It is the study of the history and methodology of the discipline of history. The term historiography also denotes a body of historical work on a specialized topic. Scholars discuss historiography topically ± such as the ³historiography of Catholicism,´ the ³historiography of early Islam,´ or the ³historiography of China" ± as well as specific approaches such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, at the ascent of academic history, a corpus of historiography literature developed. Furay and Salevouris (1988) define historiography as "the study of the way history has been and is written ² the history of historical writing... When you study 'historiography' you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians."

Questions studied
Some of the common questions of historiography are: 1. Reliability of the sources used, in terms of authorship, credibility of the author, and the authenticity or corruption of the text. (See also source criticism). 2. Historiographical tradition or framework. Every historian uses one (or more) historiographical traditions, for example Marxist, Annales School, "total history", or political history. The historiography of early Islam refers to the study of the early origins of Islam based on a critical analysis, evaluation, and examination of authentic primary source materials and the organization of these sources into a narrative timeline.

History of Muslim historians
Science of biography, science of hadith, and Isnad Further information: Science of hadith, Prophetic biography, and Biographical evaluation Muslim historical traditions first began developing from the earlier 7th century with the reconstruction of Muhammad's life following his death. Because narratives regarding Muhammad and his companions came from various sources, it was necessary to verify which sources were more reliable. In order to evaluate these sources, various methodologies were developed, such as the "science of biography", "science of hadith" and "Isnad" (chain of transmission). These methodologies were later applied to other historical figures in the Muslim world. Ilm ar-Rijal (Arabic) is the "science of biography" especially as practiced in Islam, where it was first applied to the sira, the life of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad, and then the lives of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs who expanded Islamic dominance rapidly. Since validating the sayings of Muhammad is a major study ("Isnad"), accurate biography has always been of great interest to Muslim biographers, who accordingly attempted to sort out facts from accusations, bias from evidence, etc. Modern practices of scientific citation and historical method owe a great deal to the rigor of the Isnad tradition of early Muslims. The earliest surviving Islamic biography is Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, written in the 8th century, but known to us only from later quotes and recensions (9th±10th century).

which he believed had "begun to recover its ancient prosperity" as a result. However. cultural history. May 27. Arabic: Ab Zayd µAbdu r-Ra man bin Mu ammad bin Khald n AlHadrami. ² an astronomer. the philosophy of history. 1934±1961. However. By the 1950s he was an opponent of the state of Israel. flowering and decline. for anticipating many elements of these disciplines centuries before they were founded in the West. and sociology. 1332 AD/732 AH ± March 19. Kitab al-Ibar. 1889 ± October 22. as he wrote an autobiography Al-Tar f bi IbnKhald n wa Ri latuhu Gharb n wa Sharq n) in which numerous documents regarding his life are quoted word-for-word. Islamic scholar. 1406 AD/808 AH) was an Arab Poly Math (walking encyclopedia). after the war he changed to a pro-Turkish position. alongside the earlier Indian scholar Chanakya. 1975) was a British historian whose twelvevolume analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations. military strategist. social scientist and statesman²born in North Africa in present-day Tunisia. His support for Greece and hostility to the Turks during the World War had gained him an appointment to the Koraes Chair of Modern Greek and Byzantine History at the University of London. Ibn Khaldun is considered by many to be the father of a number of these disciplines. nutritionist.Ibn Khald n Ibn Khald n (full name. historian. He also expressed support for the Jewish colonization of Palestine. accusing Greece's military government in occupied Turkish territory of atrocities and massacres. historiography. Muslims had ignored and lost him for centuries until he was rediscovered by the West in the 19th century as one of the greatest philosophers of Islam. mathematician. Toynbee investigated Zionism in 1915 at the Information Department of the Foreign Office. and he adopted their views. Ibn Khaldun's life is relatively well-documented. nor were they carried forward by its future generations. Islamic theologian. hafiz. and in 1924 he was forced to resign the position. the first volume of his book on universal history. His subsequent writings show the way he changed his outlook on the subject. Arnold Joseph Toynbee Arnold Joseph Toynbee CH (April 14. and in the late 1930s he moved away from supporting the Zionist cause and moved toward the Arab camp. This earned him the enmity of the wealthy Greeks who had endowed the chair. Islamic lawyer. He is also considered one of the forerunners of modern economics. In 1922 he was influenced by the Palestine Arab delegation which was visiting London. Islamic jurist. and of social sciences in general. His stance during World War I reflected less sympathy for the Arab cause and a pro-Zionist outlook. Middle East Toynbee was a leading analyst of developments in the Middle East. He is best known for his Muqaddimah (known as Prolegomenon in English). a metahistory based on universal rhythms of rise. which examined history from a global perspective. philosopher. was a synthesis of world history. and in 1917 he published a memorandum which supported exclusive Jewish political rights in Palestine. economist. Ibn Khaldun's ideas were not absorbed by his society. . A Study of History. He is considered a forerunner of several social scientific disciplines: demography.

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