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www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng

waves

´

M.A.S. Nevesa,*, N.A. Perezb, L. Valerioa

a

Department of Ocean Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

b

Institute of Naval and Maritime Sciences, Austral University of Chile, Valdivia, Chile

Abstract

The dynamic stability of fishing vessels in longitudinal regular waves is investigated, both

analytically and experimentally. In particular, the influence of stern shape on the parametric

stability of fishing vessels is studied. Vessels TS and RS have very similar main characteristics,

but their sterns are different. Although their linear responses are comparable, both analytical

and experimental investigations indicate substantial differences in their dynamic stability in

longitudinal regular waves. Strong resonances are found for the vessel with the deep transom.

The analytical method takes into consideration the effects of the heave and pitch motions and

wave passage and shows good agreement with experimental results. Stability limits are

obtained for different conditions and are used as an aid in the discussion of the results obtained

in the tests when relevant parameters are changed, such as wave amplitude and frequency,

metacentric height and roll damping moment. 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nomenclature

a restoring term in Mathieu equation

Aij added mass or inertia in i mode due to j mode

Aw water plane area

b0(x) breadth at the water line

Bij damping in i mode due to j mode

0029-8018/99/$ - see front matter 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 0 2 9 - 8 0 1 8 ( 9 8 ) 0 0 0 2 3 - 7

1390 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

˙

B() damping moment

B44 linear roll damping coefficient

B444 second order roll damping coefficient

C(,z,,) total restoring moment in roll mode

Cij restoring moment in i mode due to j mode

C444 third order roll restoring coefficient

C44z second order roll restoring coefficient due to heave motion

C44 second order roll restoring coefficient due to pitch motion

C44 second order roll restoring coefficient due to wave passage

e0 non-dimensional amplitude of parametric excitation

F0i external force or moment in i mode

g gravity

hw wave height

Ii mass moment of inertia with respect to i axis

m ship mass

Mwo amplitude of external wave action in roll mode

q amplitude of parametric excitation in Mathieu equation

u damping term in Mathieu equation

U ship speed

W wave frequency

Wn roll natural frequency

x amplitude of motion in Mathieu equation

z heave motion

Zg vertical position of centre of mass

␥ phase between excitation and wave

␦ amplitude of parametric excitation due to wave passage

␦1,2 components of parametric excitation due to wave passage

roll angle

pitch angle

wave amplitude

phase of the parametric excitation

wave length

density

i phase of external force or moment

1. Introduction

The capsize of an intact ship is a phenomenon which by its very nature involves

excessive motions. Predictably, this is a complicated problem, involving, in general,

complex non-linear couplings in six degrees of freedom, and some simplifications

must be considered in the formulation of prediction techniques (Oakley et al., 1974;

Kuo and Odabasi, 1975; Bishop et al., 1981). These excessive motions may be pro-

duced by many different factors and some dangerous situations for ships at sea have

already been identified. One of these is the development of the so-called parametric

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1391

resonance, an area that has received wide attention (Bloki, 1980; Skomedal, 1982;

Campanile and Casella, 1989; Sanchez and Nayfeh, 1990; Fang and Lee, 1993;

Neves and Valerio, 1994, 1995), both from researchers and safety authorities.

Excessive heave and pitch motions are usually regarded as a problem of seaworthi-

ness, not a problem of stability. It is associated with water on deck, high accelerations

and slamming. Nevertheless, it is well known that heave and pitch motions may in

some circumstances affect the roll motion, as Froude (1863) pointed out. He observed

that ships have undesirable roll characteristics when the frequency of a small, free

oscillation in pitch is twice the frequency of a small, free oscillation in roll.

This is clear from the fact that for a ship in waves the righting arm will vary

continuously in the process of heaving and pitching as a result of the excitation

produced by the oncoming waves. A parametric excitation is introduced into the ship

motion problem (see Kerwin, 1955; Paulling and Rosenberg, 1959; Paulling, 1961).

Then the well-known differential equation of Mathieu (Nayfeh, 1973) is obtained

which then characterizes the rolling motion of a ship in longitudinal waves.

Depending on the values of the coefficients, this equation yields a stable or unstable

solution. It will be observed later on in this investigation that in some circumstances

an oscillatory rolling motion may build up very rapidly, reaching very large ampli-

tudes, conducive to a ship capsize.

In this paper, the importance of parametric resonance on ship safety is discussed,

and to substantiate the discussion a comparison of the stability behaviour of two

fishing vessels is conducted: a square (transom) stern trawler, here denominated TS,

and a round stern trawler of about the same size, denominated RS. The two hulls

´ ´

have been tested previously by Morral (1979); Perez (1985); Perez and Sanguinetti

(1995). The hulls have quite similar main characteristics but their sterns are different.

Main characteristics and line plans of the two fishing vessels are detailed in Appen-

dix A.

Both experimental and numerical investigations have been conducted. Experi-

mental studies involved damping assessment by means of roll decrement tests for

the two hulls with and without bilge keels, and the investigation of parametrically

excited roll motions in regular waves. Numerical studies are based on an uncoupled

roll motion equation with non-linearities in the damping and restoring moment, orig-

inally developed by Valerio (1994). The present investigation is restricted to longi-

tudinal regular waves of small amplitudes with ships with zero speed of advance.

It will be noticed that the transom stern trawler behaves far less satisfactorily than

does the round stern trawler. The connections between stern shape and sensitiveness

to parametric stability are clarified. Results confirm that, at least in test conditions,

a transom stern hull may reach a capsize in few cycles, when excited by longitudinal

waves. It is hoped that, by means of this study, more knowledge can be gained in

what is believed to be one of the least understood phenomena in the field of ship

motion theory, the capsize of ships.

1392 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

2. Equations of motion

Let Oxyz be a right handed coordinate system (Fig. 1) with axis Oz passing through

the centre of mass G, Ox pointing forward and coinciding with the calm water sur-

face. As defined in Fig. 1, surge, sway and heave are the translational motions, roll,

pitch and yaw are angular motions with respect to axes x, y and z, respectively.

The mathematical model employed in this study to describe the non-linear roll

motion is of the form:

¨ ˙

(Ix ⫹ A44) ⫹ B() ⫹ C(,z,,) ⫽ Mwocos(Wt ⫺ ␥) (1)

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

B() ⫽ B44 ⫹ B444|| (2)

The restoring moment is derived under the assumption that vertical motions due

to small amplitude waves are small, such that relative vertical displacement at a

point of the length of the ship may be taken as the sum of three effects, heave

motion, pitch motion and far-field wave profile. The roll restoring moment in waves

is then assumed to be given by:

C(,z,,) ⫽ C44 ⫹ C444 3 ⫹ C44zz ⫹ C44 ⫹ C44 (3)

where C44z, C44, C44 represent time-dependent variations of hull restoring character-

istics due to heave and pitch motions and unit amplitude wave passage. For the

coordinate system defined above and as derived in Appendix B:

C44 ⫽ ⌬GM (4)

C44z ⫽ ⫺ g 冋冕1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz

L

|0,x

dx ⫺ zgAw 册 (5)

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1393

C44 ⫽ ⫺ g 冋冕

1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz

L

| 册

xdx ⫺ zgAwxf

0,x

(6)

and where:

␦ ⫽ √␦ 21 ⫹ ␦ 22

⫽ tg−1 冉冊

␦2

␦1

with ␦1 and ␦2 given by:

␦1 ⫽ 冕冉

L

1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz | 0,x

⫺ zgb0(x) cos冊 冉 冊

w2

g

x dx (8a)

␦2 ⫽ 冕冉

L

1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz | 0,x

⫺ zgb0(x) sen冊 冉 冊

w2

g

x dx (8b)

The heave and pitch motions are obtained as the solutions of the set of coupled

linear equations defined as:

¨ ˙

(m ⫹ A33)z¨ ⫹ B33z˙ ⫹ C33 ⫹ A35 ⫹ B35 ⫹ C35 ⫽ F03cos(Wt ⫺ 3)

¨ ˙

A53z¨ ⫹ B53z˙ ⫹ C53z ⫹ (Iy ⫹ A55) ⫹ B55 ⫹ C55 ⫽ F05cos(Wt ⫺ 5) (9)

The reader should refer to the Nomenclature section at the beginning of the paper

and Appendix B of this paper for the list and definitions of symbols given above.

As the present study is limited to longitudinal waves, MW0 ⫽ 0, that is, it is

assumed that there is no external excitation in the roll mode of motion. By dividing

all terms in Eq. (1) by (Ix ⫹ A44) the equation of roll motion assumes the form:

¨ ˙ ˙

⫹ (b44 ⫹ b444||) ⫹ (c44 ⫹ c444 2 ⫹ e0cos(Wt ⫹ )) ⫽ 0 (10)

where e0 the amplitude of parametric excitation in the roll motion equation contains

contributions from heave and pitch motions and wave passage effect, as indicated

previously.

The tests were conducted at the ship model basin of the Austral University of

Chile, where regular waves can be generated by means of a flap-type wave generator.

The experimental results presented in this paper correspond to results obtained from

1394 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

´ ´

two different test programmes conducted by Perez (1985); Perez and Sanguinetti

(1995).

The two models were constructed to scale 1:30. Hull particulars are given in

Appendix A. The experiments performed up to now are all for the case of zero speed

of advance. In the experiments, weight distribution, wave amplitude and frequency

were varied in order to:

1. perform roll decrement tests at different natural frequencies;

2. investigate the sensitiveness of the two similar hulls to parametric stability in the

first two regions of resonance of the Mathieu diagram.

Roll decrement tests were performed for initial angles near 15°. Distinct oscillatory

frequencies were obtained by adjusting weights on board. Models were tested both

with and without bilge keels.

The procedure in the parametric tests was to position the ballasted model longitudi-

nally in the tank, loosely prevent it from drifting by a thread, and, by generating

regular waves in one extreme of the tank, roll angular displacements were recorded

with the model free to oscillate. No artificial impulse, inducement or bias was applied

to the model in order to help the roll motion to start to develop. Starting from rest,

the model was excited in heave and pitch by the incoming waves. In unstable con-

ditions, the transfer of energy from these modes to the roll mode allowed roll motion

to set up. In stable conditions the model remained oscillating in heave and pitch,

with no tendency to develop roll motion. The tests in parametric stability were mostly

conducted for tuning the frequency in the W ⫽ 2Wn condition. A few tests were

conducted at the W ⫽ Wn condition.

In order to investigate the influence of the increased damping in the stabilization

process, each model was tested in turn with and without bilge keels.

Bilge keel dimensions and arrangements were identical for the two models, fitted

along half of the model length, with a constant breadth of 15 cm (to ship scale).

Fig. 2 shows two views of the arrangement of bilge keels fitted to the TS hull.

A 3-D panel method developed by Inglis and Price (1980) was used in the potential

flow calculations of the added masses and damping coefficients in the heave, roll

and pitch modes, and exciting forces and moments in the heave and pitch modes in

longitudinal waves. These coefficients have been published elsewhere (see Neves,

1981; Neves et al., 1988). As a consequence of the similitude of the submerged form

and inertia coefficients of the two hulls, linear responses in heave and pitch are

almost the same. Comparative amplitude and phase diagrams in the frequency

domain for longitudinal waves for zero speed of advance are shown in Fig. 3 and

Fig. 4 for the heave and pitch motions, respectively.

In order to incorporate viscous effects in the roll damping moment, use was made

of the procedure proposed by Ikeda, described by Himeno (1981). With reference

being made to Eq. (2), the linear coefficient takes account of wave generating and

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1395

1396 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

Fig. 3. Transfer function in the heave mode for the two fishing vessels. (a) Amplitude diagram. (b)

Phase diagram.

Fig. 4. Transfer function in the pitch mode for the two fishing vessels. (a) Amplitude diagram. (b)

Phase diagram.

frictional damping, whereas the second order coefficient is related to hull eddy and

bilge keel damping. Much of the analysis, upon which the various components are

based, is taken from empirical models. As discussed in the next section, roll dec-

rement tests were performed and their results used to reduce the uncertainties with

respect to the use of data from an empirical model.

Great effort was made to make sure that realistic predictions of roll damping for

the two hulls, with and without bilge keels, could be obtained using the Ikeda

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1397

method. This was motivated by the fact that beam-to-draft ratios for the hulls investi-

gated in this paper are slightly higher than those considered in Ikeda’s empirical

assessment of eddy damping. Fig. 5 gives the equivalent roll damping coefficient

for the two hulls with and without bilge keels for a roll amplitude of 15°. The results

indicate that the TS hull (with less rounded forms) is more damped than the RS

hull, either with or without bilge keels. As mentioned above, in order to check the

applicability of Ikeda’s method to the ships under investigation in this paper, roll

decrement tests were performed, in which initial angles in roll near 15° were given

to the ship models. The Froude method (Spouge, 1988) was used to reduce the data.

Results from these roll decrement tests are given in Fig. 6.

Roll decrement test results given in Fig. 6 are in general in good agreement with

the semi-empirical results given in Fig. 5. The same trends are observed. Effectively,

test results also give a higher damping effect for the TS hull compared with the RS

hull when the two models are not fitted with bilge keels. With bilge keels, the TS

hull is more damped than the RS hull for frequencies above W ⫽ 1.25 r/s. Fitting

the models with bilge keels introduced a great amount of damping that tended to

increase with the frequency of oscillation.

Figs. 7 and 8 show damping moments plotted against time for the two ships in

two typical conditions. These figures illustrate the good agreement found when roll

decrement test results are compared with results from calculations based on the Ikeda

semi-empirical model. In general, for the metacentric height range of values used in

the parametric experiments described later on, the results from the roll damping

analysis performed may be summarized as:

1. Damping for the RS hull without bilge keels is well described by the Ikeda

method.

2. For the TS hull without bilge keels, the Ikeda method produces slightly lower

damping than that obtained by the experimental procedure.

Fig. 5. Damping coefficients for 15° roll amplitude, calculated using the Ikeda method, for the two

vessels, with and without bilge keels.

1398 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

Fig. 6. Damping coefficients for the two vessels obtained from roll decrement tests, models with and

without bilge keels.

3. For roll amplitudes within the 10–15° range, the Ikeda method slightly underesti-

mates the damping effect introduced by the bilge keels in both models. Yet, the

net effect of introducing bilge keels to the ship models seems to be well described

by the semi-empirical method.

4. It is concluded that the semi-empirical method described by Ikeda produces a

realistic damping assessment for the two hulls considered in this study, in good

agreement with experimental results.

5. Damping levels for the two hulls are comparable, but in general the TS hull is

more damped than the RS hull.

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1399

Kutta algorithm. The coefficients employed were those described previously in Sec-

tions 4 and 5. Results obtained from these numerical integrations are now compared

with the roll time series registered in the experimental programme for the models

excited by longitudinal regular waves.

Very good agreement was obtained in the comparisons, as shown in Fig. 9 and

Fig. 10 for the RS hull, and Fig. 11 and Fig. 12 for the TS hull. The comparisons

given in Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 are for RS hulls without bilge keels in low metacentric

height conditions; the tuning in all cases is near the W ⫽ 2Wn condition and corre-

sponds to unstable roll motions. It is important to notice that the waves are quite

high and steep. Fig. 11 gives results for roll motion for the TS hull in waves with

hw ⫽ 0.90 m. For the low metacentric height defined for this condition, motions

Fig. 9. Comparison of numerical integration with experiment for the RS hull, GM = 0.27 m.

1400 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

Fig. 10. Comparison of numerical integration with experiment for the RS hull, GM = 0.318 m.

Fig. 11. Comparison of numerical integration with experiment for the TS hull, GM = 0.35 m.

become very intense after five cycles of inception of roll motion. This result is indica-

tive of how the TS hull is prone to parametric excitation. Fig. 12 is another case in

which the TS hull is set in a roll motion with large amplitudes, but in this case, the

metacentric height being high (GM ⫽ 0.85 m), many cycles are necessary for large

roll amplitudes to be reached. It should be appreciated that the mathematical model

employed in this comparative study is capable of reproducing roll amplitude amplifi-

cations due to parametric excitation, even in cases where high and steep waves are

acting and large motion amplitudes are in effect.

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1401

Fig. 12. Comparison of numerical integration with experiment for the TS hull, GM = 0.85 m.

7. Mathieu diagrams

The linear variational equation of Eq. (10) may be expressed in the form of a

damped Mathieu equation:

x⬙ ⫹ 2ux⬘ ⫹ (a ⫹ u2 ⫹ 16qcos2t)x ⫽ 0 (11)

Limits of stability corresponding to Eq. (11) may be determined and the effect of

damping and metacentric height on the various regions of parametric resonance may

be assessed (Valerio, 1994). Fig. 13 shows the effects of three different levels of

damping coefficient, u ⫽ 0, u ⫽ 0.035, and u ⫽ 0.070, on the limit curves corre-

Fig. 13. Mathieu diagram for three damping levels: u = 0.000, u = 0.035, u = 0.070.

1402 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

sponding to the first three regions of parametric resonance. It is seen that by raising

the damping level, the first region (W ⫽ 2Wn) is practically unaffected, while the

subsequent regions are more and more affected by damping. As a consequence, the

third region of parametric resonance practically disappears for small levels of damp-

ing.

Stability limits for a damped Mathieu equation are also affected by the natural

frequency. Fig. 14 shows the limits of stability near the W ⫽ 2Wn and W ⫽ Wn

regions of resonance for two values of metacentric height, GM ⫽ 0.35 m and GM

⫽ 0.85 m for the TS hull. It may be noticed that the higher the metacentric height,

the higher the limits are. That results from the frequency dependence of the roll

damping coefficient, as given in Fig. 5. The implication is that at the first region of

resonance the damping level is much higher than at the second region of resonance.

8. Stability analysis

Considering that the mathematical model describes very well the dynamics

involved in the parametric destabilization process of the ships, Figs. 15–20 have

been prepared with the purpose of helping in the interpretation of the results. In each

of these figures, graphics (a) and (b) show the time series obtained at the wave basin

and graphics (c) show the corresponding points plotted in the Mathieu diagram.

Fig. 15(a) shows a case of strong instability for the TS hull, with bilge keels, in

the range W ⫽ 2Wn, with GM ⫽ 0.32 m. In less than six cycles the roll angle reaches

approximately 40°; a very dangerous condition, meaning a real risk of capsize. For

the RS hull to undergo such intense destabilization, it was necessary to reduce the

metacentric height to GM ⫽ 0.27 m and to remove the bilge keels. Yet, the resulting

instability requires more than eight cycles to reach roll angles of the order of 28°.

This result is given in Fig. 16(a), and demonstrates that the TS hull is much more

Fig. 14. Limits of stability for the TS hull for two values of metacentric height.

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1403

1404 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1405

1406 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1407

1408 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1409

unstable in longitudinal waves than the RS hull. Points corresponding to Fig. 15(a

and b) are plotted in Fig. 15(c), and it may be observed that they are well inside

the boundaries of stability. In Fig. 15(c) stability limits are given for roll damping

obtained from experimental procedures (roll decrement tests) and the Ikeda method

in the W ⫽ 2Wn region. Small differences are found from applying the two distinct

procedures. As the Ikeda method slightly underestimates the damping introduced by

the bilge keels, slightly higher corresponding limits are obtained.

Fig. 16(a and b) shows a comparison of a tuning and a non-tuning condition. It

is clear that without the adequate tuning roll motions in longitudinal waves remain

1410 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

insignificant. This is confirmed in the Fig. 16(c) plotting, which shows point 2 well

outside the unstable area of the Mathieu diagram. Comparing Fig. 16(a) with Fig.

17(b), it is seen that both ships reach approximately 30°, but with the TS hull doing

so in six cycles, whereas for the RS hull it takes nine cycles. It should be noticed

that in this comparison both ships are without bilge keels and the TS hull is more

damped than the RS hull. Metacentric height for the RS hull is smaller and wave

height is much higher. This is clearly another demonstration that the TS hull is much

more sensitive to parametric destabilization than the RS hull. Observing point 1 in

Fig. 16(c) and point 2 in Fig. 17(c), it can be noticed that both points are very close

to the limit curve. Point 2 in Fig. 16(c) is located in the stable region. The wave

height is high (hw ⫽ 2.0 m), but as shown in Fig. 16(b), no amplification of roll

motion occurs. Comparison of points 1 and 2 in Fig. 17(c) and their respective time

series in Fig. 17(a and b) gives the effect of increasing wave height for the TS hull

without bilge keels. Fig. 18(a and b) again shows similar results for the TS hull at

fixed GM and damping level. A small increase in wave height results in a correspond-

ing lower point 2 compared with point 1 in Fig. 18(c).

The influence of increased damping may be observed by comparing Fig. 15(b)

with Fig. 17(b). In Fig. 15(b) the TS hull is fitted with bilge keels, GM ⫽ 0.32 m

and hw ⫽ 2.4 m. The roll angle reaches approximately 32° in nine cycles. In Fig.

17(b) the same ship, without bilge keels, but with a larger GM and lower wave

height (hw ⫽ 0.9 m) reaches 30° in only six cycles. The introduction of the bilge

keels contributes to reduce the distance in the Mathieu diagram from the plotted

point to the limit curve, thus decreasing the intensity of the amplification of the

motion. But, as the hull is strongly subjected to parametric excitation in frequencies

around the tuning W ⫽ 2Wn, the effect of fitting bilge keels is quite limited in this

range of frequencies.

Another interesting comparison is between Fig. 17(b) and Fig. 19(b). Both cases

correspond to the TS hull without bilge keels, excited by waves of equivalent height.

But the metacentric height in the two cases is very different. The wave frequency

in Fig. 19(b) is high (W ⫽ 2.08 rad/seg), corresponding to a large parametric exci-

tation e0 (see Fig. 3), but large metacentric height (GM ⫽ 0.85 m). The resulting

unstable motion is less strong than the motion given in Fig. 17(b), and another view

of that can be seen in the location of point 2 in Fig. 19(c), which lies very close to

the curve of the stability limit, compared with point 2 in Fig. 17(c), located well

inside the unstable region. As a consequence of the large metacentric height con-

sidered in Fig. 19 (GM ⫽ 0.85 m) the limits of stability are relatively high, specially

for the W ⫽ Wn zone, as shown in Fig. 19(c). The wave tested in the condition

shown in Fig. 19(c) is a very steep one, (hw ⫽ /14.8). The steepest wave generated

in this study was that corresponding to Fig. 10. In that case, hw ⫽ /10.6.

Clearly, an index to the intensity of the parametric instability of a damped system

with internal excitation is the distance of the plotted point to the curve of stability

limit in the damped Mathieu diagram; this distance defines the amplification of

motion.

This is also applicable to points 1 and 2 plotted in Fig. 20(e), representative of

the motions shown in Fig. 20(a and b), respectively. These two conditions have large

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1411

values of the parameter q (q ⫽ 0.55 and q ⫽ 0.72, respectively), much higher than

those presented in Fig. 16(c), Fig. 18(c) and Fig. 19(c). Nevertheless, the time series

in Fig. 20(a and b) have both a very slow amplification, due to the fact that the

unstable region is narrow near the W ⫽ Wn tuning, and the points are necessarily

near the limit of stability. The wave in Fig. 20(b) is reasonably smooth (hw ⫽ /26.2).

Yet, even for very steep waves, no significant resonance occurs in the W ⫽ Wn zone

of stability.

As the tests and numerical simulations have indicated quite different roll behaviour

for the two hulls, it was found relevant to investigate numerically the different terms

in the parametric excitation and to see how these could be related to hull form.

Fig. 21 shows the curves of parametric excitation amplitude e0 (divided by c44—

see Eq. (10)) for the two hulls, for different frequencies and wave amplitude ⫽

1.0 m (real scale). The figure shows curves for two different values of metacentric

height. Parametric excitation is in all cases much higher for the TS hull, when com-

pared with the other hull, for the whole frequency range considered, when both ships

have the same metacentric height. In Fig. 22 the relative importance of each compo-

nent that determines the amplitude of parametric resonance for the TS hull with

metacentric height of 0.85 m may be observed. That is, Fig. 22 shows the influence

of the heave motion, wave passage and pitch motion for the TS hull. For small

frequencies, up to W ⫽ 1.0 rad/seg, the heave motion effect is cancelled out by

Fig. 21. Amplitude of parametric excitation for the two hulls in the frequency domain for two distinct

levels of metacentric height.

1412 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

Fig. 22. Components of the parametric excitation for the TS hull, GM = 0.85 m.

the wave passage effect, and parametric excitation is dominated by the influence of

pitch motion.

It should be noticed that the linear responses in heave and pitch for the two hulls

are, in practice, the same (see Fig. 3 and Fig. 4) and under comparable values of

damping levels and wave excitation, the TS hull, with its pronounced transom

arrangement is much more unstable than the RS hull. It can be deduced from this

comparative analysis that the distinct levels of parametric excitation found for the

two hulls are due to the different stern arrangements. In fact, as can be seen in Fig.

23, the lines plan for a vessel with a transom stern leads to a non-symmetrical longi-

Fig. 23. Longitudinal distribution of breadth and flare at water line for the two hulls.

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1413

tudinal distribution of sectional breadth and flare at the water line, resulting, for

instance, in a large C44 coefficient, as given in Eq. (6). This second order form

coefficient is three-times larger for the TS hull than for the RS ship when metacentric

height is GM ⫽ 0.85 m. Actually, it is observed that it is the longitudinal distribution

of flare that really makes the difference for the hulls under study, since the longitudi-

nal distribution of area is not very different from one hull to the other. In fact, the

round-stern hull, having a more ‘smooth’ longitudinal distribution of flare, is less

exposed to internal excitation in roll.

10. Conclusions

The parametric stability of fishing vessels in longitudinal regular waves has been

examined both experimentally and numerically, with special emphasis on the influ-

ence of stern shape on the amplification of the motions.

The conclusions that emerge from this investigation appear to be coherent and

realistic. They suggest, for instance, the following sensible results:

important role in allowing high levels of parametric excitation.

앫 The mathematical model was capable of describing even very intense rolling

motions. The distinct contributions of heave and pitch motions and wave passage

effect were disclosed.

앫 Model experiments and numerical simulations produced very strong instabilities

leading to large roll angles in few cycles for the TS hull with low metacentric

height in the W ⫽ 2Wn zone of resonance. These results provide evidence that

parametric resonance may be responsible for the capsize of some small fishing

vessels.

앫 No significant resonance occurred in the W ⫽ Wn zone of the Mathieu diagram.

The experimental results given above are relevant not only to validate the numeri-

cal simulations, but also as a contribution to an area in which experimental evidence

is scarce. Clearly, progress in the field of ship stability in waves must depend upon

the acquisition of much more experimental data, since there is a serious lack of

experimental studies with ship models and collection of full-scale empirical data

regarding the behaviour of fishing vessels in waves.

Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by CNPq and CAPES of Brazil and CONICYT

of Chile. The authors express their thanks for this financial support.

1414 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

Table 1

Principal particulars of ships

Denomination RS TS

Length between perpendiculars 21.44 22.09

(m)

Beam (m) 6.71 6.86

Depth (m) 3.35 3.35

Draught (m) 2.49 2.48

Displacement (tons) 162.60 170.30

Water plane area (m2) 102.50 121.00

Trans. radius of gyration (m) 2.62 2.68

Long. radius of gyration (m) 5.35 5.52

Length of bilge keel (% Lpp) 25–75 25–75

Width of bilge keel (m) 0.15 0.15

Appendix A

Particulars of ships

The main characteristics of the ships used in this paper are listed in Table 1,

followed by Fig. 24 which shows their line plans:

Appendix B

The hydrostatic restoring moment in roll for small angles may be expressed as:

C(z,,) ⫽ gⵜGM (B1)

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1415

where:

IT

GM ⫽ ⫹ zb ⫺ zg (B2)

ⵜ

is water density, g is gravity, ⵜ is displaced volume, GM is metacentric height,

IT, is inertia of area with respect to axis x, zb is vertical coordinate of centroid of

submerged volume, zg is vertical coordinate of ship centre of gravity.

The geometric hull characteristics given in Eq. B(1) may be assumed to vary

periodically when the ship motions are induced by regular waves of small amplitude.

For longitudinal waves, the restoring moment may be expressed as a function of

variations in the vertical relative displacements of the ship, as indicated in Fig. 25,

where is the free surface instantaneous elevation.

For a generic wave position, the sectional beam may be expressed as a function

of local hull derivative, computed at average water line as:

b ⫽ b0 ⫹ 2

dy

dz |

0,x

(B3)

C() ⫽ g(IT() ⫹ Mb() ⫺ zgⵜ(n)) (B4)

where:

M b ⫽ zbⵜ

Changes in inertia, area centroid and submerged volume are given by:

IT ⫽ 冕 冉

L

1

b (x) ⫹ 2

12 0

dy

dz | 冊

0,x

3

dx (B5)

Mb ⫽ 冕冉 L

zbA0 ⫹

1

2

b0(x)2 ⫹

2 dy

3 dz | 冊

0,x

3 dx (B6)

1416 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

ⵜ⫽ 冕冉

L

A0 ⫹ b0(x) ⫹

dy

dz | 冊 0,x

2 dx (B7)

Considering only the linear terms in Eq. B(5), B(6), B(7), the roll hydrostatic

moment is then approximated by:

C ⫽ C44 ⫹ g 冋冕冉

L

1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz |0,x

冊 册

⫺ zgb0(x) dx (B8)

Assuming that vertical motions due to small amplitude waves are small, the verti-

cal relative displacements may then be assumed to be the sum of heave (z), pitch

() and wave passage (). Thus, the component due to heave may be expressed as

Cz ⫽ 冉 冕冉⫺ g

L

1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz | 0,x

冊 冊

⫺ zgb0(x) zdx (B9)

or

Cz ⫽ C44zz (B10)

where:

C44z ⫽ ⫺ g 冉冕L

1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz | dx ⫺ zgAw

0,x

冊 (B11)

expressed as:

C ⫽ C44 (B13)

where:

C44 ⫽ ⫺g 冉冕

L

1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz | 0,x

xdx ⫺ zgAwxf 冊 (B14)

and the component due to wave passage may be expressed as:

C ⫽ g冉 冕冉 L

1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz |0,x

¯

⫺ zgb0(x) cos

w2

g 冊 冉

x ⫺ wt dx 冊冊 (B16)

M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419 1417

or:

冉 冕冉

¯

C ⫽ g

| L

冊1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz

0,x

⫺ zgb0(x)

冉 冉 冊

cos

w

g 冉 冊 冊冊

2

x coswt ⫹ sen

w2

g

x sen wt dx

¯

冉 冕冉

C ⫽ g coswt

| 冊 冉 冊L

1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz

0,x

⫺ zgb0(x) cos

w2

g

x dx ⫹

冕冉

senwt

|L

冊 冉 冊冊

1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz

0,x

⫺ zgb0(x) sen

w2

g

x dx (B17)

where:

¯

C ⫽ C44 (B18)

C44 ⫽ g␦cos(wt ⫺ ) (B19)

and:

␦ ⫽ √␦ 21 ⫹ ␦ 22

⫽ tg−1 冉冊

␦2

␦1

␦1 ⫽ 冕冉

L

1 2 dy

2

b0(x)

dz

|0,x ⫺ zgb0(x) cos

w2

g 冊 冉 冊

x dx

␦2 ⫽ 冕冉

L

1 2 dy

2

b0(x)

dz

|0,x ⫺ zgb0(x) sen

w2

g 冊 冉 冊

x dx

At low frequencies sine terms tend to zero, whereas cosine terms tend to one,

such that at low frequencies the ship goes with the wave and the heave contribution

to the parametric excitation tends to cancel out with the wave passage effect, that is,

w→0⇒sen 冉 冊 w2

g

x →0;cos

w2

g

→1 冉冊

or:

␦→ 冕

L

1 2 dy

b (x) | dx ⫹ zgAw⇒C44→ ⫺ C44z

2 0 dz 0,x

1418 M.A.S. Neves et al. / Ocean Engineering 26 (1999) 1389–1419

Fig. 26 illustrates the fact that vertical relative displacement for small motions

may be approximated by

¯

⫽ ⫺ z ⫹ x ⫹ cos

w2

g 冉

x ⫺ wt 冊 (B20)

Assuming that the heave and pitch motions may be taken as independent of roll

motion, they may be assumed as simple harmonic motions defined at the same fre-

quency as wave encounter frequency. So, the amplitude of parametric excitation

composed of three components may be approximately given as:

␦ 0 ⫽ g 冋冕冉

L

1 2 dy

b (x)

2 0 dz |0,x

⫺ zgb0(x) dx冊 册 (B21)

where:

⫽ acoswt ⫹ bsenwt

w2

g

x

w2

g

x

where 3 and 5 are phases in the heave and pitch motions, respectively.

References

Bishop, R.E.D., Neves, M.A.S., Price, W.G., 1981. On the dynamics of ship stability, RINA Paper No. 10.

Bloki, W., 1980. Ship safety in connection with parametric resonance of the roll. International Shipbuild-

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Campanile, A., Casella, P., 1989. Form stability reduction among waves for series 60 hulls. Ocean Engin-

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Froude, W., 1863. Remarks on Mr. Scott Russell’s paper on rolling transactions. INA 4, 232–275.

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Himeno, Y., 1981. Prediction of ship roll damping-state of art, Department of Naval Architecture and

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´

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