her lover General Victor Lahorie. an atheist republican who considered Napoleon a hero. Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor two years after Hugo's birth. Weary of the constant moving required by military life. Thereafter she dominated Hugo's education and upbringing. Sophie separated temporarily from Léopold in 1803 and settled in Paris. and the rise of the First French Empire and dictatorship under Napoleon Bonaparte. Hugo's early work in poetry and . As a result. Sophie followed her husband to posts in Italy (where Léopold served as a governor of a province near Naples) and Spain (where he took charge of three Spanish provinces).Republic. The opposing political and religious views of Hugo's parents reflected the forces that would battle for supremacy in France throughout his life: Hugo's father was a highranking officer in Napoleon's army. and the Bourbon Monarchy was restored before his eighteenth birthday. and at odds with her unfaithful husband. who was executed in 1812 for plotting against Napoleon.

Hugo resolved to be “Chateaubriand or nothing.fiction reflect a passionate devotion to both King and Faith. Hugo was profoundly influenced by FrançoisRené de Chateaubriand. The precocious passion and eloquence of Hugo's early work brought success and fame at an early age. In his youth.” and his life would come to parallel that of his predecessor’s in many ways. Like Chateaubriand. Hugo would further the cause of Romanticism. His first collection of poetry (Nouvelles Odes et Poésies Diverses) was . that he would begin to rebel against his Catholic Royalist education and instead champion Republicanism and Freethought. Early poetry and fiction Like many young writers of his generation. the famous figure in the literary movement of Romanticism and France’s preëminent literary figure during the early 1800s. become involved in politics as a champion of Republicanism. during the events leading up to France's 1848 Revolution. It was only later. and be forced into exile due to his political stances.

Between 1829 and 1840 he would publish five more volumes of poetry (Les Orientales. Les Chants du crépuscule. Unusually close to his mother. 1828) and Adèle (August 24. and earned him a royal pension from Louis XVIII. it was the collection that followed two years later in 1826 (Odes et Ballades) that revealed Hugo to be a great poet. Charles (November 4. Hugo's other children were Léopoldine (August 28. young Victor fell in love and became secretly engaged to his childhood friend Adèle Foucher (1803-1868). when Hugo was only twenty two years old.published in 1824. 1823). it was only after her death in 1821 that he felt free to marry Adèle (in 1822). a natural master of lyric and creative song. Against his mother's wishes. and his second three years later (Bug-Jargal. 1831. 1835. Les Feuilles d'automne. 1826). but the boy died in infancy. They had their first child Léopold in 1823. François-Victor (October 28. 1829. Hugo published his first novel the following year (Han d'Islande. 1826). 1830). Les Voix . Though the poems were admired for their spontaneous fervor and fluency. 1824).

. Theatrical work Hugo did not achieve such quick success with his works for the stage. and thus sparked a fierce debate between French Classicism and Romanticism that would rage for many years. which became more famous for the author's project than its own worth (the play's unwieldy length was considered "unfit for acting"). 1837. and Les Rayons et les ombres. Hugo urged his fellow artists to free themselves from the restrictions imposed by the French classical style of theatre. In his introduction to the work. cementing his reputation as one of the greatest elegiac and lyric poets of his time. he published the never-staged verse drama Cromwell. which was produced under the name of his brother-in-law Paul Foucher and managed to survive only one performance before a less-than-appreciative audience. 1840). an experimental play from his youth based on the Walter Scott novel Kenilworth. In 1827.intérieures. Cromwell was followed in 1828 by the disastrous Amy Robsart.

but played to full houses night after night. and all but crowned Hugo as the preeminent leader of French Romanticism. Classicists. Liberals vs. Though initially banned by the censors for its unflattering portrayal of the French monarchy. the opening night of which became known as the "The Battle of Hernani". Today the work is largely forgotten. However. performances of the work sparked near-riots between opposing camps of French letters and society: Romantics vs. Conformists. and Republicans vs. Royalists. it was eventually allowed to premiere uncensored in 1829. the play that Hugo produced the following year — Hernani — would prove to be one of the most successful and groundbreaking events of nineteenth-century French theatre.The first play of Hugo's to be accepted for production under his own name was Marion de Lorme. However. except as the basis for the Verdi opera Ernani. at the time. but without success. The play was largely condemned by the press. It also signalled that Hugo's concept of Romanticism was growing increasingly politicized: Hugo believed that just as .

Drouet would go on to play a major role in Hugo’s personal life. Lucrèce Borgia (see: Lucrezia Borgia). Actress Juliette Drouet. due to its overt mockery of the French nobility.Liberalism in politics would free the country from the tyranny of monarchy and dictatorship. The play was promptly banned by the censors after only one performance. becoming his life-long mistress. It subsequently appeared on the stage in 1833. Hugo's mistressIn 1832 Hugo followed the success of Hernani with Le roi s'amuse (The King Takes His Amusement. Drouet was recognized even by his wife to have a unique relationship with the writer. In Hugo’s next . but then went on to be very popular in printed form. in only fourteen days. Romanticism would liberate the arts from the constraints of Classicism. Hugo wrote his next play. and was treated almost as family. used by Verdi for Rigoletto). While Hugo had many romantic escapades throughout his life. Mademoiselle George (former mistress of Napoleon) was cast in the main role. to great success. Incensed by the ban. However. and an actress named Juliette Drouet played a subordinate part.

Soon after. Théâtre de la Renaissance opened in November 1838. It would be her last role on the French stage. and was replaced by another actress after opening night. Drouet played Lady Jane Grey to George’s Queen Mary. she was not considered adequate to the role. the Duke of Orleans (son of King Louis-Philippe. thereafter she devoted her life to Hugo. with the premiere of Ruy Blas. 1833). Hugo’s Angelo premiered in 1835. and an admirer of Hugo’s work) founded a new theatre to support new plays. losing audiences to a competing drama. she became his unpaid secretary and travelling companion for the next fifty years. at the time it met with only average success. Supported by a small pension. to great success. Though he would later write the short verse drama Torquemada in 1869. Though considered by many to be Hugo’s best drama. The Burgraves played for only 33 nights. with Jean Marais in the title role. However. and it would be his last work written for the theatre. it was not published until . Hugo did not produce another play until (Marie Tudor. in 1947 Jean Cocteau adapted it for cinema.

and reflected the acute social conscience that would infuse his later work. However.a few years before his death in 1882. a documentary short story about a real-life murderer who had been executed in France. whose style he tried to emulate in his own dramas. Hugo's interest in the theatre continued. Claude Gueux. which was published in 1831 and quickly translated into other languages across . and in 1864. Les Misérables. Mature fiction Victor Hugo's first mature work of fiction appeared in 1829. But Hugo’s first full-length novel would be the enormously successful NotreDame de Paris (The Hunchback of Notre Dame). Le Dernier jour d'un condamné (Last Days of a Condemned Man) would have a profound influence on later writers such as Albert Camus. Charles Dickens. and was later considered by Hugo himself to be a precursor to his great work on social injustice. he published a well-received essay on William Shakespeare. appeared in 1834. and Fyodor Dostoevsky. and was never intended for the stage.

Europe. to be realized and finally published in 1862. which was launched simultaneously in major cities. Portrait of "Cosette" by Émile Bayard. which thereafter began to be actively preserved. but it would take a full 17 years for his most enduringly popular work. It also initially published only the first part of the novel (“Fantine”). Les Misérables. The Belgian publishing house Lacroix and Verboeckhoven undertook a marketing campaign unusual for the time. from the original edition of Les Misérables (1862)Hugo began planning a major novel about social misery and injustice as early as the 1830s. Installments of . One of the effects of the novel was to shame the City of Paris to undertake a restoration of the much-neglected Cathedral of Notre Dame. The book also inspired a renewed appreciation for pre-renaissance buildings. The author was acutely aware of the quality of the novel and publication of the work went to the highest bidder. which was attracting thousands of tourists who had read the popular novel. issuing press releases about the work a full six months before the launch.

.castigated it in private as "tasteless and inept.despite giving favorable reviews in newspapers ." Nonetheless. Taine found it insincere. television and musical stage to an extent equaled by few other works of literature. The critical establishment was generally hostile to the novel. Today the novel remains popular worldwide. Les Misérables proved popular enough with the masses that the issues it highlighted were soon on the agenda of the French National Assembly. who replied with a single '!'. adapted for cinema. and Baudelaire . Barbey d'Aurevilly complained of its vulgarity. Flaubert found within it "neither truth nor greatness. It is said Hugo was on vacation when Les Misérables (which is over 1200 pages) was published. The shortest correspondence in history is between Hugo and his publisher Hurst & Blackett in 1862. He telegraphed the single-character message '?' to his publisher.the book sold out within hours." the Goncourts lambasted its artificiality. and had enormous impact on French society.

Les Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea). the novel was not as successful as his previous efforts. However. Parisiennes became fascinated by these unusual sea creatures. Dedicated to the channel island of Guernsey where he spent 15 years of exile. perhaps due to the previous success of Les Misérables. the book was well received. From squid dishes and exhibitions.Hugo turned away from social/political issues in his next novel. to squid hats and parties. which at the time were still considered by many to be mythical. Nonetheless. published in 1866. L'Homme Qui Rit (The Man Who Laughs).[citation needed] The Guernsey word used in the book has also been used to refer to the octopus. and Hugo himself began to comment on the growing distance between himself and literary contemporaries such as . which was published in 1869 and painted a critical picture of the aristocracy. Hugo’s depiction of Man’s battle with the sea and the horrible creatures lurking beneath its depths spawned an unusual fad in Paris: Squids. Hugo returned to political and social issues in his next novel.

Flaubert and Zola. where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice. His last novel. Thereafter he became increasingly involved in French politics as a supporter of the Republic form of government. many now consider Ninety-Three to be a work on par with Hugo’s more well known novels. solidifying his position in the world of French arts and letters. Quatrevingt-treize (Ninety-Three). Though Hugo’s popularity was on the decline at the time of its publication. published in 1874. whose realist and naturalist novels were now exceeding the popularity of his own work. Hugo was finally elected to the Académie française in 1841. He was later elected to the Legislative Assembly and the Constitutional . and in favour of freedom of the press and selfgovernment for Poland. Political life and exile After three unsuccessful attempts. He was elevated to the peerage by King LouisPhilippe in 1841 and entered the Higher Chamber as a pair de France. dealt with a subject that Hugo had previously avoided: the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution.

and finally settled with his family on the channel island of Guernsey at Hauteville House. establishing an antiparliamentary constitution. but nonetheless had a strong impact there. including Les Misérables. He also composed some of his best work during his period in Guernsey. then Jersey. and three widely praised collections of poetry (Les Châtiments. Les Contemplations. Napoléon le Petit and Histoire d'un crime. While in exile. 1859). He convinced the government of Queen Victoria to spare the lives of six Irish people convicted of terrorist activities and his influence was . 1856. He fled to Brussels.Assembly. Hugo openly declared him a traitor of France. 1853. following the 1848 Revolution and the formation of the Second Republic. Hugo published his famous political pamphlets against Napoleon III. where he would live in exile until 1870. The pamphlets were banned in France. Among the Rocks on Jersey (1853-55)When Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) seized complete power in 1851. and La Légende des siècles.

as it meant he would have to curtail his criticisms of the government. he wrote in his diary that they were now reduced to eating things even though he was not at all sure what it was: "we are eating the unknown. It was only after Napoleon III fell from power and the Third Republic was proclaimed that Hugo finally returned to his homeland in 1870." he wrote. Because of his concern for the rights of artists and copyright. He was in Paris during the siege by the Prussian army in 1870. famously eating animals given him by the Paris zoo. As the siege continued. Hugo declined. where he was promptly elected to the National Assembly and the Senate. he was a founding member of the Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale.credited in the removal of the death penalty from the constitutions of Geneva. which led to the Berne . and food became ever more scarce.[1] Although Napoleon III granted an amnesty to all political exiles in 1859. Portugal and Colombia.

On the deaths of his sons . When a census-taker asked Hugo in 1872 if he was a Catholic. Hugo never lost his antipathy towards the Roman Catholic Church. "No. and perhaps also due to the frequency with which Hugo's work appeared on the Pope's list of "proscribed books" (Hugo counted 740 attacks on Les Misérables in the Catholic press). he replied.Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. Religious views Hugo's religious views changed radically over the course of his life. A Freethinker". In his youth. From there he evolved into a non-practicing Catholic. and in later years settled into a Rationalist Deism similar to that espoused by Voltaire. He dabbled in Spiritualism during his exile (where he participated also in seances). he identified as a Catholic and professed respect for Church hierarchy and authority. due largely to what he saw as the Church's indifference to the plight of the working class under the oppression of the monarchy. and expressed increasingly violent anti-papist and anti-clerical views.

Hugo's Rationalism can be found in poems such as Torquemada (1869. in which he represents Christianity as a griffin and Rationalism as an angel). he never directly attacked the institution itself. but God remains". Soul. However. He also remained a deeply religious man who strongly believed in the power and necessity of prayer. and the Power.Charles and François-Victor. Christianity would eventually disappear. violently anticlerical). denying the usefulness of churches) and. The End of Satan and God (1886 and 1891 respectively. he insisted that they be buried without crucifix or priest. The Pope (1878. published posthumously. although Hugo believed Catholic dogma to be outdated and dying. and in his will made the same stipulation about his own death and funeral. he predicted. Hugo declared. but people would still believe in "God. about religious fanaticism). "Religions pass away." Declining years and death . Religions and Religion (1880.

When Hugo returned to Paris in 1870. His faithful mistress. The celebrations began on the 25th when Hugo was presented with a Sèvres vase. the traditional gift for sovereigns.) Despite his personal loss. only two years before his own death. his daughter Adèle’s internment in an insane asylum. and the death of his two sons. To honor the fact that he was entering his eightieth year. and his wife Adèle had died in 1868. (His other daughter. Juliette Drouet. Hugo remained committed to the cause of political change. Léopoldine. Within a brief period. In February of 1881 Hugo celebrated his 79th birthday. Marchers stretched from . the country hailed him as a national hero. died in 1883. Hugo took on a stubborn role and got little done in the Senate. one of the greatest tributes to a living writer was held. Despite his popularity Hugo lost his bid for reelection to the National Assembly in 1872. he suffered a mild stroke. On the 27th one of the largest parades in French history was held. His last phase in his political career is considered a failure. had drowned in a boating accident in 1843. On 30 January 1876 Hugo was elected to the newly created Senate.

when he made the decision to stop writing in order to devote himself to politics. and all the way to the center of Paris. Drawings Many are not aware that Hugo was almost as prolific in the visual arts as he was in literature. sometimes with touches of white. Hugo worked only on paper. usually in dark brown or black pen-andink wash. The paraders marched for six hours to pass Hugo as he sat in the window at his house. the official guides even wore cornflowers as an allusion to Cosette's song in Les Misérables. and on a small scale. Originally pursued as a casual hobby.Avenue d'Eylau. (Some reproductions can be viewed on the internet at ArtNet and on the website of artist Misha Bittleston). drawing became more important to Hugo shortly before his exile. and .000 drawings in his lifetime. producing more than 4. down the Champs-Elysees. Drawing became his exclusive creative outlet during the period 1848-1851. Every inch and detail of the event was for Hugo.

Sometimes he would even toss in coffee or soot to get the effects he wanted. Hugo kept his artwork out of the public eye. in order to access his unconscious mind. However. many of which were given as gifts to visitors when he was in political exile. Some of his work was . ink blots. puddles and stains. or during Spiritualist séances. It is reported that Hugo often drew with his left hand or without looking at the page.e. "pliage" or folding (i. lace impressions. often using the charcoal from match sticks or his fingers instead of pen or brush. "grattage" or rubbing. he enjoyed sharing his drawings with his family and friends. a concept only later popularized by Sigmund Freud. fearing it would overshadow his literary work. He would not hesitate to use his children's stencils. often in the form of ornately handmade calling cards. foreshadowing the experimental techniques of Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism. The surviving drawings are surprisingly accomplished and "modern" in their style and execution.rarely with color. Rorschach blots).

and links the Place de l'Étoile to the vicinity of the Bois de Boulogne by way of the Place VictorHugo. The Avenue Victor-Hugo in the XVIème arrondissement of Paris bears Hugo's name. Memorials Victor Hugo cabinet card by London Stereoscopic CompanyThe people of Guernsey erected a statue in Candie Gardens to commemorate his stay in the islands.shown to. Paris as museums. Luxembourg. The City of Paris has preserved his residences Hauteville House. he would have outshone the artists of their century. Guernsey and 6. and appreciated by. This square is served by a Paris Métro stop also named in his honor. Place des Vosges. The house where he stayed in Vianden. the latter expressed the opinion that if Hugo had decided to become a painter instead of a writer. contemporary artists such as Van Gogh and Delacroix. in 1871 has also become a commemorative museum. A number of .

Website: Discover France. Avenue Victor-Hugo. v.0. The school Lycée Victor Hugo in his town of s/mort/reperes/signe. Besançon in France.) Retrieved November 2005. located in Shawinigan..bnf.1. “Victor Hugo: French Dramatist”. was named to honor him.expositions. Victor would later write about his brief stay here quoting "C’était un palais de marbre. In the city of Avellino.religioustolerance.". Leopold Sigisbert Hugo. . Charles (1997) Quebec. Reference ^www.htm ^ www. (Originally published in Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. in 1808. Italy.htm Online references Afran. 1997. when reuniting with his father.streets and avenues throughout France are likewise named after him. Canada. Victor Hugo lived briefly stayed in what is now known as Il Palazzo Culturale.

“Hernani”.Bates. Alfred Bates. Burnham. 18-19. Alfred (1906). Website: Theatre History. Bates. London: Historical Publishing Company. “Victor Hugo”. Literature and Influence on Civilization. 9. Alfred Bates. 1896. “Hugo’s Cromwell”. "Drawings of Victor Hugo". Website: Theatre History. vol.) Retrieved November 2005. Bittleston. London: Historical Publishing Company. 1906.) Retrieved November 2005.) Retrieved November 2005. pp. Alfred Bates. Bates. pp. “Amy Robsart”. (Originally published in Victor Hugo: Dramas. ed. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History. vol. Philadelphia: The Rittenhouse Press. Website: Threatre History. Alfred (1906). Website: Misha Bittleston. 1906. Retrieved November 2005. I. pp. 401-2. ed. (1896). 203-6. Literature and Influence on Civilization. pp. Website: Theatre History. London: Historical Publishing Company. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History. 2023. vol. Literature and Influence on Civilization. Alfred (1906). 1113. 1906. 9. 9. Misha (uncited date).) Retrieved . ed.G.

Retrieved November 2005. “Victor Hugo”. Retrieved November 2005. 6th Edition (2001-05). “Victor Hugo”." Website: ArtNet. Retrieved November 2005. Ronald Bruce (2004). “Victor Hugo: Plays”.November 2005. (Excerpt from Graham. Books and Writers. Great Books Online. Robb (1997). Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions. Peter (2001-2004). Retrieved November 2005. Karlins. Petri (2000). Website: New York Times (Books). Website: Pegasos: A Literature Related Resource Site. Vicomte”. Liukkonen. “Victor Hugo (18021885)”. Website: Bartleby. "Octopus With the Initials V. (1998). Retrieved November 2005. Graham (1997). Website: Ronald Bruce Meyer. Robb. Retrieved November 2005. Columbia Encyclopedia. Victor Marie. Norton & . Retrieved November 2005. Website: Ohio University. Haine. Meyer. “Hugo. “A Sabre in the Night”.W. New York: W.H. Illi. Scott (1997). Website: The Victor Hugo Website.F. W. Victor Hugo: A Biography. N.

Uncited Author. Website: Présence de la Littérature a l’école. Isabel (2005). "Hugo Caricature". Retrieved November 2005.Bertrand Russel:Biography . Meet the Writers. (2000-2005). “Victor Hugo: Biography”. (From the Barnes & Noble Classics edition of The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Retrieved November 2005.) Retrieved November 2005. “Victor Hugo”. Website: BBC. “Timeline of Victor Hugo”. “Victor Hugo”. Uncited Author. Website: Spartacus Educational. .) Retrieved November 2005.Company. Website: Barnes & Noble. Uncited Author. Website: The Literature Network. 2005. Retrieved November 2005. Uncited Author. Retrieved November 2005. Roche.

Instead of being sent to school he was taught by governesses and tutors. and brought up by his grandmother. Cambridge.Bertrand Arthur William Russell was born at Trelleck on 18th May. His father had wished him to be brought up as an agnostic. and thus acquired a perfect knowledge of French and German. and after being a very high Wrangler and obtaining a First Class with distinction in philosophy he was elected a fellow of his college in . 1872. His parents were Viscount Amberley and Katherine. In 1890 he went into residence at Trinity College. At the age of three he was left an orphan. daughter of 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley. to avoid this he was made a ward of Court.

1895. The Principles of Mathematics. In 1900 he visited the Mathematical Congress at Paris. He was impressed with the ability of the Italian mathematician Peano and his pupils. After the first World War broke out. After spending some months in Berlin studying social democracy. From time to time he abandoned philosophy for politics. and immediately studied Peano's works. In 1903 he wrote his first important book. But he had already left Cambridge in the summer of 1894 and for some months was attaché at the British embassy at Paris. In December 1894 he married Miss Alys Pearsall Smith. he took an active part in the No . In 1910 he was appointed lecturer at Trinity College. and with his friend Dr. they went to live near Haslemere. where he devoted his time to the study of philosophy. Alfred Whitehead proceeded to develop and extend the mathematical logic of Peano and Frege.

Conscription fellowship and was fined £ 100 as the author of a leaflet criticizing a sentence of two years on a conscientious objector. His college deprived him of his lectureship in 1916. His Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy (1919) was written in prison. In 1920 Russell had paid a short visit to Russia to study the conditions of Bolshevism on the spot. In 1918 he was sentenced to six months' imprisonment for a pacifistic article he had written in the Tribunal. He was offered a post at Harvard university. He intended to give a course of lectures (afterwards published in America as Political Ideals. His Analysis of Mind (1921) was the outcome of some lectures he gave in London. but was refused a passport. In the autumn of the same year he went to China to lecture on philosophy at the Peking . 1918) but was prevented by the military authorities. which were organized by a few friends who got up a subscription for the purpose.

which they carried on until 1932. 1943 by . he accepted a five-year contract as a lecturer for the Barnes foundation. He succeeded to the earldom in 1931. he married Miss Dora Black. Merion. They lived for six years in Chelsea during the winter months and spent the summers near Lands End. 1921. In 1940 he was involved in legal proceedings when his right to teach philosophy at the College of the City of New York was questioned because of his views on morality. In 1927 he and his wife started a school for young On his return in Sept. Pa. He was divorced by his second wife in 1935 and the following year married Patricia Helen Spence. When his appointment to the college faculty was cancelled. but the cancellation of this contract was announced in Jan. In 1938 he went to the United States and during the next years taught at many of the country's leading universities. having been divorced by his first wife..

1934. Lond. the Nobel Prize for Literature. 1896 Foundations of Geometry. He was awarded the Sylvester medal of the Royal Society. 1903 . Personal Statements. director of the foundation.1 Principal publications German Social Democracy. preceded by a few words on historical development. vol. Russell was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1908. 1. the de Morgan medal of the London Mathematical Society in the same year. 1924) Russell exposed his views on his philosophy. Barnes. and re-elected a fellow of Trinity College in 1944. 1900 Principles of Mathematics. In a paper "Logical Atomism" (Contemporary British Philosophy.Albert C. 1897 A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz. 1950. First series.

1922 . Anarchism and Syndicalism. Whitehead) Principia mathematica. 1918 Roads to Freedom: Socialism. 1944 Principles of Social Reconstruction. 1910 (with Dr. 1916 Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays. 1912 Our Knowledge of the External World as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy. 1910-13 The Problems of Philosophy. 1919 The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism. A. 1921 The Problem of China. N.Philosophical Essays. 1918 Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy. 3 vols. 1920 The Analysis of Mind.

1934 In Praise of Idleness. 1936 (with Patricia Russell editor of) The Amberley Papers. 1927 An Outline of Philosophy. 1925 On Education. 1924 The ABC of Relativity. 1937 Power: a new Social Introduction to its . 1929 The Conquest of Happiness. 1935 Which Way to Peace?. 2 vols. 1923 Logical Atomism. 1930 The Freedom and Organisation 18141914. 1926 The Analysis of Matter. 1928 Marriage and Morals. 1923 (with Dora Russell) The Prospects of Industrial Civilisation.The ABC of Atoms. 1927 Sceptical Essays.

[Nobel Foundation]. To cite this . 1951 This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les Prix Nobel/Nobel Lectures. 1950 1) The matter for this sketch is taken from general English reference books. 1938 An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth.Study. From Les Prix Nobel en 1950. 1946 Human Knowledge. The information is sometimes updated with an addendum submitted by the Laureate. 1948 Authority and the Individual. its Scope and Limits. Editor Arne Holmberg. 1941 History of Western Philosophy. 1949 Unpopular Essays. Stockholm.

) Allen & Unwin: London.document. Bertrand Russel died on February 2. 1967-1969. always state the source as shown above. For more updated biographical information. (3 vols. see: Russell. The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell. Bertrand. Rabindranath Tagore:- - . 1970.

articles. popularly known as Rabindrasangeet. dramas. painting etc. have an eternal appeal and . Even though he is mainly known as a poet. essays. such as. He is probably the most prominent figure in the cultural world of Indian subcontinent and the first Asian person to be awarded with the Nobel prize. philosopher was the ambassador of Indian culture to the rest of the world. the Nobel laureate poet. writer. his multifaceted talent showered upon different branches of art. novels.Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore. short stories. And his songs.

is permanently placed in the heart of the Bengalis. India and Bangladesh . Tagore was born on Tuesday. Went to visit Northern part of India and Himalayas with this father. His grand father Dwarakanath Tagore was a rich landlord and social reformer. Later he went to Normal School. He was the ninth son of Debenadranath and Sarada Devi. 7th May 1861 in a wealthy family in Calcutta at the address of 6. Dwarakanath Thakur Lane. Even though he was from a very wealthy family.the national anthems of these two countries are taken from his composition. He was a social reformer. in those days Jorasanko house ( Tagore house ) was a center of culture. but all lasted for brief periods. Calcutta. patriot and above all. Bengal Academy and St Xaviers School. He was first admitted into Oriental Seminary School. At the age of 7 he wrote a rhyme. a great humanitarian and philosopher. . But he did not like the conventional education and started home study under several teachers.

In the same year. His first book of poems. he wrote Bhanusingher Padavali under the penname of Bhanusingha. Bharati and Balaka . he sailed to England with his brother Satyandranath. He got admitted into the University College in England and started studying under Prof Henry Morley. Retuned to . Following the style of Vaisnava Padalvali (verses).were used to get published from the Tagore house and he regularly contributed to those. For the first time a poem with credit to his name was published in Amritabazar Patrika (weekly). his first published poem Abhilaash(Desire) was published anonymously in a magazine called Tattobodhini.In 1874. Poet's mother Sarada Devi expired in 1875 when he was 13 years old. there was impact of his elder brother Jyotirindranath and his wife Kadambari Devi. Two magazines. In the beginning of his literary works. Kabi Kahini ( tale of a poet ) was published in 1878. He translated Macbeth into Bengali verse which was later published in Bharati magazine.

he wrote Sandhya Sangeet ( Evening Songs ) which impressed Bankim Chandra Chatterjee so much that he conferred his garland on Tagore in a function. Later her name was changed to Mrinalini Devi. Also wrote dramas . but changed his mind and came back from Madras and went to Mussorie to meet his father. Tagore went to Shilaidaha (now in . Acted in these plays too. In 1884 wrote a collection of poem .Mayar Khela. Continued writing in different forms. Got married to Bhabatarini Devi in 1883 at the age of 22. In 1890 daughter Renuka was born. In 1882. Wrote musical drama .Raja-o-rani ( King and Queen) and Visarjan (Sacrifice). Wrote two musical plays Valmiki Prativa (The Genius of Valmiki) and Kalmrigaya (The Fatal Hunt ). His first child (daughter) Madhurilata was born in 1886. Wrote a famous poem Nirjharer Swapnabhanga ( The Fountain Awakened from its Dream ).India on 1880. In 1890.Kori-o-kamal (Sharp and Flats). Left for England in 1881.

a collection of poems. The demise of father Debendranath happened in 1905.Sonar Tari (The Golden Boat). Wrote a number of national songs and attended protest meetings. his wife Mrinalini died. Attended session of Indian National Congress and sang the song Vandemataram on the opening day. In 1894 . In 1901 he took the editorial charge of the magazine Bangadarshan.Bangladesh) to look after the family estate. He strongly protested Lord Curzon's decision to divide Bengal on the basis of religion. a school in the pattern of old Indian Ashrama. His youngest daughter Mira was born in 1892. Within six months from this incident his daughter Renuka expired. Established Bolpur Bramhacharyaashram at Shantiniketan.Chitrangada. dedicated to his wife. Got involved with freedom fighting movement. Here. Son Samindra was born in 1894. wrote famous collection poems . In 1902. Composed Smaran ( In Memoriam ). he was influenced by the natural beauty and simple but elegant life of rural Bengal. Wrote famous dance/musical drama . He introduced the .

Rothenstien arranged a reading in his house where Yeats read Tagore's poems in front of a distinguished audience comprising of Ezra Pound. came to Urbana. On the journey to London he translated some of his poems/songs from Gitanjali to English.Rakhibandhan ceremony . . a noted British painter. symbolizing the underlying unity in undivided Bengal. in London. journeyed to Europe for the second time. He met William Rothenstein. May Sinclair. Rothenstien was impressed by the poems. Tagore sailed for America ( for the first time) from England. Composed Janaganamana in 1911 which later was selected as the national anthem of India. made copies and gave to Yeats and other English poets. In 1909 started writing Gitanjali from Silaidaha. Reached New York. Illinois. He was first introduced to Rothenstein in Calcutta in a gathering at Abanindranath Tagore's house. Was shocked by the sudden death of son Samindra in 1907. Ernest Rhys etc. In 1912.

Hongkong.Litt. His six Gitanjali poems appeared in Poetry in December. In . University of Calcutta conferred on him the honorary degree of "D. Singapore. Proceeded to Japan in 1916. In 13th November of 1913. Yeats wrote the introduction for this book and Rothenstein did a pencil sketch for the cover page. India Society of London published Gitanjali (song offerings) containing 103 translated poems of Tagore. On 26th Decemeber. Tagore was traveling America then.gave a lecture and then went to Chicago. Received Knighthood in 1915. Delivered lectures in Rochester. Harvard University. Ezra Pound's Poetry Magazine published from Chicago had the honor of publishing first English poem of Tagore. Boston. The book created a sensation in English literary world. On the way gave speech at Rangoon. Th epoet returned back to Calcutta. 1912 issue. In the mean time.". Indians came to know that the Nobel prize for literature has been awarded to Tagore for Gitanjali.

Lectured at Portland. Call came from Europe again in 1920.Sep 1916. Salt Lake City. got invitation from different institutions in USA and reached Seattle (Washington). In 1918. Trichy. In 1920 he went to Gandhiji's Sabarmati Ashram and visited Ahmedabad. Boston. Sirangapatnam. his eldest daughter Madhurilata passed away. Los Angeles. Delivered lectures on different topics at Bangalore. Kumbakonam. Milwakee. At Madras spoke as Chancellor of National University. New York read translation from his novel Raja. Surat and Bombay. Santa Barbara. In 1919. Chicago. Coimbatore. Mysroe. Salem. Iowa. Tanjore and Madras. At Columbia Theatre. In 1919. Returned to Calcutta in 1917. Besant at Adyar. founded by Annie Besant and stayed as a guest of Mr. Punjab. Toured different places in . Palghat. Cleveland. Detroit. San Fransisco. the poet started a tour to South India. he wrote a historic letter to Lord Chelmsford repudiating his Knighthood in protest of the massacre at Jalianwalabag. Ooty. Philadelphia.

Chicago and came back to Europe. Went to South America. Peiking. Zurich. Stockholm. mostly because he was seen as anti-British and pro-German. Cochin and Colombo. Frankfurt. Delivered lectures at New York. Princeton. Berlin. He continued talks at Geneva. Florence. Travelled from Europe to America.a collection of poems dedicated to her. Visited and lectured at Mysore. Trivandam. Went to Bombay and from there to Poona.Coimbatore. Got invitation from China and visited Sanghai. Copenhaegen. On the return journey visited Italy and lectured in Milan. Brussells. Visited Japan again in this tour. established Viswabharati University.England and Paris.Vijaya and wrote Purabi . Bangalore. Hague . Met Argentine poet Madam Victoria Ocampo at Buenos Ayres. Vienna. His effort to raise fund for Viswabharati was not very fruitful in America. Prague and in other cities. Humburg. 1n 1921. Venice. Mahatma Gandhi . He gave all his money from Nobel Prize and royalty money from his books to this University. The poet gave her a name .

In 1926 visited Dacca. Thailand. Huungary. Rumania. And in 1934 to SriLanka. Tagore passed away on 7th August. In 1929 Canada. Visited Europe again and this time went to Norway. In 1932 Iran. 1941 in his ancestral home in Calcutta. Sweden. Czechslovakia. In 1940 Oxford University arranged a special ceremony in Santiniketan to honor the poet with Doctorate Of Literature. Comilla (all now in Bangladesh).visited Santiniketan in poet's birthday. Greece and Egypt. Java. the house where he was born. Iraq. Denmark. etc. Bulgaria. In 1927 went to Malayasia. In 1930 Russia. Moimonsingha. . Lecture 2-10: CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF LITERARY .

The Social Equation • “Man & Superman” by Sir George Bernard Shaw • “A Brave New World” by Aldous Huxley • “The Republic” by Plato • “Roots” by Alex Haley • “The Sane Society” by Erich Fromm 2.THOUGHTS THROUGH ANY 12 TEXTS AMONGST THE FOLLOWING: 1. Great Classics • “Moby Dick” by Herman Melville . Ideal ideals • “Les Miserables” by Victor Hugo • “Wuthering Heights” by Emily Bronte • “Lord Jim” by Joseph Conrad • “Don Quixote” by Michael Cervantes • “The Fountain Head” by Ayn Rand 3.

Did we Take the Wrong Turn • “Skeptical Essays” by Bertrand Russell • “Dances with Wolves” by Michael Blake • “Zen and the art of Motorcycle Maintenance “by Robert Persig SECTION-B: APPRECIATION OF ART & CULTURE Lecture 11-12: MANIFESTATIONS OF ART AND CULTURE • • Attire and Customs Performing arts .• “Ulysses” by James Joyce 4. “Releasing Hyde”-A platform for catharsis and growth • “Julius Caesar” by William Shakespeare • “Death of Salesman” by Arthur Miller 5.

14 & 15: CLASSIFICATION OF CULTURE AROUND THE WORLD • • • • • • • Indian Subcontinent Far East & Orient Central African North African and Mediterranean West European North American Latin American .• • • • • Art and Architecture Ethnic History Language Social and Religious Adaptations Social conflicts Lecture 13.

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