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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

Integrated Curriculum For Secondary Schools

Curriculum Specifications

SCIENCE
Year Four

Curriculum Development Centre


Ministry of Education Malaysia
2005
Copyright © 2005 Curriculum Development Centre
Ministry of Education Malaysia
Kompleks Kerajaan Parcel E
62604 Putrajaya

First published 2005

Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilisation of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other
means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, and recording is forbidden without the written permission from the Director of
the Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

The National Philosophy v


National Philosophy of Education vii
National Science Education Philosophy ix
Preface xi
Introduction 1
Aims and Objectives 1
Scientific Skills 2
Thinking Skills 3
Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 9
Teaching and Learning Strategies 10
Content Organisation 12

Investigating Living Things


Learning Area: Living things have basic needs 13
Living things undergo life processes 16
Animals and plants protect themselves 25

Investigating The Earth and The Universe


Learning Area: The Solar System 30
Investigating Materials
Learning Area: Properties of materials 32

Investigating The Force abd Energy


Learning Area: Measurement 39

Investigating Technology
Learning Area: Technology 47

Acknowledgements 51

Panel of Writers 52
THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY

Our nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; maintaining a democratic way of life;
creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared; ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and
diverse cultural traditions; building a progressive society which shall be orientated towards modern science and technology;

The people of Malaysia pledge their united efforts to attain these ends guided by the following principles:

• BELIEF IN GOD
• LOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRY
• SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTI ON
• RULE OF LAW
• GOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY

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NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated
manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious
based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are
knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high
level of personal well being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, society and the
nation at large.

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NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY

In consonance with the National Education Philosophy,


science education in Malaysia nurtures
a Science and Technology Culture by focusing
on the development of individuals who are competitive,
dynamic, robust and resilient and able
to master scientific knowledge and technological competency.

ix
PREFACE

In a recent development, the Government has made a


The aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised society decision to introduce English as the medium of instruction in
depends on science and technology. It is envisaged that success the teaching and learning of science and mathematics. This
in providing quality science education to Malaysians from an early measure will enable pupils to keep abreast of developments in
age will serve to spearhead the nation into becoming a knowledge science and technology in contemporary society by enhancing
society and a competitive player in the global arena. Towards this their capability and know-how to tap the diverse sources of
end, the Malaysian education system is giving greater emphasis information on science written in the English language. At the
to science and mathematics education. same time, this move would also provide opportunities for
pupils to use the English language and hence, increase their
The Science curriculum has been designed not only to provide proficiency in the language. Thus, in implementing the science
opportunities for pupils to acquire science knowledge and skills, curriculum, attention is given to developing pupils’ ability to
develop thinking skills and thinking strategies, and to apply this use English for study and communication, especially in the
knowledge and skills in everyday life, but also to inculcate in them early years of learning.
noble values and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that the
educational process en route to achieving these aims would The development of this curriculum and the preparation of the
produce well-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been the work
harmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. of many individuals over a period of time. To all those who
have contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, on
The Science curriculum aims at producing active learners. To this behalf of the Ministry of Education, express my sincere
end, pupils are given ample opportunities to engage in scientific gratitude and thanks for the time and labour expended .
investigations through hands-on activities and experimentations.
The inquiry approach, incorporating thinking skills, thinking
strategies and thoughtful learning, should be emphasised
throughout the teaching-learning process. The content and
contexts suggested are chosen based on their relevance and (MAHZAN BIN BAKAR AMP)
appeal to pupils so that their interest in the subject is enhanced. Director
Curriculum Development Centre
Ministry of Education Malaysia

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INTRODUCTION AIMS

As articulated in the National Education Policy, education in The aim of the primary school science curriculum is to develop
Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential pupils’ interest and creativity through everyday experiences
of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce and investigations that promote the acquisition of scientific and
individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and thinking skills as well as the inculcation of scientific attitudes
physically balanced and harmonious. The primary and and values.
secondary school science curriculum is developed with the
aim of producing such individuals.
OBJECTIVES
The Level Two Primary School Science curriculum is
designed to stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their
interest as well to enable pupils to learn more about The Level Two Primary School Science Curriculum aims to:
themselves and the world around them through pupil-centered 1. Stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest about
activities. the world around them.
2. Provide pupils with opportunities to develop science
The curriculum is articulated in two documents: the process skills and thinking skills.
syllabus and the curriculum specifications. The syllabus 3. Develop pupils’ creativity.
presents the aims, objectives and the outline of the curriculum 4. Provide pupils with basic science knowledge and concepts.
content for a period of 3 years for Level Two Primary School 5. To provide learning opportunities for pupils to apply
Science. The curriculum specifications provides the details of knowledge and skills in a creative, critical and analytical
the curriculum, which includes the aims and objectives of the manner for problem solving and decision-making.
curriculum, brief descriptions on thinking skills and thinking 6. Inculcate scientific attitudes and positive values.
strategies, scientific skills, scientific attitudes and noble values, 7. Foster the appreciation on the contributions of science and
teaching and learning strategies, and curriculum content. The technology towards national development and well-being
curriculum content covers the learning objectives, suggested of mankind.
learning activities, learning outcomes, notes and vocabulary. 8. Be aware of the need to love and care for the environment.

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SCIENTIFIC SKILLS

Making Using past experiences or


Science emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry Inferences previously collected data to draw
and problem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills conclusions and explain events.
are utilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientific
investigation such as conducting experiments and carrying out
projects. Making a forecast about what
Predicting will happen in the future based
Scientific skills encompass science process skills and on prior knowledge gained
manipulative skills. through experiences or collected
data.
Science Process Skills
Communicating Using words or graphic symbols
Science process skills enable pupils to formulate their such as tables, graphs, figures
questions and find out the answers systematically. or models to describe an action,
object or event.
Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows:
Using space-time Describing changes in
Observing Using the sense of hearing, relationship parameter with time. Examples
touch, smell, taste and sight to of parameters are location,
find out about objects or events. direction, shape, size, volume,
weight and mass.
Classifying Using observations to group
objects or events according to Interpreting data Giving rational explanations
similarities or differences. about an object, event or pattern
derived from collected data.
Measuring and Making quantitative
Using Numbers observations by comparing to a Defining Defining concepts by describing
conventional or non- operationally what must be done and what
conventional standard. should be observed.

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Controlling Naming the fixed • Clean science apparatus.
variables variables, manipulated • Store science apparatus.
variable and
responding variable in an
investigation. The manipulated
THINKING SKILLS
variable is changed to observe
its relationship with the
responding variable. At the Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to
same time, the fixed variables integrate knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to
are kept constant. understand the environment.
Making
Hypotheses Making a general statement One of the objectives of the national education system
about the relationship between a is to enhance the thinking ability of pupils. This objective can
manipulated variable and a be achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful
responding variable to explain learning. Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills
an observation or event. The is a foundation for thoughtful learning.
statement can be tested to
determine its validity. Thoughtful learning is achieved if pupils are actively
Experimenting involved in the teaching and learning process. Activities should
(design a fair test) Planning and conducting be organised to provide opportunities for pupils to apply
activities to test a hypothesis. thinking skills in conceptualisation, problem solving and
These activities include decision-making.
collecting, analysing and
interpreting data and making Thinking skills can be categorised into critical and
conclusions. creative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always
evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it.
A person who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination,
Manipulative Skills is able to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify
ideas and products.
Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor
skills that enable pupils to: Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes
that involve various steps. Each step involves various critical
• Use and handle science apparatus and substances. and creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking
• Handle specimens correctly and carefully. strategies is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities
• Draw specimens and apparatus. in the teaching and learning process.

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Critical Thinking Skills

A brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows:

Attributing Identifying characteristics, Analysing Examining information in detail


features, qualities and by breaking it down into
elements of a concept or an smaller parts to find implicit
object. meanings and relationships.

Comparing and Finding similarities and Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions
Contrasting differences based on criteria that have the tendency to
such as characteristics, support or oppose something
features, qualities and in an unfair or misleading way.
elements of a
concept or event. Evaluating Making judgements on the
quality or value of something
Grouping and Separating objects or based on valid reasons or
Classifying phenomena into categories evidence.
based on certain criteria such
as common characteristics or Making Making a statement about the
features. Conclusions outcome of an investigation
that is based on a hypothesis.
Sequencing Arranging objects and
information in order based on
the quality or quantity
of common characteristics
or features such as size,
time, shape or number.

Prioritising Arranging objects and


information in order based on
their importance or priority.

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Creative Thinking Skills

A brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows:

Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a Synthesising Combining separate elements


discussion. or parts to form a general
picture in various forms such
Relating Making connections in a as writing, drawing or artefact.
certain situation to determine a
structure or pattern of Making Making general statements
relationship. Hypotheses about the relationship between
manipulated variable and
Making Using past experiences or responding variable to explain
Inferences previously collected data to an observation or event. The
draw conclusions and explain statements can be tested to
events. determine their validity.

Predicting Making a forecast about what Making Analogies Understanding an abstract or


will happen in the future based complex concepts by relating it
on prior knowledge gained to simpler or concrete
through experiences or concepts with similar
collected data. characteristics.

Making Making a general conclusion Inventing Producing something new or


Generalisations about a group based on adapting something already in
observations on, or existence to overcome
information from, samples of problems in a systematic
the group. manner.

Visualising Recalling or forming mental


images about a particular idea,
concept, situation or vision.

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Thinking Strategy
Figure 1: TSTS Model in Science
Description of each thinking strategy is as follows:

Conceptualising Making generalisations based on inter- Thinking Skills


related and common characteristics in
order to construct meaning, concept or
model.
Critical Creative
Making Decisions Selecting the best solution from various
alternatives based on specific criteria to • Attributing • Generating ideas
achieve a specific aim. • Comparing and • Relating
contrasting • Making inferences
Problem Solving Finding solutions to challenging or • Grouping and • Predicting
unfamiliar situations or unanticipated classifying • Making
Reasoning
difficulties in a systematic manner. • Sequencing hypotheses
• Prioritising • Synthesising
• Analysing • Making
Besides the above thinking skills and thinking strategies, • Detecting bias generalisations
another skill emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is a skill • Evaluating • Visualising
used in making logical, just and rational judgements. • Making • Making analogies
Mastering of critical and creative thinking skills and thinking conclusions • Inventing
strategies is made simpler if an individual is able to reason
in an inductive and deductive manner. Figure 1 gives a
general picture of thinking skills and thinking strategies. Thinking
Strategies
• Co nceptualising
• Making decisions
• Problem solving

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Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS)
through the teaching and learning of science can be Science Process Thinking Skills
developed through the following phases: Skills

1. Introducing TSTS.
2. Practising TSTS with teacher’s guidance. Observing Attributing
3. Practising TSTS without teacher’s guidance. Comparing and contrasting
4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’s Relating
guidance.
5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish Classifying Attributing
thinking tasks. Comparing and contrasting
Grouping and classifying
Further information about phases of implementing TSTS
can be found in the guidebook “Buku Panduan Penerapan Measuring and Using Relating
Kemahiran Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran Numbers Comparing and contrasting
dan Pembelajaran Sains” (Curriculum Development
Centre, 1999). Making Inferences Relating
Comparing and contrasting
Analysing
Relationship between Thinking Skills and Making inferences
Science Process Skills
Predicting Relating
Science process skills are skills that are required in the Visualising
process of finding solutions to a problem or making decisions
in a systematic manner. It is a mental process that promotes Using Space-Time Sequencing
critical, creative, analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering Relationship Prioritising
of science process skills and the possession of suitable
attitudes and knowledge enable pupils to think effectively. Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting
Analysing Detecting
The mastering of science process skills involves the bias Making
mastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that conclusions
are related to a particular science process skill are as follows: Generalising
Evaluating

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acquisition of knowledge in the intended learning outcomes.
Science Process Thinking Skills Thus, in teaching and learning, teachers need to emphasise
Skills the mastery of skills together with the acquisition of knowledge
and the inculcation of noble values and scientific attitudes.

Defining operationally Relating The following is an example and explanation of a learning


Making analogy outcome based on thinking skills and scientific skills.
Visualising
Analysing Example:

Controlling variables Attributing Level Year 4


Comparing and contrasting
Relating Learning Outcome: Differentiate the air that we inhale and
Analysing the air that we exhale.
Thinking Skills:
Making hypotheses Attributing Comparing and contrasting
Relating Explana tion:
Comparing and contrasting
Generating ideas
Making hypotheses
Predicting To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge on the
Synthesising composition of the air that we inhale and exhale is needed. The
mastery of the skill of comparing and contrasting is as important
Experimenting All thinking skills as the acquisition of knowledge on humans and animal
breathing. This would enable pupils to understand that breathing
Communicating All thinking skills process in humans and animals

Teaching and Learning based on Thinking Skills and


Scientific Skills

This Level II Science curriculum emphasises thoughtful


learning based on thinking skills and scientific skills. Mastery
of thinking skills and scientific skills are integrated with the

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Examp le: • Appreciating the balance of nature.
• Being respectful and well-mannered.
Level Year 5 • Appreciating the contribution of science and technology.
• Being thankful to God.
Learning Outcome: Design a fair test to find out what • Having critical and analytical thinking.
cause the size of a shadow to change • Being flexible and open-minded.
by deciding what to keep the same,
• Being kind-hearted and caring.
what to change and what to observe.
• Being objective.
Scientific Skills: Experimenting • Being systematic.
Explana tion: • Being cooperative.
• Being fair and just.
To achieve the above learning outcome, pupils plan and • Dare to try.
conduct investigation to test the hypothesis. This investigation • Thinking rationally.
should include collecting, analysing and interpreting data and • Being confident and independent.
making conclusion.
The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values
generally occurs through the following stages:

SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES • Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific
attitudes and noble values.
• Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values.
Science learning experiences can be used as a means to • Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and
inculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in pupils. These noble values.
attitudes and values encompass the following:
When planning teaching and learning activities, teachers need
• Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. to give due consideration to the above stages to ensure the
• Being honest and accurate in recording and validating continuous and effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and
data. values. For example, during science practical work, the
• Being diligent and persevering. teacher should remind pupils and ensure that they carry out
• Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and experiments in a careful, cooperative and honest manner.
the environment.
• Realising that science is a means to understand nature. Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of scientific
• Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. attitudes and noble values during science lessons. Before the
first lesson related to a learning objective, teachers should

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examine all related learning outcomes and suggested Inculcating Patriotism
teaching-learning activities that provide opportunities for the
inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values. The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the
development and strengthening of patriotism among pupils.
The following is an example of a learning outcome pertaining For example, in learning about the earth’s resources, the
to the inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. richness and variety of living things and the development of
science and technology in the country, pupils will appreciate
Example: the diversity of natural and human resources of the country
and deepen their love for the country.
Level: Year 4
TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES
Learning Area: Properties of Materials

Learning Objective: Knowing the importance of reuse, Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum
reduce and recycle of materials. emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a
process that helps pupils acquire knowledge and master skills
Learning Outcome: Practise reusing, reducing and that will help them develop their minds to the optimum level.
recycling to conserve materials. Thoughtful learning can occur through various learning
approaches such as inquiry, constructivism, contextual
Suggested Learning Pupils carry out activities about learning, and mastery learning. Learning activities should
Activities reusing, reducing and recycling of therefore be geared towards activating pupils’ critical and
materials throughout the year. creative thinking skills and not be confined to routine or rote
learning. Pupils should be made aware of the thinking skills
Scientific attitudes and Being responsible about the safety and thinking strategies that they use in their learning. They
noble values of oneself, others and the should be challenged with higher order questions and
environment. problems and be required to solve problems utilising their
creativity and critical thinking. The teaching and learning
Having an intrest and curiosity process should enable pupils to acquire knowledge, master
towards the environment. skills and develop scientific attitudes and noble values in an
integrated manner.
Appreciating the balance of nature.
Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning through
Being cooperative. experiences. Inquiry generally means to find information, to
question and to investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the
environment. Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry.

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Learning through discovery occurs when the main concepts their own experiments. This involves pupils drawing up plans
and principles of science are investigated and discovered by as to how to conduct experiments, how to measure and
pupils themselves. Through activities such as experiments, analyse data, and how to present the results of their
pupils investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions by experiment.
themselves. Teachers then lead pupils to understand the
science concepts through the results of the inquiry. Thinking Discussion
skills and scientific skills are thus developed further during the
inquiry process. However, the inquiry approach may not be A discussion is an activity in which pupils exchange questions
suitable for all teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it and opinions based on valid reasons. Discussions can be
may be more appropriate for teachers to present concepts and conducted before, during or after an activity. Teachers should
principles directly to pupils. play the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking
questions that stimulate thinking and getting pupils to express
The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods themselves.
can enhance pupils’ interest in science. Science lessons that
are not interesting will not motivate pupils to learn and
Simulation
subsequently will affect their performances. The choice of
teaching methods should be based on the curriculum content,
In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation is
pupils’ abilities, pupils’ repertoire of intelligences, and the
carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and
availability of resources and infrastructure. Different teaching
the use of models. In role-play, pupils play out a particular role
and learning activities should be planned to cater for pupils
based on certain pre-determined conditions. Games require
with different learning styles and intelligences.
procedures that need to be followed. Pupils play games in
The following are brief descriptions of some teaching and
order to learn a particular principle or to understand the
learning methods.
process of decision-making. Models are used to represent
objects or actual situations so that pupils can visualise the said
Experiment objects or situations and thus understand the concepts and
principles to be learned.
An experiment is a method commonly used in science
lessons. In experiments, pupils test hypotheses through
investigations to discover specific science concepts and Project
principles. Conducting an experiment involves thinking skills,
scientific skills, and manipulative skills.
A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by
an individual or a group of pupils to achieve a particular
In the implementation of this curriculum, besides learning objective. A project generally requires several lessons
guiding pupils to carry out experiments, where appropr iate, to complete. The outcome of the project either in the form of a
teachers should provide pupils with the opportunities to design

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report, an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to CONTENT ORGANISATION
the teacher and other pupils. Project work promotes the
development of problem-solving skills, time management
skills, and independent learning. The science curriculum is organised around themes. Each
theme consists of various learning areas, each of which
consists of a number of learning objectives. A learning
Visits and Use of External Resources objective has one or more learning outcomes.

The learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in Learning outcomes are written in the form of
the school compound. Learning of science can be enhanced measurable behavioural terms. In general, the learning
through the use of external resources such as zoos, outcomes for a particular learning objective are organised in
museums, science centres, research institutes, mangrove order of complexity. However, in the process of teaching and
swamps, and factories. Visits to these places make the learning, learning activities should be planned in a holistic and
learning of science more interesting, meaningful and effective. integrated manner that enables the achievement of multiple
To optimise learning opportunities, visits need to be carefully learning outcomes according to needs and context. Teachers
planned. Pupils may be involved in the planning process and should avoid employing a teaching strategy that tries to
specific educational tasks should be assigned during the visit. achieve each learning outcome separately according to the
No educational visit is complete without a post-visit discussion. order stated in the curriculum specifications.

Use of Technology The Suggested Learning Activities provide information


on the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The
Technology is a powerful tool that has great potential in learning activities stated under the column Suggested
enhancing the learning of science. Through the use of Learning Activities are given with the intention of providing
technology such as television, radio, video, computer, and some guidance as to how learning outcomes can be achieved.
Internet, the teaching and learning of science can be made A suggested activity may cover one or more learning
more interesting and effective. Computer simulation and outcomes. At the same time, more than one activity may be
animation are effective tools for the teaching and learning of suggested for a particular learning outcome. Teachers may
abstract or difficult science concepts. Computer simulation and modify the suggested activity to suit the ability and style of
animation can be presented through courseware or Web page. learning of their pupils. Teachers are encouraged to design
Application tools such, as word other innovative and effective learning activities to enhance
processors, graphic presentation the learning of science.
software and electronic spreadsheets are
valuable tools for the analysis and presentation of data.

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INVESTIGATING LIVING THINGS

Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary


Objectives Activities
1. Living Things Have Basic Needs
1.1 Understanding Pupils view video that shows Pupils Teacher guides pupils to basic needs- keperluan asas
that humans various footage related to conclude that the basic breath- nafas
have basic the basic needs of humans • identify the basic needs of needs of humans are breathe- bernafas
needs i.e. humans. food, water, air and bungalow- banglo
a) a child/family taking shelter. flat- rumah pangsa
drinks and a balanced hut – pondok
diet, long house – rumah panjang
b) movement of the chest of movement – pergerakan
a sleeping baby, terrace house- rumah teres
c) different types of houses. shelter – tempat perlindungan
balanced diet – makanan
Based on the video pupils seimbang
discuss the basic needs of
humans i.e. food, water,air
and shelter.

Pupils discuss that: • give reasons why


a) humans need to eat/drink humans need food, water,
to help them grow and to air and shelter.
stay healthy,
b) humans need air to
breathe,
c) humans need to protect
themselves from danger,
sun and rain.

Pupils discuss and explain


what will happen to humans
if there is no food, water, air
and shelter.

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Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
1.2 Understanding Pupils keep pets such as Pupils Remind pupils to handle holes- lubang cage -
that animals hamsters or chicks. animals with care. sangkar container-
have basic • identify the basic needs of bekas reference –
needs Pupils observe and record animals. Guide pupils to conclude rujukan
what they do to keep their that animals’ basic air tight – kedap udara
pets alive and healthy. needs are food, water, alive- hidup
air and shelter. nest- sarang
Pupils discuss why
hamsters or chicks are kept
in a cage and not in an
airtight, covered container.

Based on their records


pupils discuss the basic
needs of animals.

Pupils discuss that: • give reasons why


a) animals need to animals need food, water,
eat/drink to help them air and shelter.
grow and to stay
healthy,
b) animals need air to
breathe,
c) animals need to protect
themselves from
danger, sun and rain.

Pupils study pictures or


• describe types of
video and describe different
shelters for animals.
types of shelters for animals
such as nests, caves and
holes.

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Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
1.3 Understanding Pupils carry out activities to Pupils These activities will take condition- keadaan
that plants have show the basic needs of about two weeks. similar - serupa
basic needs plants by comparing similar • identify the basic needs of watered - disiram
balsam plants kept in plants. sunlight - cahaya matahari
different conditions: outdoor-di luar
a) 1 watered, 1 without
water,
b) 1 kept outdoor, 1 kept in
a tight plastic bag,
c) 1 kept outdoor and 1 kept
in a dark cupboard.

Pupils observe and record


their daily observations.

Based on their records


pupils discuss to conclude
that the basic needs of
plants are water, air and
sunlight.

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Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
2. Living Things Undergo Life Processes
2.1 Analysing life Pupils use their hands to Pupils exhale – hembus nafas
processes in feel the movement of their faeces- najis/tinja
humans chests as they breathe. • explain that humans inhale – tarik nafas
breathe. rate – kadar
Pupils discuss to conclude undergo – menjalani
that the movement of the • describe what inhale is. excretion – perkumuhan
chest is due to breathing. defecate – nyahtinja
• describe what exhale is. offspring – anak
Pupils discuss that when chest- dada
they inhale they take in air reaction – gerak balas
and when they exhale they reproduce – membiak
give out air. windpipe- salur pernafasan
lung- peparu
Pupils gather information • differentiate the air that sweat – peluh
and discuss that: we inhale and the air that Pupils just need to know stimuli – rangsangan
a) inhaled air has more we exhale. the main organs survival - kemandirian
oxygen than exhaled air, involved in breathing i.e. urine – air kencing
b) exhaled air has more nose, mouth, wind pipe waste product – bahan
carbon dioxyde than and lungs. buangan
inhaled air.

Pupils observe model or The rate of breathing


• state that humans use
view video of human body to means the number of
lungs to breathe.
see that the lung is a chest movements in a
breathing organ for human period of time.
• identify the passage of air
and to identify the passage
during breathing.
of air movement when
human breathes.

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Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

Pupils carry out activity to • conclude that not all


count the number of chest individuals have the same
movements in a minute rate of breathing.
when they are breathing
and record their findings.

Pupils compare their group


findings and conclude that
not everyone has the same
rate of breathing.

Pupils discuss to conclude • state that humans excrete


that humans excrete and and defecate.
defecate.

Pupils discuss that when • state the products of


humans: human excretion.
a) excrete they get rid of • state the products of
urine, carbon dioxyde human defecation.
and sweat.
b) defecate they get rid of
faeces.

Pupils discuss that humans


excrete and defecate to get
rid of waste materials from
their bodies.

Pupils discuss to infer the Do not use boiling


• give reasons why humans
effect on health if humans water.
need to excrete and
do not excrete or defecate.
defecate.

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Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

Pupils view video or carry • state that humans


out activities to show how respond to stimuli.
human responds to stimuli
e.g. by touching a glass of
hot water.

Pupils discuss to infer that • give reasons why humans


humans respond to stimuli respond to stimuli.
to protect themselves from
danger or for survival.

Pupils draw family trees of • state that humans


their families for three reproduce.
generations. Pupils compare
each other’s diagram and
conclude that humans
produce offspring from one
generation to another.

Pupils discuss what will • predict what will happen if


happen if humans do not humans do not
reproduce. reproduce.

18
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
2.2 Being aware that Pupils discuss to identify Pupils smoker-perokok
certain bad habits in humans e.g. affect – memberi kesan
behaviour can smoking, drinking alcohol, • give examples of habits effect – kesan/akibat
disturb life taking drugs. that bring harm to human drunken – mabuk
processes life processes. delay- melambatkan
Pupils look at pictures or cause- menyebabkan
video of a smoker’s and • state the effects of drug- dadah
non-smoker’s lungs and smoking on lungs. alcohol- minuman keras
discuss the effects of peers – rakan sebaya
smoking on lungs. harmful – merbahaya
substances – bahan
Pupils watch demonstration cigarette – rokok
by teacher to observe the
harmful substances
produced when a cigarette
is being burned. Suggested topics for the
talk:
Pupils listen to a talk on a) Smoking and Health.
smoking and health given b) How Smoking Affects
by a health officer. Health.

Pupils draw posters about


the effects of smoking on
health.

Pupils view video to see the • explain that taking drugs


effects of drugs and alcohol and alcohol can delay a
on humans in terms of the person’s response to
effects of delaying a stimuli.
person’s response to stimuli
e.g.

19
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

a) ability to walk in
straight line.
b) delayed reaction of a
drunken driver or a
driver high on drug can • participate in a campaign
cause accident. to discourage smoking,
drugs taking and alcohol
Pupils carry out activities to drinking among their
discourage smoking, drugs peers.
taking and alcohol drinking
among their peers.

2.3 Analysing the Pupils observe animals in Pupils give birth – beranak
life processes in science garden to conclude grasshopper- belalang
animals that animals defecate and • state that animals hatch- menetas
excrete. excrete. lay eggs – bertelur
life cycle – kitar hidup
Pupils discuss that animals • state that animals occur- berlaku
excrete and defecate to get defecate. stage- peringkat
rid of waste products from
their bodies.

Pupils discuss to infer the • give reasons why animals


effects on health if animals need to excrete and
do not excrete and defecate. defecate.

Pupils look at models or live • state that animals The breathing organs
specimens to see the breathe. involved are lungs
breathing organs of: (monkey and bird),
spiracles (grasshopper),
books- lung (crab), gills
(fish) and moist skin
(frog).

20
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

a) bird, • identify the breathing Pupils do not have to


b) fish, organs for certain know the name of these
c) grasshopper, animals. breathing organs.
d) crab,
e) frog,
f) monkey.

Based on the viewing of • state that breathing


video/models/live organs for different types
specimens pupils conclude of animals may be
that breathing organs for different.
animals may be different.

Pupils view video showing • state that animals


animals giving birth and reproduce.
chicks hatching from eggs.

Pupils discuss to conclude


that animals reproduce.

Pupils discuss to conclude • state that some animals Records can be in the
that some animals give birth give birth and some lay form of drawings,
and some lay eggs. eggs. measurements or
descriptions etc.
Pupils discuss to classify • classify animals
animals into those that lay according to the way they
eggs and those that give reproduce.
birth to their young.

21
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

Pupils observe animals such • describe the life cycles of


as butterfly, frog, hamster different animals.
or chicken from birth/eggs
to adult. Pupils record the
changes in size/form at the
different stages of the life
cycles.

Based on their observations • state that animals may This scrap book project
and records pupils discuss have different life cycles. can be introduced at the
to state that animals may beginning of the topic.
have different life cycles. Pupils may add their
findings into their scrap
Pupils make a scrap book books as they learn
on real animals as about animals.This
imaginary pets e.g. tiger, activity is to help pupils
whale, lizard, pangolin, bat, understand the life
worm, snake etc. Pupils may processes and the
write, draw or paste pictures survival of animals. It
on their scrap books to tell also encourages pupils
about their pets e.g. to find out more about
a) what pupils have to do to animals that interest
keep their pets alive and them.
healthy,
b) suitable home for their
pets,
c) food for their pets,
d) how their pets protect
themselves from
enemies,

22
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

e) how their pets take care


of their young,
f) life processes of their
pets.

2.4 Understanding Pupils carry out activities to Pupils water lettuce – kiambang
the life study how plants respond to bryophyllum- setawar
processes in stimuli i.e. water, sunlight, • state that plants respond extinct- pupus
plants touch and gravity. to stimuli. shoot – pucuk
young plant – anak pokok
Pupils observe and record • identify the part of plant spores – spora
their findings. that responds to water. sucker –sulur/anak pokok
stem cutting – keratan batang
Based on the above • identify the part of plant underground stem – batang
activities pupils discuss to that responds to gravity. bawah tanah
identify the parts of plants tapioca plant- pokok ubi kayu
that respond to stimuli: • identify the part of plant fern- paku-pakis
that responds to sunlight. various – pelbagai
a) roots respond to water corn – jagung
and gravity, • identify the part of plant
b) shoots and leaves that responds to touch.
respond to sunlight,
c) certain leaflets respond to
touch.
• state that plants
Pupils observe:
reproduce.
a) begonia plants/
bryophyllum that have
young plants growing
from the leaves,

23
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

b) banana trees that have


young plants growing
around the parent plants,
c) water lettuce that have
young plants attached to
parent plants. • explain why plants need
to reproduce.
Pupils carry out discussion
based on their observations
that plants reproduce.
• predict what will happen
Pupils watch pictures /view to the world if plants do
video and discuss that not reproduce.
plants reproduce to ensure
the survival of their species.

Pupils discuss and predict


what will happen to the • explain various ways
world if plants do not plants reproduce.
reproduce e.g. no food
supply for man and certain
animals.

Pupils study live specimens/


view video to find out the
various ways plants
reproduce i.e.
a) through seeds e.g.
balsam, corn and durian,
b) through spores e.g. fern
c) through suckers e.g.
banana and pineapple,

24
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

d) through stem cutting e.g.


hibiscus, rose and
tapioca,
e) through leaves e.g.
bryophyllum and begonia,
f) through underground
stem e.g. potato, onion,
ginger and lily.

3. Animals and plants protect themselves


3.1 Understanding Pupils touch animals such Pupils Remind pupils not to hurt curl up- menggulung
that animals as garden snails or animals and to put them millipede- ulat gonggok
have specific millipedes and observe how • identify specific back to where they were centipede-lipan
characteristics they react to danger. characteristics of animals taken. behaviour – perlakuan
and behaviour to that protect them from hurt- cedera
protect Pupils describe what they danger. pangolin- tenggiling
themselves from observe and give reasons scale- sisik bed bug-
danger for the animal’s behaviour • identify specific behaviour pijat chameleon-
e.g. millipede curls up to of animals that protect sesumpah sting –
protect itself from danger. them from danger. sengat

Pupils look at live specimen • describe how the specific


or collect information by characteristics and
looking at pictures or behaviour of animals help
viewing video of various to protect them from
animals to identify the danger.
characteristics and
behaviour of animals that
protect them from danger.
e.g :

25
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

a) pangolins have hard


scales to protect
themselves from
enemies,
b) bed bugs have bad
smell to repel enemies,
c) chameleons have the
ability to change skin
colour according to the
surrounding,
d) scorpions have stings to
protect themselves
from enemies.

Pupils discuss and explain


how the characteristics and
behaviour of these animals
protect them from danger.

Pupils present their findings


to the class.

3.2 Understanding Pupils view video of Pupils rhinocerous- badak sumbu


that animals animals that live in very hot extereme weather- cuaca
have specific or cold weather. • identify specific melampau
characteristics characteristics and thick fur- bulu tebal
and behaviour to Pupils list the special behaviour of animals that specific characteristic – ciri
protect characteristics and protect them from very khas
themselves from behaviour of animals and hot or cold weather. humps- bonggol
extreme weather describe how these wallowing-berkubang
characteristics and excessive- berlebihan
behaviour help to protect
them from very hot or cold
weather e.g.

26
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

a) rhinoceros keep their • describe how specific


bodies cool by wallowing characteristics and
in mud holes, behaviour of animals help
b) polar bears have thick fur to protect them from very
to enable them to live in hot or cold weather.
very cold weather,
c) camels have humps on
their backs to store food
and water to enable
them to survive in
deserts.

Pupils present their findings


to the class.

3.3 Understanding Pupils discuss that animals Pupils Teacher encourage


that animals need to protect themselves pupils to use recycled
have specific from enemies and extreme • recognise the need for materials/objects.
characteristics weather conditions to animals to protect
and behaviour to enable them to survive. themselves from enemies
enable them to and extreme weather.
survive Pupils design a model of an
imaginary animal that can • make a model of an
protect itself from its enemy imaginary animal that can
and extreme weather survive both extreme
conditions. weather and enemies.

Pupils build their models • give reasons why models


and justify why models are are built in such ways.
built with certain
characteristics.

27
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
3.4 Understanding Pupils look at pictures/ view Pupils mimosa- semalu
that plants have video of various plants to latex -susu getah
specific identify special • identify the specific fine hair – bulu halus
characteristics to characteristics that protect characteristics of plants itchiness-kegatalan
protect these plants from their that protect them from thorn-duri
themselves from enemies. enemies. leaflets-dedaun
enemies
Pupils list the specific • describe how the specific
characteristics of plants. characteristics of plants
help to protect them from
Pupils describe how these enemies.
characteristics of plants help
to protect them from
enemies. e.g.

a) papaya leaves produce


latex to prevent them
from being eaten,
b) pineapple plants have
thorns to protect
themselves,
c) bamboos have very fine
hairs that can cause
itchiness.

Pupils present their findings


to the class.

28
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
3.5 Understanding Pupils view video to identify Pupils
that plants have plants that can be found in:
specific • give examples of plants
characteristics to a) dry region, found in very dry region.
protect b) area with strong winds.
themselves • identify specific
from dry region Pupils collect and interpret characteristics of plants
and strong wind data to show how specific that protect them from
characteristics of plants help excessive loss of water.
to protect them from:
• describe how specific
a) excessive loss of water, characteristics of plants
b) strong winds. help them to survive in
dry region.
Pupils carry out an activity
to show which plant can • give examples of plants
survive in dry region. found in strong wind area.
E.g. the following plants are
kept without water for a • identify specific
week: characteristics of plants
that protect them from
a) a potted balsam plant, strong winds.
b) a potted chilly plant,
c) a potted cactus plant.
• describe how specific
characteristics of plants
Based on their findings
help them to survive in
pupils make conclusion
strong winds.
which plant can survive in
dry region.

29
INVESTIGATING THE EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE

Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary


Objectives Activities
1. The Solar System
1.1 Understanding Pupils study a model or Pupils The constituents of the Solar System – Sistem Suria
the Solar view simulation of the Solar Solar System are Mercury – Utarid
System System. • list the constituents of the Mercury, Venus, Earth, Venus – Zuhrah
Solar System. Mars, Saturn, Earth – Bumi
Pupils discuss the Neptune, Uranus. Mars – Marikh
constituents of the Solar Jupiter, Pluto, natural Jupiter – Musytari
System. satellites, meteors, Saturn – Zuhal
comets and asteroids, Uranus – Uranus
Pupils simulate to • list the planets in the Neptune – Neptun
demonstrate the relative Solar System in a Pluto – Pluto
distance of the planets in sequence. constituent- ahli
the Solar System.

Pupils discuss that all the • state that planets move


planets in the Solar System around the Sun.
move around the Sun.
1.2 Understanding Pupils compare the size of a Pupils The ratio of size: sago – sagu
the relative size sago, a glass marble and a support lives – menyokong
and distance basket ball to show the • state the size of the Sun Moon Earth Sun hidupan
between the relative size of the Moon, relative to the size of the 1 : 4 : 400 absence of water – ketiadaan air
Earth, the Moon Earth and Sun. Earth. absence of air – ketiadaan
and the Sun udara
Pupils discuss to estimate
how many times the Sun is • state the size of the Earth
bigger than the Earth and relative to the size of the
how many times the Earth is Moon.
bigger than the Moon.

Pupils gather information to • state the relative .


estimate how far the Sun is distance from the Earth to
from the Earth relative to the the Sun compared to the
distance of the Moon from relative distance from the
the Earth. Earth to the Moon.

30
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

Pupils discuss and conclude


that the distance from the
Earth to the Sun is 400 time
the distance from the Earth
to the Moon.

Pupils simulate/build model


to show the relative size and
distance of the Sun and the
Moon from the Earth.
1.3 Appreciating the Pupils gather information Pupils conducive-sesuai
perfect about planets in the Solar placement-kedudukan
placement of the System. • state why certain planets
planet Earth in are not conducive for
the Solar Pupils discuss how the living things.
System distance of a planet from the
Sun affects how hot or cold
it is.

Pupils discuss to relate how


hot or cold a planet is to its
ability to support life.

Pupils discuss to predict • predict what will happen


what will happen if the Earth if the Earth is placed
is placed much nearer or much nearer or farther
farther fom the Sun. from the Sun.

Pupils discuss other factors • conclude that the Earth


that affect a planet’s ability is the only planet in the
to support lives e.g. Solar System that has
absence of water and living things.
absence of air.

31
INVESTIGATING MATERIALS

Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary


Objectives Activities
1. Properties of materials
1.1 Understanding Pupils are given various Pupils Teacher provides various objects material – bahan
the properties objects made of wood, such as wooden ruler, metal conductor – pengalir
of materials plastic, metal, glass or • classify objects into spoon, cloth, paper, coin, piece of insulator- penebat
rubber and group them groups according to leather, rubber band, glass plate, metal – logam
according to the the materials they are cork and marble. heat – haba float –
materials they are made made of. terapung absorb –
of. Activities can be carried out using menyerap stretch –
• identify materials that station method. regang transparent-
Pupils test objects made conduct electricity. lutsinar translucent-
of wood, plastic, metal, Graphic organiser in the form of a lutcahaya opaque-
glass or rubber to find • identify materials that table is as shown below : legap
out if they: conduct heat.
wood metal ….
a) conduct electricity, • identify materials that Conduct
b) conduct heat, float on water. electricity
c) float on water, Conduct
d) absorb water, • identify materials that heat
e) can be stretched, absorb water. Float on
f) allow light to pass water
through. Absorb
• identify materials that
can be stretched. water
Pupils record their
Can be
findings in a graphic
• identify materials that stretched
organiser.
allow light to pass Allow
through. light to
pass
• state what a through
conductor is.

• state what an
insulator is.

32
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
Discuss what conductor • make a generalisation
and insulator are. that a good conductor
of heat is also a good
Based on the graphic conductor of
organiser, pupils make a electricity.
generalisation that a
good heat conductor is • classify materials
also a good electric based on their
conductor. abilities to allow light
to pass through.

Pupils carry out • state what a


activities to test different transparent material
materials such as glass, is.
wood, rubber, metal and
plastic to find out their • state what a
abilities to allow light to translucent material Suggested objects are : glass,
pass through. is. book, paper, window pane, towel,
handkerchief, tissue paper,
Based on the above • state what an opaque transparency sheet, tracing paper
activities, pupils classify material is. etc.
materials into 3
categories i.e.
a) transparent material
that allows most light
to pass through,
b) translucent material
• list uses of
that allows some
transparent,
light to pass through,
translucent and
c) opaque material that
opaque materials.
does not allow any
light to pass through.

33
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

Pupils study and discuss


the uses of transparent,
translucent and opaque
materials.

1.2 Applying the Pupils observe models Pupils Teacher encourage pupils to use cold – sejuk
knowledge of or view video to see the recycled materials/objects. effective- berkesan
properties of structure of a • suggest ways to keep
materials in polystyrene container or things cold.
everyday life thermos flask to
understand how they • suggest ways to keep
work. things hot.

Pupils discuss and • design an effective


suggest ways to keep way to keep things
things cold. e.g. keeping hot or to keep things
cold drinks for picnic. cold.

Pupils discuss and


suggest ways to keep
things hot e.g. keeping
hot drinks or food for
picnic.

Pupils carry out


activities to test their
suggestions.

Pupils discuss to
conclude the best way
to keep things hot or to
keep things cool.

34
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
1.3 Synthesising Pupils study objects and Pupils Guide pupils to organise
the knowledge list the materials that information in a table such as:
about uses of these objects are made • list objects and the
materials of. materials that they are Object Material Properties
based on their made of. a pair of metal hard,
properties glasses strong
Pupils suggest reasons • give reasons why glass transparent
why the materials are particular materials
used to make the are used to make an
objects. object. Teacher guides pupils to design
an object e.g. use a tin lid and a
wooden ruler to make a frying
Pupils discuss that • state that materials pan.
different materials have are chosen to make
different properties an object based on
which are taken into their properties.
consideration when
choosing materials to
make an object e.g.
metal and glass are
used to make a pair of
glasses. • design an object for a
specific purpose and
Pupils design an object give reasons why
for a specific purpose certain materials are
using the materials of used to make it.
their choice and justify
why they choose the
materials.

35
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
1.4 Knowing the Pupils observe and Pupils conserve –memulihara
importance of classify objects around natural material-
reuse, reduce them into: • give examples of bahan semula jadi
and recycle of natural materials. man- made- bahan buatan
materials a) objects made of • give examples of reuse-guna semula
natural materials i.e. man-made recycle-kitar
wood, soil, metal, materials. semula
leather, cotton, fur, reduce-menguran gkan
rubber and silk wood-kayu
b) objects made of metal-logam
man-made materials cotton-kapas
e.g. plastic and rubber-getah
synthetic cloth. silk-sutera
leather-kulit
Pupils discuss that • state that man- limited-terhad
man-made materials made materials synthetic cloth-kain sintetik
come from natural come from natural
materials. materials.

Pupils conclude that we • give reasons why


need to conserve materials need to
materials because man- be conserved.
made materials and
natural materials are
limited and may be used
up if there is no effort to
conserve them.
• practise reusing,
Pupils carry out
reducing and
activities about reusing,
recycling to
reducing and recycling
conserve
of materials throughout
materials.
the year.

36
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
1.5 Understanding Pupils observe a rusty Pupils rust-karat
that some nail and a nail without rusty-berkarat
materials can rust and tell the • differentiate between
rust differences. a rusty object and a
non-rusty object.

Pupils observe objects • identify objects that


around the school and can rust.
classify objects as:
a) rusty,
b) non-rusty.

Pupils discuss to • conclude that objects


conclude that objects made from iron can
made of iron can rust. rust.

Pupils carry out • design a fair test to


activities to investigate find out what factors
factors that cause cause rusting by
rusting i.e. presence of deciding what to keep
air and water. the same, what to
change and what to
observe.

• carry out the test and


record the
observations.

37
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
1.6 Understanding Pupils observe objects Pupils grease-gris
that rusting around the school coating-menyalut
can be compound and suggest • state the different paint-cat
prevented different ways to prevent ways to prevent
rusting. objects from rusting.

Pupils discuss and • explain how these


conclude that rusting ways can prevent
can be avoided by rusting.
preventing iron from
coming into contact with
air and water by coating
iron with paint, oil,
grease or non-rusting
materials.

Pupils discuss the • explain why it is


advantages of necessary to prevent
preventing rusting. rusting.

38
INVESTIGATING FORCE AND ENERGY

Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary


Objectives Activities
1. Measurement
1.1 Understanding Pupils discuss the different Pupils Suggested measurement – ukuran
the measurement ways to measure length measuring tools: length – panjang
of length such as using straw, arm • state the different ways to rulers of different width – lebar
span, string, ruler and measure length. lengths, measuring height – tinggi
measuring tape. tape, string. circumference – lilitan
arm span – depa
Pupils discuss the standard • state the standard unit for graphic organiser – penyusun
unit for length in metric length in the metric grafik
system i.e. mm, cm, m and system. calculate – hitung
km. standard unit – unit piawai

Pupils choose the • choose the appropriate


appropriate tools and measuring tools to
measure in standard units: measure length.
a) the length of objects such
as eraser, pencil or book, • measure length using the
b) the length and height of correct technique.
teacher’s table,
c) the length and width of the
classroom,
d) the heights of their
friends,
e) the circumference of any
part of their bodies or
round objects.

Record the measurements in


• record lengths in standard
a graphic organiser.
units.

39
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
1.2 Understanding Pupils compare objects of Pupils Use 1cm X 1cm
how to calculate different shapes such as a square cards.
area square and a rectangle and • compare a square and a
guess which object has a rectangle and guess Teacher accepts any
bigger area e.g. which object has a bigger ideas given by the
area. pupils. 1 cm
a) a square (4cm x 4cm),
1 cm
b) a rectangle (8cm x 2cm).
4 cm
Pupils confirm their guesses • carry out a test to confirm
by filling the 4cm x 4cm their guesses.
square and 8cm x 2cm
rectangle with 1cm x 1cm 4 cm
cards and count the number .
of 1cm x 1cm cards used.

Pupils discuss to state the • state that area = length X


relationship between the width
number of 1cm x 1cm
squares and the length and
width of the above square
and rectangle.
8 cm
Pupils discuss the standard • state the unit for area in
unit for area in metric the metric system.
system i.e. square mm,
square cm, square m and
square km.
• calculate the area of a 2 cm
Pupils calculate the area of
given shape in standard
any given square and
unit.
rectangle in standard unit.

40
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
1.3 Understanding Pupils compare 2 different Pupils Use a cube and a
how to measure objects such as a cube and cuboid with the same volume – isipadu
the volume of a cuboid and guess which • compare a cube and a volume solid – pepejal
solid object has a bigger volume. cuboid and guess which 1 cm cube – kiub
e.g. one has a bigger volume. cuboid - kuboid
a) a cube (4cm x 4cm x 1 cm
4cm), 1 cm
b) a cuboid (8cm x 4cm x 4 cm
2cm). 4 cm

Pupils confirm their guesses • carry out a test to confirm


by filling the 4cm x 4cm x their guesses.
4cm cube and 8cm x 4cm x 4 cm
2cm cuboid with 1cm x 1cm
x 1cm cubes and count the
number of 1cm x 1cm x 1cm
cubes used.

Pupils discuss to state the • state that volume =


relationship between the length X width X height 8cm
number of 1cm x 1cm x 1cm
cubes and the length, width
and height of the above cube
and cuboid. • state the unit for volume
of solids in the metric 4cm
Pupils discuss the standard system.
system for volume of solid 2 cm
in metric system i.e. cubic • calculate the volumes of
mm, cubic cm, and cubic m. cubes and cuboids based
Pupils calculate the volumes on the measurements
of any given cubes and taken in standard unit.
cuboids in standard unit.

41
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
1.4 Understanding Pupils discuss the different Pupils liquids – cecair
how to measure ways that can be used to beaker – bikar
volume of liquid measure the volume of a • state the different ways to measuring cylinder – silinder
liquid such as using cup, the measure the volume of a penyukat
cap of a bottle, beaker and liquid. meniscus – meniskus
measuring cylinder.

Pupils discuss the standard • state the standard unit for


unit for volume of liquid in volume of liquids in the
metric unit i.e. ml, and l. metric system.

Pupils choose the • choose the appropriate Give pupils different


appropriate tool for measuring tools to volumes of water and
measuring the volume of a measure the volume of a allow them to try to
liquid. liquid. measure volumes
using different tools
Pupils discuss the correct e.g. beaker or
techniques to take readings measuring cylinders
i.e. of different sizes.
a) taking the reading at the
lowest part of the
meniscus,
b) eyes must be at the same
level as the lowest part of
the meniscus. • measure the volume of a
liquid using the correct
Pupils carry out activities to technique.
measure the volumes of
liquids using the correct
• record the volume
techniques.
measured in standard
Pupils record measurement
unit.
in a graphic organiser.

42
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
1.5 Understanding Pupils study lever balance Pupils The mass of an lever balance – neraca tuas
how to measure and discuss that it can be object should not be compression balance – neraca
mass used to measure mass of • state tools for measuring confused with the mampatan
various objects. mass. weight. Mass is the mass – jisim
amount of matter in matter-jirim
Pupils discuss that the • state the standard unit for an object and it does
standard unit for mass in mass in the metric not change with
metric unit i.e. mg, g and kg. system. location. Weight is
the force of gravity on
Pupils use tools to measure • measure the mass of an an object. Weight
the masses of various object using the correct depends on the
objects such as books, technique. location of the object.
pencil cases or school bags. Weight is measured
in newton (N).
Pupils record the • record the measurement
measurements in a graphic using standard unit.
organiser.

1.6 Understanding Pupils gather information Pupils uniformly repeated – berulang


how to measure about different ways to secara seragam
time measure time. • identify different ways to swing – ayunan
measure time. pendulum – bandul
Pupils discuss and conclude water dripping –air menitis
that a process that repeats • state that processes that pulse rate – kadar denyutan
uniformly can be used to repeat uniformly can be nadi
measure time. used to measure time.

Pupils observe the following


processes:
a) the swinging of a
pendulum,
b) water dripping,
c) pulse.

43
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

Pupils discuss why the • state the standard unit for


above processes can be time in the metric system.
used to measure time.

Pupils discuss the standard • identify tools for


unit for time in metric system measuring time.
i.e. second, minute and hour.

Pupils discuss to choose and • measure time using


use appropriate tools and appropriate tools.
units to measure time.

Pupils measure the time • record the time measured


taken to carry out certain in standard unit.
activities using the correct
tools and appropriate units.

Pupils record the


measurement in appropriate
metric unit in a graphic
organiser.

Pupils carry out activity to


design a device for
measuring time e.g. hour
glass or sundial.

44
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
1.7 Realising the Pupils are shown a piece of Pupils Teacher use the
importance of playdough made earlier by following recipe to dough – adunan
using standard teacher and ask to prepare • choose and use the make the playdough. texture – tekstur
units their own playdough using appropriate tools to accuracy – ketepatan
the given recipe. measure the volumes of 400 g flour knead – uli
liquids and masses of the 400 g fine salt ingredient – bahan
Based on the given recipe ingredients in a recipe. 150 ml water mixture - campuran
pupils discuss what tools to 100 ml cooking oil
use for measuring the ½ teaspoon food
ingredients and how to colouring
measure. • give reasons for any
differences in the dough Method:
Pupils make the playdough prepared by pupils using 1.Dissolve salt in
by measuring the ingredients the given recipe. water.
using the measuring tools 2. Mix all ingredients
and units that they have in a bowl.
choosen. 3. Knead the mixture
into a dough.
Pupils feel the texture of the
dough and give reasons for Give the following
any difference in their dough recipe to pupils for
as compared to the them to make some
playdough prepared by the playdough.
teacher.
1 bowl of flour
Pupils conclude that • conclude the need for 2 cups of fine salt
standard units are needed using standard unit. ½ glass of water
for accuracy and ¼ cup of cooking
consistency. oil
a pinch of food
colouring

45
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

Teacher prepares a
few cups and bowls
of various sizes. Let
the pupils choose the
cup and bowl that
they are going to use
for measuring the
ingredients.

Method:
1. Dissolve salt in
water.
2. Mix all ingredients
in a bowl.
3. Knead the mixture
into a dough.

46
INVESTIGATING TECHNOLOGY

Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary


Objectives Activities
1. Technology
1.1 Understanding Pupils test their abilities e.g. Pupils memorise – mengingat
the importance device – alat
of technology in a) try to memorise a • state that there are abilities – keupayaan
everyday life telephone number and limitations to human’s limitation – had keupayaan
then try to memorise abilities to do things. magnifying glass – kanta
another 5 telephone pembesar
numbers without writing overcome - mengatasi
them down,
b) try to jump as high as
possible and touch the
ceiling,
c) try to read the same
writing from different
distances.

Pupils discuss the limit of


their abilities.

Pupils view video to see • identify devices used to Teacher can use video
how technology are used to overcome human’s that shows the use of
overcome human’s limitations. various technologies
limitations. such as:
a) microsurgery,
Pupils discuss and give • relate how certain devices b) hearing aids,
other examples of human’s are used to overcome c) metal detector,
limitations and ways to human’s limitations. d) night vision goggle,
overcome them e.g. e) x-ray.

47
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

a) unable to see the fine


details on an object. This
can be overcome by
using magnifying glass
or microscope,
b) unable to speak loud
enough for someone far
away to hear. This can
be overcome by using
microphone, megaphone
or telephone,
c) unable to walk for long
distance. This can be
overcome by riding a
bicycle or traveling by
car, train, ship or
aeroplane.

1.2 Understanding Pupils gather information Pupils communication –


the development and create folio about the komunikasi
of technology development of technology • give examples of transportation – pengangkutan
in the fields of: development of agriculture – pertanian
a) communication, technology. construction – pembinaan
b) transportation, innovate – mencipta
c) agriculture, betterment – kebaikan
d) construction. mankind-manusia sejagat

E.g. in communication the


development of technology
from smoke signal to drum,
telephone, walkie-talkie, cell
phone and teleconferencing.

48
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities

Pupils give reasons on the • recognise the needs to


needs to innovate or invent innovate or invent devices
devices for the betterment of for the betterment of
mankind. mankind.

1.3 Synthesising Pupils discuss and list the Pupils Problems suggested encounter - hadapi
how technology problems that they may be simple such
can be used to encounter in everyday life. • identify problems they as:
solve problems encounter in their daily
Pupils carry out life. a) losing pencil or
brainstorming session on pen from time to
how to solve the problems • generate ideas to solve time,
identified. the problems identified. b) dust flying around
while cleaning the
Pupils design and make • design a device to solve blackboard.
devices to solve the the problem identified.
problems identified. Teacher advises pupils
• demonstrate how the to design devices that
Pupils present their device invented can be are easy to make.
innovations to the class. used to solve the problem
identified. Encourage pupils to
use recycled materials
when making devices.

49
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
1.4 Analysing that Pupils discuss and list the Pupils Suggested topics for benefit – manfaat
technology can advantages and debate : wisely – secara bijaksana
benefit mankind disadvantages of technology • state that technology has
if used wisely to mankind. advantages and a) Technology can be
disadvantages. harmful to
Pupils hold debates on mankind.
topics related to b) Technology
technology. improves quality of
life.
Pupils make a conclusion • conclude that technology
from the debate that can benefit mankind if
technology can benefit used wisely.
mankind if used wisely.

50
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Advisors Mahzan Bakar SMP, AMP DIRECTOR


CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

ZULKIFLY WAZIR DEPUTY DIRECTOR


CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

Editorial Advisors CHEAH ENG JOO PRINCIPAL ASSISTANT DIRECTOR (SCIENCE AND
MATHEMATICS)
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

HO HENG LING ASSISTANT DIRECTOR (HEAD OF CORE SCIENCE


UNIT)
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

ZAIDI YAZID ASSISTANT DIRECTOR (HEAD OF ELECTIVE


SCIENCE UNIT)
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

YEAP CHIN HENG (PH.D) ASSISTANT DIRECTOR (HEAD OF CORE SCIENCE


UNIT)
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE (UNTIL
JULY 2005)

Editor ZAINON ABD MAJID ASSISTANT DIRECTOR


CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

51
PANEL OF WRITERS
CHEAH ENG JOO CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT LIM YOON KHIM SJKC KWANG HWA,
CENTRE P. PINANG

HO HENG LING CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT LINDA CHENG LEAN BEE SK HUTCHINGS,


CENTRE P. PINANG

ZAIDI YAZID CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT LIM SIEW PENG SK(P} METHODIST,


CENTRE MELAKA

YEAP CHIN HENG CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MAKRIN SUDI SK SAMPIR,


(PH.D) CENTRE SABAH

ZAINON ABD MAJID CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MARZITA OMAR SK PERMATANG BERTAM,


CENTRE P.P

AIZATUL ADZWA M. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MUNISAMY A/L SJKT LADANG HENRIETTA,


BASRI CENTRE SENGODAN KEDAH

AHMAD SALIHIN MAT CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MISIAH SANUSI SK MERBAU SEMPAK,


SAAT CENTRE SELANGOR

LANITA MOHD YUSOF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MAHENDRAN A/L SK(L) METHODIST, K.L
CENTRE SUBRAMANIAM

SALBIAH MOHD SOM CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MOHD FAUZI HASHIM SK PAYA, PERLIS
CENTRE

SALINA HANUM OSMAN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MOHD NASHUHA JAMIDIN MP SULTAN ABD HALIM,
CENTRE (PH.D) KEDAH

52
YUSOF ISMAIL CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT NORMAH ABD WAHAB SK AIR TERJUN,
CENTRE TERENGGANU

ZAIDAH MOHD YUSOF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT NORDIN AMBAK SK RASAU KERTEH,


CENTRE TERENGGANU

ZAINUSHAM YUSOF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT NOOR IEMAH ISMAIL SK SG BEHRANG, PERAK


CENTRE

ZULKIFLI BAHARUDIN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT NOR LAILI HJ. SHOED SK PORT DICKSON,
CENTRE N.SEMBILAN

ABD WAHAB ABD AZIZ SK BUKIT LINTANG, MELAKA NORMAH BAHAROM SK SULTANAH ASMA, KEDAH

ARIFFIN JAAFAR SK KEMAHANG 2, KELANTAN OOI CHONG NAM SJKC YANG KOA,

ABDULLAH IBRAHIM sk WAKAF BHARU, KELANTAN ROHANI AHMAD SK METHODIST, PERAK

AHMAD HASAN sk KUALA PERLIS, PERLIS ROSANANI GHAZALI SK SERI BIRAM, PAHANG

ABU JALIL HASAN ipda JITRA, KEDAH RAIS ABD AZIZ SK BATU LANCHANG,
P.PINANG

AZIZAH NGAH TASIR MP TEKNIK, KUALA LUMPUR ROHAYA AHMAD SK SG. RAMBAI,

ETTIN AK LAMBAT sk ST. FAITH, SARAWAK ROHANA HUSSEIN SK JLN. 2, BANGI,


SELANGOR

53
FUAD HASHIM sk P SULTAN IBRAHIM, JOHOR ROSNAH JOHARI MP BATU RAKIT ,
TERENGGANU

FARIDAH SALLEH sk JIJAN,NEGERI SEMBILAN SITI NORFARIDAH CHAI SK AGAMA MIRI, SARAWAK
ABDULLAH

FATIMAH YUSOFF mpp MELAYU, MELAKA SHAMSURIA EBNI SK ST ANNES, WP LABUAN

FADZILLAH AB SK SERI BUDIMAN II, SURIAKUMARI A/LP SJKT PAYA RUMPUT,


RAHMAN TERENGGANU PALANIYANDI MELAKA

HASANOR SAID MOHD SK TAMAN MELATI, KL SAAT ARIFFIN SK PULAU KUNDUR,


SABRI KELANTAN

IBRAHIM ABDULLAH Sk PENGHULU AHMAD, KEDAH SITI FAUZIAH RIDZUAN SK BATU HAMPAR, KEDAH

INDON SULONG sk MERGONG II, KEDAH TEH MALIHAH HUSSAIN SK SIMPANG EMPAT, PERAK

JAGAJOTHY A/P sk CONVENT GREEN LANE, VENANCY ANGELA SRK ST. ALOYSIUS
SELVARASAH SUIMEN LIMBANAK, SABAH

JAFFRI JOHAN sk BATU HAMPAR, KEDAH WONG POH TECK SK SEMABOK, MELAKA
ZANUDIN

KU NORGAYAH KU SK TASIK APONG, KEDAH ZAINUDDIN ABDULLAH SK BATANG MELAKA,


SULONG MELAKA

54
Curriculum Development Centre
Ministry of Education
2005