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10.1007/s12541-009-0003-6

Improving the Fatigue Resistance of Auto-

motive CNG Storage Vessels

Seung-Moo Han1, Beom-Cheol Hwang2, Ho-Yoon Kim3 and Chul Kim2,#

1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyunghee University, Seoul, Korea, 130-731

2 Research Institute of Mechanical Technology, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Pusan, Korea, 609-735

3 School of Mechanical Engineering and RIMT , Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Pusan, Korea, 609-735

# Corresponding Author / E-mail: chulki@pusan.ac.kr; TEL: +82-51-510-2489; FAX: +82-51-512-9835

Type Ⅱ compressed natural gas (CNG) storage vessels for automobiles are becoming widely used. They are not

only supplied to automakers in Korea (such as Hyundai Motors), but are being exported overseas in increasing

numbers. Autofrettage is a process that produces beneficial residual stresses in a vessel by subjecting it to

excessive internal pressure. This strengthens the vessel and improves its fatigue resistance. This paper presents

research into the autofrettage process and the residual stresses it produces in type Ⅱ CNG storage vessels. Finite

element analysis and a closed-form equation are used. Fatigue resistance is then analyzed via a fatigue evaluation

performed according to ASME section Ⅷ.

1. Introduction

NOMENCLATURE

a = inner radius of a thick-walled cylinder Pressure vessels used for fuel storage in air or ground

transportation have recently become smaller, more highly pressurized,

b = outer radius of a thick-walled cylinder

and lighter in weight than existing tank-type storage vessels. These

c = critical radius for yielding newer pressure vessels can be designed and fabricated in accordance

K = stress intensity factor with ASME Section Ⅷ, Div. 1. However, mobile fuel storage vessels

Pe thin are subject to, for example, vibration, external loads, and thermal

,

= critical pressure to start yielding on the inner

surface of a thin-walled cylinder stresses. To account for specific operational conditions, specific stress

p i = inner pressure applied on a thin-walled cylinder analysis is required to determine a vessel’s durability and resistance to

Pmax = maximum alternating load fatigue. Moreover, the vessel’s fatigue cycling depends on fuel

Pmin = minimum alternating load consumption and charging, which requires the use of ASME Section

Ⅷ, Div. 2. For existing products, autofrettage is carried out after the

S a = alternating stress amplitude

filament-winding procedure is complete to improve the product’s

S a = alternating stress intensity revised

'

S m = mean stress calculated from the load cycle

'

Su = ultimate tensile stress pressure to produce plastic flow in the inner part of the vessel. After

t = minimum required thickness of a walled cylinder this internal pressure has been removed, residual stress persists due to

σ a = alternating stress the plastic flow, or deformation that has taken place, with

σ m = mean stress compression in the inner part and tension in the outer part. Type II

σ r = radial stress CNG fuel storage vessels and other similar storage vessels yield to

low-cycle fatigue1 of thousands to hundreds of thousands of cycles

σ Y = yield stress

during the vessel’s life. The minimum working life for these vessels is

σ θ = circumferential stress of a walled cylinder prescribed to be 15 years, with 750 cycles/year, according to Korea

Gas Safety Corporation regulations, and hence the minimum fatigue

16 / JANUARY 2009 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol. 10, No. 1

life is 11,250 cycles. The stress distribution in a cylinder is known.6 The stress

Even though autofrettage can be analyzed theoretically via component in the elastic region is given in Eqs. (1a) and (1b) for a

classical plasticity theory,2 very little research has been conducted in thick-walled cylinder subject to internal pressure only.

this direction. However, since the fatigue life of pressure vessels or

pipes is an important consideration, research into the application of a2 p

b2

autofrettage to thick-walled pressure vessels or pipes is currently σ =− 2 − 1i

(1a)

b2 − a2

r

r

theoretical approach exists to composite vessels because of contact a2 p b2

σθ = 2 + 1

i

(1b)

problems between metallic liners and reinforced composite materials, b − a 2 r 2

as well as the complex stress behavior of composite materials. A few

papers have presented a finite element analysis of Type III pressure The yield criterion for plain strain, given in Eq. (2), is applied to

vessels,4 but these vessels are different from Type II. Specifically, Eqs. (1a) and (1b). The critical pressure at which the inner surface

they can easily acquire residual stress on account of their thickness yields can then be obtained from Eq. (3).

and the high toughness of the cylinder part, which is especially

characteristic of Type III vessels composed of aluminum liners and 3

external composite materials. (σ θ − σ r ) = σ Y (2)

In this study, an analysis of autofrettage and the resulting residual 2

stress in Type II CNG storage vessels was carried out via a σ a2

p e = Y 1 − 2 (3)

computational method and finite element analysis for circumferential 3 b

compressive residual stress occurring in thin cylinders subject to

internal pressure. To improve the effect of autofrettage on fatigue life, The stress component in the plastic region of a thick-walled

the effect of the residual stresses on fatigue behavior was also cylinder is given in Eqs. (4a) and (4b). The stress component in the

investigated using a fatigue analysis technique prescribed in ASME elastic region can now be written as in Eqs. (5a) and (5b) by

Section Ⅷ , together with the structural analysis of the present study. substituting Eqs. (4a) and (4b) into Eq. (3).

2σ Y r

2. Theory σ r = − pi + ln (4a)

3 a

2.1 Residual stress in pressure vessels 2σ Y

σθ = σ r + (4b)

2.1.1 Thick-walled cylinders 3

A thick-walled cylinder subject to internal pressure is illustrated

σ Y c2 b2

schematically in Fig. 1. σr = − 2 − 1 (5a)

3b r

2

σY c2 b2

σθ = 2 + 1 (5b)

3b r

2

pressure only, can be calculated by subtracting the respective Eqs.

(4a) and (4b) from Eqs. (5a) and (5b).

For thin-walled cylinders, the critical pressure at which the inner

surface yields can be obtained from Eq. (8) by assuming that Eq. (6)

holds, then substituting this into Eqs. (1a) and (1b) and writing the

stress components as in Eq. (7).7

(a) Elastic state

b

b − a = t, ≈1 (6)

r

ap

σ = 0, σ θ = i

(7)

t

r

2σ Y t

p e thin = (8)

3 a

,

the vessel, the overall wall surface can be regarded as undergoing

plastic deformation, since the cylinder wall is thin. Hence, a plastic

solution for a thin-walled cylinder can be written as in Eqs. (10a) and

(10b) by assuming that Eq. (9) holds, and then substituting it into Eqs.

(b) Elastic–plastic state (5a) and (5b).

Fig. 1 Thick-walled cylinders subject to uniform inner and outer c

c − a = t, ≈ 1 (9)

pressure r

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol. 10, No. 1 JANUARY 2009 / 17

σ = −p

r i

(10a) an average stress of 0, should be calculated before constructing a

fatigue curve. This curve can also be obtained from the revised

2σ Y

σθ = − pi (10b) Goodman diagram, or by simply using Eq. (17).

3

Sa

Sa =

'

(17)

The circumferential residual stress can be calculated from Eq. S

1− m

(11) by applying an elastic solution for a thin-walled cylinder, derived Su

from Eq. (7), and the plastic solution given by Eq. (10b).

The ASME provides design fatigue curves for various materials,

2σ Y a and their repetition frequencies can be calculated for the revised

σθ = − p i 1 + (11) alternating stress intensities and elastic coefficients via linear

3 t

interpolation.

2.2 Fatigue life of a pressure vessel

The ASME method7,8 for determining the life of a pressure vessel

utilizes a design fatigue curve with alternating stress intensity. Since 3. Finite element analysis

behavior after yielding is not currently taken into account, the

procedure for calculating1 the alternating stress intensity needs to be 3.1 Modeling and boundary conditions for the CNG storage

revised. A low-cycle fatigue analysis procedure for pressure vessels vessel

based on the ASME code is shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows model no. CNG2-026, which is a typical type II

storage vessel.

The average stress to be used in the analysis of low-cycle fatigue Fig. 3 The terminology for the parts of the CNG storage vessel

does not necessarily coincide with the value calculated directly from

the applied load. Accordingly, the average stress should be revised via The dimensions of the components of existing products are

the procedure given below, before performing a fatigue analysis.9 shown in Fig. 4(a). The finite element analysis model for reviewing

This is because existing fatigue curves were tested in a state of design feasibility is a three-dimensional (3-D) model with a 20°

complete stress reversal, in which the revised average stress is 0. Thus, rotational radius (the product being considered axially symmetric),

the revised Goodman diagrams and equations can be applied to the and the shape and element division are shown in Fig. 4(b).

revision of average stress.

The general Goodman formula10 is given in Eq. (12). Eq. (13)

follows upon setting the revised average stress equal to 0. Here

alternating stress is expressed as in Eq. (14), so the stress amplitude

and the revised average stress can be obtained from Eq. (15) and Eqs.

(16a) and (16b).1

σa σm

+ =1 (12)

S a Su

σ a = Sa (13)

1

σa = max(σ i − σ j ) (14)

2

1

Sa = max(σ i − σ j ), (∵ i, j = 1, 2,3) (15)

2

Sm = Sm ( Sa + Sm ≤ σ Y )

' '

(16a)

S m = σ Y − S a ( Sa + Sm > σ Y and S a ≤ σ Y )

'

(16b)

Sm = 0 (Sa > σ Y ) (16c) (a) Dimension (b) Element division

The existence of average stress reduces a material’s fatigue Fig. 4 The dimension, shape, and element division of the model of a

resistance. Accordingly, the modified alternating stress intensity, with Type II fuel storage vessel

18 / JANUARY 2009 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol. 10, No. 1

Hexahedral element division was used for the finite element 3.2.1 Autofrettage of Type II pressure vessels

analysis because of its overall accuracy and appropriateness in the To obtain compressive residual stress in a pressure vessel, a small

thickness direction. The division was made to have four layers in the amount of plastic deformation caused by yielding of the materials

thickness direction of the metal liner and composite material. must occur. The results of the finite element analysis at the existing

Solid185, 3-D 8-Node Structural Solid or Layered Solid, is used for autofrettage pressure of 40 MPa are shown in Fig. 6.

the metal liner and Solid46, 3-D 8-Node Layered Structural Solid, for

the composite material.11

Parts of the product were selected and modeled as shown in Fig.

5(a) to give a symmetric constraint condition in the tangential

direction and a constrained displacement in the axial direction. In

addition, finite element analysis was conducted by applying the

design pressure to the inside surface of the metal liner.

Type II storage vessels generate residual stress via an autofrettage

process, and hence, the finite element analysis should be conducted

before the design pressure is applied. Thus, the finite element analysis

was performed in accordance with the design pressure by applying

residual stress in loads divided into five steps. The displacement and

load boundary conditions are illustrated in Figs. 5(a) and (b),

respectively.

(a) Displacement

(b) Unloading (0.0 MPa)

Fig. 6 Stress distribution of the steel liner on loading or unloading

The maximum stress is only 775.0 MPa, and does not reach the

yield stress level of 850.0 MPa. To find the minimum inner pressure

at which yielding begins to occur in the metallic liner, a finite element

analysis was conducted by raising the pressure in 2.0-MPa increments

from the existing autofrettage pressure of 40.0 MPa. These results are

shown in Fig. 7.

(b) Load

Fig. 5 The boundary conditions for displacement and load used in FE

analysis of the Type II fuel storage vessel

For CNG storage vessels, the autofrettage that contributes to their

improved structural strength is traditionally carried out after the

filament-winding process. This is done by applying, and then

removing, excessive inner pressure before using the vessels.

Circumferential compressive residual stress is generated via the

yielding of the inner circumference of the liner.

Both Type Ⅱ pressure vessels (AISI 4135H: yield strength 850.0

MPa) and Type Ⅲ pressure vessels (Al6061-T6: yield strength 276.0 Fig. 7 Variation in maximum stress of the steel liner and stiffener of

MPa) were selected for this experiment. the Type II pressure vessel relative to inner pressures

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol. 10, No. 1 JANUARY 2009 / 19

This leads one to expect that a large amount of compressive 3.2.2 Autofrettage of Type III pressure vessels

residual stress will occur in the metallic liner when the autofrettage Type III pressure vessels use aluminum liners and typically have

pressure reaches about 50.0MPa. The changes in compressive reinforcement material of T700 class carbon fiber/epoxy. According

residual stress at up to 58.0MPa-just before the vessel ruptures-are to Table 1, which shows both Type III and Type II design pressures,

shown in Fig. 8. almost no difference exists between the working pressure and the test

pressure, but a small difference exists between the rupture pressure

and the autofrettage pressure. Finite element analysis for Type III

pressure vessels fabricated with Al6061-T6 metallic liners was

conducted using the design pressure. The model had the same

geometry and dimensions as the Type II vessel. This was done to

eliminate the effect of geometrical and dimensional differences, and

to focus the analysis on autofrettage processes related to the

differences in the material and yield point of metallic liners.

AISI 4135H Al6061-T6

Young’s Modulus (GPa) 205 69

Fig. 8 Variation in tangential residual stress of the steel liner of the Yield Strength (MPa) 850 276

Type II pressure vessel relative to inner pressures

Ultimate Tensile Strength

950 310

Compressive residual stress begins to occur when the maximum (MPa)

stress reaches 52.0 MPa of inner pressure-close to the yield point, and

the increased compressive residual stress is very large compared to The properties of the metallic liners used for the finite element

the increased inner pressure. Therefore, the autofrettage pressure analysis are compared to those of AISI 4135H and are listed in Table

should be set at more than 52.0 MPa to generate compressive residual 2. Fig. 10 presents a graph of maximum stress, analyzed up to 10

stress, and thereby improve the fatigue life of the product. The MPa, and obtained by reducing the pressure by 1 MPa decrements

distribution of compressive residual stress generated by increasing the from an inner pressure of 20 MPa (at which rupture is expected). The

autofrettage pressure up to 56.0 MPa is shown in Fig. 9. compressive residual stress for varying inner pressures is plotted in

Fig. 11. Overall tendencies are shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 (the

analysis results for Type II).

an inner pressure of 56.0 MPa Fig. 10 Variation in maximum stress of the steel liner and stiffener

relative to the inner pressures of the Type III pressure vessel

For a Type II pressure vessel in which steel with a high yield

strength is used as a metallic liner, the autofrettage process should be

performed at a pressure close to the rupture point to generate

considerable compressive residual stress, and thereby improve the

vessel's fatigue life.

vessels and Type III pressure vessels (unit: MPa)

Type II Type III

Working Pressure 20.70 20.70

Hydraulic Test Pressure 31.10 31.05

Bursting Pressure 56.90 49.70

Fig. 11 Variation in tangential residual stress of the steel liner relative

Autofrettage Pressure 40.00 35.70

to the inner pressure of the Type III pressure vessel

20 / JANUARY 2009 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol. 10, No. 1

4. Some considerations concerning the finite element material’s yield strength. This can be explained by the yield ratio,12

analysis and the prediction of fatigue life the ratio of the yield strength to the tensile strength, as given in Eq.

(18).

From among design parameters including yield stress, design σY

pressure, and the thickness and inner radius of the cylinder, yield ρY = (18)

σT

stress is the one that designers of CNG storage vessels are able to

determine. However, yield stress depends on material selection, and Normal behavior occurs when the yield ratio measured in terms

materials with high yield stress are typically used for lightweight of the structure’s fatigue behavior ranges from 0.5 to 0.7. This range

vessels. Hence, limitations will exist on the amount of compressive has increased up to 0.75 due to recent developments in steel products.

residual stress that can be produced in storage vessels by autofrettage. However, for materials with tensile strength greater than 600 MPa,

most of the yield ratios exceed 0.9. Hence, yield ratios have become a

4.1 Some considerations concerning the finite element analysis very important consideration in steel products. A high yield ratio

The result derived from Eq. (11) for the residual stress in a thin- means that the range from yielding to rupture is very narrow, which

walled cylinder and the corresponding result for a thick-walled makes the generation of residual stress via autofrettage difficult.

cylinder derived from Eqs. (1) and (5) are given in Table 3.

4.3 Prediction of fatigue life

Table 3 Comparison of residual stresses obtained from theoretical The variables and associated values necessary to obtain the

calculations (unit: MPa) revised alternating stress intensity are listed in Table 4. The maximum

and minimum stresses are values obtained in the absence of

Residual Stress

autofrettage, and the value of the maximum alternating load Pmax is

Thick-walled cylinder – 441.4 set at 25.9 MPa (1.25 times the working pressure), in accordance with

Korea Gas Safety Corporation regulations.13

Thin-walled cylinder 241.5

Table 4 Variables and their values for calculating the revised

The theoretical result for the thick-walled cylinder implies that alternating stress intensity

residual stress is very high during the material’s elastic and elastic-

S max 504.0 MPa Maximum stress during a cycle

plastic deformation, whereas the corresponding result for the thin-

walled cylinder shows that the stress in an elastic-plastic state is S min 0.0 MPa Minimum stress during a cycle

higher than the stress in an elastic state. Fig. 6 shows that no

compressive residual stress occurs in this state. Pmax 25.9 MPa Maximum alternating load

Eq. (11) is applicable to pressure vessels with a 4.3 mm thickness Pmin 0.0 MPa Minimum alternating load

(as shown in Fig. 4).

σY 850.0 MPa Yield strength

4.2 The validity of the autofrettage process

Fig. 12 shows the compressive residual stresses of Fig. 7 and Fig. SU 950.0 MPa Ultimate tensile strength

10 for each stress ratio, where the x-axis indicates the ratio of actual K 3.0 Stress intensity factor

rupture pressure to autofrettage pressure, and the y-axis denotes the

ratio of the yield points to compressive residual stress.

Fig. 12 Comparison of the stress ratios in the steel liner and the pressure of 25.9 MPa

aluminum liner

Fig. 13 shows the stress distribution for the maximum stress

According to this schema, for aluminum liners with relatively low during a cycle under the given conditions. Stress amplitude S a can

yield stress (i.e., Type III), the point at which residual stress occurs is be obtained from Eq. (19a), while the revised stress amplitude for

quickly reached and the amount of stress is large, which agrees well low-cycle fatigue, taking stress concentration into account, can be

with the tendency shown in Eq. (11). In addition, compressive obtained from Eq. (19b).

residual stress begins to occur when an autofrettage pressure of

somewhat more than 85% of the rupture pressure is attained. One can

Sa =

(Pmax − Pmin ) = 12.9MPa (19a)

generate compressive residual stresses of up to about 16% of the liner 2

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol. 10, No. 1 JANUARY 2009 / 21

Sa =

1 (P − Pmin ) = 38.8MPa

K ⋅ max (19b)

analysis shows that virtually no compressive residual stress

occurs, and hence no significant beneficial effects for improving

2 2

the fatigue life.

Furthermore, the values of maximum stress S max and minimum (3) The autofrettage process was analyzed for two kinds of metallic

stress S min can be obtained using finite element analysis results for liners: AISI 4135H and Al6061-T6. The results showed that to

thin-walled, axially symmetric cylinders. generate compressive residual stress, the autofrettage pressure

Using these results, the average stress S m can be obtained from should be set at approximately 85% of the actual rupture pressure.

'

Eq. (20), and the revised average stress S m , taking Eq. (19b) (the Moreover, this process can produce compressive residual stresses

revised stress amplitude) into account, can be obtained from Eq. (21). of up to about 16% of the metal's yield strength.

S m' =

(S max − S min ) = 252.0MPa (20) ACKNOWLEDGMENT

2

S m = 252.0 MPa (∵ Sa + S m < σ Y )

'

Research Grant, 2007.

The alternating stress S a , revised according to Eq. (14), can be

'

REFERENCES

S a = 52.8MPa

'

(22)

1. Lee, O., “Fatigue Analysis of Pressure Vessels pursuant to ASME

A calculation based on the design fatigue curve in Fig. 14 using Code,” Transactions of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Vol.

the revised alternating stress from Eq. (22) gives a result in excess of 8, No. 1, pp. 32-38, 1996.

200,000 cycles, which greatly surpasses the Korea Gas Safety

2. Harvey, J. F., “Theory and Design of Modern Pressure Vessels,”

Corporation’s life requirement of 11,250 cycles, or 750 cycles/year

Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, pp. 61-67, 1974.

over 15 years.

3. Gill, S. S., “The Stress Analysis of Pressure Vessels and Pressure

Vessel Components,” Pergamon Press Ltd., pp. 8-44, 1970.

Predict Repetition Lifespan Considering Liner Compressive

Residual Stress in the Composite Pressure Vessels with Metallic

Liners,” Transactions of Korean Society for Composite Materials,

Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 22-28, 2006.

Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, pp. 59-61, 1974.

Handbook Publishing, Inc., pp. 13-27, 1983.

Fig. 14 Design fatigue curves for carbon, low alloy, series 4XXX, 7. ASME, “ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Ⅷ: Rules for

high alloy steels, and high tensile steels, for temperatures not Construction of Pressure Vessel, Division 2: Alternative Rules,”

exceeding 700°F6 The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Appendix 5,

2004.

5. Conclusions 214, 1993.

In this study, a theoretical formula was derived for calculating the 9. Bednar, H. H., “Pressure Vessel Design Handbook,” Van

compressive residual stress in thin-walled cylinders. The use of Nostrand Reinhold Company, pp.39-54, 1986.

autofrettage as a means of improving the fatigue life of CNG storage

vessels for transportation equipment was validated via the derived 10. Lee, Y. B., Kim, H. G. and Jeong, J. S., “Introduction to Fatigue

formula and finite element analysis. The following conclusions were Analysis,” Cheongmoongak, pp. 30-31, 2005.

obtained. 11. Sohn, S. W., Kwon, D. A. and Hong, S. H., “A Study on Mode I

Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Foam Core Sandwich

(1) A formula was derived to calculate the compressive residual stress Structures,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and

in thin-walled cylinders subject to inner pressure. This formula Manufacturing, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 47-53, 2001.

was derived without considering the effect of reinforcement

materials, but it provides more accurate results when compared to 12. Korea Gas Safety Corporation, “Criteria for Fabrication and

the method for computing residual stress in existing thick-walled Inspection of Steel Liner Composite Vessels for CNG

cylinders. Automobiles,” Korea Gas Safety Corporation, 2000.

(2) A technique was established for predicting the compressive

residual stress resulting from autofrettage using ANSYS, a 13. Kim, J. J., “Experimental Research to Examine Rupture of Steel

common finite element analysis program. For CNG storage Piers under Repeated Loads, Master’s degree thesis,” Chonbuk

vessels with metallic liners made from AISI 4135H material, National University, pp. 15-18, 2005.

when the autofrettage pressure is set at the design pressure, the

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