The Arab and American Action Forum

Knowledge Exchange in Entrepreneurship, Leadership Development and Education September 18-20, 2006, Jumeirah Essex House, 160 Central Park South, New York Background paper on Leadership Development in the Arab World
Prepared by

The Dubai School of Government1,2 1. INTRODUCTION The Arab world is at a crucial stage in its political, economic and social development. As with countries around the world, Arab countries are facing the challenges of expanding international trade and investment flows, a rapid infusion of technology, and increased cultural and ideological interactions. In the context of globalization, the Arab world is changing quickly. The spread of multinational trade arrangements, including the World Trade Organization (WTO) and regional trade agreements, has accelerated the opening of international borders to trade and investment. The region is also affected by economic trends in East Asia and South Asia. The emergence of strong economic growth in China and India has opened up large new markets for Arab energy exports and investment, but has also increased competition for non-oil exports from the region. Regional trends and challenges are also at play. Due to demographic changes in recent decades, nearly every country in the region faces significant population pressures, rapid urbanization and, perhaps most importantly, significant labor force growth. Few regional economies have been able to absorb the rising number of young workers, and unemployment in the region has soared. Governments across the region are moving toward a deregulation and liberalization of markets in an effort to attract foreign investment and promote private-sector led growth. There are expanding signs of regional integration, including efforts to integrate the GCC markets (trade and customs, capital markets, monetary union, etc.) and manufacturing consolidation in large, lower cost regional markets like Saudi Arabia or Egypt (e.g., Unilever). The recent oil boom has increased incomes and lifted some of the fiscal burdens on Arab governments; however, it poses just as many questions about the long term sustainability of subsidized economies and the governmental role in the economy. Global and regional trends are setting new ‘rules of the game’ for regional policy makers and are forcing establishments to rethink approaches to planning and management. While the magnitude of these
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The Dubai School of Government is a research and teaching institution focusing on public policy and management in the Arab world and seeking to reinforce and advance the skills of its leaders and decision makers. It was established in 2004 under the patronage of HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai. The Dubai School of Government collaborates with international institutions such as Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore on research and teaching programs and to encourage the global exchange of views and experiences relating to public and government policy and practices. (www.dsg.ae) This paper was prepared for the Arab and American Action Forum by the Dubai School of Government: Dr. Yasar Jarrar, Executive Dean, Dubai School of Government (yasar.jarrar@dsg.ae); Sean Carberry, John F. Kennedy School of Government MPA program, Dubai School of Government 2006 Summer Intern; and Arwa Al Ali, Project Manager, Dubai School of Government.

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© Dubai School of Government, 2006

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so that it has become. is it important to first explore basic concepts of leadership and leadership development before exploring the state of leadership development in Arab countries. a nebulous concept. Furthermore. creating the danger that new labels are being applied to outdated practices. While there is a growing body of academic research attempting to define clear metrics for evaluating leadership. By directing initiatives at targeted areas. Academic programs. I think some people are leaders because they chose to lead. but it is also a function of the reality that leadership is as much art as science—if not more so. adaptive. governments must address bureaucratic inefficiencies and institutional rigidities and strengthen social safety nets. which emphasizes the need for leaders to provide inspirational. the qualitative definition of good leadership is highly subjective. and markets. workshops. Research demonstrates that the term ‘leader’ is Trying to study and understand leadership can be a widely used but ill defined. and contextual aspects of leadership. Furthermore. To effectively face the challenges of today’s political and economic environment. It is essential that young leaders in America and the Arab countries learn from each other. Some researchers have emphasized the need to develop models suitable to individual organizations. the terms management and leadership are often used without any distinction being drawn between the two. frustrating endeavor as it is like studying Shakespeare in practice. you can imitate. Defining great leadership might prove to be the initial challenge. Furthermore. a “great” leader can be the wrong match to a particular context. There are. but this will require strong. however. Arab officials must find ways to promote international investment while protecting and encouraging domestic industry. While academics and experts have reached some consensus on the basic attributes of leadership. After surveying the existing leadership development initiatives. Part of the reason is the evolving understanding of the personal. Wharton School Publishing 20th century. effective leadership often depends on context. Arab firms need to become more efficient and more transparent to remain competitive in the new environment. With few exceptions. cultures. support each other.” Lasting of organization studies in the first decades of the Leadership. The transformational model. After leadership which were influential in the beginning all that is said and done. it is possible to see the gaps and opportunities wherein the Arab American Action Forum (AAAF) can make a difference. Many or Michael Angelo. At the same time. long-term influence instead of managing short-term goals.challenges varies from country to country. they must encourage job growth while decreasing the economic footprint of the state and ensure the efficient delivery of public services like health and education while facing budget constraints. however. 2006 Page 2 of 14 . and research projects emerge regularly – all attempting to define what a great leader is and to teach students how to become one. LEADERSHIP Leadership is still a comparatively new field in the academic and educational world. New leaders (in all sectors and at all levels) are needed to sustain and institutionalize reforms. or adopt organizations continue to use models of practices. The US can play a vital and constructive role in facilitating reform and development in Arab countries. 2005. there is no universally accepted model of leadership. but you simply can not join all the dots. © Dubai School of Government. Given the subjectivity of effective leadership. concepts and practices of leadership development in this vein are in an early stage of evolution. is starting to gain enthusiastic support. nor is there agreement over what aspects of leadership can be taught. AAAF can be a driving agent of leadership development in the Arab countries. and culturally-sensitive leadership on the part of American leaders. simulate. there are common policy changes needed in all Arab states. many innovative ideas emerging and much that can be applauded for being good practice. committed. In particular. Facing these challenges and continuing the task of reform and development in the region requires bold leadership on the part of Arab leaders. 2. and work with each other to further their common interests. or how to teach them.

Goleman et al note that primal leadership operates at its best through emotionally intelligent leaders who create ‘resonance’.There are a number of words often used to describe good leaders: visionary. The greatest leaders can communicate a vision and then inspire and motivate others to work towards its achievement—very often because it is a vision shared by followers. When asked to name great leaders. as in the table below. the importance of ethical leadership training. and those highlighted as the most pertinent include energy levels. some have attempted to list the competencies they expect of a leader. it is possible to inspire follower to pursue a dangerous and destructive vision—hence. respect. powerful. values. emotional maturity. negotiation. inspirational. a financial achievement. or violent means. self confidence. Some “leaders” are able to accomplish goals through sheer force of will rather than by inspiration. and different players. Indeed. or nation to a stated goal—the creation of a new product. economic growth. Ghandi. It is significant to note that most people point to major figures who are well known. and integrity. and famous leaders. or other means). and therefore underestimate the importance of developing leadership capacity at all levels of society. Again though. and organizational skills—each situation involves different organizational cultures. intuitive. and an individual might be a great leader in one situation. Salah El-Din. relations-oriented. internal control orientation. 2006 Page 3 of 14 . listener. personality traits are considered especially relevant to successful leadership. coercive. leaders throughout history have been able to achieve their ends. a leader is someone who is able to get people to follow and execute his or her will (through inspirational. It is also important to consider moral and ethical qualities of leadership. A bankrupt automotive company presents different leadership challenges than does a democratic nation. communicator. expanded opportunity. This is an indication of the importance people often attach to high-profile. management. Research on leadership behavior has been divided into three areas: task-oriented. plan. an idea that is consistent with practical notions of leadership. flexible. much of the research on leadership has focused on the study of ‘heroic’ leadership considering both charismatic and transformational leadership. Others have tried to distinguish between leadership and management. In a broad sense. By controlling the levers of power in a state or system. external constraints. and in all sectors. but more often than not they have been exercising authority. not leadership. Sometimes they will mention a business leader like Jack Welch or Bill Gates. This requires different kinds of leaders and different kinds of leadership. stress tolerance. adaptation While there might be common qualities needed in for successful leadership in any task—communication. The fundamental argument is that the primal – first and most basic – task of any leader is to drive the © Dubai School of Government. intimidating. control. vision. Moreover. earned Followers. and change-oriented leadership. trust Introduce change Evolution. and responsible. motivator. leadership is simply the capacity to guide. people often point to political figures or heads of state —Washington. Expanding the definition of a leader beyond this. budget. assigned Higher power to assign Maintain stability Status quo Leadership Mission. rather than local leaders in their offices or communities. different visions. and a failure in another. and culture Personal Human motivation Emotional Fluid. anchor. decision maker. by using coercive. adaptable. A leader guides a business. Characteristic Function Power base Focus Approach Status Dependence Purpose Serves Management Organize. and evaluate Formal Resource allocation Objective Static. People often undervalue the quieter examples of leadership that surround them every day. In a basic sense. Churchill. enterprise.

and the majority of them revolve around a combination of three tracks: The business track: Solving real life business problems and gaining management and business expertise. marketing. as well as changes in human values. information services.emotions of the follower group in the right direction. The leader is the emotional guide. © Dubai School of Government. there is a conceptual confusion regarding distinctions between leader development and leadership development. and each organization. Interest in leadership development is strong. leadership is needed. management has associated a “Leaders are made. and Abu Ghraib scandals. and techniques for leadership development. self management. and relationship management. Leadership is a common subject in business school education. in light of the Enron. there has been an increasing interest in leadership development. in the last few years.” A notion scientific. Effective leadership is critical to the success of any organization or venture. there has been a set of activities and learning methods that have been fairly successful over the last 40 years in management and leadership development programs. hence. social awareness. Studies like the Enterprising Nation Report (Industry Task Force on Leadership and Management Skills. models. which is primarily based on enhancing human capital. and when this is done positively and everyone works to his or her best performance. technology and global communications. 3. 2006). it is called ‘resonance’. There has been little research to demonstrate which approaches are more effective (Conger. from grassroots organizations to the halls of power. 2005) and finance. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT Until recently. Executive programs are profligate in the US. 2006 Page 4 of 14 . with leadership development that emphasizes on the creation of social capital in organizations. Specific practices that are most often used include 360-degree feedback and executive coaching. and increasingly schools of public policy are focusing on leadership studies and training. and when change occurs. There are various approaches. systems theory and echoed in Carlos Ghosn’s latest book (Shift: Inside Nissan’s Historic Revival. including self awareness. there is a wide variety of approaches to leadership development. human resource professional. mentoring and networking. Abramoff. as well as a disconnect between the practice of leadership development and its scientific foundation. with an emphasis on accounting. technological approach to running emphasized in a recent publication from Wharton organizations. there are increased questions about the state of leadership in US business and government. However. Without strong leadership at all levels. The authors identify four abilities of effective leaders. In general. especially among practitioners. This would seem like an appropriate moment to explore the status of leadership development and look for opportunities for the US and Arab countries to work together to help prepare the next generation of leaders for the challenges ahead. School Publishing (Lasting Leadership. 1992). However. and many programs in America are designed to train executives and government officials from foreign countries. Nonetheless. and job assignments and action learning. the increasing focus on leadership development in the Arab countries. effective change cannot happen. The world is changing fast. The lack of effective leadership in the Arab world is one of the major barriers to reform and development in the region. and not born. Practices and research are framed in terms of a general need to link leader development. This has come about because of rapid changes in the business environment. which provides a more human perspective on leadership skills. academic and consultant has their own preferred approach to leadership development. In addition. 1995) and academic research like that of Kotter (1990) have shown that there is a great need for leadership development in organizations in the new economy.

This is coupled with the fact that direct access to critical resources is often impeded by opaque. given the increasingly close coordination of the private sector. the similarities are greater than the differences. 2003. including the behavioral model of leadership. The other three are more informal and occur naturally. and leadership development is most effective when all three instruments are present. mostly from feedback methods. The First 90 Days in Government: Critical Success Strategies for New Public Managers at All Levels. weaknesses. Underlying such approaches are four basic theoretical or conceptual positions. and development means. Peter and Michael Watkins. these experiences are reflected in the work of the Center for Creative Leadership (CCL) where the foundation of the work is the ‘developmental process’ with three key drivers of leadership development: assessment. Support for the development process provides the individual with the motivation and the understanding that they can learn. developmental relationships. feedback intensive programs. personal. but require some design and structure. These differences need to be accounted for when developing Leadership Development Initiatives. and metrics of performance are often dictated by rigid statutes or regulations beyond their control. The personal track: Helping participants appreciate and effectively utilize their innate personal skills character. and predispositions and traits. and support. The core skills.The leadership track: Enabling participants to lead individuals. including 360-degree feedback. and hardships. whether dealing with private or public leaders. 2006 Page 5 of 14 . and provides a benchmark identifying an individual’s strengths. competencies. challenge. and government sector. groups. © Dubai School of Government. and organizations more effectively. leaders will be empowered to face the challenges in any sector. There are six experiences that have been deemed important in this regard. heavily planned and monitored. the leadership continuum. the stratified systems theory of leadership. goals. Each driver underpins the development experience. public sector leaders face certain challenges that their private sector counterparts do not. values. remote. Accordingly. and change. While some will argue that there are substantively different leadership challenges and requirements in the private sector and the public sector. Boston: The Harvard Business School Press. grow. Three are formal. Also. Overall. but also bring to bear a more highly diverse and competitive set of interests. leadership training for business and government executives need not always be separated into different camps. developmental experiences are deemed essential to leadership development. In addition. In practical terms. and organizational challenges are largely universal. This said. non-profit sector. 3 Daly. Challenge means taking people out of their comfort zones by confronting them with new experiences and allowing them to develop new capacities in the process. Assessment comprises data capture. it is essential to provide leaders with an understanding of all three sectors and to develop a more holistic view of leadership training and development. the stakeholders who exert influence over organizational performance are not only much vaster in number than those usually found in the business world3. and onerous bureaucratic systems with long lead times. and action learning. and skills based training. They include job assignments. By improving cultural and adaptive training. These include the basic fact that the mission.

and this is likely to persist for some time. and other institutions conduct research and training in this field. certain facts are clear. Addressing leadership development in the Arab world must consider this aspect as a foundational element. leadership in the Middle East has been geared towards closed. it is not uncommon to see people in positions of power and authority who have no training or background at all. Arab countries are relying heavily on outside partners for training. The Arab world is globalizing rapidly and facing the demands of an interconnected world. Georgetown’s Center for Public and Nonprofit Leadership. It is dangerous to assume that all other cultures are gradually adopting Western 4 This is based on secondary information. research. However. generic training will not effectively consider the specific strengths or weaknesses of individual participants based on their national. Plus. religious. Little to no indigenous academic work exists. and leaders need a stronger understanding of the dynamics of different settings. it still falls short of the mark. Plus. Although US leadership training is increasingly focusing on cultural factors. the University of Maryland’s James McGregor Burns Academy of Leadership. Education at all levels has been slow to adapt to the changing needs of society. Younger leaders often fall short of their potential because they either know they will rise because of their relations (and therefore have little incentive to work hard). This external assistance is helpful in the short run. and other affiliations that are non-merit based. these programs are based on American or western ideology. and staffing. skills are lacking and so is the indigenous capacity to develop skills. In Arab countries. isolated settings. In addition. These cultural and historic factors underscore the need for US leaders to have an understanding of the culture and context of Arab societies. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN THE ARAB WORLD Business and government officials have become aware of the lack of leadership training and education in Arab societies.However. and pedagogy. innovation. The CCL has noted that race. and nepotistic cultures stifle ambition and the performance that comes with it. 2006 Page 6 of 14 . Leaders need a healthy dose of ambition. and leaders are not adequately prepared to function in the new policy environment. patronage. The leadership model in the Arab world is heavily based on heredity. For years. It is important to note that cultural and historical factors that underlie this dynamic. education. it must be noted that most studies emphasize that there are issues to be accounted for when approaching leadership development in various countries and different contexts. a culture of promotion by connection stifles motivation. and interviews with regional and local public and private leaders. and who often have no real interest in the position they hold. there are numerous leadership centers and institutes in the United States. or educational experience. Today. gender and cross-cultural issues need to be considered when developing leadership development programs. the Center for Creative Leadership. many governments and businesses are family-run institutions. Arab culture is more family-centric and hierarchal than western cultures. web research. One of the most immediate and evident barriers to leadership development in the Arab world is the lack of substantive scholarship on leadership in the region. since most of the programs rely heavily on US or European partners to provide the curriculum and instruction. Business and government leaders have been ingrained with national and regional training and views. the Wharton Center for Leadership and Change Management. and no universities in Arab countries appear to be devoting any significant resources to research and training in the field of leadership4. Despite the lack of local scholarship and research. and risk-taking. but such training usually lacks culture-specific elements necessary for success in Arab businesses and governments. By contrast. This stems from a history of tribalism and family rule. or they know they will not rise because they lack connections (and again have little incentive to work). © Dubai School of Government. 4. The Kennedy School’s Center for Public Leadership. societal.

Tatweer in Sharjah offers a six-month program to develop young leaders for public and private sector leadership positions. While it is certainly valuable for businesses and governmental agencies to develop the skills of their own people. They are selected to participate in two-year leadership development programs. The university also offers an Executive Management Certificate in partnership with Yale School of Management. Ruler of Dubai [from his book. Our duty is to advance their skills and knowledge to continually enhance the quality of public administration.leaders. "The leaders of tomorrow are our focus and the foundation of the future. rather it highlights the need for broader. Stanford Graduate School of Business. Indiana University and the University of Utah. This is not to say such programs are of no value or should be discontinued. 5 http://www. and an MPA in partnership with the University of California–Berkeley. Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum. or sector.5 Leading Concepts provides open enrollment executive education programs in Dubai in partnership with the Michigan Ross School of Business. the nomination process reinforces a sense of heredity and entitlement.” H. open enrollment programs that reach a wider audience. Young Arab Leaders (UAE Chapter) is planning an initiative program on Showcasing Leadership. the training might be so organization specific that the knowledge might not be readily transferable to another department. A number of businesses conduct leadership training programs for their executives. Zayed University provides business school courses in leadership and management. 2006] The Mohammed Bin Rashid Programme for Leadership Development in Dubai provides training to young leaders and government executives. LEADERSHIP TRAINING PROGRAMS IN THE ARAB WORLD United Arab Emirates The Dubai School of Government is in the process of developing its leadership development curriculum and research agenda. organization. as well as the need to train people earlier in their careers when it is easier for them to learn adaptive skills.H. It is also important to note that many of the existing Arab leadership programs are small in scope and specific in nature. The training could also reinforce organizational cultures that are less than optimal. 2006 Page 7 of 14 . This is currently at the planning phase. executive programs. with staff studying an appropriate structure for showcasing the leadership model and how to reach the widest circle of youth. The Gulf Research Center offers a Global Leadership Program which is more knowledge and issues based than skills based. The program intends to incorporate the influence of good media coverage. Also. Columbia Business School. Candidates are identified and nominated by business and government executives. the Center for Creative Leadership and others.ae © Dubai School of Government. and leadership training in the United States should involve more education on issues of diversity and context. and participants are generally nominated by superiors. 5. My Vision.standards and practices.

Oman. Saudi Arabia BAE Systems offers a diploma in Management. One initiative under the Education Pillar is the Student Leaders Study of the United States Institutes Program. and women’s empowerment.state. run by the US State Department. a member of Junior Achievement Worldwide. Jordan. The United States government has launched a variety of initiatives designed to improve leadership and governance in the Arab world. The Middle East Partnership Initiative6. Bahrain The Bahrain Institute of Banking and Finance offers a number of courses through their Leadership and Management Learning Center. West Bank/Gaza. and Peace is an international NGO that partners with other organizations to “create culturally-adapted leadership training curriculum and implement leadership and empowerment programs for grassroots women in 18 countries in Africa.” INJAZ Arabia.gov/ © Dubai School of Government. Palestine The Palestinian Youth Association for Leadership and Rights Activation is a communication and media-oriented Palestinian NGO established for Palestinian youth. Asia. Latin America. INJAZ offers middle school and high school students a variety of leadership and related programs in Bahrain. and Qatar. especially leadership development. education. offers a 10-week leadership program to 10th grade students in Bahrain. The one-year program was developed in partnership with Leicester University in the United Kingdom and is designed to provide BAE employees with the skills needed to advance as Systems Managers.Various organizations undertake in-house programs (executive and academic) for leadership and management development. Pan-Arab Initiatives The Women’s Learning Partnership for Rights. economic. focuses on four core reform areas: political. 2006 Page 8 of 14 .mepi. Kuwait. The program involves “six-week training sessions hosted by US universities that introduce highly motivated students from the Middle East to American culture 6 http://www. Lebanon. Egypt. Development. Examples include: Jordan Emirates Bank Group Diploma in Business Leadership (with Duke University) Emirates Airline MBA (with Bradford School of Management) Dubai World’s Dubai Leaders Programme (with the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania) The King Abdullah II Award for Excellence provides a carrot for organizations that are successful in a variety of areas. The program is focused on business and community leadership. and the Middle East.

description of the Middle East Partnership Initiative Education Pillar programs © Dubai School of Government. entrepreneurial skills. and study tours in the British private and public sectors. 7 US Department of State Website. work placements. 12-week scholarship program designed to develop leadership in the Arab world via a mix of executive education programs. 2006 Page 9 of 14 . problem-solving. and civic rights and responsibilities.”7 Through the Chevening Scholars Programme.and values and that provide instruction in leadership. the United Kingdom government runs a focused.

1. The research on leadership in the Arab world. funding. the book could explore 8 The Dubai School of Government will produce the Concept Papers and Implementation Plans for those initiatives selected for implementation via the AAAF.2. It is imperative to quickly define metrics and action plans in order to capitalize on the momentum generated from the forum. Throughout history there have been a number of accomplished leaders who have done great things for the region. This paper would establish a baseline that can fuel future study and initiatives. there are various initiatives and projects that can be proposed for the AAAF. and monitoring and evaluation)8. Based on the background analysis of leadership development and challenges. and training. an opportunity to join together and commit to better identifying the challenges ahead and developing action-based solutions.PROPOSED INITIATIVES FOR ARAB AND AMERICAN ACTION FORUM There is a tremendous need and opportunity for young leaders in America and Arab countries to pool knowledge. and propose tailored initiatives. 2006 Page 10 of 14 . experience. AAAF and CGI must take ownership of the initiatives and develop them in a manner consistent with their resources and talents. These can be generally categorized in three main areas: research. these initiatives will not only succeed. would be an ongoing project presented through a series of working papers throughout the year in forums regionally and internationally. AAAF could commission a book on Arab leadership that identifies both positive and negative examples of leadership and explores the situational and cultural aspects of those examples. These are long-term. but with vision. more research is essential. Research Study: Leadership Issues in the Arab World In order to more accurately define the challenges. 1. it is essential to undertake a wider effort to define the challenges and barriers in greater detail and to devise effective solutions and initiatives. and Knowledge Dissemination 1. dialogue exchange. However. The final product would be a paper discussing leadership challenges in the region. Moving forward. stability. Arab Leadership History It would be misleading. and resources to devise strategies and initiatives to improve the prospects for peace. © Dubai School of Government. whether now or in the past. The Arab and American Action Forum (AAAF) can be seen as a foundation. and simply wrong. identifying collaborative opportunities. In addition. Without binding commitment from participants. stakeholder participation and responsibilities. Furthermore. however. and draw on the resources and connections available within the AAAF. The initiatives listed below should be considered starting points. Research. structural challenges that will require sustained effort. scholarship. and evaluating the importance of cultural/contextual leadership. This initial study would involve interviews with people in this forum. Many of the leadership challenges in the Arab world and the US are known. and prosperity across the globe. Moving forward. there are important lessons (both good and bad) to be learned from past and present leaders in the Arab world. These stories need to be told. we need a detailed research study on leadership in the Arab world. energy. scholarship and knowledge dissemination. comparing those challenges to issues in the US and other countries. and leadership. each of these would require a separate concept paper and a details implementation plan (project management arrangements. 1. these proposals will languish and fade. they will inspire others and fuel even larger projects. to imply there has been no good leadership in the Arab world. communication.

) In addition. 1.4. Each roundtable will be one day in length and will present three case studies of regional and global leadership. Arab Leadership Roundtable A roundtable hosting senior public officials and leading private sector managers. According to UNESCO’s Index Translationum. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. The volume of books and papers on leadership is growing constantly. while important books on science. Leadership Knowledge Fund (for Translation and Dissemination) In addition to the paucity of current literature on the subject of Arab and Middle Eastern leadership.3. (In that same time period. one of the major educational deficiencies in the Arab world is the low rate of translation of books from other countries.4 books per million people were translated into Arabic. only 4. 10 © Dubai School of Government. 1. sociology. This can be done in partnership between US and Arab universities (the Leadership Network). only 8930 books have been translated into Arabic since 1969. AAAF should work to identify partner institutions in the region and to encourage them to join this initiative and create leadership programs10. This would allow for the standardization of a core. there is a substantial lack of translated works on leadership. and literature are not translated.275 books were translated into Norwegian. universal set of leadership courses. This roundtable would be a platform to establish dialogue between various stakeholders: business and government leaders. This will further institutionalize the study of leadership. to be held in different Arab countries on rotational basis. 9 See Global Leadership Network for a an example of such network and book A working example of this initiative is the Partners in Governance network managed by the Ash Institute at the John F. Regional Curriculum for Teaching Leadership in Arab Universities A key initiative in this field can be supporting the development of a curriculum on Leadership to be taught in Arab universities (both undergraduate and postgraduate). According to the 2003 Arab Human Development Report. 2. Each school would design culturally-sensitive and context-relevant courses to augment the core curriculum.traditional Islamic and Arabic concepts of leadership in order to further understand the cultural and contextual components of Arab leadership. while allowing individual institutions the flexibility to experiment and design their own courses beyond the core. AAAF should launch a project to translate leadership literature into Arabic. 33. managed by one leading partner and hosted by different research institutions. The goal would be to establish a core set of courses that all partner schools would teach. The book could be a collaborative effort of various international and Arab research institutions9. 1. regional heads of state. 2006 Page 11 of 14 . Endowed Professorships AAAF should identify leadership scholars in the US and Arab countries and endow professorships to focus on cross-cultural and Middle Eastern leadership studies. or be used to launch them. This would ideally be linked to a well-planned dissemination mechanism to ensure the material gets wide distribution (yet another problem facing currently translated works) and is affordable. Dialogue Exchange & Networking 2. The report states that in the first five years of the 1980s. and leading Arab researchers. while 920 books per million people were translated in Spain alone.1. and will create a network that will enhance and reinforce other leadership initiatives. but that work is not being translated into Arabic. These professorships would ideally be at institutions participating in one of the above initiatives.5. many of the books translated into Arabic are lesser works.

Visiting Scholars: US Professors to the Arab World Program Currently. The goal would be to give leadership professors a first-hand overview of leadership programs in the Arab countries and a better understanding of the culture and context of leadership in the region.2. © Dubai School of Government. excellence in the leadership and management of public policies and programs. The fellowship will be based on merit and potential and would include work experience (both in US and Arab institutions) and instructional modules with a strong focus on networking. although they are not guaranteed positions. Annual Leadership Conference In order to maintain US-Arab networks and build on the first meeting of AAAF in New York. The fellowship lasts for two years and generally includes rotations that allow fellows to work for different departments or agencies and receive a minimum of 80 hours of classroom training a year. This program will be based loosely on the Presidential Management Fellows (PMF) program in the United States11.” – Presidential Management Fellowship Website. and meetings with administrators of executive training programs in the region. but would expand on it in several key ways. Young Arab Leaders Fellowship AAAF should consider developing a fellowship program for young and upcoming leaders in the Arab world.1. and commitment to. Upon their return. The output of these roundtables would be a documentation of all the cases and discussions that take place. education. history. 2. First. The purpose would be to gather together young leaders to participate in panels and workshops on current events relating to leadership. as well as to provide an environment for leading researchers and practitioners to present the latest thinking on leadership and leadership development. Finalists are then eligible for positions in federal agencies. 3. teachers engage in various activities to disseminate the knowledge and experience gained abroad. since students choose of their own accord to apply for the program) by their academic institution based set criteria and go through a two-stage screening process. This would ultimately involve spending time in US branches of partnering corporations. Saudi ARAMCO runs a program to bring American primary and secondary school teachers to Saudi Arabia for a 12-day study-tour of Saudi Arabia. Training 3. The Young Arab Leaders Fellowship would adopt many of the characteristics of the PMF. 2. 2006 Page 12 of 14 . the fellowships would involve rotations in both government and the private sector. The highlight of each forum would be the patronage of the head of state in that country and their participation in the initial discussion. The goal is to educate American teachers about Saudi culture. These conferences would further the dialogue exchange and networking initiatives as well as advance leadership development. AAAF should establish a pilot program starting with 3-4 participating governments and at least 10 different corporations. AAAF could develop a similar model for American leadership professors.showcasing various government and private sector leaders in each country and documenting them as leadership role models and/or cases in leadership. Such a program could include panels with business and government leaders in Arab countries. and global relations. seminars at universities. as well as to propose new initiatives for the Arab region. 11 “The purpose of the program is to attract to the Federal service outstanding men and women from a variety of academic disciplines and career paths who have a clear interest in. the AAAF leadership should establish an annual leadership conference (to be hosted and managed by regional governments and/or leading corporations).3. which would be developed into an annual volume and disseminated widely. Students must be nominated (generally a formality. This will provide an opportunity to explore and discuss new research and ongoing initiatives.

An action learning forum for a selected group of young leaders whereby they shadow and accompany current leaders in key meetings. need retraining in order to face new realities. Leading in a Changing World – An Executive Education Program One of the key issues facing the Arab world are the immense changes facing current leaders. called Next Generation – a professionally-managed network with no joining or membership fees.2. mentoring programs. 3. Leadership on the Ground – The Everyday Realities of Leadership. Members would benefit from various initiatives the Young Arab Leaders already offer like educational scholarships. it is proposed that AAAF sets up a regional network (similar to the Young Arab Leaders network and possibly facilitated by YAL). 2006 Page 13 of 14 . To support this key segment.2. planning workshops. and establishing a community of current leaders in the Arab world who can in turn start sharing their own experiences. and is delivered fully in Arabic. 3. and visits. to be nominated from both the private and public sectors).AAAF would establish a selection committee and application/assessment standards for potential fellows. This would form a core curriculum for executive education on leadership. encourage them to engage in various activities to develop their leadership potential and global awareness. © Dubai School of Government. local. is tailored to regional realities and circumstances. who. Next Generation To facilitate leadership development at an early age. in many cases. annual.3. one-day forum in each country that would host regional. it is proposed that a world class (3-5 days) executive education program be designed in partnership between Arab and US universities and research institutions and delivered in all Arab countries (open to 30-40 participants from each country. and monitor their progress. The network’s main role would be to continually identify and recruit young potential leaders (managed and administered through country chapters).3. The Next Generation Forum A specifically designed. It is crucial that this program is designed based on the latest thinking and research on leadership (global best practice). and business challenge competitions. 3. allowing sharing global experiences. they can participate in the following: 3. In addition. and international leaders to share experiences and provide role models.3.1. Fellows would be recruited from graduate institutions in the Arab world and the US.

http://www. Yukl. Leadership in Organizations. University of Delaware.coti. New York: Doubleday.uk Bahrain Institute of Banking and Finance. Pandya. Dean Williams.banffcentre. Kur. Egypt.org/ Contacts and Interviews12 Larry Pintak. USA.edu/ Women’s Learning Partnership.state.cfm Ashridge Business School http://www. http://www. USA. The New Leaders: Transforming the Art of Leadership into the Science of Results.cranfield. New Jersey: Wharton School Publishing. Hania Bitar. http://www. http://www.mideastinfo.kr/front/coti_message. Upper Saddle River. Ron Heifetz.org/leadership/index. USA. USA. Mukul et al. Harvard University.iblf.ksg. Harvard University.ca/departments/leadership/ Center for Creative Leadership.gov/bahrain/ysli.go. Brown. 2002.org/index. 2001.org/ Middle East Information Network. Palestine. Goleman.ashridge.mepi. 17. http://www.” Leadership and Organization Development Journal.htm Junior Achievement. 12 Some contacts where interviewed.grc. http://www. Harvard University. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.gov/ Mohammed bin Rashid Programme for Leadership Development. Richard Boyzatis. USA.com/index. Derek Wilson.academy. Kathryn Cartner. Carla Chrisfield.jsp James MacGregor Burns Academy of Leadership. Palestinian Youth Association for Leadership and Rights Activation (PYALARA). Vol. http://leadership.ae/ US Embassy Bahrain. Daniel. http://leadershipforchange. 2005.edu/leadership/ Central Officials Training Institute. Shift: Inside Nissan’s Historic Revival. USA. London: Little.ac. http://www. Audrey Helfman.ja.org. Mohammed Subeih.org/ Leading Concepts.com/education. “A Three-Track Process for Executive Leadership Development.html Wharton Center for Leadership and Change Management. YAL Coordinator.bibf.uk/som/ Gulf Research Center Executive Learning Program www. http://www. University of Maryland.com/ Banff Centre. Institutions Academy for Educational Development.ccl.som. 4 (1996). http://www. others where contact and provided inputs via email. No. Choukry Maghnouj. http://www.org/ Middle East Partnership Initiative.edu/home/index.html Cranfield University School of Management.org/regions/Middle_East.htm Middle East Institute Leadership Development Program. UAE Morocco. http://eng.upenn. © Dubai School of Government.aspx Center for Public Leadership. Gary. http://www.leading-concepts. 2006 Page 14 of 14 . 2006. and Annie McKee. Shell. Ed and Richard Bunning.learningpartnership.umd. http://www. http://manama.aed.leaders. Lasting Leadership: What You Can Learn from the Top 25 Business People of Our Times.mideasti. http://www.ae International Business Leaders Forum http://www.wharton. Barbara Kellerman. Center for Creative Leadership. Carlos. Upper Saddle River.usembassy. http://www.harvard.asp Leadership for a Changing World. Harvard University. Georgia Sorenson. USA.SOURCES REFERENCED Books and Papers Ghosn. American University Cairo.

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