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Jasmine Morgado

April 13, 2011

Read Pg. 338-348 Answer Pg. 351 #1-11
Read Pg. 352-363 Answer Pg. 363 #1-12
Read Pg. 364-370 Answer Pg. 374 #1-10
Pg. 351

1) Three reasons that early cultures had for observing and keeping track of celestial phnomenona
were to mark the passage of time, foretell the changing of seasons, and indicate direction during

2) a) June 21st (summer solstice) is the day in the year with the greatest amount of daylight.

b)December 21st (winter solstice) is the day in the year with the greatest amount of daylight.

3) The two equinoxes have equal length.

4) The geocentric model of the universe showed the Earth, with the Sun, Moon, and five known
planets revolving around it.

5) The term to describe the movement shown in the figure would be orbital radius.

6) Three tools developed and used by early astronomers before the invention of the telescope are
the quadrant, the astrolabe, and the cross-staff.

7) The main difference between a refracting telescope and a reflecting telescope is that a refracting
telescope uses two lenses to gather and focus starlight, while a reflecting telescope use mirrors
instead of lenses.

8) a) The ground-based Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope detected the most distant black hole yet
discovered by man in the universe.

b) Canada's space-based MOST telescope discovers hidden features on the inside of stars by
recording vibrations that occur on the surface.

9) Four ways in which early people would have applied the knowledge of season shifts in planning
their daily lives are that it would help them know when the weather would drastically change,
plan the best times for planting, when to harvest their crops, and to track the migration of
animals for hunting.


11) Radio astronomers can make observations at any time during the day while optical astronomers
can't because radio astronomers use radio waves while optical astronomers use visible light.
Pg. 363

1) A space shuttle transports personnel and equipment to orbiting spacecraft, while a space probe
contains instrumentation for carrying out robotic exploration of space.

2) Three spinoff products developed for space exploration adapted for use on Earth are modern
thermometers, dehydrated food, and memory foam.

3) Artificial satellite is defined as man-made equipment that orbits around the earth or the moon.

4) The Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite in 1957.

5) Broadcast and broadband Internet services became available in Canada for the first time with
the launch of the Anik 1 satellite in 1972.

6) A geostationary orbit is defined as a geosynchronous orbit that is fixed with respect to a position
on the Earth.

7) Information on natural disasters due to hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity can be found
by making sensitive measurements of variations in Earth's gravity.

8) The information revealed to scientists if they were to observe the lake for several decades could
be that over time, the water has weared away the rocky outcrops surrounding it, as well as the

9) Real-time imaging might be used to help people respond to natural disasters because they can
see where the disaster is worst, at that exact moment.

10) Digital images of Earth can be used by computers to detect information beyond the photographs
themselves, such as temperatures, and much more.

11) a) It could show whether the rainforest is getting enough water and how deforestation is
effecting it over time.

b) Tracking it's growth over time.

c) To show where swamps and other problem areas are located, so that they can avoid them.

12) Five important ways Canada has contributed to, and participated in, space research, technology,
and exploration are with the Canadarm2, Mobile Remote Servicer Base System, Special
Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Canadian Space Vision System (CSVS), Canadian
MSS Training Facility (CMTF).

Pg. 374

1) a) Is it right to spend billions of dollars to send a few people into space when millions of people
on Earth do not have clean drinking water? Should billions of dollars be spent to explore space
when there are problem on Earth to fix?

b) Who owns space? Who is entitled to claim its resources?

c) Who is responsible for cleaning up the space environment? Who should pay for “space junk”
clean up?

2) Microgravity is when the gravitational forces that act on a mass are greatly reduced.

3) The lack of an Earth-like atmosphere in space is a challenge for humans travelling there and
exploring other celestial objects because of the solar radiation they are exposed to, colliding
with asteroids, comets, and space debris (which is a factor we are not accustumed to here on
Earth), and adjusting to microgravity.

4) Some of the more serious negative effects on health for humans living for extended periods in a
microgravity environment are that the heart is weakened by not having to pump as hard as it
normally does, the muscles we use for walking and lifting are not put into action as much,
bones lose minerals because they pressure on them is less than on Earth, and the red blood cell
production declines and the body's immune system weakens.

5) The best way for astronauts to counteract the effects of microgravity while they are in space is
to exercise.

6) The metal hull of a spacecraft to Mars may not be able to shield astronauts effectively enough
to prevent them from getting an increased risk in cancer because of the solar radiation it will be
exposed to for longer periods than previous flights.

7) a) Advantages to sending robotic probes into space rather than people are that you do not have
to worry about solar radiation, food, exercise, and psychological effects.

b) Advantages to sending people into space rather than robotic probes are that if there are any
last minute adjustments to the directions, or unforeseen occurrences, it will be easier to
communicate with a human being than a robotic probe.

8) The availability of water is a major concern during space exploration to the Moon or Mars
because water is too heavy to transport.

9) Does landing on a celestial object mean you own it? Should we risk the lives of people just to
“learn more?”

10) Serious plans to visit Mars on a one-way trip (even if the visitors are volunters), it is usually
challenged for ethical reasons because you are sending people to try to live on a planet that is
inhabitable. You are basically sending them to their death. Yes, we might get more information
about Mars, but is it really worth the cost of human lives? Shouldn't life be more important than