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# Term Paper

of

## Numerical Analysis (MTH-204)

“Explain with example that rate of convergence of false position method is faster than that of the
bisection method.”

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Miss.Deepika

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## IMPORTANT INFORMATION IN COMPLETING THIS

PROJECT.

-: CONTENT:-
INTRODUCTION

RATE OF CONVERGENCE

BISECTION METHOD

• EXAMPLE

ERROR ANALYSIS

• EXAMPLE

## RATE OF CONVERGENCE OF REGULA FALSI METHOD

ERROR ANALYSIS

• EXAMPLE

RESULT

REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION

A numerical method to solve equations will be a long process. We would like to know, if
the method will lead to a solution (close to the exact solution) or will lead us away from
the solution. If the method, leads to the solution, then we say that the method is
convergent. Otherwise, the method is said to be divergent.

RATE OF CONVERGENCE

Various methods converge to the root at different rates. That is, some methods are slow to
converge and it takes a long time to arrive at the root, while other methods can lead us to
the root faster. This is in general a compromise between ease of calculation and time.

## For a computer program however, it is generally better to look at methods which

converge quickly. The rate of convergence could be linear or of some higher order. The
higher the order, the faster the method converges

If ei is the magnitude of the error in the ith iteration, ignoring sign, then the order is n if

is approximately constant.

It is also important to note that the chosen method will converge only if ei + 1 < ei.

BISECTION METHOD

This is one of the simplest methods and is strongly based on the property of intervals. To
find a root using this method, the first thing to do is to find an interval [a,b] such that
. Bisect this interval to get a point (c,f(c)). Choose one of a or b so that
the sign of f(c) is opposite to the ordinate at that point. Use this as the new interval and
proceed until you get the root within desired accuracy.

## Suppose f(x)f(x) is continuous on an interval [a,b][a,b], such that

Then f(x)f(x) changes sign on [a,b][a,b], and f(x)=0f(x)=0 has at least one root on the
interval. Bisection method repeatedly halve the interval [a,b][a,b], keeping the half on
which f(x)f(x) chages sign. It guaranteed to converge to a root.

More prececisly, Suppose that we are given an interval [a,b][a,b] satisfying Equation 3
and an error tolerance ϵ>0ϵ>0. Then the bisection method is consists of the following
steps:

## [B1.] Compute c=(a+b)/2c=(a+b)/2

[B2.] If b-c≤ϵb-c≤ϵ, then accept c as the root and stop the procedure.

[B3.] If f(a).f(c)≤0f(a).f(c)≤0, then set b=cb=c else, set a=ca=c. Go to step B1.

EXAMPLE

## Solve x3 - 2x - 5 = 0 correct up to 2 decimal places.

f(x) = x3 - 2x - 5

## f(x1) = 5.625 > 0

ERROR ANALYSIS

The maximum error after the ith iteration using this process will be given as

## As the interval at each iteration is halved, we have . Thus this method

converges linearly.

If we are interested in the number of iterations the Bisection Method needs to converge to
a root within a certain tolerance than we can use the formula for the maximum error.

EXAMPLE

How many iterations do you need to get the root if you start with a = 1 and b = 2 and the
tolerance is 10−4?

The error εi needs to be smaller than 10−4. Use the formula for the maximum error:

εi = 2 − i < 10 − 4
Solve for i using log rules

Hence 14 iterations will ensure an approximation to the root accurate to . Note: the
error analysis only gives a bound approximation to the error; the actual error may be
much smaller.

## REGULA FALSI METHOD

This method is essentially same as the bisection method except that instead of bisecting
the interval, we find where the chord joining the two points meets the X axis. The roots
are calculated using the equation of the chord, i.e. putting y = 0 in

The rate of convergence is still linear but faster than that of the bisection method. Both
these methods will fail if f has a double root.

## RATE OF CONVERGENCE OF REGULA FALSI METHOD

If the function F(x) in the equation f(x)=0 is convex in the interval (x0,x1) that contains
the roots,then one of the point x0 and x1 is always fixed and the other point varies with k.
If the point x0 is fixed then the function F(x) is approximated by the straht linepassing
throught the point(x0, F0) and (xk, fk),k=1,2,3,4,……

ERROR ANALYSIS

εk+1 = ε0εk

## where C=0.5{f”( ε)/f’(ε)} and ε0= x0 –ε is independent of k.therefore,we can say

εk+1 = C*εk

where C* =Cε0 is the asymptotic error constant.hence the regula-falsi method has linear
rate of convergece

EXAMPLE
Consider f(x)=x2-1. We already know the roots of this equation, so we can easily check
how fast the regula falsi method converges.

## For our initial guess, we'll use the interval [0,2].

Since f is concave upwards and increasing, a quick sketch of the geometry shows that the
chord will always intersect the x-axis to the left of the solution. This can be confirmed by
a little algebra.

## The difference between an and the root is en=an-1, but

This is always smaller than en when an is positive. When an approaches 1, each extra
iteration reduces the error by two-thirds, rather than one-half as the bisection method
would.

In this case, the lower end of the interval tends to the root, and the minimum error tends
to zero, but the upper limit and maximum error remain fixed. This is not uncommon.

RESULT:-
We considered a robust, but “slow” bisection method and then a “faster” but less robust Newton’s
method.

REFERENCES:-
www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton’s_methods

www.efunda.com/math/num.../num_rootfinding.cfm
www.caan.rice.edu/-timwar/MA375F03?Lecture29.ppt