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September 2003

The Guide To Integrated


Marketing Success
The TechStrategy® Report

SEPTEMBER 2003

The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success

Marketers want to follow consumers across channels.


By Rebecca Ulph Jennings
To run a successful integrated marketing campaign, they
And Paul Jackson
should take three steps: media profiling, scenario selection,
With Jaap Favier
and real-time tracking and adjusting.
Iris Cremers

Tim van Tongeren

2 M A R K E T OV E RV I E W
UK Research Centre
• Traditional media’s share of time and attention wanes.
• Rough estimates and past experience still drive marketers’
Forrester Research Ltd.
cross-channel campaigns.
Charlotte House

9-14 Windmill Street


7 A N A LY S I S
• Media profiling kick-starts integrated marketing success.
London W1T 2JG
• Marketers should base media budgets on calculated
UK multichannel scenario returns.
Tel: +44 20 7631 0202
• A worked example illustrates the significant data that
traditional methods miss.
Fax: +44 20 7631 5252

21 ACTION
European Research Center • Get ad agents and media buyers to accept campaign SLAs.
Forrester Research B.V.
22 W H AT I T M E A N S
Rijnsburgstraat 9-11
• Online marketing will home in on the middle-aged.
1059 AT Amsterdam

Netherlands
23 R E L AT E D M AT E R I A L
Tel: +31 20 305 43 00

Fax: +31 20 305 43 33


24 GRAPEVINE
www.forrester.com

25 ENDNOTES

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. All rights reserved. Forrester, Forrester Oval Program, Forrester Wave, WholeView, Technographics,
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The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
MARKET OVERVIEW

2
M A R K E T OV E RV I EW

Marketers Talk The Integrated Marketing Talk


Consumers are gradually switching their attention from TV and print
to new media. Advertisers realize they need to follow, and most have
experimented with multichannel campaigns. But they don’t know how
to walk the walk of successful integrated marketing.

CONSUMERS HAVE DRIFTED FROM TV AND PRINT TO ONLINE MEDIA


The popularity of the Internet and mobile phones has had little effect on the popularity
of traditional media -- people still watch TV and buy newspapers, right? Wrong:
Consumers are slowly shifting their attention to new media.

Few Consumers Restrict Themselves To Traditional Media


Consumers have never had so many choices of media channels. Every month, we’re
promised new services or devices that will offer “on-the-go news” or “live media
playback” -- many of which never see the light of day. How are consumers responding?
Forrester’s Consumer Technographics® Q2 2003 European Study shows that:1

• Consumers are using more information channels. TV, radio, and print face
an increasing challenge from interactive channels (see Figure 1-1). On a yearly
basis, the effect seems trifling. But, compared with three years ago, a revolution
has taken place -- magazines have lost two-thirds of their audience for sports and
news (see the September 22, 2003 Forrester Brief “TV And Print Receive More
Blows From The Net”).2 Around 20% of European consumers use the Net for job
and property research, twice as many as in 2000 (see Figure 1-2).

• New communication channels keep growing. The revolution isn’t over. Nine
percent of Europeans now have broadband, doubling the time they spend online
to 12 hours per week; 67% of these consumers research products on the Net.
Forrester forecasts that 30% of European households will have broadband access
by 2008 (see the June 2003 Forrester Report “Europe’s Broadband Focus Shifts
To Profit”).3 Around 75% of European adults now use a mobile phone, and nearly
30% of owners use SMS at least daily.

SEPTEMBER 2003 © 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
MARKET OVERVIEW

Figure 1 European Consumers’ Media Channel Usage 3

1-1 European consumers’ multichannel lives


Traditional media channels: New media channels:

TV: PC:
• Consumers watch an average • 61% of consumers have a
of 16 hours of TV per week. home PC.
• This doesn’t drop much with • 49% of consumers are online.
online access.

Radio: Mobile phone:


• Consumers listen to an average • 75% of consumers have a
of 4 hours of radio per week. mobile phone.
• This doesn’t drop much with • 20% of mobile phone owners
online access. regularly use SMS.

Newspapers: Digital TV:


• 47% of consumers regularly • 23% of consumers have a
read a national newspaper. digital TV.
• 41% of consumers regularly • Digital TV owners use interactive
read a regional newspaper. services for about two hours per
week, on average.

Magazines:
• 77% of consumers regularly
read magazines.

1-2 Profiling European consumers’ media channel mix


Percent of consumers who
Percent of consumers use the channel as their
interested in the topic primary source of information

News 99%

Sports news 73% TV


Holiday/travel 72% Minitel
Teletext
Business news 67%
Interactive TV
Property ads 48% Newspapers
Job listings 47% Magazines
Radio
Auto ads 46% Internet
Stock-market Other source
44%
quotes
Personal finance 43%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Base: European consumers Base: European consumers who


are interested in the topic

Source: Forrester Research, Inc.

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited SEPTEMBER 2003


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
MARKET OVERVIEW

4 • Technology is transforming old media. Technology is also changing how people


consume traditional media: US PVR owners admit to skipping 20% of all TV ads
(see the November 2002 Forrester Report “Will Ad-Skipping Kill Television?”).4
Some 24% of US online households and 29% of online European adults download
music to their PCs (see the May 12, 2003 Forrester Brief “Downloads: 13% Of
Europe’s Music Market In 2007”).5 Online picture sharing from firms like Ofoto
is impacting photography, and video games are turning into multiplayer online
games like SOCOM: US Navy Seals for the PlayStation 2.

MARKETERS REMAIN HIDEBOUND BY ESTABLISHED METHODS


How do marketers respond as their target consumers move away? We interviewed
25 brand owners to find out. Their conclusion? Marketers are dragging their feet.

Marketers Pay Lip Service To Integrated Marketing


Our respondents do recognize the importance of adding new channels to their media
mix -- 76% had done some sort of cross-channel campaign in the previous year, usually
to increase sales or launch a new product.

• Marketers expect integrated marketing to grow. The 8% of respondents who


expect integrated campaigns to lose traction in the future are vastly outnumbered
by the 64% who believe they will be more important (see Figure 2-1).

“You need to give the right opinion at the right moment about your brand. In the
future, that will happen less on TV. We try to shift with our changing target groups,
but we’re too big to change every 18 months.” (Food manufacturer)

• Established channels lose traction. Marketers believe that the old, scattershot
campaigns via media like TV and print will lose out to more refined channels.
More than 90% expect media budgets to shift to new media, often at the expense
of TV (see Figure 2-2).

“TV is expensive and is losing influence -- that’s what I hear. Promoting via the
Internet is cheaper and has more reach. You can also target your audience much
better via the Internet than via print or TV.” (Cosmetics manufacturer)

• Few marketers track channel success. When executing a cross-channel campaign,


40% only measure individual channel success, while 32% only measure overall
campaign success across channels. Just 28% determine both overall campaign
success and individual channel contributions (see Figure 2-3).

“We take it on a campaign-by-campaign basis, often trialing different kinds of media


to see which gets the best results.” (Retailer)

SEPTEMBER 2003 © 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
MARKET OVERVIEW

Figure 2 Integrated Campaigns Will Grow In Importance 5

2-1 “How do you think the importance of cross-channel integrated marketing campaigns will
change over the next 18 months?”
Less important
8%

Not more nor


less important More important
28% 64%

Base: 25 European marketers


2-2 “How would you generally characterize your increase in digital marketing spending?”

We won’t increase the overall marketing budget but we will 68%


shift spending from other media and marketing areas

We will increase the overall marketing budget and also reduce 23%
spending in other media and marketing areas

We will increase the overall marketing budget and won’t 9%


substantially reduce spending in other media and marketing areas
Base: 25 European marketers
2-3 “How do you judge the success of your integrated campaigns?”
By both overall uplift for the campaign and separate
success measures for each channel
28%
By separate success measures
for each channel
By the overall uplift in brand awareness/sales 40%
generated for the campaign across all channels
32%
Base: 25 European marketers
Source: Forrester Research, Inc.

Marketing Planning Remains A Hit-And-Miss Affair


While advertisers recognize the change, they don’t want to rock the boat. Half of
respondents set their media budgets at the beginning of the year: They have a fixed
amount to spend per channel in that year -- just as they’ve always done (see Figure 3-1).

• Rough estimates define specific media spend. About half of interviewees make
a rough estimate for each campaign to decide on the media mix. Just 16% use
sophisticated modeling to examine media scenarios (see Figure 3-2).

“How we spend money across channels depends on which group we are targeting
and the complexity of the message. We decide what budget we need on the basis
of the innovativeness of the message.” (Food manufacturer)

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited SEPTEMBER 2003


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
MARKET OVERVIEW

6 Figure 3 Marketers Rely On Past Experience To Guide Channel Allocation

3-1 “How do you determine the overall yearly split of marketing spend to each channel?”
Other*
5%

It’s determined It’s set at the beginning


per campaign of the year
46% 50%

Base: 25 European marketers


(percentages do not total 100 because of rounding)
*Other includes according to the needs of business.
3-2 “How do you decide how to spend the money across channels for a specific campaign?”
We make a rough estimate of how much should
be spent on each channel based on past experience 48%
We use sophisticated modeling tools to 16%
model the results by channel for different scenarios
We have a certain amount of money 8%
for each channel and just spend that
Other* 28%
Base: 25 European marketers
*Other includes taking recommendations from media agencies and trialing different media across
campaigns.
3-3 “How do you determine your target markets for each channel?”
We make a rough estimate based on past experience 36%
We use sophisticated modeling tools to profile
our target audience and their preferences 28%
We don’t; we just market to the same target market all the 20%
time and don’t differentiate across channels
Our marketing/ad agency does this 8%
Other* 20%
Base: 25 European marketers (multiple responses accepted)
*Other includes using research on best practices and using customer mailing preferences.
Source: Forrester Research, Inc.

• Audience targeting remains a shot in the dark. A fifth of respondents simply


target the same audience across all channels. Another 36% come up with rough
estimates based on previous campaign results. Just 28% say they carry out
sophisticated audience modeling processes (see Figure 3-3).

“This is a joint effort between us and our media agency. We use our overall plans
for our brand as the basis for media planning. We know from experience that the
consumers we target for marketing communications are not always the ones that
we should be targeting to drive sales. We are right most of the time, but not
always.” (Beverage manufacturer)

SEPTEMBER 2003 © 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

A N A LY S I S 7

Media Profiling Guides Integrated Campaigns


Marketers can design effective integrated campaigns by following three
critical steps. Their prep should consist of profiling the media mix for
their target consumers. They should follow this with persona design,
scenario selection, and budget allocation. Execution must include real-
time success tracking and touchpoint adjustments.

TRUE INTEGRATED MARKETING STARTS TODAY


Marketers can’t tiptoe around integrated marketing for another year. As innovative
competitors like Volvo steal their customers with well-executed multichannel strategies,
those dragging their feet will see declining marketing returns and, consequently, budget
cuts (see the April 1, 2003 Forrester Brief “Integrated Marketing Best Practice: Volvo
Cars”).6 To make sure that their 2004 budgets allow them to get serious about integrated
marketing, marketers should fight for their spending plans by using:

• Changed consumer channel behavior. Agencies, media buyers, and specialists


like GfK and BARB bombard marketers with incomplete and often conflicting
media consumption data. But to understand which channels a brand needs to use
in 2004, marketers need a 360-degree perspective across channels and on media
interplay. The best they can do today is to combine data from the various external
sources with in-house data like Web and email stats.

• Cross-channel dynamics. Most marketers have read the Volvo and Dove
integrated marketing success stories -- but have trouble extracting general rules
that they can apply themselves (see the February 15, 2002 Forrester Brief “Dove
Cleans Up Online Advertising’s Image”).7 Innovative brands don’t wait for the
integrated marketing textbook to arrive but instead secure a small budget to
experiment with campaign scenarios and develop their own best practices.

• Bottom-line effects. Even if marketers generate an integrated marketing plan,


convincing the skeptics who hold the purse strings will remain a key challenge.
Leading CMOs will use consumer and channel data to convince CFOs and CEOs
that the overall budget doesn’t need cutting -- but that with the same amount,
their departments will drive higher revenues and more customer loyalty and
prevent the firm from losing ground to the competition.

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited SEPTEMBER 2003


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

8 Figure 4 The Three Steps To Integrated Marketing Success

Step 1: Profile
Da
ta Data
Classic
profiling
Data
Media Step 2: Create campaign
mix
profiling

ta Build
Da persona

Develop Step 3: Measure success


campaign
Data
checklist Track and
measure
Execute
Iterate

Source: Forrester Research, Inc.

MEDIA MIX PROFILING MUST UNDERPIN MARKETING PLANNING


Marketers can achieve more with their unchanged budgets when they apply the three
steps of integrated marketing in their campaigns (see Figure 4).

• Step one: Model the media mix profile of target consumers. Establish the
demographic details, media consumption, and technology attitudes of the target
consumer segments.

• Step two: Create campaign strategies. Using the media profile of the target
consumers, develop personas and effective multichannel scenarios based on clearly
articulated goals.

• Step three: Measure success and mix feedback into the marketing process.
Set and track overall campaign and individual channel metrics that participants
can share and use to inform future marketing efforts.

To illustrate both the theoretical and practical application of these steps to produce an
integrated campaign, we’ve created a campaign process for “CEBeauté” -- a fictional
European health and beauty firm. The imaginary product is a new women’s sport
deodorant -- let’s call it Breeze -- to be launched in France in six months’ time.

SEPTEMBER 2003 © 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

STEP ONE: PROFILING THE MEDIA MIX 9


The first step lays the foundation for an integrated campaign -- define the target
consumers and create their media profiles. Experienced marketers will already do most
of the groundwork included in this step -- the effort boils down to classic segmentation
plus identification of the segments’ media consumption. This data collection exercise
must answer three questions.

“What Do I Know About My Target Audience?”


Integrated marketing starts with the standard market segmentation. Many brand owners
will have already have the required information to hand; others need to mine their firm’s
databases or commission external research to determine:

• Basic demographic details. What is the basic demographic makeup of the


country or region the campaign will target? Is there a city or region with a higher
concentration of target consumers? What is the average income, disposable
income, and spend of target consumers? Core demographics like age, gender,
income, and family will form a basic frame onto which other data can be hung.

• Lifestyle information. Above and beyond the basics, what motivates the
campaign’s target consumers? What hobbies, interests, and sports do they enjoy?
What type of car do they drive? Where do they go on holiday?

• Lifetime value. Within wide target markets, some consumers have a higher value
over time to a brand than others. Tracking attitudes, coupon use, brand loyalties,
career motivations, and purchase influences will show which consumers are likely
to be high-value consumers over time, which will be too costly to convert, and
which are likely to disappear at the glimpse of a rival’s discount coupon.

• Engagement level. Measures such as the percent of target consumers that have
already interacted with the brand and the percent of consumers in the CRM
system tell marketers how successful tailored campaigns can be and how much
interaction to expect from future efforts. When a firm can identify more than 75%
of its audience, it should focus its campaign on the detailed targeting of high-value
customers; if it can pinpoint less than 25%, an integrated campaign should aim at
optimizing product decisions and increasing customer knowledge.

“What Do I Need To Know About My Target Consumers’ Media Usage?”


Marketers can reuse the acquired static segmentation data for many campaigns, but each
time they start an integrated campaign, they need to recalibrate the dynamic media profiles
of their target audience. This media mix profile includes:

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited SEPTEMBER 2003


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

10 • Attitudes to and ownership of technology. Do target segments view new


technology -- and, by extension, any campaign using new technology -- with
suspicion or delight? Are they online, and, if so, what do they do while connected?
While 61% of Europeans have a home PC, only 48% of consumers are technology
optimists -- willing to give new technology a chance.

• Likely response to marketing via specific channels. Every consumer segment


responds differently to marketing approaches via different channels like email
(see the June 25, 2003 Forrester Brief “Do You Know Which Consumers Want
Your Email?”).8 Some consumers take extreme measures to avoid advertising: 17%
of UK online consumers say they have downloaded ad-blocking software (see the
August 14, 2003 Forrester Brief “Hurt By Ad Blocking? Try Email Marketing”).9

• Media channel mix. To find out which channels the target consumers use for
information and communication, marketers should combine device ownership and
interaction data with predictive segmentation. For instance, 20% of mobile phone
users send two or more SMSs per day: This is a “nice-to-know,” but the fact that
14% of the mobile population are Fun Fanatics who view their mobiles primarily
as a source of and route to entertainment is a “need-to-know” for brands targeting
fun-oriented consumers (see the October 2002 Forrester Report “Segmenting
Europe’s Mobile Consumers).10

• Likely engagement level with a particular brand. Tracking metrics like


attitudes to and usage of email, SMS, and IM will reveal those consumers most
likely to interact with a brand. For example, US research shows that 50% of heavy
Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes buyers have applied for a free gift or product online;
expanding the current Amazon.com/Kellogg’s UK tie-in would be a sure winner
(see the April 3, 2002 Forrester Brief “CPG Brand Snapshot: Breakfast Cereals”).11

“Where Can I Find All The Required Information?”


Marketers should use a data checklist to verify which data elements they can find
in-house and which external sources they need to consult (see Figure 5).

• Collect and combine existing consumer information. Companies invariably


have a wealth of data on existing consumers: This ranges from sales information
provided by channel partners, through mail-in rebates, to complaints or product
suggestions. Collecting this data can be frustrating, as it is usually scattered across
the company. The payoff, however, will be reliable, reusable segmentation data,
tailored media profiles, and collaboration between the various teams involved
in integrated marketing (see the October 4, 2002 Forrester Brief “CRM Data
Integration Forges Ahead”).12

SEPTEMBER 2003 © 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

Figure 5 The Integrated Marketing Data-Gathering Checklist 11

Internal External Source


Target audience demographics:
Classic profiling

• Basic demographic details • CRM system


• Previous campaign responses • Campaign data
• Qualitative attitudinal data • Consumer database
Lifestyle data:
• Interests • Market research
• Hobbies • Customer database
• Leisure pursuits
Media mix profiling

Media mix data:


• Channel access data • Forrester Research
• Media usage • Nielsen//NetRatings
• Brand loyalty • Custom survey
Technology attitudes and usage
• Attitudes to technology • Forrester Research
• Technology ownership
• Online activities Build personas

Source: Forrester Research, Inc.

• Examine responses to previous campaigns. How have previous campaigns for


similar products -- by the firm or its competitors -- played out with the target
consumers? Did TV, print, outdoor, and online campaigns perform as expected
(see the March 2002 Forrester Report “The Retail Revenue Metrics You
Need”)?13 Use partners to get the answers, as Columbia TriStar Films UK did:
It worked with MSN and DoubleClick to find that a microsite promoting
“Spiderman” generated a purchase intent increase of 23% among MSN users.

• Check external sources for additional consumer insight. Some target


consumers may have never interacted with a company’s products before --
marketers can’t profile them using internal data. Or, given the rapid changes in
media usage, historic data might be obsolete -- media profiles expire in just one
year. In these situations, marketers should look to market research data from firms
like Nielsen//NetRatings for insight. One tip: Specify the format of the external
data in as much detail as possible for easy integration with your existing data.

A Worked Example: CEBeauté Product Launch, Step One


For this hypothetical campaign, the product manager and internal market research team
have worked with existing internal consumer intelligence and identified the primary target

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited SEPTEMBER 2003


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

12 group: 16- to 35-year-old French women with an active, urban lifestyle. Using a variety
of sources, including data from Forrester’s Consumer Technographics research and
Nielsen//NetRatings, CEBeauté creates a media profile for its target consumer group.
The highlights of this include:

• Technology usage. Some 70% of the target consumers are online, with 17%
using broadband -- very high figures, especially when compared with the French
norm (see Figure 6-1). This also helps to explain the high levels of online banking
and online shopping of this primarily career-focused group. Additionally, 31% of
them regularly use SMS. When online, they are particularly drawn to audio-
streaming activities, filling in online questionnaires, and instant messaging
(see Figure 6-2).

• Brand values and attitudes to shopping. The target consumers are drawn to
free promotions and samples, although they are no more inclined than the average
to request these online. They are also interested in what’s hot and what’s not --
to the extent that they are willing to gamble with new or unfamiliar brands
(see Figure 7-1). In terms of brand values, the target consumers score quality
highest, but also value low prices, ethical policies, and image considerably more
than the average consumer does. They even things up by rating brand history
and service as less important than the wider European population does.

• Media usage. The target consumers are more interested in classified ads
(property, job, and auto ads), but are less interested in sports news and the stock
market (see Figure 7-2). They are increasingly using the Net as their primary
source of information, particularly for personal finance, holiday travel, and stock-
market quotes. This higher Net reliance compared with the European and
French averages comes at the expense of newspapers and, to a lesser extent, TV.

STEP TWO: CREATING THE CAMPAIGN


The campaign preparation so far has consisted of data collection. In step two, the
creatives, media buyers, and producers come on board to turn the segmentation and
profiling information into personas, campaign design, and budget allocations.

Persona Behavior Illustrates Priorities


Integrated campaign design must start as media neutral, without any preconceived
preferences or preset budgets for any particular channel (see the March 13, 2003
Forrester Brief “The Integrated Marketing Self-Test”).14 To move from raw data to
media choices, marketers should:

SEPTEMBER 2003 © 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

Figure 6 The Technology/Online Profile Of CEBeauté’s Target Consumers 13

6-1 The technology profile of CEBeauté’s target consumers


CEBeauté’s
All target
consumers consumers
Use mobile 75% 87%
Regularly use SMS 20% 31%
Online 49% 72%
Number of hours online per week 6.4 5.3
Have broadband at home 9% 17%
Bank online 18% 31%
Shop online 26% 39%
Have home PC 61% 78%
Have DVD player 23% 38%
Have color printer 50% 64%
Technology optimists 48% 52%
Career-motivated 21% 29%
Sidelined Citizen 25% 25%
Base: European consumers
6-2 The online profile of CEBeauté’s target consumers
Percentage difference of
CEBeauté’s target consumers
Send email 83% +7%
Research products 57% -7%
Research holiday destinations 48% -7%
Randomly surf the Web 47% 0%
Use reference sites (e.g., library) 26% +7%
Visit government agency sites 26% +10%
Use free Web email (e.g., Hotmail) 26% +3%-
Download music (e.g., MP3s) 23% 0%
Look up sports information 22% -10%
Look up movie information 20% +10%
Look for jobs online 20% +7%
Email, manage, or store digital photos 20% -7%
Send SMS from Web site 15% +2%
Send instant messages (IM) 15% +6%
View stock-market prices 15% -8%
Fill in an online questionnaire 14% +6%
Buy/sell things in auction 14% -1%
Take part in online competitions 13% -1%
Seek/look up old friends 11% -7%-
Research/order free samples 10% 0%
Use peer-to-peer file-sharing sites 10% +2%
Play online games 10% -2%
Listen to audio streams 9% +6%
Download videos or movies 8% +1%
Use voice-based chat 3% +6%
Take part in online casinos/gambling 2% +6%
Base: online European consumers

Source: Forrester Research, Inc.

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited SEPTEMBER 2003


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

14 Figure 7 The Media Mix Profile Of CEBeauté’s Target Consumers

7-1 The shopping attitudes and brand values of CEBeauté’s target consumers
All Target
consumers consumers
Shopping attitudes “When I’m happy with a retailer, I return to it often” 4.4 4.4
(1 [strongly disagree] “I like to shop around before making a purchase” 3.8 3.7
to 5 [strongly agree]) “I go to a retailer because it stocks the brands I like” 3.7 3.5
“I find it important to buy brands that I know and trust” 3.6 2.9
“I find it important to touch and feel products that I want to buy” 3.6 3.8
“I like to participate in free promotions or receive product samples” 3.5 4.1
“I prefer brand-name products to a shop’s own label” 2.8 2.7
“I never return an article to a shop” 2.6 3.0
“I’m influenced by what’s new and in fashion” 2.4 2.8
Values appreciated in a company Quality 50% 64%
Reliability 48% 52%
Competitive prices 21% 29%
Service 19% 10%
Environmentally friendly policies 19% 23%
Good to their employees 50% 64%
Desirable products 48% 52%
Easy to do business with 21% 29%
Cutting edge 19% 10%
Ethical policy 19% 23%
Image 25% 25%
Base: European consumers

7-2 CEBeauté’s target consumers’ media mix profile: Newspapers are losing out to the Net
All consumers
French consumers
Target consumers
Percent of consumers Examples of significant
interested in topic differences in choice of primary
information source
News 99%
98% Newspapers as primary Internet as primary
information source information source
Sports 73%
66% Property 42% 15%
62% 15%
Holiday/ 72% ads 52% 27%
travel 90%
Business 67% 37% 16%
news 64% Auto ads 62% 12%
51% 25%
Property 48%
ads 63% Stock-market 32% 14%
Job 39% 16%
47% quotes 30% 32%
listings 61%
Auto ads 46% Personal 23% 19%
52% 10% 29%
finance 5% 50%
Stock-market 44%
quotes 31% 16% 21%
Holiday/ 15%
Personal 43% travel 24%
finance 50% 5% 41%
Base: European consumers who are interested
Base: European consumers in an information area

Source: Forrester Research, Inc.

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The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

• Create target personas. Marketers should kick off step two by creating personas -- 15
archetypes of target consumers -- to maximize the engagement level of the target
audience with the campaign (see the August 14, 2001 Forrester Brief “Scenario
Design Depends On Personas”).15 The data from step one enables personas to
embody the target consumers in detail, covering name, job, family, hobbies,
technology attitudes, and media preferences.

• Pick effective touchpoints. Using the persona’s media profile, marketers can
design touchpoints -- combinations of content, channel, and calls to action that
will move the persona along the purchase cycle (see the May 2002 Forrester
Report “Moving Consumers With Effective Touchpoints”).16 For example, if the
data shows that 65% of target consumers prefer emails to online ads, marketers
should develop a viral email campaign building block and forget about banner ads.

• Build a range of persona scenarios. The next design stage is to combine the
different touchpoints into at least four or five scenarios -- the persona’s preferred
paths from awareness to purchase. For example, if TV, Web, and SMS appear to
be suitable media for a persona, one scenario could start with a TV ad to raise
awareness and pull consumers to a Web site to fill in a questionnaire; another
could use the TV ad to stimulate viewers to send an SMS to enter a competition.

Selecting The Most Effective Scenarios


Once marketers have established personas and likely scenarios, their next step is to select
the scenarios that offer the biggest bang for their buck.

• Calculate the returns from scenarios. Marketers should allocate success metrics,
such as “generate competition entries,” to each individual touchpoint and calculate
how successful it will be in moving the persona through the scenario. Combined,
these touchpoint success rates will provide a reasonable assessment of the likelihood
of the persona entering a scenario and finishing it. Marketers can verify their
calculations with case studies, such as those from EIAA that show that purchase
intent increases 2% among consumers exposed to a TV ad but 12% among those
exposed to both TV and online ads.17

• Include secondary effects. The effect of a scenario on the persona is more than
just the sum of its parts: US research shows, for example, that the first two ad
impressions seen online have almost three times the impact of the fourth and fifth
TV impressions (see the June 2002 Forrester Report “When Online Branding
Works”).18 Marketers should fine-tune scenarios based on these effects, and
double-check the outcomes with data from organizations like the IAB and EIAA.

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited SEPTEMBER 2003


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

16 Figure 8 CEBeauté’s Integrated Marketing Campaign Persona

Nicole
• Age 24 • Owns: - a mobile phone
• Legal secretary - a home PC
• Career-focused - a DVD player
• Unmarried but steady boyfriend • Wants: - a digital camera
• Lives in rented 2-bed flat in Lyon - an MP3 player
• Drives a Renault Clio • Has online access from home
• Holidays abroad once a year • Has been online for a year
• Favorite film is “Amélie” • Has just started to shop online
• Hobbies include playing tennis with • Has just signed up for online banking
friends, yoga, and eating out • Uses SMS regularly to arrange
• Regular reader of personal finance meeting up with friends
pages in newspapers • Likes graphical emails

Source: Forrester Research, Inc.

• Calculate the costs for each scenario. Marketers must also build the other side
of the equation: How much will it cost to execute each scenario? Use in-house
data from previous campaigns, agency and publisher assessments, and external
experts like DoubleClick. Some scenarios may have a touchpoint, such as an initial
TV ad, that marketers can use in another scenario to build Web site content; in
these cases, allocate parts of the TV ad costs to each scenario.

• Select the most productive scenarios. Once results and costs are in, marketers
can balance their overall budget against scenarios and decide which single scenario
or group of scenarios will give the best returns. This exercise involves some math,
as well as some judgment calls: Can the scenario be built in time? How responsive
is a scenario to the persona’s behavior and any changes in that behavior? The
results -- optimal integrated campaign design and media budget allocation -- are
worth the effort.

A Worked Example: CEBeauté Product Launch, Step Two


CEBeauté creates the persona “Nicole” for its target consumers by using the media
profile generated in step one and supplementing it with existing consumer knowledge
and real consumer interviews (see Figure 8). Walking “Nicole” through the most-likely
scenarios produces a number of options (see Figure 9).

• The top scenario moves her from TV to the Web and to offline events.
The most-effective scenario will generate awareness for the product using
a limited TV campaign that positions Breeze at the quality end of the market.
The ad drives about a quarter of the target viewers to the Web site to win a sports
holiday in Antigua and learn more about launch events for the product.

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ANALYSIS

Figure 9 CEBeauté’s Integrated Marketing Campaign Scenarios 17

Scenario 1

Target audience
Channel TV Banners Web site Event site Launch
event
• 500,000 people
Ad seen Ad seen Site visited Viral Event buy Breeze.
by 1.7M by a by 0.5M message attended
Touchpoint people. further people. sent to by 7,500 • Cost per
0.4M 80,000 people. purchase: Ä0.49
people. people. • Reach: 19%
Cost Ä213K Ä14K Ä14K Ä5K Ä3K
% of target 60% Another 17% 3% 0.3%
reached 15%

Scenario 2

Target audience
Channel Print Email Web site Event site Launch
event
• 150,000 people
Ad seen Email Site visited Viral Event buy Breeze.
by 0.9M sent by by 0.4M message attended
Touchpoint people. 0.1M people. sent to by 5,000 • Cost per
people.* 60,000 people. purchase: Ä0.57
people. • Reach: 6%
Cost Ä57K Ä7K Ä14K Ä5K Ä3K
% of target 30% 3% 14% 2% 0.2%
reached
2.9 million
potential
Breeze Scenario 3
buyers

Target audience
Channel TV
Ad seen • 400,000 people
by 1.7M buy Breeze.
Touchpoint people. • Cost per
purchase: Ä0.55
• Reach: 15%
Cost Ä213K
% of target 60%
reached

*Marketing email sent to all.

Source: Forrester Research, Inc.

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited SEPTEMBER 2003


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

18 • A niche scenario starts with the Web. Using banner ads at sports and personal
finance sites and targeted print ads, CEBeauté gains additional awareness and traffic
by driving more “Nicoles” to the Breeze Web site.

• Viral marketing raises the target consumers’ interest. The launch events are
sponsored fun runs to raise money for local charities; these take place around the
country in the two weeks preceding the launch. The event microsite encourages
“Nicole” to download a free sample coupon and forward the email to her friends,
inviting them to an event and to form a team. “Nicole” can also send an SMS
invitation to her friends instead of an email.

Previously, CEBeauté might have chosen a TV-only campaign, delivering 400,000 random
Breeze buyers at ¤0.55 marketing spend per Breeze purchase. This time, it opts for
integrated marketing scenario 1, which gives them 100,000 more clients for only
¤0.49 budget per purchase. These extra clients are likely to be more loyal, too -- they
intentionally visited the Breeze Web site, and some of them invited their friends to join
them at the launch event.

Although a campaign based on print and online media would save the Breeze brand
manager most of her budget, CEBeauté drops this scenario; it would only deliver
150,000 clients at ¤0.57 per purchase, 16% more expensive than the TV/Web
multichannel campaign.

STEP THREE: TRACKING SUCCESS


In most campaigns, proving a direct link between a marketing message and a sale is
impossible. So, how can marketers reveal success and thus steer campaigns?

Widen The Data Net


Traditional campaigns focus on simple metrics like audience share or percent of viewers
reached; integrated campaigns have to take into account the success of each touchpoint
so that marketers can make an educated choice among scenarios and adjust the campaign
when specific touchpoints don’t contribute as predicted.

• Establish key indicators early. Marketers must determine what measurements


are important to show whether goals are met and be clear about how specific
measurement tools demonstrate specific results. For example, a video email
promoting Colombia TriStar’s movie “Identity” was explicitly goaled on click-
through rates to the site and the number of people viewing the video through the
banner ads, while the overall campaign goal was to drive people to see the movie.

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The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

• Incorporate environmental, third-party, and wider business data. Consumer 19


reactions aren’t just dictated by what campaigns they see, but also by the context
in which they see them. Data from a company’s operations -- such as store
rebranding or stocking issues -- will affect the success of a brand, too. For example,
the recent US blackout will have reduced subsequent Web traffic to sites trailed
on TV spots that evening, resulting in lower numbers of coupon downloads,
competition entries, and email subscriptions.

• Establish data housing and sharing protocols. Integrated marketing leads to


many more internal departments getting involved in campaign preparation and
execution. To share the data between these groups, marketers must establish early
on how data will be stored, compared, and accessed by the relevant parties, both
within an existing campaign and for any future campaigns. Vendors like Interelate
can help with data aggregation, analysis, and access tools.

Develop Iterative Processes


The collocated data will constantly change as the media habits of target consumers
change and as firms learn more about what works from each campaign they run. These
lessons need to be fed into current campaigns and into the overall media mix profile
database for future reference.

• Use real-time results to steer campaign effectiveness. Marketers must use


feedback from campaigns to iterate messages on the fly, tracking results in real
time so that they can clearly see the impact of changes on the goals. MSN has
a team of campaign optimizers to help marketers identify when fewer Web site
visitors opt in for email messages than expected and enable them to react quickly.

• Strive for -- but don’t wait for -- ideal data. Perfect data proving a direct link
between, say, a visit to a Web site prompted by a TV spot and an actual sale isn’t
available. But marketers can use technologies from companies like MMA to draw
links between discretely measurable actions like visiting a Web site, downloading
a coupon, and entering a competition (see the February 2002 Forrester Report
“Untangling Marketing Technology”).19

• Revisit targets and personas based on new data. Keeping a constant eye on
in-coming data will show marketers if they’ve missed any fruitful target groups
in their initial analysis. If, for example, a firm discovers that a higher proportion
of respondents to a questionnaire are age 45 and older, marketers can create a new
persona. They can also tweak current campaigns -- placing banners on sites with
a more mature audience as well as on youth-focused ones.

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited SEPTEMBER 2003


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ANALYSIS

20 Figure 10 CEBeauté’s Integrated Marketing Campaign Tracking Data

Data needed to measure campaign success:


TV Banners Web site Event site Launch event Purchase Post-campaign
• Viewers • Click-throughs • Unique • Unique • Number of • Number of • Brand awareness
• Share of visitors visitors visitors purchases • Retention
viewers • Timing of • Registrants
visitors for event
• Entrants to • Number of
competition viral emails
• Email and • Viral email
SMS opt-in response rate
Source: Forrester Research, Inc.

A Worked Example: CEBeauté Product Launch, Step Three


To measure and steer the success of the overall campaign, CEBeauté needs to measure
a range of success criteria for each touchpoint and adjust the campaign accordingly
(see Figure 10). In our hypothetical case:

• Success measures get unilateral buy-in. Before any touchpoint launches,


CEBeauté’s launch teams collaboratively determine the success measures for each:
TV spots are evaluated not just on reach, but on the percentage of the audience
that visits the Web site; banners not just on immediate click-throughs, but on
post-exposure behavior. In this way, all the parties involved know explicitly what
they are responsible for and how they fit seamlessly and essentially into the success
of the overall integrated campaign.

• Disappointing initial fun-run entries lead to campaign upgrades. CEBeauté’s


campaign manager finds out that only 100 consumers have registered for the first
fun run two weeks before the event date -- he expected 500 entries. And the data
points show that the viral campaign has resulted in only two teams being formed.
He takes immediate action, raising the amount of money CEBeauté will donate to
the charities and offering each team that enters T-shirts featuring a logo of their
own design -- using Emotive Networks to sell his brand (see the September 2002
Forrester Report “Emotive Networks Connect Consumers”).20

• Breeze’s campaign data informs subsequent marketing efforts. The manager


also feeds detailed data at both an aggregate and a consumer level back into the
integrated marketing process, helping improve Breeze’s rollout in other territories.
For example, CEBeauté can now identify more accurately those consumers who are
likely to download a coupon but not redeem it and offer a more generous discount
or a sample of another product from the CEBeauté range.

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The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ACTION

ACTION 21

Do a data audit -- now.


Few marketers we speak with know exactly what data -- internal or external --
other departments in their company own or have access to. Marketers: Charge
a researcher who has a good in-house network with contacting all the relevant
departments to build a picture of the available data sources, their contents, how
often they’re updated, and their format. The researcher will meet a lot of internal
resistance from data owners afraid of relinquishing control. To get buy-in, offer
the owners access to other data, both internal and external.

Ensure “multichannel” continues after targets become clients.


A sophisticated integrated marketing campaign will stimulate consumers to use
new channels to communicate with the firm. These consumers will be highly
disappointed if they can’t use these channels the next time they try to contact
the firm -- for instance, when filing a complaint. Campaign managers: Contact
customer service directors about new personas’ media profiles and proposed
campaign channels. Customer service can then determine how post-sale media
usage will develop and adjust their tools, processes, and staffing levels to match.

Get tough with agencies.


Ensure both creative and buying agencies are on board with the integrated
mindset by getting all involved parties present at project kickoff meetings; make
it clear that biased pleas for agencies’ pet media won’t be entertained. Keep
them on the ball by introducing service level agreements (SLAs) for individual
touchpoints as well as overall campaign success, and abandon any commission-
based scheme that would push any agency and media buyer back to TV.

Insist on proof of multichannel capabilities.


Most agencies today will claim to be capable of designing and implementing
integrated campaigns. In practice, this means that they can put their acclaimed
TV commercials on the Web -- ignoring the fact that consumers use the Web
for information, not as a “TV with keyboard.” To sift out these would-be
integrated agents, insist on proof that the agency has run successful integrated
campaigns, complete with success metrics and full creative spreads. Brand
managers who want the best of both worlds -- a great TV spot and a good email
campaign -- will often have to select and manage multiple agencies (see the
December 2001 Forrester Report “Integrated Marketing Needs Hubs”).21

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited SEPTEMBER 2003


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
WHAT IT MEANS

22
W H AT I T M E A N S

Consumers will demand cross-channel spam filtering.


Consumers worn out by constant multichannel bombardment will drive the
emergence of a cross-channel, Pan-European marketing preference agency.
Allowing users to stop unwanted messages by registering with one company --
instead of the country- and channel-specific registrations required today -- will
improve consumer attitudes to marketing and make permission-based contact
lists marketing gold.

Multichannel audience tracking will emerge.


Much like the campaign landscape, the audience measurement landscape is
fragmented today. A “mega-BARB” will emerge to satisfy the needs of those
companies embarking on multichannel spending. This organization will partner
with online measurement companies like ACNielsen, mobile regulators like
Reg-TP, and traditional market research agencies like NOP to present a full
picture of consumer eyeballs and spending.

Marketers will realize youths aren’t the only online audience.


As marketers start looking at consumer media profiles, they will finally begin
to realize something that many of us already know: Online doesn’t just mean
teenagers and students. Consumers age 35 to 44 now represent a larger
percentage of the online population than 16- to 24-year-olds. Expect to see an
increase in the number of campaigns designed for older, less technology-literate
users as marketers realize the opportunities. Hopefully, this will mean fewer
“extreme sports” campaigns and more grey hairs on models.

The TV-obsessed marketer will find himself bypassed.


As marketers increasingly recognize the importance of media channels other
than TV, they will meet a new challenge -- how to get plan and budget approval
from senior execs who have shelves full of TV awards and show reels but still
don’t read email. Marketers stymied by this will find other ways to get their
point across -- including bypassing these TV-focused stick-in-the-muds
completely and going straight to the top with clear business plans that make
integrated campaigns impossible to ignore.

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The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
REL ATED MATERIAL

R E L AT E D M AT E R I A L 23

Methodology
We conducted interviews with 25 European marketers, both at company and brand
marketing level. We also spoke with eight marketing experts. We drew the consumer
data used here from Forrester’s Consumer Technographics Q2 2003 European Study,
which had 23,511 respondents in seven markets: France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands,
Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. This survey is based on adults aged 16 years
and older who are members of the mail panel of Taylor Nelson Sofres (TNS) or one of
its subcontractors. TNS weighted the data by age, sex, income, education, household size,
and region to demographically represent the adult European population per country.

Expert Firms Interviewed For This Report


AOL (UK) IAB UK
www.aol.co.uk www.iabuk.net
Associated New Media Lycos (UK)
www.anm.co.uk www.lycos.co.uk
Commission Junction MSN (UK)
www.cj.com www.msn.co.uk
DoubleClick SBI and Company
www.doubleclick.com www.sbiandcompany.com

Related Research
May 2003 Forrester Report “The Tipping Point Online”
April 1, 2003 Forrester Report “Integrated Marketing Best Practice: Volvo Cars”
March 13, 2003 Forrester Brief “The Integrated Marketing Self-Test”
February 27, 2003 Forrester Brief “The Essentials Of Integrated Marketing”
September 2002 Forrester Report “Mastering Marketing Measurement”
May 2002 Forrester Report “Moving Consumers With Effective Touchpoints”

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited SEPTEMBER 2003


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
GRAPEVINE

24
GRAPEVINE
If it works once, do it again!
Not satisfied with churning out interminable remakes (“Freaky Friday,” anyone?), movie
studios have hit on a new trick to make the box-office registers ring: re-release a movie
within months of its first outing. In the US, horror flick “28 Days Later” has been
re-released with an additional ending and “Confessions of a Dangerous Mind” has been
given a second bite at the cherry after gaining critical plaudits but low takings. This smacks
to us of something many marketers tell us: They do pretty much the same thing time
after time, hoping that consumers won’t get wise to their tricks. Our take? They’re living
on borrowed time. Consumers’ increasing options mean that they can always find
something new to spend their money on -- and last year’s warmed-up leftovers won’t cut
the mustard.

……

You can run, but you can’t hide.


For years, big-name actors raised their income by doing ads overseas, safe in the
knowledge that home audiences would never see them. However, in the Web era, this
has all changed. Ben Affleck’s L’Oréal TV ads, created for markets outside the US, are
already the subject of frenzied searching on file-sharing networks like Kazaa; site
www.japander.com specializes in showing stars doing ads intended for the Japanese
market. Suddenly, there’s nowhere for them to hide. If you’re nurturing a desire to see
Harrison Ford advertising Kirin beer or Mel Gibson plugging Subaru, the wonders of
the caring, sharing Web will let you -- until the lawyers move in, of course.

……

This is not a . . . working site. Please come back later.


Low-budget movie “This is not a love song” has become the first movie to launch on the
Web. The thriller premiered at 6 p.m. (BST) on September 5, 2003 with a simultaneous,
limited cinema release -- the site immediately crashed as 75,000 people tried to download
the movie. By the time you read this, the site www.thisisnotalovesong.com should be
allowing downloads for between £2 and £3, although only to Windows users in the UK.
Although it will be a while before Steven Spielberg emulates this strategy for his next
$100 million blockbuster, we expect small, independent moviemakers to be encouraged
by the distribution (and publicity) a Web release can generate.

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The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ENDNOTES

ENDNOTES 25

1 Forrester’s Consumer Technographics Q2 2003 European Study is a biannual survey of almost


23,000 European consumers spread across seven markets: France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands,
Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

2 The Internet has slowly but steadily eaten into the role of TV and magazines as information
channels for travel, jobs, and property. The traditional media hold their strong position for news
and sports but will lose more share as Europeans move to broadband.

3 Broadband grew 92% in Europe in 2002; in 2008, 30% of homes will have it. Access providers will
shift focus from volume to profit growth by expanding tiered services, scuttling their portals, and
rethinking billing.

4 Together, video on-demand and personal video recorders will reach half of US households by 2007.
Viewers will watch 28% of all TV on-demand and skip 19% of ads; advertisers say they’ll cut
spending.

5 Digital music will generate just ¤24 million in Europe in 2003, but will grow into a ¤1 billion-plus
market by 2007, mostly from individual downloads rather than subscriptions. More legitimate services
and higher broadband penetration will drive this growth.

6 In this case study, Volvo Cars demonstrates that integrated marketing delivers dramatically higher
results -- three times more customer leads -- than simply coordinating elements of the marketing mix.

7 Unilever and the Interactive Advertising Bureau released a study showing that online advertising is
an effective branding tool. The findings make a compelling case for increasing online ad spending
to as much as 15% of the media mix.

8 When it comes to email marketing, consumers fall into three groups: Jaded Veterans, Engaged
Stalwarts, and Curious Novices. Marketers must tune their email strategies to their brand’s mix
of these consumer types.

9 Many UK online consumers actively avoid online ads, almost half of them by installing ad-blocking
software. To reach these ad blockers, mostly high-income males, marketers should shift to email --
27% prefer it to online ads.

10 Everyone you know has a mobile phone -- and they’re happy with existing services. New services
are touted as the next wave of much-needed growth -- but telecom firms can only target 20% of
consumers until 2005.

11 Brand-loyal consumers spend three times more money than other shoppers do on breakfast cereals
each week. But brand managers must select promotions carefully to hold their best customers. Frosted
Flakes consumers will respond to email campaigns, but Cheerios buyers use offline coupons and
volume discounts.

© 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited SEPTEMBER 2003


The Guide To Integrated Marketing Success
ENDNOTES

26 12 Integration is the dominant technical obstacle to firms’ CRM progress. As Siebel Systems and niche
vendors like DWL and Siperian hammer away, they’re creating a new market segment -- the customer
data server -- that impacts users and vendors alike.

13 It’s time for retailers to get serious about site metrics. By focusing on a set of online and cross-
channel metrics that relate directly to revenue, retailers will increase online sales and quantify the
Web’s impact on total sales.

14 Weaving digital and physical media into continuous brand experiences demands new skills,
processes, and attitudes. Forrester’s scorecard can guide your -- and your agency partners’ -- efforts.

15 Many firms still lack the critical user information necessary for successful Scenario Design.
Companies that create design personas have the necessary foundation for crafting a great user
experience.

16 Customer conversations stand and fall on touchpoints, which require emotive content on an
appropriate device. Marketers must set up a touchpoint development process and prioritize tracking
and analysis tools.

17 The EIAA -- the European Interactive Advertising Association -- is a Pan-European trade


association for the sellers of interactive media. More information can be found at www.eiaa.net.

18 Online advertising can boost brand impact at 60% less cost than piling on more offline ads -- under
the right conditions. Marketers should use new technologies to plan an online/offline mix to increase
brand impact.

19 Technology has trapped marketers between crumbling mass-marketing practices and rising
expectations of personalized communications. Marketers need a new vision -- and technology
platform -- to deliver results.

20 Consumers connect online and offline in Emotive Networks -- interconnected groups of consumers
engaged in communication and support. By 2007, Forrester believes that the majority of online
consumers will participate in Emotive Networks, with growing consumer demand, ease of content
creation and dissemination, and technology advances driving this exponential growth.

21 Multichannel marketing calls for industry change. Advertisers should jointly build marketing hubs
and push agency collaboration and flexibility. Integration of internal marketing teams will cut costly
inefficiencies.

SEPTEMBER 2003 © 2003, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited


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