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Write a report on composite materials, the reason why they are used. Their
major applications in few fields, and some of the latest composite material

SUBJECT: Mechanics Of Solids


SUB CODE: MEC-201
SUBMITTED TO: Mr Ashish K Saran

SUBMITTED BY:
Name:HITESH CHANDEL
Roll no. :RH47H1B65
Reg.no.:10805633
Program:B.Tech(ME)

Introduction
COMPOSITE MATERIAL
Composite materials for construction, engineering, and other similar applications
are formed by combining two or more materials in such a way that the constituents
of the composite materials are still distinguishable, and not fully blended.
One example of a composite material is concrete , which uses cement as a
binding material in combination with gravel as a reinforcement. In many cases,
concrete uses rebar as a second reinforcement, making it a three-phase composite,
because of the three elements involved. Composite materials take advantage of
the different strengths and abilities of different materials

The majority of composite materials use two constituents: a binder or matrix and a
reinforcement. The reinforcement is stronger and stiffer, forming a sort of
backbone, while the matrix keeps the reinforcement in a set place. The binder also
protects the reinforcement, which may be brittle or breakable, as in the case of the
long glass fibers used in conjunction with plastics to make fiberglass. Generally,
composite materials have excellent compressibility combined with good tensile
strength, making them versatile in a wide range of situations.

Engineers building anything, from a patio to an airplane, look at the unique stresses
that their construction will undergo. Extreme changes in temperature, external
forces, and water or chemical erosion are all accounted for in an assessment of
needs. When building an aircraft, for example, engineers need lightweight, strong
material that can insulate and protect passengers while surfacing the aircraft. An
aircraft made of pure metal could fail catastrophically if a small crack appeared in
the skin of the airplane. On the other hand, aircraft integrating reinforced composite
materials such as fiberglass, graphite, and other hybrids will be stronger and less
likely to break up at stress points in situations involving turbulence. in these
composites the reasons for adding the fibres (or, in some cases, particles) are often
rather complex; for example, improvements may be sought in creep, wear, fracture
toughness, thermal stability, etc

TYPES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

Polymer Composite Materials


• A materials scientist who specializes in electronics investigates the properties of computer chips,
circuits, semiconductors, transistors, and other electronic devices. A professional might
experiment with silicon and various composite materials to develop faster, smaller, and more
efficient electronic products.

• Other items made of polyurethane include gaskets, belts, and surfboards. Liquid
crystal polymers (LPCs) are considered a special class of polyesters. These materials have a
strong ability to resist chemical and heat damage.

Carbon Fiber Composite Materials

• The complex interwoven nature of the fiber makes it very difficult to break. In terms of weight-to-
strength ratio, carbon fiber composite is currently the best material that our civilization can
produce in appreciable quantities.

• While actual carbon fiber pieces are used in the highest-quality kits, the much less
expensive carbon fiber dash kits use a simulated carbon fiber applique placed over a plastic
or composite backingmaterial. In most applications, double-sided tape is used to affix the trim
panels into position on a vehicle's dash.

fiberglass Composite Materials

• The binder also protects the reinforcement, which may be brittle or breakable, as in the case of
the long glass fibers used in conjunction with plastics to make fiberglass.
Generally, composite materials have excellent compressibility combined with good tensile
strength, making them versatile in a wide range of situations.

• Using composite materials, engineers and builders can create products that are stronger, more
durable, lighter and lower in costs than traditional materials. Composite materials have made it
possible for structural engineers and manufacturers to create products that would have been
physically impossible with traditional construction materials.

Carbon Composite Materials

• Chronic exposure to low levels can produce arteriosclerosis, impaired vision, and symptoms
similar to Parkinson's disease. The carbon disulfide material safety data sheet (MSDS)
describes the chemical as extremely hazardous in the case of skin or eye contact, ingestion, or
inhalation.

• The complex interwoven nature of the fiber makes it very difficult to break. In terms of weight-to-
strength ratio, carbon fiber composite is currently the best material that our civilization can
produce in appreciable quantities.

Composite Materials Properties

• The goal of composite construction is the unification of the individual component properties to
create a composite material that possesses the desired properties of all component pieces.

• A materials scientist who specializes in electronics investigates the properties of computer


chips, circuits, semiconductors, transistors, and other electronic devices. A professional might
experiment with silicon and various composite materials to develop faster, smaller, and more
efficient electronic products.

FIELD OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL


Composite materials in automobiles
Due to the use of composite material in automobiles, it has reduces its
wieght and milage or efficiecy of automobile is also increased .the strength ,
durability also increased . The automobile industry has shown increased
interest in the replacement of steel springs with fiberglass reinforced
composite leaf springs. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present a
general study on the analysis, design and fabrication of composite springs.
From this viewpoint, the suspension spring of a compact car, “a jeep” was
selected as a prototype.

A single leaf, variable thickness spring of glassfiber reinforced plastic (GFRP)


with similar mechanical and geometrical properties to the multileaf steel
spring, was designed, fabricated (molded and hoop wound) and tested. The
testing was performed experimentally in the laboratory and was followed by
the road test. Comparison between the performance of the GFRP and the
multileaf steel springs is presented.

Composite materials in aerospace


The use of fibre reinforced composites has become increasingly attractive
alternative to the conventional metals for many aircraft components mainly
due to their increased strength, durability, corrosion resistance, resistance to
fatigue and damage tolerance characteristics. Composites also provide
greater flexibility because the material can be tailored to meet the design
requirements and they also offer significant weight advantages. Carefully
designed individual composite parts, at present, are about 20-30% lighter
than their conventional metal counterparts. Although all-composite airplanes
are now available in the world market, yet advances in the practical use of
composite materials should enable further reduction in the structural weight
of airplane. The composite materials used in aircraft industry are generally
reinforced fibres or filaments embedded in a resin matrix. The most common
fibres are carbon, aramid, glass and their hybrid. The resin matrix is
generally an epoxy based system requiring curing temperatures between
120° and 180°C (250° and 350°F).

Composite materials in medical field


Artificial limbs are lighter in weight and better appearance than ever before
with improved gait for the patients. The limb consists of five parts: a FRP
tubular structure, top & bottom connectors, PU foot with composite keel
embedded in it and a polypropylene socket to accommodate the amputee
stump. The socket made of polypropylene is patient specific and does not
create any problems like pressure sores even for diabetic patients. All the
five parts and the socket are adjustable to meet individual requirements and
to take care of static & dynamic alignment patterns

Composite materials in construction


Most bridges are built of steel-reinforced concrete because of its strength
and durability; but after decades of supporting heavy loads, many bridges
need repair or replacement. A promising alternative to the enormously costly
option of complete replacement is the use of graphite epoxy, a strong and
lightweight carbon-reinforced polymer capable of withstanding heavy loads.
Polymer sheets used to reinforce bridge beams have increased load capacity
30 and 65 percent and have proved durable on bridge spans as long at 26
feet.
Composite materials in transportion

IN OIL & GAS PIPELINES


GRE pipes are commonly used in oil transportation where resistance to crude
oil, paraffin build- up as well as ability to withstand relatively high pressures
is required. GRE piping system is also being used on offshore rigs for sea
water cooling lines, air vent systems, drilling fluids, fire fighting, ballasts and
drinking water lines in offshore application. The lightweight helps reduce
heavy and expensive construction cost. Established Oil fields use GRE pipes
for high pressure and steam injection lines for the recovery of oil preserves.
GRE piping system can withstand the detrimental effect of brackish water
when expelled under pressure from fire mains. The effect of rupture free GRE
pipes under such shocks makes the system more reliable. The chemical
resistance & service temperature of such composites in a particular fluid
depends on resin formulations, additives used etc.

IN RAIL COACH
FRP gear-cases for the traction motors for diesel and electric locomotives as
replacement of existing steel gear-cases. Unlike steel gear-case, FRP gear-
cases prevent the leakage of lubricating medium and are safe from damages
by ballast hits. These gear-cases have longer service life compared to steel
ones. In addition, weight saving to the tune of 400 Kg. Per six-axle system
has been achieved. The FRP gear-cases on extensive and large-scale field-
trials are now being inducted by the railway
CONCLUSIONS
Globally, composite technology and its applications had made tremendous
progress during the last two decades or so, as evident from the present level
of consumption of composite materials at about 2.2 million MT, with the Asia-
Pacific region accounting for about 24% of this usage.

REFRENCES
1 . www.compositesways.com
2. www.materially.co.jp
3. www.nanotec.com