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Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

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Stability of small fishing vessels in longitudinal


waves
´
M.A.S. Nevesa,*, N.A. Perezb, L. Valerioa
a
Department of Ocean Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
b
Institute of Naval and Maritime Sciences, Austral University of Chile, Valdivia, Chile

Received 19 November 1997; accepted 21 January 1998

Abstract

The dynamic stability of fishing vessels in longitudinal regular waves is investigated, both
analytically and experimentally. In particular, the influence of stern shape on the parametric
stability of fishing vessels is studied. Vessels TS and RS have very similar main characteristics,
but their sterns are different. Although their linear responses are comparable, both analytical
and experimental investigations indicate substantial differences in their dynamic stability in
longitudinal regular waves. Strong resonances are found for the vessel with the deep transom.
The analytical method takes into consideration the effects of the heave and pitch motions and
wave passage and shows good agreement with experimental results. Stability limits are
obtained for different conditions and are used as an aid in the discussion of the results obtained
in the tests when relevant parameters are changed, such as wave amplitude and frequency,
metacentric height and roll damping moment.  1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Ship stability; Roll motion; Parametric resonance

Nomenclature
a restoring term in Mathieu equation
Aij added mass or inertia in i mode due to j mode
Aw water plane area
b0(x) breadth at the water line
Bij damping in i mode due to j mode

* Corresponding author. E-mail: masn@peno.coppe.ufrj.br

0029-8018/99/$ - see front matter  1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 0 2 9 - 8 0 1 8 ( 9 8 ) 0 0 0 2 3 - 7
1390 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419
˙
B(␾) damping moment
B44 linear roll damping coefficient
B444 second order roll damping coefficient
C(␾,z,␪,␨) total restoring moment in roll mode
Cij restoring moment in i mode due to j mode
C444 third order roll restoring coefficient
C44z second order roll restoring coefficient due to heave motion
C44␪ second order roll restoring coefficient due to pitch motion
C44␨ second order roll restoring coefficient due to wave passage
e0 non-dimensional amplitude of parametric excitation
F0i external force or moment in i mode
g gravity
hw wave height
Ii mass moment of inertia with respect to i axis
m ship mass
Mwo amplitude of external wave action in roll mode
q amplitude of parametric excitation in Mathieu equation
u damping term in Mathieu equation
U ship speed
W wave frequency
Wn roll natural frequency
x amplitude of motion in Mathieu equation
z heave motion
Zg vertical position of centre of mass
␥ phase between excitation and wave
␦ amplitude of parametric excitation due to wave passage
␦1,2 components of parametric excitation due to wave passage
␾ roll angle
␪ pitch angle
␨ wave amplitude
␸ phase of the parametric excitation
␭ wave length
␳ density
␳i phase of external force or moment

1. Introduction

The capsize of an intact ship is a phenomenon which by its very nature involves
excessive motions. Predictably, this is a complicated problem, involving, in general,
complex non-linear couplings in six degrees of freedom, and some simplifications
must be considered in the formulation of prediction techniques (Oakley et al., 1974;
Kuo and Odabasi, 1975; Bishop et al., 1981). These excessive motions may be pro-
duced by many different factors and some dangerous situations for ships at sea have
already been identified. One of these is the development of the so-called parametric
M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1391

resonance, an area that has received wide attention (Bloki, 1980; Skomedal, 1982;
Campanile and Casella, 1989; Sanchez and Nayfeh, 1990; Fang and Lee, 1993;
Neves and Valerio, 1994, 1995), both from researchers and safety authorities.
Excessive heave and pitch motions are usually regarded as a problem of seaworthi-
ness, not a problem of stability. It is associated with water on deck, high accelerations
and slamming. Nevertheless, it is well known that heave and pitch motions may in
some circumstances affect the roll motion, as Froude (1863) pointed out. He observed
that ships have undesirable roll characteristics when the frequency of a small, free
oscillation in pitch is twice the frequency of a small, free oscillation in roll.
This is clear from the fact that for a ship in waves the righting arm will vary
continuously in the process of heaving and pitching as a result of the excitation
produced by the oncoming waves. A parametric excitation is introduced into the ship
motion problem (see Kerwin, 1955; Paulling and Rosenberg, 1959; Paulling, 1961).
Then the well-known differential equation of Mathieu (Nayfeh, 1973) is obtained
which then characterizes the rolling motion of a ship in longitudinal waves.
Depending on the values of the coefficients, this equation yields a stable or unstable
solution. It will be observed later on in this investigation that in some circumstances
an oscillatory rolling motion may build up very rapidly, reaching very large ampli-
tudes, conducive to a ship capsize.
In this paper, the importance of parametric resonance on ship safety is discussed,
and to substantiate the discussion a comparison of the stability behaviour of two
fishing vessels is conducted: a square (transom) stern trawler, here denominated TS,
and a round stern trawler of about the same size, denominated RS. The two hulls
´ ´
have been tested previously by Morral (1979); Perez (1985); Perez and Sanguinetti
(1995). The hulls have quite similar main characteristics but their sterns are different.
Main characteristics and line plans of the two fishing vessels are detailed in Appen-
dix A.
Both experimental and numerical investigations have been conducted. Experi-
mental studies involved damping assessment by means of roll decrement tests for
the two hulls with and without bilge keels, and the investigation of parametrically
excited roll motions in regular waves. Numerical studies are based on an uncoupled
roll motion equation with non-linearities in the damping and restoring moment, orig-
inally developed by Valerio (1994). The present investigation is restricted to longi-
tudinal regular waves of small amplitudes with ships with zero speed of advance.
It will be noticed that the transom stern trawler behaves far less satisfactorily than
does the round stern trawler. The connections between stern shape and sensitiveness
to parametric stability are clarified. Results confirm that, at least in test conditions,
a transom stern hull may reach a capsize in few cycles, when excited by longitudinal
waves. It is hoped that, by means of this study, more knowledge can be gained in
what is believed to be one of the least understood phenomena in the field of ship
motion theory, the capsize of ships.
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2. Equations of motion

Let Oxyz be a right handed coordinate system (Fig. 1) with axis Oz passing through
the centre of mass G, Ox pointing forward and coinciding with the calm water sur-
face. As defined in Fig. 1, surge, sway and heave are the translational motions, roll,
pitch and yaw are angular motions with respect to axes x, y and z, respectively.
The mathematical model employed in this study to describe the non-linear roll
motion is of the form:
¨ ˙
(Ix ⫹ A44)␾ ⫹ B(␾) ⫹ C(␾,z,␪,␨) ⫽ Mwocos(Wt ⫺ ␥) (1)

The damping moment is assumed to be given by:


˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
B(␾) ⫽ B44␾ ⫹ B444|␾|␾ (2)

The restoring moment is derived under the assumption that vertical motions due
to small amplitude waves are small, such that relative vertical displacement at a
point of the length of the ship may be taken as the sum of three effects, heave
motion, pitch motion and far-field wave profile. The roll restoring moment in waves
is then assumed to be given by:
C(␾,z,␪,␨) ⫽ C44␾ ⫹ C444␾ 3 ⫹ C44zz␾ ⫹ C44␪␪␾ ⫹ C44␨␨␾ (3)
where C44z, C44␪, C44␨ represent time-dependent variations of hull restoring character-
istics due to heave and pitch motions and unit amplitude wave passage. For the
coordinate system defined above and as derived in Appendix B:
C44 ⫽ ⌬GM (4)

C44z ⫽ ⫺ ␳g 冋冕1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz
L
|0,x
dx ⫺ zgAw 册 (5)

Fig. 1. Coordinate system and definition of modes of motion.


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C44␪ ⫽ ⫺ ␳g 冋冕
1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz
L
| 册
xdx ⫺ zgAwxf
0,x
(6)

C44␨ ⫽ ␳g␦cos(wt ⫺ ␸) (7)


and where:
␦ ⫽ √␦ 21 ⫹ ␦ 22

␸ ⫽ tg−1 冉冊
␦2
␦1
with ␦1 and ␦2 given by:

␦1 ⫽ 冕冉
L
1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz | 0,x
⫺ zgb0(x) cos冊 冉 冊
w2
g
x dx (8a)

␦2 ⫽ 冕冉
L
1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz | 0,x
⫺ zgb0(x) sen冊 冉 冊
w2
g
x dx (8b)

The heave and pitch motions are obtained as the solutions of the set of coupled
linear equations defined as:
¨ ˙
(m ⫹ A33)z¨ ⫹ B33z˙ ⫹ C33 ⫹ A35␪ ⫹ B35␪ ⫹ C35␪ ⫽ F03cos(Wt ⫺ ␳3)
¨ ˙
A53z¨ ⫹ B53z˙ ⫹ C53z ⫹ (Iy ⫹ A55)␪ ⫹ B55␪ ⫹ C55␪ ⫽ F05cos(Wt ⫺ ␳5) (9)

The reader should refer to the Nomenclature section at the beginning of the paper
and Appendix B of this paper for the list and definitions of symbols given above.
As the present study is limited to longitudinal waves, MW0 ⫽ 0, that is, it is
assumed that there is no external excitation in the roll mode of motion. By dividing
all terms in Eq. (1) by (Ix ⫹ A44) the equation of roll motion assumes the form:
¨ ˙ ˙
␾ ⫹ (b44 ⫹ b444|␾|)␾ ⫹ (c44 ⫹ c444␾ 2 ⫹ e0cos(Wt ⫹ ␸))␾ ⫽ 0 (10)
where e0 the amplitude of parametric excitation in the roll motion equation contains
contributions from heave and pitch motions and wave passage effect, as indicated
previously.

3. Description of the experiments

The tests were conducted at the ship model basin of the Austral University of
Chile, where regular waves can be generated by means of a flap-type wave generator.
The experimental results presented in this paper correspond to results obtained from
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´ ´
two different test programmes conducted by Perez (1985); Perez and Sanguinetti
(1995).
The two models were constructed to scale 1:30. Hull particulars are given in
Appendix A. The experiments performed up to now are all for the case of zero speed
of advance. In the experiments, weight distribution, wave amplitude and frequency
were varied in order to:
1. perform roll decrement tests at different natural frequencies;
2. investigate the sensitiveness of the two similar hulls to parametric stability in the
first two regions of resonance of the Mathieu diagram.
Roll decrement tests were performed for initial angles near 15°. Distinct oscillatory
frequencies were obtained by adjusting weights on board. Models were tested both
with and without bilge keels.
The procedure in the parametric tests was to position the ballasted model longitudi-
nally in the tank, loosely prevent it from drifting by a thread, and, by generating
regular waves in one extreme of the tank, roll angular displacements were recorded
with the model free to oscillate. No artificial impulse, inducement or bias was applied
to the model in order to help the roll motion to start to develop. Starting from rest,
the model was excited in heave and pitch by the incoming waves. In unstable con-
ditions, the transfer of energy from these modes to the roll mode allowed roll motion
to set up. In stable conditions the model remained oscillating in heave and pitch,
with no tendency to develop roll motion. The tests in parametric stability were mostly
conducted for tuning the frequency in the W ⫽ 2Wn condition. A few tests were
conducted at the W ⫽ Wn condition.
In order to investigate the influence of the increased damping in the stabilization
process, each model was tested in turn with and without bilge keels.
Bilge keel dimensions and arrangements were identical for the two models, fitted
along half of the model length, with a constant breadth of 15 cm (to ship scale).
Fig. 2 shows two views of the arrangement of bilge keels fitted to the TS hull.

4. Calculation of ship hydrodynamic data

A 3-D panel method developed by Inglis and Price (1980) was used in the potential
flow calculations of the added masses and damping coefficients in the heave, roll
and pitch modes, and exciting forces and moments in the heave and pitch modes in
longitudinal waves. These coefficients have been published elsewhere (see Neves,
1981; Neves et al., 1988). As a consequence of the similitude of the submerged form
and inertia coefficients of the two hulls, linear responses in heave and pitch are
almost the same. Comparative amplitude and phase diagrams in the frequency
domain for longitudinal waves for zero speed of advance are shown in Fig. 3 and
Fig. 4 for the heave and pitch motions, respectively.
In order to incorporate viscous effects in the roll damping moment, use was made
of the procedure proposed by Ikeda, described by Himeno (1981). With reference
being made to Eq. (2), the linear coefficient takes account of wave generating and
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Fig. 2. Bilge keels arrangement and side view of TS hull.


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Fig. 3. Transfer function in the heave mode for the two fishing vessels. (a) Amplitude diagram. (b)
Phase diagram.

Fig. 4. Transfer function in the pitch mode for the two fishing vessels. (a) Amplitude diagram. (b)
Phase diagram.

frictional damping, whereas the second order coefficient is related to hull eddy and
bilge keel damping. Much of the analysis, upon which the various components are
based, is taken from empirical models. As discussed in the next section, roll dec-
rement tests were performed and their results used to reduce the uncertainties with
respect to the use of data from an empirical model.

5. Roll damping analysis

Great effort was made to make sure that realistic predictions of roll damping for
the two hulls, with and without bilge keels, could be obtained using the Ikeda
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method. This was motivated by the fact that beam-to-draft ratios for the hulls investi-
gated in this paper are slightly higher than those considered in Ikeda’s empirical
assessment of eddy damping. Fig. 5 gives the equivalent roll damping coefficient
for the two hulls with and without bilge keels for a roll amplitude of 15°. The results
indicate that the TS hull (with less rounded forms) is more damped than the RS
hull, either with or without bilge keels. As mentioned above, in order to check the
applicability of Ikeda’s method to the ships under investigation in this paper, roll
decrement tests were performed, in which initial angles in roll near 15° were given
to the ship models. The Froude method (Spouge, 1988) was used to reduce the data.
Results from these roll decrement tests are given in Fig. 6.
Roll decrement test results given in Fig. 6 are in general in good agreement with
the semi-empirical results given in Fig. 5. The same trends are observed. Effectively,
test results also give a higher damping effect for the TS hull compared with the RS
hull when the two models are not fitted with bilge keels. With bilge keels, the TS
hull is more damped than the RS hull for frequencies above W ⫽ 1.25 r/s. Fitting
the models with bilge keels introduced a great amount of damping that tended to
increase with the frequency of oscillation.
Figs. 7 and 8 show damping moments plotted against time for the two ships in
two typical conditions. These figures illustrate the good agreement found when roll
decrement test results are compared with results from calculations based on the Ikeda
semi-empirical model. In general, for the metacentric height range of values used in
the parametric experiments described later on, the results from the roll damping
analysis performed may be summarized as:
1. Damping for the RS hull without bilge keels is well described by the Ikeda
method.
2. For the TS hull without bilge keels, the Ikeda method produces slightly lower
damping than that obtained by the experimental procedure.

Fig. 5. Damping coefficients for 15° roll amplitude, calculated using the Ikeda method, for the two
vessels, with and without bilge keels.
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Fig. 6. Damping coefficients for the two vessels obtained from roll decrement tests, models with and
without bilge keels.

Fig. 7. Comparison of roll damping moment for the TS hull.

3. For roll amplitudes within the 10–15° range, the Ikeda method slightly underesti-
mates the damping effect introduced by the bilge keels in both models. Yet, the
net effect of introducing bilge keels to the ship models seems to be well described
by the semi-empirical method.
4. It is concluded that the semi-empirical method described by Ikeda produces a
realistic damping assessment for the two hulls considered in this study, in good
agreement with experimental results.
5. Damping levels for the two hulls are comparable, but in general the TS hull is
more damped than the RS hull.
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Fig. 8. Comparison of roll damping moment for the RS hull.

6. Roll motion analysis

Numerical integration of Eq. (10) was performed using a fourth-order Runge–


Kutta algorithm. The coefficients employed were those described previously in Sec-
tions 4 and 5. Results obtained from these numerical integrations are now compared
with the roll time series registered in the experimental programme for the models
excited by longitudinal regular waves.
Very good agreement was obtained in the comparisons, as shown in Fig. 9 and
Fig. 10 for the RS hull, and Fig. 11 and Fig. 12 for the TS hull. The comparisons
given in Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 are for RS hulls without bilge keels in low metacentric
height conditions; the tuning in all cases is near the W ⫽ 2Wn condition and corre-
sponds to unstable roll motions. It is important to notice that the waves are quite
high and steep. Fig. 11 gives results for roll motion for the TS hull in waves with
hw ⫽ 0.90 m. For the low metacentric height defined for this condition, motions

Fig. 9. Comparison of numerical integration with experiment for the RS hull, GM = 0.27 m.
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Fig. 10. Comparison of numerical integration with experiment for the RS hull, GM = 0.318 m.

Fig. 11. Comparison of numerical integration with experiment for the TS hull, GM = 0.35 m.

become very intense after five cycles of inception of roll motion. This result is indica-
tive of how the TS hull is prone to parametric excitation. Fig. 12 is another case in
which the TS hull is set in a roll motion with large amplitudes, but in this case, the
metacentric height being high (GM ⫽ 0.85 m), many cycles are necessary for large
roll amplitudes to be reached. It should be appreciated that the mathematical model
employed in this comparative study is capable of reproducing roll amplitude amplifi-
cations due to parametric excitation, even in cases where high and steep waves are
acting and large motion amplitudes are in effect.
M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1401

Fig. 12. Comparison of numerical integration with experiment for the TS hull, GM = 0.85 m.

7. Mathieu diagrams

The linear variational equation of Eq. (10) may be expressed in the form of a
damped Mathieu equation:
x⬙ ⫹ 2ux⬘ ⫹ (a ⫹ u2 ⫹ 16qcos2t)x ⫽ 0 (11)

Limits of stability corresponding to Eq. (11) may be determined and the effect of
damping and metacentric height on the various regions of parametric resonance may
be assessed (Valerio, 1994). Fig. 13 shows the effects of three different levels of
damping coefficient, u ⫽ 0, u ⫽ 0.035, and u ⫽ 0.070, on the limit curves corre-

Fig. 13. Mathieu diagram for three damping levels: u = 0.000, u = 0.035, u = 0.070.
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sponding to the first three regions of parametric resonance. It is seen that by raising
the damping level, the first region (W ⫽ 2Wn) is practically unaffected, while the
subsequent regions are more and more affected by damping. As a consequence, the
third region of parametric resonance practically disappears for small levels of damp-
ing.
Stability limits for a damped Mathieu equation are also affected by the natural
frequency. Fig. 14 shows the limits of stability near the W ⫽ 2Wn and W ⫽ Wn
regions of resonance for two values of metacentric height, GM ⫽ 0.35 m and GM
⫽ 0.85 m for the TS hull. It may be noticed that the higher the metacentric height,
the higher the limits are. That results from the frequency dependence of the roll
damping coefficient, as given in Fig. 5. The implication is that at the first region of
resonance the damping level is much higher than at the second region of resonance.

8. Stability analysis

Considering that the mathematical model describes very well the dynamics
involved in the parametric destabilization process of the ships, Figs. 15–20 have
been prepared with the purpose of helping in the interpretation of the results. In each
of these figures, graphics (a) and (b) show the time series obtained at the wave basin
and graphics (c) show the corresponding points plotted in the Mathieu diagram.
Fig. 15(a) shows a case of strong instability for the TS hull, with bilge keels, in
the range W ⫽ 2Wn, with GM ⫽ 0.32 m. In less than six cycles the roll angle reaches
approximately 40°; a very dangerous condition, meaning a real risk of capsize. For
the RS hull to undergo such intense destabilization, it was necessary to reduce the
metacentric height to GM ⫽ 0.27 m and to remove the bilge keels. Yet, the resulting
instability requires more than eight cycles to reach roll angles of the order of 28°.
This result is given in Fig. 16(a), and demonstrates that the TS hull is much more

Fig. 14. Limits of stability for the TS hull for two values of metacentric height.
M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1403

Fig. 15. Transom stern hull with bilge keels, GM = 0.32 m.


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Fig. 16. Round stern hull without bilge keels, GM = 0.27 m.


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Fig. 17. Transom stern hull without bilge keels, GM = 0.35 m.


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Fig. 18. Transom stern hull, without bilge keels, GM = 0.48 m.


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Fig. 19. Transom stern hull without bilge keels, GM = 0.85 m.


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Fig. 20. Transom stern hull without bilge keels, GM = 0.54 m.


M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1409

Fig. 20. Continued.

unstable in longitudinal waves than the RS hull. Points corresponding to Fig. 15(a
and b) are plotted in Fig. 15(c), and it may be observed that they are well inside
the boundaries of stability. In Fig. 15(c) stability limits are given for roll damping
obtained from experimental procedures (roll decrement tests) and the Ikeda method
in the W ⫽ 2Wn region. Small differences are found from applying the two distinct
procedures. As the Ikeda method slightly underestimates the damping introduced by
the bilge keels, slightly higher corresponding limits are obtained.
Fig. 16(a and b) shows a comparison of a tuning and a non-tuning condition. It
is clear that without the adequate tuning roll motions in longitudinal waves remain
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insignificant. This is confirmed in the Fig. 16(c) plotting, which shows point 2 well
outside the unstable area of the Mathieu diagram. Comparing Fig. 16(a) with Fig.
17(b), it is seen that both ships reach approximately 30°, but with the TS hull doing
so in six cycles, whereas for the RS hull it takes nine cycles. It should be noticed
that in this comparison both ships are without bilge keels and the TS hull is more
damped than the RS hull. Metacentric height for the RS hull is smaller and wave
height is much higher. This is clearly another demonstration that the TS hull is much
more sensitive to parametric destabilization than the RS hull. Observing point 1 in
Fig. 16(c) and point 2 in Fig. 17(c), it can be noticed that both points are very close
to the limit curve. Point 2 in Fig. 16(c) is located in the stable region. The wave
height is high (hw ⫽ 2.0 m), but as shown in Fig. 16(b), no amplification of roll
motion occurs. Comparison of points 1 and 2 in Fig. 17(c) and their respective time
series in Fig. 17(a and b) gives the effect of increasing wave height for the TS hull
without bilge keels. Fig. 18(a and b) again shows similar results for the TS hull at
fixed GM and damping level. A small increase in wave height results in a correspond-
ing lower point 2 compared with point 1 in Fig. 18(c).
The influence of increased damping may be observed by comparing Fig. 15(b)
with Fig. 17(b). In Fig. 15(b) the TS hull is fitted with bilge keels, GM ⫽ 0.32 m
and hw ⫽ 2.4 m. The roll angle reaches approximately 32° in nine cycles. In Fig.
17(b) the same ship, without bilge keels, but with a larger GM and lower wave
height (hw ⫽ 0.9 m) reaches 30° in only six cycles. The introduction of the bilge
keels contributes to reduce the distance in the Mathieu diagram from the plotted
point to the limit curve, thus decreasing the intensity of the amplification of the
motion. But, as the hull is strongly subjected to parametric excitation in frequencies
around the tuning W ⫽ 2Wn, the effect of fitting bilge keels is quite limited in this
range of frequencies.
Another interesting comparison is between Fig. 17(b) and Fig. 19(b). Both cases
correspond to the TS hull without bilge keels, excited by waves of equivalent height.
But the metacentric height in the two cases is very different. The wave frequency
in Fig. 19(b) is high (W ⫽ 2.08 rad/seg), corresponding to a large parametric exci-
tation e0 (see Fig. 3), but large metacentric height (GM ⫽ 0.85 m). The resulting
unstable motion is less strong than the motion given in Fig. 17(b), and another view
of that can be seen in the location of point 2 in Fig. 19(c), which lies very close to
the curve of the stability limit, compared with point 2 in Fig. 17(c), located well
inside the unstable region. As a consequence of the large metacentric height con-
sidered in Fig. 19 (GM ⫽ 0.85 m) the limits of stability are relatively high, specially
for the W ⫽ Wn zone, as shown in Fig. 19(c). The wave tested in the condition
shown in Fig. 19(c) is a very steep one, (hw ⫽ ␭/14.8). The steepest wave generated
in this study was that corresponding to Fig. 10. In that case, hw ⫽ ␭/10.6.
Clearly, an index to the intensity of the parametric instability of a damped system
with internal excitation is the distance of the plotted point to the curve of stability
limit in the damped Mathieu diagram; this distance defines the amplification of
motion.
This is also applicable to points 1 and 2 plotted in Fig. 20(e), representative of
the motions shown in Fig. 20(a and b), respectively. These two conditions have large
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values of the parameter q (q ⫽ 0.55 and q ⫽ 0.72, respectively), much higher than
those presented in Fig. 16(c), Fig. 18(c) and Fig. 19(c). Nevertheless, the time series
in Fig. 20(a and b) have both a very slow amplification, due to the fact that the
unstable region is narrow near the W ⫽ Wn tuning, and the points are necessarily
near the limit of stability. The wave in Fig. 20(b) is reasonably smooth (hw ⫽ ␭/26.2).
Yet, even for very steep waves, no significant resonance occurs in the W ⫽ Wn zone
of stability.

9. Hull form and parametric stability

As the tests and numerical simulations have indicated quite different roll behaviour
for the two hulls, it was found relevant to investigate numerically the different terms
in the parametric excitation and to see how these could be related to hull form.
Fig. 21 shows the curves of parametric excitation amplitude e0 (divided by c44—
see Eq. (10)) for the two hulls, for different frequencies and wave amplitude ␨ ⫽
1.0 m (real scale). The figure shows curves for two different values of metacentric
height. Parametric excitation is in all cases much higher for the TS hull, when com-
pared with the other hull, for the whole frequency range considered, when both ships
have the same metacentric height. In Fig. 22 the relative importance of each compo-
nent that determines the amplitude of parametric resonance for the TS hull with
metacentric height of 0.85 m may be observed. That is, Fig. 22 shows the influence
of the heave motion, wave passage and pitch motion for the TS hull. For small
frequencies, up to W ⫽ 1.0 rad/seg, the heave motion effect is cancelled out by

Fig. 21. Amplitude of parametric excitation for the two hulls in the frequency domain for two distinct
levels of metacentric height.
1412 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

Fig. 22. Components of the parametric excitation for the TS hull, GM = 0.85 m.

the wave passage effect, and parametric excitation is dominated by the influence of
pitch motion.
It should be noticed that the linear responses in heave and pitch for the two hulls
are, in practice, the same (see Fig. 3 and Fig. 4) and under comparable values of
damping levels and wave excitation, the TS hull, with its pronounced transom
arrangement is much more unstable than the RS hull. It can be deduced from this
comparative analysis that the distinct levels of parametric excitation found for the
two hulls are due to the different stern arrangements. In fact, as can be seen in Fig.
23, the lines plan for a vessel with a transom stern leads to a non-symmetrical longi-

Fig. 23. Longitudinal distribution of breadth and flare at water line for the two hulls.
M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1413

tudinal distribution of sectional breadth and flare at the water line, resulting, for
instance, in a large C44␪ coefficient, as given in Eq. (6). This second order form
coefficient is three-times larger for the TS hull than for the RS ship when metacentric
height is GM ⫽ 0.85 m. Actually, it is observed that it is the longitudinal distribution
of flare that really makes the difference for the hulls under study, since the longitudi-
nal distribution of area is not very different from one hull to the other. In fact, the
round-stern hull, having a more ‘smooth’ longitudinal distribution of flare, is less
exposed to internal excitation in roll.

10. Conclusions

The parametric stability of fishing vessels in longitudinal regular waves has been
examined both experimentally and numerically, with special emphasis on the influ-
ence of stern shape on the amplification of the motions.
The conclusions that emerge from this investigation appear to be coherent and
realistic. They suggest, for instance, the following sensible results:

앫 A square stern may have a pronounced destabilizing effect. It may play an


important role in allowing high levels of parametric excitation.
앫 The mathematical model was capable of describing even very intense rolling
motions. The distinct contributions of heave and pitch motions and wave passage
effect were disclosed.
앫 Model experiments and numerical simulations produced very strong instabilities
leading to large roll angles in few cycles for the TS hull with low metacentric
height in the W ⫽ 2Wn zone of resonance. These results provide evidence that
parametric resonance may be responsible for the capsize of some small fishing
vessels.
앫 No significant resonance occurred in the W ⫽ Wn zone of the Mathieu diagram.

The experimental results given above are relevant not only to validate the numeri-
cal simulations, but also as a contribution to an area in which experimental evidence
is scarce. Clearly, progress in the field of ship stability in waves must depend upon
the acquisition of much more experimental data, since there is a serious lack of
experimental studies with ship models and collection of full-scale empirical data
regarding the behaviour of fishing vessels in waves.

Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by CNPq and CAPES of Brazil and CONICYT
of Chile. The authors express their thanks for this financial support.
1414 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

Table 1
Principal particulars of ships

Denomination RS TS

Length (m) 24.36 25.91


Length between perpendiculars 21.44 22.09
(m)
Beam (m) 6.71 6.86
Depth (m) 3.35 3.35
Draught (m) 2.49 2.48
Displacement (tons) 162.60 170.30
Water plane area (m2) 102.50 121.00
Trans. radius of gyration (m) 2.62 2.68
Long. radius of gyration (m) 5.35 5.52
Length of bilge keel (% Lpp) 25–75 25–75
Width of bilge keel (m) 0.15 0.15

Appendix A

Particulars of ships

The main characteristics of the ships used in this paper are listed in Table 1,
followed by Fig. 24 which shows their line plans:

Appendix B

Roll second order hydrostatic restoring coefficients

The hydrostatic restoring moment in roll for small angles may be expressed as:
C(z,␾,␪) ⫽ ␳gⵜGM␾ (B1)

Fig. 24. Body plans of tested vessels (TS and RS).


M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1415

where:
IT
GM ⫽ ⫹ zb ⫺ zg (B2)

␳ is water density, g is gravity, ⵜ is displaced volume, GM is metacentric height,
IT, is inertia of area with respect to axis x, zb is vertical coordinate of centroid of
submerged volume, zg is vertical coordinate of ship centre of gravity.
The geometric hull characteristics given in Eq. B(1) may be assumed to vary
periodically when the ship motions are induced by regular waves of small amplitude.
For longitudinal waves, the restoring moment may be expressed as a function of
variations in the vertical relative displacements of the ship, as indicated in Fig. 25,
where ␩ is the free surface instantaneous elevation.
For a generic wave position, the sectional beam may be expressed as a function
of local hull derivative, computed at average water line as:

b ⫽ b0 ⫹ 2
dy
dz | ␩
0,x
(B3)

such that the roll restoring moment in longitudinal waves becomes


C(␩) ⫽ ␳g(IT(␩) ⫹ Mb(␩) ⫺ zgⵜ(n))␾ (B4)
where:
M b ⫽ zbⵜ

Changes in inertia, area centroid and submerged volume are given by:

IT ⫽ 冕 冉
L
1
b (x) ⫹ 2
12 0
dy
dz | 冊
0,x
3
␩ dx (B5)

Mb ⫽ 冕冉 L
zbA0 ⫹
1
2
b0(x)␩2 ⫹
2 dy
3 dz | 冊
0,x
␩3 dx (B6)

Fig. 25. Variation of sectional beam with relative vertical displacement.


1416 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

ⵜ⫽ 冕冉
L
A0 ⫹ b0(x)␩ ⫹
dy
dz | 冊 0,x
␩2 dx (B7)

where the integrals are to be calculated along the ship length.


Considering only the linear terms in Eq. B(5), B(6), B(7), the roll hydrostatic
moment is then approximated by:

C ⫽ C44␾ ⫹ ␳g 冋冕冉
L
1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz |0,x
冊 册
⫺ zgb0(x) ␩dx ␾ (B8)

where C44␾ is the restoring term in calm water.


Assuming that vertical motions due to small amplitude waves are small, the verti-
cal relative displacements may then be assumed to be the sum of heave (z), pitch
(␪) and wave passage (␨). Thus, the component due to heave may be expressed as

Cz ⫽ 冉 冕冉⫺ ␳g
L
1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz | 0,x
冊 冊
⫺ zgb0(x) zdx ␾ (B9)

or
Cz ⫽ C44zz␾ (B10)
where:

C44z ⫽ ⫺ ␳g 冉冕L
1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz | dx ⫺ zgAw
0,x
冊 (B11)

z ⫽ z0cos(wt ⫺ ␳3) (B12)

Analogously, the component of parametric excitation due to pitch motion may be


expressed as:
C␪ ⫽ C44␪␪␾ (B13)
where:

C44␪ ⫽ ⫺␳g 冉冕
L
1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz | 0,x
xdx ⫺ zgAwxf 冊 (B14)

␪ ⫽ ␪0cos(wt ⫺ ␳5) (B15)


and the component due to wave passage may be expressed as:

C␨ ⫽ ␳g冉 冕冉 L
1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz |0,x
¯
⫺ zgb0(x) ␨cos
w2
g 冊 冉
x ⫺ wt dx ␾ 冊冊 (B16)
M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1417

or:

冉 冕冉
¯
C␨ ⫽ ␨␳g
| L
冊1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz
0,x
⫺ zgb0(x)

冉 冉 冊
cos
w
g 冉 冊 冊冊
2
x coswt ⫹ sen
w2
g
x sen wt dx ␾

¯
冉 冕冉
C␨ ⫽ ␨␳g coswt
| 冊 冉 冊L
1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz
0,x
⫺ zgb0(x) cos
w2
g
x dx ⫹

冕冉
senwt
|L
冊 冉 冊冊
1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz
0,x
⫺ zgb0(x) sen
w2
g
x dx ␾ (B17)

where:
¯
C␨ ⫽ C44␨␨ (B18)
C44␨ ⫽ ␳g␦cos(wt ⫺ ␸) (B19)
and:
␦ ⫽ √␦ 21 ⫹ ␦ 22

␸ ⫽ tg−1 冉冊
␦2
␦1

␦1 ⫽ 冕冉
L
1 2 dy
2
b0(x)
dz
|0,x ⫺ zgb0(x) cos
w2
g 冊 冉 冊
x dx

␦2 ⫽ 冕冉
L
1 2 dy
2
b0(x)
dz
|0,x ⫺ zgb0(x) sen
w2
g 冊 冉 冊
x dx

At low frequencies sine terms tend to zero, whereas cosine terms tend to one,
such that at low frequencies the ship goes with the wave and the heave contribution
to the parametric excitation tends to cancel out with the wave passage effect, that is,

w→0⇒sen 冉 冊 w2
g
x →0;cos
w2
g
→1 冉冊
or:

␦→ 冕
L
1 2 dy
b (x) | dx ⫹ zgAw⇒C44␨→ ⫺ C44z
2 0 dz 0,x
1418 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

Fig. 26. Vertical relative displacement.

Fig. 26 illustrates the fact that vertical relative displacement for small motions
may be approximated by
¯
␩ ⫽ ⫺ z ⫹ x␪ ⫹ ␨cos
w2
g 冉
x ⫺ wt 冊 (B20)

Assuming that the heave and pitch motions may be taken as independent of roll
motion, they may be assumed as simple harmonic motions defined at the same fre-
quency as wave encounter frequency. So, the amplitude of parametric excitation
composed of three components may be approximately given as:

␦ 0 ⫽ ␳g 冋冕冉
L
1 2 dy
b (x)
2 0 dz |0,x
⫺ zgb0(x) ␩dx冊 册 (B21)

where:
␩ ⫽ acoswt ⫹ bsenwt

a ⫽ ⫺ zcos␳3 ⫹ x␪cos␳5 ⫹ ␨cos 冉 冊


w2
g
x

b ⫽ ⫺ zsen␳3 ⫹ x␪cos␳5 ⫹ ␨cos 冉 冊


w2
g
x

where ␳3 and ␳5 are phases in the heave and pitch motions, respectively.

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