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Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots as far back as the 4th century BC. Italian cuisine in itself takes heavy influences, including Etruscan,ancient Greek, ancient Roman, Byzantine, Jewish and Arab cuisines.  Significant changes occurred with the discovery of the New World with the introduction of items such as potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers and maize, now central to the cuisine but not introduced in quantity until the 18th century. Italian cuisine is noted for its regional diversity, abundance of difference in taste, and is known to be one of the most popular in the world, with influences abroad.
Italian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Although the country known as Italy did not unite until the 19th century, the cuisine can claim traceable roots as far back as the 4th century BCE. Through the centuries, neighboring regions, conquerors, high-profile chefs, political upheaval and the discovery of the New World have influenced one of the premiere cuisines in the world. Antiquity See also: Ancient Roman cuisine Apicius', De re coquinaria, 1709 edition. The first known Italian food writer was a Greek Sicilian named Archestratus from Syracuse in the 4th century BC. He wrote a poem that spoke of using "top quality and seasonal" ingredients. He said that flavors should not be masked by spices, herbs or other seasonings. He placed importance on simple preparation of fish. This style seemed to be forgotten during the 1st century CE when De re coquinaria was published with 470 recipes calling for heavy use of spices and herbs. The Romans employed Greek bakers to produce breads and imported cheeses from Sicily as the Sicilians had a reputation as the best cheese makers. The Romans reared goats forbutchering, and grew artichokes and leeks.
Middle Ages See also: Medieval cuisine With culinary traditions from Rome and Athens, a cuisine developed in Sicily that some consider the first real Italian cuisine. Arabs invaded Sicily in the 9th century. The Arabsintroduced spinach, almonds, rice and perhaps spaghetti. During the 12th century, aNorman king surveyed Sicily and saw people making long strings made from flour and water calledatriya, which eventually became trii, a term still used for spaghetti in southern Italy. Normans also introduced casseroles, salt cod (baccalà) and stockfish which remain popular. Food preservation was either chemical or physical, as refrigeration did not exist. Meats and fish would be smoked, dried or kept on ice. Brine and salt were used to preserve
oranges from Naples and eels from Campa nia. oil from Cassino. bass from the Tiber. honey and sugar were used. The Roman recipes include coppiette and cabbage dishes. a torta. sardines from Lake Garda. Root vegetables were preserved in brine after they had been parboiled. Dishes include "Roman-style" cabbage (ad usum romanorum). and spinach pie with onions. The oldest Italian book on cuisine is the 13th century Liber de coquina written in Naples. His book contains a recipe for Maccaroni Siciliani. Other means of preservation included oil. compositum londardicum which are similar to dishes prepared today. Martino's text was included in a 1475 book by Bartolomeo Platina printed in Venice entitled De honesta voluptate et valetudine ("On Honest Pleasure and Good Health").herring and to cure pork.  The northern Italian regions show a mix of Germanic and Roman culture while the south reflects Arab influence.grapes from Narni. Maestro Martino was chef to the Patriarch of Aquileia at the Vatican. macaroni. The macaroni was cooked in capon stock flavored with saffron. Platina puts Martino's "Libro" in regional context. as much Mediterranean cuisine was spread by Arab trade. carrots fromViterbo. hens fromPadua. a bean dish from the Marca di Trevisio. rendered fat. Lavagna pie. His Florentine dishes include eggs with Bolognese torta. rudd from Lake Trasimeno. olives from Bologna and Piceno. For preserving fruits. grayling from Adda. figs from Tuscolo. Grains from Lombardy and Campania are mentioned as ishoney from Sicily and . Saffron In the 15th century. liquor. snails from Rieti.mushrooms. vinegar or immersing meat in congealed. showing Arab influence. writing about perch from Lake Maggiore. turbot from Ravenna. His Libro de arte coquinaria describes a more refined and elegant cuisine. roviglioni and shad from Lake Albano. and call for the use of salt from Sardinia or Chioggia. made by wrapping dough around a thin iron rod to dry in the sun. Two other books from the 14th century include recipes for Roman pastello. Of particular note is Martino's avoidance of excessive spices in favor of fresh herbs. squash. Sienese torta and Genoese recipes such as piperata. ad usum campanie which were "small leaves" prepared in the "Campanian manner".items like pickles.
salt. fritters and a recipe for a sweet Neapolitan pizza (not the current savory version. The third volume has recipes for fish in Lent. However. He favored simmering vegetables in salted water and serving them warm or cold with olive oil. with information on banquets including displays and menus as well as illustrations of kitchen and table utensils. not just accompaniments. fresh ground pepper. It contains over 1. In 1570. Herbs and Fruit).000 recipes. tarts. wrote his Opera in five volumes. such items from the New World as corn(maize) and turkey are included. steward to Ippolito d'Este. Originally from Modena. In the first decade of the 17th century. Rome. Messisbugo gives recipes for pies and tarts (containing 124 recipes with various fillings). Wine from the Ligurian coast. The final volume includes pies. publishedBanchetti Composizioni di Vivande in 1549. Bartolomeo Scappi. He also suggests roasting . The book has a list of Italian vegetables and fruits and their preparation. broiling. Grecco from Tuscany and San Severino and Trebbiano from Tuscany andPiceno are also in the book. Early modern era The courts of Florence. Venice and Ferrara were central to the cuisine. These fish recipes are simple. Castelvetro moved to England because he was a Protestant. giving a comprehensive view of Italian cooking of that period. L'arte di Ben Cucinare published by Bartolomeo Stefani in 1662. including poaching. Particular attention is given to seasons and places where fish should be caught. Christoforo Messisbugo. Recipes include lesser cuts of meats such as tongue. Giangiacomo Castelvetro wrote Breve Racconto di Tutte le Radici di Tutte l'Herbe et di Tutti i Frutti (A Brief Account of All Vegetables. The work emphasizes the use of Eastern spices and sugar. translated into English by Gillian Riley. This book differs from most books written for the royal courts in its preference for domestic animals and courtyard birds rather than game. as tomatoes had not been introduced to Italy.Taranto. Bartolomeo Scappi personal chef to Pope Pius V. personal chef to Pope Pius V. lemon juice or verjus or orange juice. head and shoulder. grilling and frying after marination. He featured vegetables as a central part of the meal.
a plate (instead of the bowls more often used) and a napkin. The book also told diners not to use their fingers while eating and not wipe sweat with the napkin. tell how scalci ("waiters") should manage themselves while serving their guests. popularity and frequency. published L'Arte di Ben Cucinare. spoon.sniff. The book described a banquet given by Duke Charles for Queen Christina of Sweden. It was believed by some that . or spit. cough or sneeze while serving diners. Periodicals in booklet form such as La cuoca cremonese ("The Cook of Cremona") in 1794 give a sequence of ingredients according to season along with chapters on meat. including a knife. Cucina Borghese published by Chef Giovanni Vialardi in 19th century. Bartolomeo Stefani. In the 18th century. detailing the use of pigs in the search for truffles. with details of the food and table settings for each guest. medical texts warned peasants against eating refined foods as it was believed that these were poor for their digestion and their bodies required heavy meals. In 1662. fish and vegetables. These have become symbols of modern technology used to shape the oldest culinary traditions. Castelvetro's book is separated into seasons with hop shoots in the spring and truffles in the winter. chef to the Duchy of Mantua. Italian culinary books began to emphasize the regionalism of Italian cuisine rather than French cuisine. fork. As the century progressed these books increased in size.[clarification needed] At the beginning of the 18th century. Waiters should not scratch their heads or other parts of themselves. such as Galatheo by Giovanni della Casa. Modern era Small pasta machine designed to mangle lasagneand cut tagliatelle. Books written then were no longer addressed to professional chefs but tobourgeois housewives.vegetables wrapped in damp paper over charcoal or embers with a drizzle of olive oil. Other books from this time. He was the first to offer a section on vitto ordinario ("ordinary food"). glass.
Il Nuovo Cuoco Milanese Economico by Giovanni Felice Luraschi features Milanese dishes such as Kidney with Anchovies and Lemon and Gnocchi alla Romana. Zuppa alli Pomidoro in Corrado's book is a dish similar to today's Tuscan Pappa al Pomodoro.peasants ate poorly because they preferred eating poorly. Francesco Leonardi in his book L'Apicio moderno ("Modern Apicius") sketches an history of the Italian Cuisine from the Roman Age and gives as first a recipe of a tomato based sauce. seeds and all that is produced in the earth for our nourishment. he preferred vegetables and chicken over meat. and the use of meat is noxious. La Cucina Teorico-Pratica written by Ippolito Cavalcanti has the first recipe for pasta with tomatoes. is widely regarded as the canon of classic modern Italian cuisine. Pellegrino Artusi. "Pitagoric food consists of fresh herbs. first published in 1891." Many of his recipes are for regional dishes from Turin including twelve for potatoes such as Genoese Cappon Magro. rice and gnocchi. In 1829. In 1773. roots." This book was the first to give the tomato a central role with thirteen recipes. Corrado's 1798 edition introduced a "Treatise on the Potato" after the French Antoine-Augustin Parmentier's successful promotion of it. It is so called because Pythagoras. the Neopolitan Vincenzo Corrado's Il Cuoco Galante ("The Courteous Cook") gave particular emphasis to Vitto Pitagorico (vegetarian food). Giovanni Vialardi. and it is still in print. This book contained the first recipe for pesto. Its recipes come mainly from Romagna and Tuscany. many peasants had to eat rotten food and moldy bread because that was all they could afford. In 1779. Nebbia addressed the importance of local vegetables and pasta. Antonio Nebbia from Macerata in the Marche region. wrote Il Cuoco Maceratese ("The Cook of Macerata"). In the 19th century. . chef to King Victor Emmanuel. Gian Battista and Giovanni Ratto's La Cucina Genovese in 1871 addressed the cuisine ofLiguria. fruits. However. In 1790. For stock. There is no doubt that this kind of food appears to be more natural to man. La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiare bene ("The Science of Cooking and the Art of Eating Well"). only used such produce. flowers. as is well known. where he lived. wrote A Treatise of Modern Cookery and Patisserie with recipes "suitable for a modest household. by Pellegrino Artusi.
meats etc. ranging from fruits. olives and olive oil. tomatoes. certain types of fish (anchovies. garlic. widths and shapes. and pecorino cheese. Finally. macaroni (tubes or cylinders). nuts and olive oil are very common. vegetables. This cultivar shown is of the San Marzano variety. oranges. There are hundreds of different shapes of pasta with at least locally recognized names. maize. fresh or cooked into tomato sauce. fusilli . olive oil and nuts.Ingredients The tomato. It is usually served with sauce. Ligurian ingredients are quite different. parmigiano reggiano. an indispensable food ingredient in much of Italy. peppers. fish. perhaps the most stereotypical ingredient found in Italian cuisine. truffles. sausages. and varieties that are filled with other ingredients like ravioli and tortellini. artichokes. corn. and tomatoes (Bolognese sauce or ragu). or baccala). Italian cuisine is also well known (and well regarded) for its use of a diverse variety ofpasta. In Emilia-Romagna. The word pasta is also used to refer to dishes in which pasta products are a primary ingredient. In the North of Italy. basil (found in pesto sauce). and with pasta or pizza. said to be some of the best sauce tomatoes in the world. Olive oil. pork and different types of cheeses are the most common ingredients (tomato is virtually absent in most Northern Italian cuisines). ricotta cheese.Examples include spaghetti (thin rods). rice. Pasta include noodles in various lengths. Pesto. common ingredients include ham (Parma ham). aubergines. sardines and tuna). sausage (Zampone). different sorts of salami. Italian cuisine has a great variety of different ingredients which are commonly used. in Southern Italy. a variety ofplum tomatoes. and include several types of fish and seafood dishes. courgettes. all kinds of meat (except for horse meat). potatoes. grana. sauces. fish (such as cod. and capers are important components to the local cuisine. a Ligurian sauce which is often eaten made out of basil. Traditional central Italy cuisine uses ingredients such as tomatoes.
meaning not too soft). Other typical dishes are pitina (meatballs made of smoked meats). There are many types of wheat flour with varying gluten and protein depending on variety of grain used. Frico cheese. and various types of gnocchi and polenta. Under Italian law. is known for its traditional San Daniele del Friuli ham. in the western part of Friuli. Outside Italy. whether a region is close to the sea or the mountains. Whole wheat pasta has become increasingly popular because of its health benefits over pasta made from bleached flour. They are both traditional in parts of Italy. game. who traditionally prefer the fresh egg variety. but also at provincial level. but this yields a softer product that cannot be cooked al dente. are sometimes considered pasta. dry pasta (pasta secca) can only be made from durum wheat flour or durum wheat semolina. Two other noodles. The majority of the eastern regional dishes are heavily influenced by Austrian. Pasta is categorized in two basic styles: dried and fresh. such as pizzoccheri. Durum flour and durum semolina have a yellow tinge in color. are made from buckwheat flour. and lasagne (sheets). Original San Daniele ham. Particular varieties of pasta may also use other grains and milling methods to make the flour. and is more commonly used in Southern Italy compared to their Northern counterparts. while fresh pasta will keep for a couple of days in the refrigerator. in its cuisine. Fresh pasta may include eggs (pasta all'uovo 'egg pasta'). primarily at regional level. Italian pasta is traditionally cooked al dente (Italian: "firm to the bite". Carniasubregion. Regional cuisines Each area has its own specialties. Hungarian.Montasio cheese. Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia conserved. Some pasta varieties. gnocchi and spätzle. Slovene and Croatian cuisines: typical dishes include Istrian . Dried pasta made without eggs can be stored for up to two years under ideal conditions. the historical links with AustriaHungary. The differences can come from a bordering country (such as France or Austria). dry pasta is frequently made from other types of flour (such as wheat flour). and economics. Pasta is generally cooked by boiling. as specified by law.(swirls). Italian cuisine is also seasonal with priority placed on the use of fresh produce.
such as small song-birds in the case of the Venetian and Lombard dishpolenta e osei. Tiramisu. Other typical products are sausages such as Soppressa Vicentina. named biancoperla. rural food typical of Veneto and most of Northern Italy. such as redradicchio from Treviso and white asparagus from Bassano del Grappa. Vienna sausages. High quality vegetables are prized. dessert originally from Treviso. Ingredients such asstockfish or simple marinated anchovies are found here as well. ćevapčići. sauerkraut. Perhaps the . In some areas of Veneto it can be also made of a particular variety of cornmeal.radicchio and frogs' legs appearing further away from the Adriatic. Collio Goriziano. Veneto features heavy dishes using exotic spices and sauces. stockfish or meat dishes: some polenta dishes includes porcini mushrooms. Veneto Venetian cuisine Polenta served with rabbit meat. Colli Orientali del Friuli andRamandolo are well-known DOC regional wines. or other vegetables or meats. Pork can be spicy and is often prepared over an open hearth called a fogolar. Peas and other legumes are seen in these areas with pasta e fagioli (beans and pasta) and risi e bisi (rice and peas). bacon and spare ribs).Stew (soup of beans. Less fish and more meat is eaten away from the coast. Beans. rapini. goulash. Friuli Isonzo. potatoes. a traditional peasant food of Veneto. as fish and seafood being added closer to the coast and pumpkin. It may find its way into stirred dishes and baked dishes and can be served with various cheese. gugelhupf. so that the colour of polenta is white and not yellow (the socalled polenta bianca). a dish whose ingredients can highly vary upon different areas.polenta is a traditional. Venice and many surrounding parts of Veneto are known for risotto. Made from finely ground maize meal. apple strudel. asparagus. or sausages. garlic salami and Asiago cheese.
as is squid ink. Trentino-Alto Adige/South Tyrol Before the Council of Trent in the middle of the 16th century.  The territory of Bolzano is also reputed for its Müller-Thurgau white wines. funnell cake and freshwater fish. kaiserschmarrn. thinly-sliced veal liver sauteed with onions. apple strudel. Lombardy Risotto alla milanese with saffron. polenta. knödel. When the prelates of the Catholic Church established there. rösti. spätzle and rye bread are regular dishes. Traditional Alto Adige/Sudtirol speck. krapfen. baicoli (biscuits made with butter and vanilla) and nougat. due to the German speaking majority population. Prosecco. Goulash. Regional desserts include tiramisu (made of biscuits dipped in coffee. Soave and Valpolicella DOCwines. and flavored with liquor and cocoa). Later. . potato cake. cheese. In the Alto Adige/Sudtirol subregion. yogurt. homemade sauerkraut. dumpling.most popular dish of Venice is fegato alla veneziana. called nero di seppia. they brought the art of fine cooking with them. along with potatoes. the region was known for the simplicity of its peasant cuisine. Squid and cuttlefish are common ingredients. The most celebrated Veneto wines include Bardolino. also influences from Venice and the AustrianHabsburg Empire came in. asSpeck Alto Adige PGI. The most renowned local product is traditional speck juniper-flavored ham which. is regulated by the European Union under the protected geographical indication (PGI) status. strong Austrian and Slavic influences prevail. layered with a whipped mixture of egg yolks and mascarpone. and lard. Trentino subregion produces various types of sausages.
Valle d'Aosta Bread thickened soups are customary as well as cheese fondue. The best known version isrisotto alla milanese. pork. and lard. as well as raisins. with a large number of different ecosystems. Cremona's Mostarda(rich condiment made with candied fruit and a mustard flavoured syrup). which are added dry and not soaked). Taleggio. Butter and cream are important in stewed. but cooked "bonein"). Rice dishes are very popular in this region. Regional desserts include the famous panettone Christmas cake (sweet bread with candied orange. citron. The regional cuisine of Lombardy is heavily based upon ingredients like maize. butter. Crescenza. potatoes. roasted and braised dishes. often found in soups as well as risotto. chestnuts. white wine and brot) andcotoletta alla milanese (a fried cutlet similar to Wiener schnitzel. Point of union of traditional Italian and French . is the most refined and varied cuisine of the Italian peninsula. Polenta is a staple along with rye bread. smokedbacon and game from the mountains and forests. beef. Other regional specialities include cassoeula (a typical winter dish prepared with cabbage and pork). flavoured with saffron and typically served with many typical Milanese main courses.Regional cheeses include Robiola. and lemon zest. Vallée d'Aoste Lard d'Arnad and Génépi Artemisia-based liqueur. Nestled between the Alps and the Po valley. Polenta is generally common across the region. Gorgonzola and Grana Padano (the plains of central and southern Lombardy allow intensive cattle-raising). rice. Piedmont Traditional Piedmontese agnolotti. Valtellina's Bresaola (air-dried salted beef) and Mantua's tortelli di zucca (ravioli with pumpkin filling) accompanied by melted butter and followed by turkey stuffed with chicken or other stewed meats. rice.Traditional Cotoletta alla milanese. such as ossobuco alla milanese (cross-cut veal shanks braised with vegetables.  Typical regional products include Fontina cheese.
It is also the region where both Slow Food association and the most prestigious school of Italian cooking. with its distinctive shape. sausage. taglierini (thinner version of tagliatelle). Piedmont is the Italian region with the largest number of cheeses Protected Geographical Status and wines Denominazione di origine controllata. were founded. fine sparkling wines. Because of a lack of land suitable for wheat. the University of Gastronomic Sciences. gianduiotto and marron glacé that are famous worldwide. garlic. the famous Brasato al vino. lightly sparkling. The region is also famous for its Vermouth and Ratafiaproduction. and the sweet. cheese or young anchovies. cheese and rice are all used. is a speciality of Turin. Gianduiotto chocolate. The most typical of the Piedmont tradition are its traditional agnolotti (pasta folded over with a roast beef meat and vegetable stuffing). Liguria Pasta with pesto sauce. . Truffles. anchovies. Hilly districts use chestnuts as a source of carbohydrates. Herbs and vegetables (as well as seafood) find their way into the cuisine. seasonal vegetables. the Ligurians use chick-peas in farinata and polentalike panissa. with products likeNutella. Castelmagno is a prized cheese of the region. Moscato d'Asti. milk curds and eggs. fungi.cuisine. hence the tradition of eating raw meat seasoned with garlic oil. The former is served plain or topped with onions. and boiled beef served with various sauces. lemon and salt. Onions and olive oil are used. bagna cauda (soup of garlic. Wines from the Nebbiolo grape such as Baroloand Barbaresco are produced as well as wines from theBarbera grape. mixing greens and artichokes along with cheeses. artichokes. wine stew made from marinated beefl. Piedmont is also famous for the quality of its Carrù beef. chocolate and whole milk). Savory pies are popular.cardoons and hunting and fishing takes place. Piedmont is a region where gathering nuts. olive oil and butter) and bicerin (hot drink made of coffee. Finally Piedmont is one of the Italian capital of pastry and chocolate in particular.
Romagna subregion is known as well for pasta dishes like cappelletti. pansoti. Polenta. Many Ligurians emigrated to Argentina in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. a Ligurian gnocchi made from whole grain flour and boiled potatoes. piccagge. Although the Adriatic coast is a major fishing area (well-known for its eels and clams). especially pork-based. is common both in Emilia and Romagna. gramigna and tagliatellewhich are found also in many other parts of the region in different declinations.Ligurian pastas include corzetti from the Polcevera valley. . Emilia-Romagna is known for its egg and filled pasta made with soft wheat flour. a maize-based dish. rice is eaten to a lesser extent. The celebratedbalsamic vinegar is made only in the Emilian cities ofModena and Reggio Emilia. trenette. following legally binding traditional procedures. and trofie. made from whole wheat flour cut into long strips and served with pesto. InEmilia subregion. lasagne. Piacenza's pancetta. pasta ribbons made with a small amount of egg and served with artichoke sauce or pesto sauce. Emilia-Romagna Parmesan cheese advertisement. made into a spiral shape and often tossed in pesto. Modena and Bologna and is much used in cooking. that include: Parma's culatello and Felino salami. Tagliatelle with bolognese sauce. a triangular shaped ravioli filled with vegetables. garganelli. whilst Grana Padano variety is produced in Piacenza. coppa and salami. Bologna is notable for pasta dishes like tortellini.strozzapreti. the region is more famous for its meat products. except Piacenza which is heavily influenced by the cuisines of Lombardy. boiled beans and potatoes.  Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is produced in Reggio Emilia. influencing the cuisine of this country (which otherwise dominated by meat and dairy produces which the narrow ligurian hinterland would have not allowed). Parma. spoglia lorda and tortelli alla lastra.
bread. ricciarelli (biscuits made using an almond base with sugar. mushrooms and fresh fruit are used. Simplicity is central to the Tuscan cuisine. Many Umbrian dishes are prepared by boiling or roasting with local olive oil and herbs. Pork is also produced. Chianti. flour. spices. come from the Chianina cattle breed of the Chiana Valley and the Maremmana from Maremma. cannellini beans and inexpensive vegetables such as carrot. especially wild boars. Morellino di Scansano. used for the traditional Florentine steak. and cavallucci (cookies made with almonds. An exhaustive list of the most important regional wines should include Sangiovese. Legumes. honey and egg white). Colli Piacentini. cavolo nero (Tuscan kale). Vernaccia di San Gimignano. onion and olive oil. fruits and nuts). honey). silverbeet. cheese. Vegetable dishes are popular in the spring and summer. Trebbiano.cotechino and capello di prete and Ferrara's salama da sugo. Parrina. the soup has peasant origins. a classic Tuscan peasant dish. cabbage. Regional desserts include panforte (prepared with honey. Modena's zampone. roe deers and pheasant that often are used to prepare pappardelle dishes. It was originally made by reheating (i. candied fruits. vegetables. Like most Tuscan cuisine. Sassicaia. Regional desserts include zuppa inglese (custardbased dessert made with sponge cake and Alchermes liqueur) andpampepato (Christmas cake made with pepper.  The region is well-known also for its rich game. There are many variations but the main ingredients always include leftover bread. A good example would be ribollita. a notable Tuscan soup whose name literally means "reboiled". Tuscany Ribollita. Umbria Norcia black truffles. coriander.e. Cagnina di Romagna. while . Well-known regional wine's list include Brunello di Montalcino.Bologna's mortadella and salame rosa. White truffles from San Miniato appear in October and November. hares. Highquality beef. Carmignano. reboiling) the leftover minestrone or vegetable soup from the previous day. chocolate. fallow deers. and almonds). beans. Piacenza and Ferrara are also known for some dishes prepared with horse and donkey meat. Lambrusco.
Castelluccio is known for its lentils. Lamb is used with pasta. Pasta dishes based on the use of guanciale (unsmoked bacon prepared with pig's jowl or cheeks) are often found in Lazio. frogs. Spoleto and Monteleone are known for spelt. meat and vegetables are central to the cuisine of Abruzzo and Molise. pheasants. such as pasta alla carbonara. and the spicy pasta all'amatriciana. fish and seafood are produced. Meat dishes include the traditional wild boar sausages. The influence of the ancient Jewish community can be noticed in the Roman cuisine's traditionalcarciofi alla giudia Abruzzo and Molise Pasta. and moist boneless pork roast) and Frascati white wine. These hams are not thinly sliced. barbel. Orvieto and Sagrantino di Montefalco are important regional wines. The popularity of saffron. Centerbe("Hundred Herbs") is a strong (72% alcohol).fall and winter sees meat from hunting andblack truffles from Norcia. porchetta (savory. A dish from Pescara isarrosticini. but cut into bite-sized chunks. Freshwater fish include lasca.Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is an important local red wine. freshwater perch. grown in the province of L'Aquila. wild and domestic pigs are used for sausages and hams. where they are called diavoletti ("little devils") for their spicy heat. eel. Chilies (peperoncini) are typical of Abruzzo. The regional cuisine widely use offal. chicken and fish are often stuffed before being roasted or placed on the spit.whitefish. Iconic of Lazio are also cheese made from ewes'milk (Pecorino Romano). Marche On the coast of Marche. Inland. and tench. resulting in dishes like the entrail-based rigatoni with pajatasauce and coda alla vaccinara. The chitarra (literally "guitar") is a fine stringed tool that pasta dough is pressed through for cutting. Lazio Spaghetti alla carbonara. gooses. pigeons. Suckling pig. . fatty. trout. spicy herbal liqueur drunk by the locals. grayling. has waned in recent years. little pieces of castrated lamb on a wooden stick and cooked on coals. snails.
Spaghetti alla puttanesca is a popular dish made with olives. capers. Originating in Neapolitan cuisine. cheese. In the regional cuisine. peppers. The region is well-known for also itsmozzarella production (especially from the milk of water buffalo) that's used in a variety of dishes. Famous regional wines are Greco di Tufo and Taurasi. pasta is prepared in various styles that can feature tomato sauce. including parmigiana (shallow fried eggplant slices layered with cheese and tomato sauce. fennel. artichokes. flat. a long shaped. clams and shellfish. A vast variety of recipes is influenced by the local aristocratic cuisine. Campania Traditional Neapolitan pizza. Campania is one of the largest producers and consumers of pasta in Italy. crustaceans. Since Naples was the capital of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. tomatoes. like pasta with beans and other pasta dishes with vegetables.The most famous dish of Molise is cavatelli. reaching a balance between dishes based on rural ingredients (pasta. especially spaghetti. Pizza is an oven-baked. anchovies. pizza has become popular in many different parts of the world. disc-shaped bread typically topped with a tomato sauce. pasta or rice dishes with very elaborate preparation. several other types of pizzas have evolved. like timballo and the sartù di riso. mollusks). while the dishes coming from the popular traditions contain poor but nutritionally healthy ingredients. spring onions. broccoli or mushrooms. Since the original pizza. often served with meat sauce. lemons and oranges which all take on the flavor of volcanic soil. handmade maccheroni-type pasta made of flour. its cuisine took much from the culinary traditions of all the Campania region. chili peppers and garlic. The Gulf of Naples offers fish and seafood. Campania extensively produces tomatoes. semolina and water. potatoes. .cheese (usually mozzarella) and various toppings depending on the culture. and rum-dipped babà. vegetables. then baked). Desserts include struffoli (deep fried balls of dough) ricottabased pastiera and sfogliatelle. cheese) and seafood dishes (fish.
artichokes and egg plants. chickpeas. fennel. Savuto. Scavigna. zucchini. shrimp. San Vito di Luzzi. Mutton and lamb are also popular. Dominici. The region is known for pasta made from durum wheat and traditional pasta dishes featuring orecchiette-type pasta. Apulia is also the largest producer of olive oil in Italy. cauliflower. and mussels. especially oysters. beef or pork sauce and salty ricotta. Goat and lamb are occasionally used. bell peppers. Calabria The cuisine of Calabria has been influenced by conquerors and visitors. Sant'Anna di Isola Capo Rizzuto. endive. spinach. lentils.y Basilicata Pork is an integral part of Basilicata's cuisine. Melissa. jelly. often made into sausages or roasted on a spit. raisins. potatoes. doughnuts usually topped with powdered sugar and filled with custard. Verbicaro. goat and land snails. Melon and watermelon are traditionally served in a chilled fruit salad or wrapped in ham. different varieties of spicy sausages (like Nduja and Capicola). affected the language and culinary skills as seen in the naming of things such as cake.Apulia Orecchiette with tomato sauce. . often served with goat. eggplants. Macaroni-type pasta is widely used in regional dishes. often served with tomato sauce. potatoes. Cistercian monks introduced new agricultural practices to the region along with dairy products. French rule under the House of Anjouand Napoleon. from the French gateau. broccoli. cannoli-style pastry cream or a butter-and-honey mixture. The sea offers abundant fish and seafood that are extensively used in the regional cuisine. Main courses include Frìttuli (prepared by boiling pork rind. Pasta sauces are generally based on meats or vegetables. Apulia is a massive food producer: major production includes wheat. Calabrian wines include Greco di Bianco. Lamezia. Pollino. Seafood includes swordfish. Cirò. The bitter digestif Amaro Lucano is made here. beans and cheese (like the traditional caciocavallo cheese). lemons. Bivongi. gatò. sea urchin and squid. along with Spanish influence. Regional desserts include zeppola. lobster. tomatoes. The Arabs brought oranges. mussels or broccoli. Spicy peperoncini are much used. meat and trimmings in pork fat).
sea bream. turkey and tomatoes. in the extreme western corner of the island. caponata. and fish such as tuna. Sardinia Traditional carasau'' bread. saffron. Greek and Arab influences. Traditional specialties from Sicily include arancini (a form of deepfried ricecroquettes). and tomatoes. rich Sicilian pastries Sicily shows traces of all the cultures which established themselves on the island over the last two millennia. Rock lobster. a cake containing different nuts. sweet melons. different liquers and candied fruits. peppers. sea bass. The Normans andHohenstaufens had a fondness for meat dishes. black pepper. rice. Much of the island's cuisine encourages the use of fresh vegetables such as eggplant. raisins. cuttlefish. and a host of desserts and sweets such as cannoli. squid. Cannoli. sugar. nutmeg. a red.Dionysus is said to have introduced wine to the region: a trace of historical influence from Ancient Greece. TheByzantines favored sweet and sour flavors and the Arabs brought. and cinnamon. fortified wine similar to Port and largely exported. citrus. pasta alla Norma. scampi. Typical of Sicily is Marsala. ricotta. and cassata). The Spanish introduced items from the New World including chocolate. In Trapani.clove. and swordfish. sardines and other seafood figure prominently. Although its cuisine undoubtably has a predominantly Italian base. North African influences are clear in the use of various couscous based dishes. The ancient Romans introduced lavish dishes based on goose.Sicily Cassata. usually combined with fish. Sicilian food also has Spanish. tuna. Suckling pig and wild boar are roasted on the spit or boiled in stews of . maize. pani ca meusa. granita.
During holidays. the traditional Italian menu is kept mainly for special events (such as weddings) while an everyday menu includes only the first and second course. daily meals can be longer than in other cultures. pasta and legumes). including carasau bread civraxiu. providing carbohydrates and proteins at the same time (e.beans and vegetables. Meal structure Main article: Meal structure in Italy Traditionally. made dry. a highly decorative bread and pistoccumade with flour and water only. the side dish and coffee. Today. originally meant for herders. which keeps longer than high-moisture breads. thickened with bread. but often served at home with tomatoes. A notable aspect of Italian meals is that the primo or first course. meals in Italy usually contain 3 or 4 courses. which one would have as anaperitivo. basil. coccoi pinatus.g. Meals are seen as a time to spend with family and friends instead of immediate sustenance. Those are baked as well. is usually a more filling dish such as risotto or pasta. Herbs such as mint and myrtle are widely used in the regional cuisine. Modern Italian cuisine also includes single courses (all-in-one courses). thus. Sardinia have also many special types of bread. A bottle of sparkling Prosecco. Meal stage Composition . oregano. garlic and a strong cheese. family feasts can last for hours.
sambuca. amaro. limoncello. such as cakes and cookies coffee "digestives". Traditionally veal. particularly in Tuscany. "second course". may be a salad or cooked vegetables. sometimes referred to as ammazzacaffè ("coffee killer") Note: On restaurant menus. pork and chicken are most commonly used. "side dish". though beef has become more popular since World War II and wild game is found. at least in the North. A traditional menu features salad along with the main course. these terms may be referred to as Primi. usually fish or meat. Secondo Contorno Formaggio "cheese and fruits". Food establishments Trattoria Each type of establishment has a defined role and traditionally sticks to it. nocino. Secondi. . the main dish. and Digestivi.apéritif usually enjoyed as an appetizer before a large meal. may be Campari Cinzano Prosecco Aperol Spritz Vermouth Aperitivo Antipasto Primo literally "before (the) meal". polenta or soup. gnocchi. the first dessert. Local cheeses may be part of e frutta the Antipasto orContorno as well. hot or cold appetizers "first course". Contorni. Fish are generally caught locally. liquors/liqueurs (grappa. Dolce Caffè Digestivo "sweet". risotto. usually consists of a hot dish like pasta.
Agriturismo Bar/Caffé Birreria Frasca/Locanda Gelateria Osteria Paninoteca Pizzeria Polentaria Ristorante Spaghetteria Tavola Calda Trattoria Focused on simple food of the region. offering pasta dishes and other main courses. Often offers upscale cuisine and printed menus. Hours are generally from 6am to 10pm. Originating in Napoli. A bar that offers beer found in central and northern regions of Italy. Literally "hot table". Often the meals are served to guests only. tramezzini (sandwiches) and spuntini(snacks such as olives. Marked by a green and gold sign with a knife and fork. Foods may include brioche. Most open at 11am and close late. Locations specializing in Pizza. Locations which serve coffee. juice and alcohol. . or sit down and eat it in a cup or a cone.Establishment Description Working farms that offer accommodations and meals. A regional establishment seen in limited number north of EmiliaRomagna. offers pre-made regional dishes. Wood fired-pizza ovens are a specialty of Italy. panini. A dining establishment often family run with inexpensive prices and an informal atmosphere. that sells gelato. or coffee and liquors. Many are open only at night but some open for lunch. often having only a verbal menu. You can also order bigger ice desserts. Sandwich shop open during the day. soft drinks. An Italian ice cream shop/bar. potato crisps and small pieces of frittata). A shop where you can get your gelatoto go. Friulian wine producers that open for the evening and may offer food along with their wines.
La Napoletana is a four part stove-top unit with grounds loosely placed inside a filter. and is stronger. The longer roasting period extracts more caffeine. similar to café au lait. uses a pump and pressure system with water heated up to 90-95°C (194-203°F) and forced with high pressure through a few grams of finely ground coffee in 25–30 seconds. Home espresso makers are simpler but work under the same principle. the unit is inverted to drip through the grounds. also known as espresso is made from a blend of coffee beans. mostly frothy.caffelatte is equal parts espresso and steamed milk. Caffè macchiato is topped with a bit of steamed milk or foam. Espresso is usually served in a demitasse cup. invented in 1937 by Achille Gaggia. and is forced through the grounds into the top portion. It is generally considered a morning beverage. the kettle portion is filled with water and once boiling. ristretto is made with less water. the water rises from steam pressure. It is unlike a percolator in that the brewed coffee is not re-circulated. and gets darker moving south. often from Brazil. The Moka per il caffè is a three part stove-top unit that is placed on the stove-top with loosely packed grounds in a strainer. cappuccino is mixed or topped with steamed.Drinks Coffee Espresso Moka per il caffè Italian style coffee (caffè). resulting in about 25 milliliters (two tablespoons) of liquid. milk. A common misconception is that espresso has more caffeine than other coffee but the opposite is true. and is . Espresso beans are roasted medium to medium dark in the north. The modern espresso machine.
Latte macchiato (spotted milk) is a glass of warm milk with a bit of coffee and Caffè corretto is "corrected" with a few drops of an alcoholic beverage. from Turin. Two-thirds is bulk wine used for blending in France and Germany. Only about a quarter of this wine is put into bottles for individual sale. A bottle of campari Main article: Italian wine Italy produces the largest amount of wine in the world and is both the largest exporter and consumer of wine. . Alcoholic beverages Wine DOCG label on wine bottle A bottle oflimoncello Tuscan Chianti in a traditional fiasco. as it consisits of a mix of coffee anddrinking chocolate. The Bicerin is also an Italian coffee. and often whipped cream/foam with chocolate powder and sugar is added on top. It is quite thick.  There are twenty separate wine regions. The wine distilled into spirits in Italy exceeds the production of wine in the entirety of the New World. and with a small addition of milk. It is a mixture of cappucino and traditional hot chocolate.typically served in a large cup.
A sparkling drink which is becoming internationally popular as a less expensive substitute of French champagne is prosecco. which are usually pale lager. (former part of Austria. the Italian government passed the Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) law in 1963 to regulate place of origin. The designation Indicazione Geografica Tipica(IGT) is a less restrictive designation to help a wine maker graduate to the DOC level. In 1980. and Alto Adige/South Tyrol. Vermouth and Campari. Grappa instead is the typical alcoholic drink of northern Italy. even though there are several other popular ones. and the average beer consumption in Italy is less than in some other neighbouring European nations. reserved for only the best wines. such as the United Kingdom. Beer is not as popular and widespread as wine (even though this is changing. quality. Beer Main article: Beer in Italy Italy hosts a wide variety of different beers. it is extremely strong drink which is usually consumed in very small proportions. Beer in Italy is often drunk in pizzerias. production method and type of grape. Miscellanea There are also several other popular alcoholic drinks in Italy. Germany and Austria. the government created the Denominazione di origine controllata e garantita (DOCG). Piedmont and Trentino. general associated with the culture of the Alps and of the Po Valley. Amalfi and the Gulf of Naples) in general. from the Veneto region. .Those vineyards producing great wines are trying to do away with the old image of jug wines so often associated withItalian wine. Made out of lemon. Limoncello. The most famous grappas are distilled in Veneto. To promote this. Amaro Sicilianos are common Sicilian digestifs made out of herbs which are usually drunk after heavy meals. and beer is becoming more and more popular). a traditional lemon liquer from Sicily and Southern Italy (Sorrento. The most notable Italian breweries are Peroni and Moretti. The three most notable and recognizable Italian aperitifs are Martini. country notable for its beer)is the area where beer is made and consumed the most. in small glasses or cups. is one of the most common.
a meatless meal. The common cake for Easter Day is theColomba Pasquale (literally. Italians often servetortellini as a first course. lamb is served in throughout Italy. Joseph's Day) on March 19. Sicilians give thanks to St. fruit compote (Macedonia). Easter Cakes and pizza. consisting of cappuccino and brioche. Children drink hot chocolate. it is composed of cappuccino e cornetto (frothed hot milk with coffee. Easter dove). and is topped with almonds and pearl sugar. and is a traditional part of St. wine. and a pastry) or espresso and pastry. Typical cakes of the Christmas season are panettone and pandoro. Meal composition Breakfast A typical Italian breakfast.Holiday cuisine Every region has its own holiday recipes. On Christmas day. to have a quick breakfast snack during the morning (typically a panino. During La Festa di San Giuseppe (St. Traditional Italian breakfasts are continental-style. Joseph for preventing a famine during the Middle Ages. butter. The traditional breakfast in Italy is simply Caffè e latte(hot coffee with milk) or coffee with bread or rolls. eating Sicilian pastries known as zeppole and giving food to the poor. plain milk. boiled eggs. In . On Christmas Eve a symbolic fast is observed with the cena di magro ("light dinner"). On Easter Sunday. and jam—known as prima colazione or justcolazione. Other products such as breakfast cereals. Other customs celebrating this festival include wearing red clothing. similar to those of France. or hot milk with very little coffee. Fette biscottate (a cookie-like hard bread often eaten with butter and jam) and biscotti(cookies) are commonly eaten. mainly from the Central and Southern regions. Greece or Spain. The first Italian meal is breakfast. The fava bean saved the population from starvation. A typical Easter Sunday breakfast in Umbria and Tuscany includes salami. If breakfast is eaten in a bar (coffee shop). muesli and yogurt are becoming increasingly common as part of the meal. or colazione. It s supposed to represent the dove. or bread roll). Joseph's Day altars and traditions. which is often simply known as "Italian Easter cake" abroad. It is very common for some Italians.
and is usually consumed later than in Northern Europe and at more or less the same time as Spain and other Mediterranean countries. from fruit. Then there is the second course. crepes. most shops close for a pausa. olives or sauce dips.15 pm to even 2. Italian cuisine abroad Europe Great Britain . Traditional Italian lunches are long meals. Then. Schoolchildren are allowed to go home for a lunch-break to eat.00). brioches. occasionally with feast days or Sundays. before meals). nuts. Italian meals are shorter. Mid-afternoon snack Most Italians. or secondo in which meat or fish is usually served. notably children.30pm. This usually consists of perhaps a salad. risotto or the left-overs of lunch-time. as there is less time. Lunch is taken in Italy. This can be anything. such as pasta or spaghetti. Italians tend to still enjoy lunches. soup. people from Southern Italian regions start lunch slightly later.00 pm and 2. from about 3. usually. which usually have an appertiser or aperitivo (antipasto literally. ice cream. Today.Sicily. or pastries. or lunch is the heartiest and most important Italian meal. ravioli. soup. people eat ice-cold granita with brioches. risotto etc.00 ~ 14. from 1.30 pm to 9. Dinner is called cena in Italian. have what is called a mid-afternoon snack or in Italian merenda just after school. yogurts. cheese. or first course which consists of usually-non meat hot food. usually starting from 7. During lunchbreak hours (12. bruschette and small sandwiches. there is the primo. Lunch Pranzo.00 pm to 5.00 pm. cake. raisins or mousses. or can chose to eat at the cafeteria/canteen.15 pm). but Italians tend to have lighter meals at dinner-time. Following that is dessert (dolce) and then fruit which is occasionally eaten with nuts or pistachios. cookies and biscuits. This usually consists of cold meats (affettati) and hams. however. anywhere between 12.00 pm (usually. and families still usually tend to have a big meal on Sundays. Dinner The Italian dinner structure is very similar to that of lunch.
in addition. the gnocchi and some types of pasta are especially popular. For all these reasons. Between 1918 and 1945. mushrooms. if somewhat thicker and usually with more toppings in terms of quantity. Italian dishes have penetrated the local Slovenian cuisine. For centuries. there are numerous typical dishes that are shared between the Slovenian cuisines and the cuisine of the neighboring Italian region of Friuli Venezia Giulia: these include the gubana nut roll of Friuli (known as guban'ca or potica in Slovenia) and the jota stew. north-eastern Italy and western Slovenia have formed part of the same cultural-historical and geographical space. cuisine. heavilyAmericanized to reflect ingredients and conditions found in the United States. an autochthonous Italian minority live in Slovenian Istria. western Slovenia (the Slovenian Littoral and part of Inner Carniola) were part of Italy. . as well as dishes like the minestrone (known as mineštra in Slovene) or the frittata (known as frtalja in Slovene). Furthermore. English. Most pizza eaten around the world derives ultimately from the Neapolitan style.Pizza and pasta dishes such as spaghetti bolognese and lasagna with bolognese ragù and Béchamel sauce are the most popular forms of Italian food which are popular in British. Typical Italian-based American or Canadian dishes includeChicagostyle pizzas or Fettuccine alfredo. olives and peppers Much of Italian-American cuisine is based on that found in Campania and Sicily. Among the Slovenian dishes that come directly from Italian cuisine. notably. USA and Canada Italian-American cuisine An Italian-American pizza with pepperoni (salami). Slovenia Italian cuisine has had a strong influence on Slovenian cuisine cuisine.
Pizza (locally pronounced pisa or pitsa). there is a considerable amount of Italian influence on the cuisines of these nations. Pan Siciliano. mainly in Ethiopia. has been wholly subsumed and in its Argentine form more closely resembles Italian calzones than it does its Italian ancestor. such as Sorrentinosand Argentine gnocchi. Italian food and drink is heavily featured in Argentine cuisine. common in Brazil Italian cuisine is popular in Brazil. Pan chabata. and the drink chinotto are examples of the Italian influence in Venezuelan food and beverages. Sicilian bread. Venezuela There is considerable Italian influence in Venezuelan cuisine. Libya and Somalia (except the northern part. for example. Italy) or breaded meats. Eritrea. Argentina Due to large Italian immigration to Argentina. or Venezuelan ciabatta. due to great immigration there in the early1900s. Sicilian cannoli. which was under British rule). There are several other Italian-Argentine dishes.South America "Milanesa a la napolitana" with French fries. Pizza and similar foods are popular in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. An example could be milanesas (The name comes from the original cotoletta alla milanese from Milan. an Italian-inspired dish based on the original cotoletta dish from Milan. Africa Due to several Italian colonies being set up in Africa. . Cannoli siciliano.
Libya Italy's legacy from the days when Libya was invaded by Italian can be seen in the popularity of pasta on its menus. There are 'Italian Clubs' in all main cities and they have had a significant influence on the cuisine of this country. salt and water. South Africa All major cities and towns in South Africa have substantial populations of Italians. The production of good quality olive oil is on the rise in South Africa. especially in the drier south-western parts where there is a more Mediterranean-type of rainfall pattern. like ham and cheeses. particularly Sharba is a highly-spiced Libyan soup. Bazin. are imported and some also made locally. Italian foods. made from barley. as well as Pizzerias. Pastas are popular and is eaten more and more by South Africans. a local specialty is a hard paste. and every city has a popular Italian restaurant or two. Some oils have even won top international awards . and one of the most popular meals in the Libyan cuisine is Batata mubatana (filled potato). It consists of fried potato pieces filled with spiced minced meat and covered with egg and breadcrumbs.
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