Microorganisms are living things, they are also known as microbes.
1. The following are some types of microorganisms.

2. All microorganisms breathe.

3. Like all microorganisms, bread mould grows.

4. Some microorganisms move. 5. Microorganisms are very small. They cannot be seen with naked eye. We have to use a microscope to see microoranisms. Magnifying glass can be used to observe certain

microorganism such as yeast.

Microscope Magnifying glass Harmful and useful microorganisms
1. Many microorganisms are very harmful but some are useful to human. Useful microorganisms are used in the following processes.

2. Pathogens Microorganisms that caused diseases are called pathogens. Some of the diseases caused by pathogens are as shown below:

3. Some ways to prevent diseases. Keeping ourselves and surrounding clean can prevent many disease caused by microorganism. .

Examples of such animals are: .SURVIVAL OF THE SPECIES SURVIVAL OF THE SPECIES Ways different animals ensure the survival of their species Some animals looks after their eggs and young.


Plants depend on four agents to disperse their seeds. These agents are : . 2. Plants have to disperse their seeds far away to avoid competition.Different plants have different ways to ensure the survival of their species 1.

they split open and the seeds are thrown far away.When the rubber or flame of the forest. (b) Wind Example : .(a) Explosive mechanism Example : Rubber fruit Flame of the Forest .

There are air spaces in the coconut and water lily to help the seeds float in water.Shorea Lalang .They also have fine hair and wing-like structures to help them be blown away. . (d) Animals Example : . (c) Water Example : Coconut Water lily .Shorea and lalang seeds are small and light.

Survival of living things is the wise and systematic management of living things. The importance of survival of the species 1. 2. . This include efforts to restore the natural state of the living things.Rambutan Papaya . Survival of species is important to ensure that there will be enough natural resources for the future generations. The consequences of a certain species of animals and plants becoming extinct are: (a) shortage of food resources (b) other species may also face extinction.The papayas are fleshy and brightly coloured fruits which are eaten by animals. 3.

FOOD CHAIN AND FOOD WEB Food chains 1. .shows how organisms depend on one another for food . A food chains .shows the relatioship in one direction only .always starts with green plants called producers 2.

The eagle is the tertiary consumer. The grasshopper is the primary consumer. . The frog is the secondary consumer.(a) (b) (c) (d) The paddy plant is the producer.

Herbivores are animals that eat plants and parts of plants. 3.(a) (b) (c) (d) The plant is the producer. The fox is the secondary consumer. The tiger is the tertiary consumer. The deer is the primary consumer. .

Ombivores are animals which eat both plants and other animals. Carnivores are animals which eat other animals.Example : 4. Example : 5. Example : .

if the number of rats increases. For example. A change in the population of one species affects the populations of other species.Food webs 1. the number of paddy plants will decrease and the number of grasshoppers. 3. 2. An organism may be a part of more than one food chain. birds and .

Example : The panda eats only bamboo shoots. The koala eats only eucalyptus leaves. because there is no or little food. However. Some animals eat only one type of food. 4.eagles will decrease. . the number of owls will increase and so will the number of snakes because there are more rats to eat.

ENERGY 1.The pangolin eats only ants. Energy is used to: (a) carry out life processes such as breathing and growth . These animals will die out and become extinct when their food source is not available. Forms of Energy Uses of energy: 1. 5.

(b) move objects (c) melt object (d) dry clothes and other things .

The following are sources of energy.(e) cook food 2. .

Energy can be transformed from one form to another Energy can be trasformed from one energy source to another. Potential energy changes to kinetic energy. .

Examples of renewable energy sources are: . Renewable energy can be replenished after being used. 2.Chemical energy changes to light energy and heat energy. Renewable and non-renewable energy 1.

3. Examples of non-renewable energy sources . 4. Non-renewable energy cannot be replenished when it is used up.

We should always use renewable energy sources instead of non-renewable energy sources wherever possible.are: 5. . We should use as little energy as possible because: (a) Some energy sources cannot be replenished when used up (b) To save cost (c) To avoid wastage (d) To reduce pollution 7. 6. We have to use energy wisely.


.Electricity is the effect which results from moving or stationary electric charges.Electricity can be generated from an electric generator. .ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY Sources of electricity Below are sources of electricity : .

Series circuits and parallel circuits 1. The components in a circuit are : .

The two types of circuits are: Safety precautions We must not: .2.



A shadow is formed when the path of light is blocked. 2. 3. . Light travels in a straight path. the bigger the shadow formed. The closer the object to the light source.Light travels in a straight line 1.

The position of the light source causes different shapes of shadows to be formed.4. Light can be reflected .

The principle of the reflection of light is used in: . Light can be reflected 2.1.

. When it loses heat. 2. Temperature can be measured with a thermometer. It becomes hot. Heat will be trasferred from A to B . 1.Its temperature drops. . We measured temperature with a thermometer. it will become cooler. - The iron rod gains heat. Its temperature rises.The iron rod loses heat. When a substance gains heat.It becomes cool.HEAT Temperature is an incator of degree of hotness. it will become warmer. .

Your eye must be at the same level as the mercury when taking the reading. The unit for temperature is degrees Celcius ( oC ) . . The correct technique to measure temperature: .Place the bulb of the thermometer into the water. 4.Use a thermometer . . Effects of heat on matter .The bulb of the thermometer should not touch the base of the beaker.3.

2. Matter contracts when cooled. the metal ball can go through the ring. . At room temperature. Matter expands when heated. 3. The heated metal ball expands. It cannot go through the ring.1. The principle of expansion and contraction of matter is applied in: (a) An electric cable is installed loosely to prevents it from snapping when it contracts in cold weather. Heat will make matter hotter. 3.

(b) The gaps in railway tracks allow for expansion in hot weather. (d) Concrete slabs on pavements have gaps to allow for expansion. . (c) A tight bottle cap can be loosened by placing it in hot water.

. wood and metal are hard. .A liquid (i) does not have a fixed shape (ii) has a fixed volume (iii) has mass .STATES OF MATTER Matter exists in the form of solid.There are light solids such as cork and paper. .There are heavy solids such as iron and rock.A solid has (i) a fixed shape (ii) a fixed volume (iii) mass . .Some solids such as rock.Some different shapes are such as: (b) Liquid . sponge and cloth are soft.Some solids such as cotton. liquid or gas (a) Solid .

A liquid occupies space.A liquid takes the shape of the container it is in..A gas (i) does not have a fixed shape (ii) does not have a fixed volume (iii) has mass .The shape of a gas is indefinite.A liquid flows from a higher place to a lower place. (c) Gas . . A gas takes the shape of the container that holds it. . .

Matter can change from one state to another 1. its volume decreases.A gas does not have a defined volume. when the seal of the gas jar is removed..A gas can be compressed.A gas can fill up a whole space. . . A gas flows in all directions. the gas fills up the whole jar. . When a gas is compressed. Matter can exist in three states (i) solid (ii) liquid (iii)gas. Based on figure.

4. Evaporation happens at any temperature below the boiling point. 3.windy surrounding speeds up evaporation (c) Surface area . Boiling only occurs at the boiling point.higher temperature speeds up evaporation (b) Wind . Evaporation can be speeded up if: (a) it is windy (b) a larger area is exposed (c) the temperature is higher 5.Larger surface area speeds up evaporation Water cycle The formation of clouds and rain (Water cycle) . Evaporation and boiling both change liquid into gas.2. Factors that affect the rate of evaporation (a) Temperature .

Many water droplets collect and form a cloud. (g) The cycle begins again. Water is a very important resource. . (f) Rainwater falls on seas. rivers and lakes. it cools and condenses. The rain that falls into the soil flows to the seas. Rain also falls into the soil. rain forms and falls down to earth. (e) When a cloud becomes heavy with water droplets. rivers and lakes. We should keep our water resources clean.(a) The heat from the sun warms up seas. (b) Water evaporates and becomes water vapour. Water droplets are formed. The importance of water resources 1. rivers and lakes. (c) Water vapour rises. All living things need water. 2. (d) As water vapour reses.

3. An acidic substance has a sour taste. alkaline and neutral substances Acidic Substances 1. 2. no colour change will be seen. It changes blue litmus paper to red. .ACID AND ALKALI Understanding the properties of acidic. If the acidic substance is tested with a red litmus paper.

4. 3. It changes red litmus paper to blue. Alkaline Substance 1. Alkaline substances taste bitter and feel 'soapy' to touch. A strong acid is corrosive and can burn the skin. 5. The picture shows a few acidic substances. If the alkaline substance is tested with a blue litmus paper. . 4. A strong alkali is corrosive and can burn the skin. 2. no colour change will be seen.

If an acidic substance is mixed with an alkaline substance. A neutral substance does not have an acidic or alkaline property. . Effect of Neutral substance on litmus paper. The picture shows a few alkaline substances. Neutral Substance 1. 3. 2. a neutral substance is formed. It will not change the colour of blue or red litmus paper.5.

4. the Scorpio constellation look like a scorpion and the Orion constelllation look like a hunter. 3. For example. A constellation is a group of stars in the sky that appears to form a certain pattern. These stars look brighter and more obivious than the other stars. CONSTELLATION Understanding the constellation 1. Various patterns of the constellations have been found. 2. . The picture shows a few neutral substances.

4.It can be seen between December .It can be seen between June to August around . 5. (b) Scorpion .00pm to 10. There are around 88 types of constellations. The diagram below show a few constellations.February around 8.00pm. (a) Orion .

Libra.00 pm to 10. Twelve of the constellations make up zodiac signs which consists of Capricorn.00 pm.June around 8. 8.00 pm. Scorpio and Sagittarius. Aries. 7. Taurus.00pm. These constellations are important. (d) Southern Cross . Virgo. Some constellations can be seen all year round. (c) Big Dipper . It appears at different times of the year.It can be seen between April . .00pm to 10. Aquarius. (a) for navigation. Cancer.It can be seen between April .June around 8. The zodiac is also called the seasonal constellations. They are known as the circumpolar constellations.00 pm to 10. Gemini.8. Leo. 6. Pieces.

They can also be used as calendars by observing their position. These constellations are used because they always give directions accurately. The importance of constellations are (a) to show directions (b) to indicate the time to carry out certain activities. 11. constellations are also used by astronomers to study other stars. e. sailors and explorers used the constellations to navigate. THE EARTH. Besides navigation purposes. 9. Cygnus and Orion. In olden times. (c) as a calendar. planting sea son. Nowdays. most sailors use the compass instead of the constellations for navigation.(b) for learning about other stars. THE MOON AND THE SUN .g. 12. The constellations that were often used are Ursa Major. 10.

(b) The Earth also revolves around the Sun. Moon and Sun (a) The Earth rotates on its axis from west to east. Occurence of day and night is due to the rotation of the Earth on its axis. . It takes about 365 days to make one complete revolution. (c) The Moon revolves around the Earth.Movements of the Earth. It takes 27 1 days to make one complete revolution. It takes 24 hours to complete one rotation. 2 Occurance of day and night 1.

Thisis known as the phases of the Moon. The part of the Earth that is facing the Sun is experiencing daytime. When observed at night.2. 3. The part of the Earth that is not facing the Sun is experiencing night-time. Phases of the Moon 1. the shape of the Moon appears to change. The phases of the Moon occurs because only the part of the Moon that reflects sunlight can be seen from the Earth. 2. .

2 .3. The same phase of the Moon is seen every 29 1 days.


STRENGTH AND STABILITY STRENGHT AND STABILITY Shapes of objects in structures 1. Objects appear in various shapes. cylinder. sphere and pyramid. they include cube. . cuboid. cone.


Example : (a) The mosque (b) Petronas Twin Tower (c) KL Tower 3.A mosque A temple 2. the shape of the structure chosen is important to ensure its strength and stability. When designing buildings. All buildings are constructed based on those basic shapes. .

1. A strong and stable structure does not break or collapse easily. Strength and stability of structures.A house made of concrete is stronger than a house made of wood. Most buildings have more than one in their design. 4. 2. Least Stable . The strength and stability of a structure depends on: (a) The material (b) Position of the centre of gravity (c) Base area (d) Height 3.

followed by Q then R. (a) When the tray is tilted. R is the most stable.(a) When the tray is tilted. (c) R is the most stable because its centre of gravity is the lowest. Building Q is more stable than building P. X falls first. (b) P is the least stable. . (b) X is the least stable. Z is the most stable. followed by Y then Z. P falls first.

4. Materials Used The strength of a structure is also affected by materials used and how the structure is placed.(c) X is the least stable because its base area is the smallest. (d) Z is the most stable because its base area is the biggest. .

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