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SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:

Public administration is meant to serve the people. It is an act of


managing the problems of others. It is linked with authority to have an
ability to exercise power. Public administration is meant to look after
people and to manage affairs.

APPROACH:

The point from which a particular subject is studied is called an


approach.

APPROACHES IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:

*-Scientific approach
*-Legal approach
*-Historical approach
*-Case study approach
*-Quantitative approach
*-Technical approach
*-Behavioral approach
*-Political approach
*-Comparative approach

SCIENTIFIC METHODS:

Scientific methods consist of:


*- Observations
*- Collection of data
*- Classification of data <hypotheses>
*- Verification
*- Result and analysis

SCIENTIFIC APPROACH:

It is also called mechanical approach.it was first given by F.W.Taylor in


which he gave a great concept to the use of scientific methods in the
development of management.
This approach was supported by:
*- Professor Frank
*- Professor Werner
*- Professor Mooney
*- Professor L.Gilbreth

CONTRIBUTIONS IN THE FIELD OF SCIENTIFIC APPROACH:

There are 3 major contributions in this field:


*- F.W.Taylor
*- Luther Gullick
*- Woodrow Wilson

F.W.TAYLOR:

F.W.Taylor gave the Scientific management theory for enlightening the


use of scientific methods in public administration. The scientific
management provides enlightening perspective for the public
administration movement. The two movements arose concurrently,
were stimulated by much the same circumstances in their respective
fields, and developed some closely similar doctrines. This movement
has contributed many techniques and considerable philosophy to
public administration.

LUTHER GULLICK:

He explained the word POSDCORB to explain the scope of public


administration. All the seven words indicate the seven managerial
activities constituting public administration which stands for:

*- Planning

*- Organizing

*- Staffing

*- Directing

*- Co-ordinating

*- Reporting

*- Budgeting
WOODROW WILSON:

A big contribution was Woodrow Wilson’s vision as an academic


discipline. It was described by him in his book “The Study of Public
Administration” in which he called politics-administration dichotomy
stressing the need for a scientific study of public administration. These
were the major contributions in the field of public administration for
the betterment of public affairs through scientific methods.

FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC APPROACH:

*- It replaces traditional methods by scientific methods.

*- It develops mechanical organization under mechanical laws.

*- It emphasizes on material and methods instead of men.

*- It separates planning and execution. Managers plan, while the


workers carryout these plans.

*- It improves mechanical efficiency and ensures high productivity due


to economic incentive to workers.

*- It achieves cooperation and coordination between management and


workers due to high production.

*- It establishes dichotomy of politics from administration.

*- It ensures the scientific selection and training of personnel and


workers for high production.

CRITICISM ON THIS SCIENTIFIC APPROACH:

*- The approach is irrational as it is stressed on the mechanical


efficiency of an organization and neglects the human factor.

*- Its view of man is mean to an end is wrong and against the


individual liberty and rights.

*- Its assumptions that good for an organization is also good for


workers, is not acceptable, some times organizations cannot benefit its
employees from its high productivity.
*- It emphasizes o work techniques of individual workers; which is
wrong.

*- Dichotomy of politics from administration is impossible as political


policies cannot be made without administration and administration is
despotic without politicians.

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~*~THANKING YOU SO MUCH~*~

GROUP-I

Syeda Umme Rubab

Hiba Rizvi

Syed Wajid Ali Shah

Sonia Kamal

Syed Abbas Naqvi