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Tutorial for Asymmetric Fault

1 (a) Draw the connection diagram of the sequence networks for a single-line-to-ground
fault. Derive, from first principle, how would the fault resistance be included in the
diagram.
(b) The zero sequence impedance of power system components (e.g. circuits and
generators) is usually greater than that of the positive/negative sequence. Why is that
the single-line-to-ground fault current is often more severe than a three-phase fault
(c) In Fig. 1, a single-line-to-ground fault occurs at busbar B. Assuming that the prefault
voltage of each generator is 1.3 pu, calculate
(i) the fault current,
(ii) the current flowing in the faulted phase of the line,
(iii) the neutral current of the two transformers, and
and sketch these current flows.
Given that: Generators G1 & G2: X1”= X2”=0.1 pu
Transformers T1 & T2: X1= X2= X0=0.1 pu
Line: X1= X2= 0.05 pu, X0=0.1 pu

G1 T1 A B T2 G2
Line
Fig 1

[ Ans: (i) 13.5, (ii) 5.5, 8, (iii) 4.5, 9 ]

2. In Fig. 2, a single-line-to-ground fault occurs at busbar 1. Assuming that the prefault voltage
of each generator is 1.0 pu, calculate
(i) the fault current,
(ii) the current flowing in the phase conductors of the line,
(iii) the neutral current of transformer T1 (neutral of T2 is not earthed).
Sketch these current flows at the fault incident.
Given that: Generators G1 & G2: X1”= X2”=0.1 pu
Transformers T1 & T2: X1= X2=0.1 pu, X0=0.26 pu
Line: X1= X2= 0.1 pu, X0=0.2 pu

G1 T1 Bus1 Bus 2 T2 G2
Line
Fig. 2

[ Ans : (i) 6, (ii) 0.8, 0.8, 4.4 &1.6 (iii) 6 ]


3. (a) Derive the relationships of the symmetric components at the fault terminals for (i) L-
L-L fault and (ii) L-L-L-G fault. State the assumptions in deriving the equivalents, and
hence discuss the difference in the zero sequence current between the mathematic
calculation and the actual implementation.

(b) A fault occurs on a transmission line at a distance of one-third of line length from Bus
2 as shown in Fig. 3. Determine
(i) the fault currents
(ii) the fault flows in the three line conductors, and
(iii) the two neutral current.

Given: Generators G1: X1”= X2”=0.1 pu, and prefault voltge 1.0 pu
Transformers T1 & T2: X1= X2=0.1 pu, X0=0.26 pu
Line: X1= X2= 0.3 pu, X0=0.6 pu

G1 T1 Bus1 Bus 2 T2
Line
Fig. 3

[ Ans: (i) 2.8, (ii) 0.55, 0.55, 2.55//0.55 (iii) 1.15, 1.65 ]

4. In Fig. 4, a single-line-to-ground fault occurs at a line length of 1/3 from Bus 2. Assuming that
the prefault voltage of each generator is 1.0 pu, calculate
(i) the fault current at fault point,
(ii) the fault current flowing in the three conductors of the line, and
(iii) the neutral fault current of generator and transformer.
Sketch the magnitude and direction of all these currents.

Given that:
Generators G1 & G2: X1”= X2”=0.1 pu, X0=0.2pu (earthed via reactance 0.1pu)
Transformers T1 & T2: X1= X2= 0.1 pu, X0=0.3 pu (solidly earthed)
Line: X1= X2= 0.6 pu, X0=0.9 pu

G1 T1 Bus1 Bus 2 T2 G2
Line
Fig. 4

[ Ans: (i) 3.077 (ii) 0.36, 0.36, 1.9065//0.36, (iii) 1.187x3, 1.079 ]

5. For symmetric circuit (e.g. 3-core cable), prove that Z0=ZS+2ZM and Z1=Z2=ZS−ZM, where ZS
is the self impedance of each conductor and ZM is the mutual impedance between conductors.