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EXERCISE 1

1 – The memory in a frame buffer must be fast enough to allow the display to be refreshed at a rate
sufficiently high to avoid flicker. A typical workstation display can have a resolution of 1280×1024
pixels. If it is refreshed 72 times per second, how fast must the memory be? That is, how much time can
we take to read one pixel from memory? What is this number for a 480×640 display that operates at 60
Hz but is interlaced?
• Đối với hệ thống cũ (màu trắng đen) 2bit/pixels. (1280*1024)
o Dung lượng trên 1 frame bufer memory: 1280*1024*0.25=320 KB
o Tốc độ của memory nếu refresh 72times/s: phải >= 72*320=22.5 MB/s
o Thời gian để đọc 1 pixel from memory (giả sử tốc độ là 22.5MB/s): 10.6 ns.
• Đối với hệ thống mới (24 bit and more)/pixels: (1280*1024)
o Dung lượng trên 1 frame buffer memory: 1280*1024*3=3.75 MB
o Tốc độ của memory nếu refresh 72times/s: phải >= 72*3.75=270 MB/s
o Thời gian để đọc 1 pixel from memory (giả sử tốc độ là 270MB/s): 10.6 ns.
• Đối với display 480*640, 60Hz,24bit/pixels:
o Vì đây là interlaced display nên refresh rate thực sự chỉ bằng ½*60 = 30 times/s.
o Dung lượng trên 1 frame bufer memory (24bit/pixels): 480*640*3=900 KB
o Tốc độ của memory nếu refresh 72times/s: phải >= 30*900=26.5 MB/s
o Thời gian để đọc 1 pixel from memory (giả sử tốc độ là 26.5MB/s): 108 ns.

2 – A slight variation on generating the Sierpinski gasket with triangular polygons yields the fractal
mountains used in computer-generated animations. After you find the midpoint of each side of the
triangle, perturb this location before subdivision. Generate these triangles without fill. Later, you can do
this exercise in three dimensions and add shading. After a few subdivisions, you should have generated
sufficient detail that your triangles look like a mountain.
3 – Devise a test to determine whether a two-dimensional polygon is simple.
4 – A certain graphics system with a CRT display is advertised to display any four out of 64 colors.
What does this statement tell you about the frame buffer and about the quality of the monitor?
5 - Devise a test for the convexity of a two-dimensional polygon.
6 – Rewrite the Sierpinski gasket program from chapter 2 such that the left mouse button will start the
generation of points on the screen, the right mouse button will halt the generation of new points, and the
middle mouse button will terminate the program. Include a reshape call back.
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7 – Alter the square-drawing program (section 3.6) to incorporate menus like those described in section
3.7
8 – In computer graphics, objects such as spheres are usually approximated by simpler objects
constructed from flat polygons (polyhedral). Using lines of longitude and latitude, define a set of simple
polygons that approximate a sphere centered at the origin. Can you use only quadrilaterals or only
triangles?
9 – A different method of approximating a sphere starts with a regular tetrahedron, which is constructed
from 4 triangles. Find its vertices, assuming that it is centered at the origin and has one vertex on the y-
axis. Derive an algorithm for obtaining increasingly closer approximation to a unit sphere, based on
subdividing the faces of the tetrahedron.