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Lexington, KY 40546

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Number 1263 April 12, 2011
-Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot of Alfalfa -Managing Flowering Crabapple Fire Blight

-Disease Update for the Week of April 11 -Periodical Cicada Emergence in West Kentucky

-EPA Approves the Use of Mancozeb on -Time to Assess Eastern Tent Caterpillar (ETC)
Peppers and other Maneb-Only Vegetables Populations on Horse Farms
-Recognizing Late Blight on Tomato Seedlings
WHEAT -Carpenter Bees
-2011 Wheat Fungicide Efficacy
-Fruit Disease Forecasting Using Kentucky INSECT TRAP COUNTS
Mesonet Weather Data


Sclerotinia Crown Rot and Stem Rot of

By Paul Vincelli

Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR) was

diagnosed last week in western Kentucky,
causing substantial damage to a fall seeding of
alfalfa. This disease attacks fall-seeded stands
because the fungus produces spores in the Figure 1. Complete stand loss from a severe
autumn, mostly from mid-October through outbreak of Sclerotinia crown and stem rot of
November. Spring-seeded stands usually have alfalfa.
adequate resistance to infection by the time
spores are produced. However, fall-seeded
stands are still vulnerable to infection, and so Symptoms and Signs
they may suffer stand loss. The stand losses Symptoms likely to be seen at this time of year
caused by SCSR vary from minor to very severe are as follows:
(Figure 1). • Yellowing, wilting, and browning of
randomly scattered plants throughout
the planting. During humid conditions,
infected plants may exhibit white fungal
mycelium (Figure 2). These symptoms
are typical of ongoing infections, so
these fields will probably continue to
experience disease development for Management
several more weeks. If weather remains There are a few alfalfa varieties that show partial
generally cool and wet, disease resistance to this disease. Complete resistance is
development could continue for as long not available in commercial varieties, but partial
as 4-6 weeks. Sustained periods of resistance can reduce stand loss caused by this
warm, dry weather will arrest the disease. If considering a late-summer seeding, it
disease. is important to use a variety that has been shown
• Disease does sometimes cause complete to exhibit partial resistance under field
or nearly complete death of plants. In conditions in Kentucky. This is important
other words, alfalfa seeded last fall may because some of the worst disease pressure from
simply fail to green up (as in Figure 1). Sclerotinia crown and stem rot in the nation is in
For stands that were lush and vigorous Kentucky. Variety evaluations conducted in
going into winter and then died during other states are useful, but if a variety hasn’t
winter, Sclerotinia crown and stem rot is been tested for resistance under Kentucky
the most likely culprit (although not the conditions, it hasn’t been adequately tested for
only culprit). use in Kentucky.

The variety Phoenix has been shown to have a

significant level of Sclerotinia resistance under
Kentucky conditions, so that is certainly one to
consider for late-summer plantings. Be aware
that these varieties can still suffer stand loss
from the disease, but they will suffer
considerably less stand loss than the many
susceptible varieties on the market. Cimarron
SR is also a good choice from the standpoint of
Sclerotinia. Beyond these, I am unaware of
Figure 2. White fungal growth on rotting
other varieties that have held up against the
alfalfa crown, indicating an active infection severe disease pressure we sometimes get in
of SCSR. Kentucky.

Growers with crops sustaining outbreaks of this

Look for fungal survival bodies called
disease should take this opportunity to determine
"sclerotia" to diagnose this disease. The sclerotia
which fields are showing the problem. This will
look like tiny black pebbles about 1/16 to 1/8
help them identify fields in which to avoid fall
inch in size, with a white or gray center (Figure
seeding in the future. The Extension publication
3). They can be found attached to dead plants. If
Risk Factors for Sclerotinia Crown and Stem
plants have been rotted away, the sclerotia will
Rot in Fall-seeded Alfalfa
be scattered about on the soil surface where
plants once were present.
y/ext_files/PPFShtml/PPFS-AG-F-2.pdf) has
more information on the disease.

Figure 3. Black, hardened survival bodies of the

SCSR fungus (at arrow).
TOBACCO about applying mancozeb on tobacco at this time
and should consider its regular use in the float
Disease Update for the Week of April 11 system to manage diseases like Rhizoctonia
By Kenny Seebold damping-off and target spot.

Current Problems Some growers have also asked if Ridomil Gold

In last week’s issue of Kentucky Pest News (No. SL is now legal to use in the float bed to manage
1262), we took a look at two common, early- Pythium root rot. This probably stems from
season diseases of tobacco seedlings – language in the 24(c) label that was recently
Rhizoctonia damping-off and target spot. A few approved that allows the use of this fungicide in
cases of each have been reported over the past transplant water at setting time (Kentucky Pest
week (Figures 4 and 5), and I would expect News No. 1261, March 29 2011). Ridomil Gold
more to come given the recent warm-up and can only be used in the field, and cannot be
subsequent spate of overcast, rainy weather. applied to float water; Terramaster EC is the
From a management perspective, growers only product labeled for control of Pythium root
should be focusing on providing good rot in float systems.
ventilation for their plants (as much as is
practical given the weather), maintaining proper
fertility (~ 100 ppm N), and applying fungicides
on regular schedule. The choice of fungicide to
use depends on the age of seedlings in the float
bed. Plants that are dime-sized up to those ready
to clip should be treated on a 5-7 day schedule
with a mancozeb fungicide such as Dithane DF,
Manzate Pro-Stick, or Penncozeb 75DF at a rate
of 0.5 lb/100 gal of spray mixture (1 tsp / gal).
After the first or second clipping, the best option
would be Quadris applied at a rate of 4 cc per 5
gal of spray solution. The solution should be
sprayed onto 1000 sq. ft. of float bead (roughly
400 trays) so as to achieve good leaf coverage Figure 4. Damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani on
and stem rundown. Quadris can be used only young tobacco seedlings (Photo: Jay Hettmansperger).
once on seedlings in the float system, so growers
must switch back to a mancozeb fungicide if
additional treatments are required. Refer to
Kentucky Pest News No. 1262 (April 5, 2011)
for more information, or consult the 2011-2012
Kentucky-Tennessee Tobacco Production Guide
(University of Kentucky Publication No. ID-

Tobacco Fungicide News

A rumor has been floating around about the use
of Dithane DF (and other mancozeb fungicides)
on tobacco seedlings, specifically that Altria
(PM USA) has prohibited the use of these Figure 5. Early-stage target spot on tobacco
products in the float system. I have spoken with seedlings (Photo: Jay hettmansperger).
an Altria representative regarding this, and have
been informed that the company has not banned
mancozeb on tobacco – either on seedlings or in
the field. Growers should not be concerned
VEGETABLES lettuce, and pepper. So far, only Manzate Pro-
Stick has this supplemental labeling, but other
EPA Approves the Use of Mancozeb on mancozeb products (Dithane, Penncozeb) could
Peppers and Other Maneb-Only Vegetables follow shortly. Late last year, approval was also
By Kenny Seebold given to use mancozeb on pumpkins and winter
squash. The products that have the pumpkin /
In late 2008, all registrations for maneb winter squash labeling are Manzate Pro-Stick
fungicides in the U.S. were cancelled by their and Dithane DF. This is a great development for
manufacturers. Maneb products are important pepper growers in particular, who now have a
protectant fungicides used by many vegetable replacement for maneb in the form of Manzate
producers in Kentucky and include Maneb 75DF Pro-Stick to use in tank-mixes with copper
and Manex. There are also a number of maneb- fungicides to help suppress bacterial leaf spot.
based home garden materials offered by As mentioned earlier, only Manzate can be used
companies such as Hi-Yield and Bonide. The on peppers, cabbage, broccoli, and lettuce for
main reason for the voluntary cancellation was now. For those growing pumpkins and winter
based on the high cost of maintaining the squash, either Manzate or Dithane can be used
Federal registration compared to the amounts as a direct substitute for maneb (Maneb and
sold each year. Maneb was produced through Manex). Supplemental labels for either Manzate
the end of 2008, and could be sold legally or Dithane must be in the possession of the
through the end of 2009. grower when these products are used.

The loss of maneb on certain crops took away an

important protectant fungicide and a valuable
tank-mix partner for fungicides that are prone to
the development of resistance. What’s more, Recognizing Late Blight on Tomato Seedlings
Kentucky’s pepper growers have been advised By Kenny Seebold
for years to mix copper fungicides with maneb
or the related fungicide mancozeb to help The vegetable growing season is upon us, and
improve control of bacterial leaf spot. It turns garden centers are beginning to sell transplants
out that these fungicides help make the copper for homeowners. Commercial nurseries and
more effective against the bacterial pathogens growers are also gearing up for transplanting.
that cause this disease. Losing maneb has Tomatoes have always been a popular vegetable
therefore left us with a less-than-optimal crop for both home gardeners and commercial
chemical solution for pepper bacterial spot. growers in Kentucky, and transplant-borne
diseases such as bacterial spot, bacterial canker,
For some vegetable producers, the loss of maneb and recently late blight, have caused serious
has had very little impact. Growers who losses in some years.
produce sweet corn, cucurbits (except pumpkins
and winter squash), onions, potatoes, and Importance
tomatoes can simply replace maneb with the Late blight is an extremely important and
fungicide mancozeb, sold as Dithane, damaging disease of tomatoes and potatoes, and
Penncozeb, and Manzate. On the down side, occurs wherever these crops are grown. Until
those who grow broccoli, cabbage, lettuce, recently, late blight was considered a minor
peppers, pumpkins, and winter squash could not, problem in Kentucky; however, a severe
until recently, use mancozeb legally because of outbreak in July, 2009 caused heavy losses to
label restrictions, even though maneb and home gardeners and commercial producers.
mancozeb are practically identical chemicals. Although the source of this outbreak was never
determined, introduction on infected transplants
In early April, the EPA approved mancozeb for was suspected. In May, 2010, late blight was
use on several crops that had been previously confirmed on tomato transplants being sold by a
only on the maneb label – broccoli, cabbage, number of retail garden centers in central and
northern Kentucky. No serious outbreaks extracted. Potential sources of inoculum
occurred that year because of the hot and dry (spores) that can affect tomato seedlings for
weather that prevailed, but losses would have personal use or sale in Kentucky include:
been high in a cooler, wetter summer due to the volunteer potatoes; infected tomatoes in
sheer number of infected transplants that were greenhouses or other protected environment;
sold to unsuspecting gardeners. Introduction of imported, diseased, planting material; and spores
this disease on transplants may or may not take blown in from areas where late blight is active.
place every year, but represents a threat to Tomato plugs or seedlings produced out of state
tomato (and potato) producers in Kentucky. are thought to become exposed to the late blight
Tomato seedlings that have late blight when pathogen from infected volunteer tomatoes and
transplanted can serve as sources of inoculum potatoes, susceptible weed hosts, or susceptible
(spores) that can spread to nearby gardens and plants such as tomatoes, eggplants, and petunias
commercial plantings, so every measure should (related to tomatoes) grown in greenhouses.
be taken to prevent these plants from making it
to the field. The added threat is that sources of Late blight is most aggressive during periods of
disease are introduced early in the tomato cool and wet weather. The ideal climate for
production season, magnifying the potential for infection and development is characterized by
heavy losses in seasons that favor late blight. cool nights (50-59o F) and warm days (70-79o F)
Learning to identify late blight on tomato along with frequent periods of rain, fog, or
seedlings is extremely important for home heavy dew. Disease development is slowed or
gardeners and commercial producers. This stopped at temperatures above 86o F, although
knowledge will help prevent the unintentional the pathogen can remain dormant in infected
introduction of a devastating disease AND allow tissue and re-emerge if temperatures fall back to
other tomato and potato growers to be alerted to the disease-favorable range. During favorable
a potential threat. conditions, symptoms will appear around 5 days
after infection occurs, and spore production will
Symptoms and Signs begin on infected tissue 1-2 days later. Large
On seedlings, late blight first appears as circular- numbers of spores are produced, and are then
to-irregularly shaped, water-soaked blotches on spread by wind, water splash, or mechanical
leaves, petioles, and stems that expand rapidly contact. Thus, the disease can spread rapidly in
under favorable conditions (Figures 6 and 7). In transplant production facilities and retail outlets.
humid environments, white and fuzzy fungal And once infected tomatoes make it into gardens
growth may be present and indicates that spores and commercial fields, a large-scale epidemic is
are being produced and released into the area. likely if weather is cool and rainy for extended
Extensive blighting of foliage follows; death of periods of time.
seedlings is common where stem infections
occur. If conditions become unfavorable for Tips for Buying Healthy Tomato Seedlings
disease after the appearance of symptoms, 1. If possible purchase plants grown
lesions can “dry out”, leaving brown-to-black locally from seed and not plugs brought
necrotic areas on foliage and stems. in from out-of-state. The risk from late
blight is generally lower on these types
Cause and Disease Development of plants than on imported, finished
Late blight is caused by Phytophthora infestans, plants or locally-grown plants produced
a fungus-like organism belonging to a group of from imported plugs.
microorganisms called “oomycetes” or water 2. Look carefully at all plants on display
molds. The late blight pathogen needs living for the characteristic symptoms and
tissue to survive and does not generally signs of late blight (refer to figures).
overwinter in Kentucky, as susceptible hosts are The disease may be evident on just a
killed during the cold winter months. The few plants in a garden center at first, and
pathogen does not survive on seeds, even if the symptoms will be mild. The disease
disease was present on the crop before seed were often develops earliest in shaded areas
of the retail bench, particularly beneath Cooperative Extension Service for
overhanging racks. Left unmanaged, the assistance in identifying the problem
disease can affect large numbers of before moving these seedlings outside.
seedlings in a short time frame.
3. If you suspect that plants are infected by
late blight, alert your local Cooperative
Extension representative as quickly as
possible. Suspect plants need to be
tested quickly to confirm the presence of
late blight. This is important because
certain diseases or environmental
problems can mimic late blight, and
laboratory tests are needed to provide a
positive identification. Do not buy
plants from retail outlets where late
Figure 6. Darkened, irregular, and water-soaked
blight is suspected until testing is lesions on leaves or stems are typically seen on
complete. It may seem reasonable to seedlings affected by late blight.
just buy the healthy-looking plants
around those that appear to be diseased,
but there is still risk if late blight is
active in the retail center. It takes
several days from the time a plant is
infected by the late blight pathogen to
the appearance of symptoms. Plants that
seem healthy could actually have the
disease and would certainly show
symptoms once brought home and
planted. If tests come back negative, it
should be safe to plant seedlings
purchased from that particular retail
Figure 7. Stem lesions typical of late blight on
outlet. tomato seedlings. These lesions may girdle the
4. Do not purchase tomato seedlings from stem and kill growth above that point.
a retail center where late blight has been
confirmed until all plants have been
destroyed and new, healthy stock
brought in. In cases where late blight is WHEAT
confirmed in retail outlets, Cooperative
Extension will work with store 2011 Wheat Fungicide Efficacy
management to help bring the problem By Don Hershman
under control.
5. As an added measure of safety, consider Each year, the North Central Regional
holding purchased plants in an isolated Committee on Management of Small Grain
area for a week before transplanting Diseases (NCERA-184) revises and
them in the garden or field. Water the disseminates a fungicide efficacy table. Efficacy
plants as needed and watch for the ratings for each fungicide listed in the following
appearance of symptoms of late blight table were determined by field testing fungicides
(or other diseases and even insects). over several years and locations by the members
Plants that appear healthy after this of the committee. Efficacy is based on proper
period will likely be safe to plant. If late application timing to achieve optimum
blight (or another problem) is suspected, effectiveness of the fungicide as determined by
contact a representative of the labeled instructions and overall level of disease
in the field at the time of application. Differences in efficacy among fungicide products were determined
by direct comparisons among products in field tests and are based on a single application of the labeled
rate as listed in the table. The table includes most widely marketed products, and is not intended to be a
list of all labeled products.

One thing you might notice about the below table is that efficacy information is not complete for some
fungicides. This is an artifact of a new trend in fungicide development and marketing for grain crops. In
the “old days” fungicides were always tested by scientists at universities in order to generate independent,
unbiased efficacy data. Nowadays, many products are tested internally within companies and/or by
private contractors who sign confidentially agreements. The net effect is that new products are getting
labels, but there is little to no publically available efficacy data. The fact that EPA grants new fungicide
registration labels without scrutinizing efficacy data, sets the stage for new fungicides to be labeled for a
crop, but with little or no public efficacy data to support the label. When university scientists don’t get a
chance to evaluate products before they come into the market place, farmers are “on their own” in terms
of making fungicide selections for those products until public research and practical experience with the
product catches up.

Management of Small Grain Diseases

Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Wheat Diseases
(Revised 4-6-11)
Efficacy of fungicides for wheat disease control based on appropriate application timing



Powdery leaf/glume Septoria Tan Stripe Leaf Stem Head Harvest

Active ingredient Product Rate/A (fl. oz) mildew blotch leaf blotch spot rust rust rust5 scab Restriction
Quadris 2.08 SC F(G)1 VG VG E E2 E VG NL 45 days
6.2 - 10.8

Fluoxastrobin 3
Evito 480 SC G -- --3 --3 --3 VG --3 NL 40 days
2.0 – 4.0

Headline SC G VG VG E E2 E G NL Feekes 10.5
6.0 - 9.0

Alto 100 SL --3 --3 --3 --3 --3 --3 --3 --3 30 days
3.0 - 5.5

Caramba 0.75
Metconazole 8.6% VG VG --3 VG E E E G 30 days
10.0 - 17.0

Tilt 3.6 EC4 VG VG VG VG VG VG VG P Feekes 10.5

Proline 480 SC 5.0 - 5.7 --3 VG VG VG --3 VG VG G 30 days

Tebuconazole Folicur 3.6 F4 G VG VG VG E E E F 30 days

38.7% 4.0

%Tebuconazole Prosaro 421 SC G VG VG VG E E E G 30 days
19% 6.5 - 8.2

Metconazole 7.4% TwinLine 1.75

G VG VG E E E VG NL Feekes 10.5
e of

Pyraclostrobin 12% EC
7.0 – 9.0
11.7% Quilt 200 SC VG VG VG VG E E VG NL Feekes 10.5
Azoxystrobin 7.0% 14.0

11.7% Quilt Xcel 2.2
--3 VG --3 --3 --3 VG --3 NL Feekes 10.5
Azoxystrobin SE5

Stratego 250 EC G VG VG VG VG VG VG NL 35 days
Trifloxystrobin 10.0

Absolute 500 3
G -- --3 --3 --3 E --3 NL 35 days
Trifloxystrobin22.6 5.0

Efficacy categories: NL=Not Labeled and Not Recommended; P=Poor; F=Fair; G=Good; VG=Very Good; E=Excellent. Efficacy
designation with a second rating in parenthesis indicates greater efficacy at higher application rates.

Efficacy may be significantly reduced if solo strobilurin products are applied after stripe rust infection has occurred

Insufficient data to make statement about efficacy of this product

Multiple generic products containing the active ingredients propiconazole and tebuconazole may also be labeled in some states.
Products including tebuconazole include: Embrace, Monsoon, Muscle 3.6 F, Onset, Orius 3.6 F, Tebucon 3.6 F, Tebustar 3.6 F,
Tebuzol 3.6 F, Tegrol , and Toledo. Products containing propiconazole include: Bumper 41.8 EC, Fitness, Propiconazole E-AG, and
PropiMax 3.6 EC.
This information is provided only as a guide. By law, it is the responsibility of the pesticide applicator to read and follow all current
label directions. No endorsement is intended for products listed, nor is criticism meant for products not listed. Members or
participants in the NCERA-184 committee assume no liability resulting from the use of these products.


Fruit Disease Forecasting Using Kentucky because of the growth in recent years of
Mesonet Weather Data Kentucky’s Mesonet Weather System.
By Paul Vincelli, Extension Plant Pathologist
John Hartman, Extension Plant Pathologist The Kentucky mesonet is a research grade
Tom Priddy, Extension Agricultural network of automated weather and climate
Meteorologist monitoring stations being developed by the
John Strang, Extension Horticulturalist Kentucky Climate Center at Western Kentucky
University ( The
For a number of years, the University of Kentucky mesonet currently includes 56 weather
Kentucky’s Agricultural Weather Center has stations, with more expected as funding permits.
offered weather-based disease prediction models If we base fruit disease predictions on mesonet-
for the benefit of apple and grape producers in based data instead of NWS data, we can use all
making disease management decisions. Until 56 mesonet weather stations to feed into the
this year, predictions of disease models for fruit models. Using the data in all these mesonet
crops have been based on weather data available stations should result in improved disease
from fifteen National Weather Service (NWS) prediction for fruit producers, since there are
stations located throughout Kentucky. However, more likely to be nearby weather stations in the
disease predictions that have a greater mesonet network than the NWS network.
geographic “reach” throughout the
commonwealth are now possible. This is However, before switching our disease
predictions to mesonet-based data, we wanted
some assurance that the weather data feeding
into the models would be similar between the
two systems. We conducted a series of analyses,
but we’ll only present two here for the sake of
brevity. In both cases, we focused our analyses
on estimating the duration of leaf wetness
periods, for the following reasons:
1. Wetness of surfaces of leaves, flowers,
and fruit is essential for infection by
many plant pathogenic fungi and
bacteria. Many, many disease models
for crops all over the world are based in
some way on estimating leaf wetness
duration, including the models we make
available to apple and grape growers
through the UK Cooperative Extension
Service. Figure 8. Comparison of estimates of leaf wetness
duration obtained using data from two nearby weather
2. Estimating leaf wetness duration is
stations. These estimates were calculated based on an
notoriously difficult and imprecise, algorithm employed by the UK Ag Weather Center.
much more difficult than measuring air
temperature or rainfall.
In Figure 2, one can see that leaf wetness
For our analysis, we gathered weather data for estimates correlated well between the two data
the period 8 Apr to 2 Oct 2010 at UK’s Research sources used in this analysis. The mesonet data
and Extension Center at Princeton. We used showed a slight tendency to underestimate
data collected by three weather stations at the periods of leaf wetness at values, especially
same site: the NWS station, the mesonet station, below 5 hr of leaf wetness, but this difference
and a Spectrum Technologies WatchDog was not large and probably wouldn’t be
weather station. (Periodically, during the past epidemiologically significant for most disease
dozen years, three WatchDog units--located in outbreaks.
Quicksand, Lexington, and Princeton--have
provided weather data used to generate fruit
disease forecasts issued by Dr. Hartman.)
Results of the two analyses selected for
inclusion in this article are shown in Figures 8-9.

In Figure 1, it is clear that estimates of leaf

wetness using Mesonet data correlate to those
obtained using the NWS station. Variance is
clearly present in those estimations, and in some
instances the difference in estimated duration of
leaf wetness is substantial. However, there is no
evidence of a significant systematic bias in the
estimation of leaf wetness between those data
Figure 9. Comparison of estimates of leaf wetness
duration obtained using Mesonet data and a Spectrum
WatchDog unit. These were calculated using similar
algorithms (although the algorithm used on mesonet
data included wind speed, data which were not available
in the WatchDog unit).
Conclusion • Remove nearby neglected pear and
The growth of the Kentucky mesonet network apple trees from the nursery or
provides a more comprehensive weather landscape because these trees can be a
network for prediction of crop diseases than has source of overwintering fire blight
been previously available. Our analyses suggest bacteria.
that disease forecasts based on these data should • Plant fire blight-resistant crabapples in
be useful to fruit producers. Given the new plantings. Ratings vary from one
increasing coverage of the mesonet network part of the country to the other,
(with currently 56 stations statewide), we expect however, the following cultivars are
that the mesonet system will provide more local, thought to be more tolerant of fire
fine-scale resolution than can be obtained with blight: ‘Adams,’ ‘Adams Dwarf,’
either Spectrum WatchDog units located on UK ‘Callaway,’ ‘Candied Apple,’
research stations or NWS weather stations ‘Christmas Holly,’ ‘David,’ ‘Dolgo,’
(which currently number 15 statewide). Disease ‘Harvest Gold,’ ‘Indian Summer,’
models incorporating mesonet data are available ‘Jewelberry,’ ‘Liset,’ Malus sargentii, M. yunnanensis var. veichii, M. zumi
‘Calocarpa,’ ‘Pink Princess,’ ‘Pink
Spires,’ ‘Prairiefire,’ ‘Profusion,’
‘Radiant,’ ‘Red Baron,’ ‘Robinson
Dwarf,’ ‘Royalty,’ ‘Selkirk,’ ‘Sentinel,’
SHADE TREES & ORNAMENTALS ‘Spring Snow Dwarf,’ and ‘Velvet
Managing Flowering Crabapple Fire Blight • Antibiotic sprays such as streptomycin
By John Hartman can be used to protect open flowers from
infection. Antibiotic sprays are best
Kentucky flowering crabapples, flowering now, used in the nursery, and not in the
are enjoyed for their profuse flowers and for landscape. Use of a computer model
their attractive foliage and fruit. Experienced such as Maryblyt or Cougarblight for
growers and homeowners are well aware that timing of fire blight sprays is most
springtime is also the time of year that many of useful.
the important diseases of flowering crabapple • Nursery growers may consider using the
are most active. fire blight predictive system available to
apple growers on the U.K. Ag Weather
Many flowering crabapples are made unsightly Center site
or are severely injured by one or more of five (
common diseases—apple scab (discussed in 2.html). The predictive system works
Kentucky Pest News two weeks ago), fire blight, because the weather and fire blight risk
cedar-apple rust, cedar-quince rust, and powdery parameters are the same for apple and
mildew. Injury due to fire blight infection is crabapple. These predictive systems
often obvious in the tree because in spring and have already indicated that flowering
early summer, twigs and small branches are crabapples with open flowers were at
dead and blackened. high or extreme risk for fire blight
earlier this week on both Saturday and
Managing fire blight (Figures 10 & 11) caused Monday. After flower petals fall in the
by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora: coming days, the risk of primary fire
• While trees are dormant, prune out blight infections drops to low levels.
shoots killed by fire blight the previous However, from primary infections that
year. already occurred, secondary shoot
• Remove water sprouts and root suckers infection symptoms will continue to
when they are small. appear for the next several weeks.
• For all but the most susceptible trees, FOREST
infections are normally halted by the
tree before the bacteria actually kill the Periodical Cicada Emergence in West
tree. Thus, infected branches are best Kentucky
removed in winter. By Lee Townsend
• Avoid promoting succulent growth that
favors fire blight. Periodical
that make
up Brood
XIX soon
will be
leaving the
quiet life
they have
Figure 12. Periodical cicada molting to an been
adult. leading
und as sap feeders on tree roots. After for 13
years in the dark, nymphs will crawl up vertical
surfaces and molt to loud (males), active adults
(both sexes) that will buzz around clumsily for
about 6 weeks.

These insects differ from the dog day cicadas

that we see near the end of every summer. They
Figure 10. Fire blight, shown here on a flowering
are smaller and have red eyes and red-orange
pear flower cluster, similarly attacks flowering
crabapple flowers before spreading to the
wing veins; these structures on the larger dog
nearby branches. day cicadas are green. Erratic fliers, cicadas
often stay in the upper canopy of trees where
they are active from late April through June.
Encounters with periodical cicadas can be
unnerving but these insects cannot sting and do
not harm humans, livestock, or pets. Except for
the occasional dog or cat that will suffer an upset
stomach from eating too many.
The estimated time table for Brood XIX:

Emergence begins late April or early May

Most out by late May. Males begin to call
females for mating
Egg laying will begin in mid-May
Last adults will disappear around mid-June

will be
active in
y and
Figure 11. Fire blight branch infection
Figure 13. Counties where periodical cicadas
showing typical shepherd’s crook symptom.
were active in 1998.
parts of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, pregnant mares are present. Any management of
Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, the caterpillars should be done while they are
Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South together in tents. If is essentially impossible to
Carolina, and Tennessee. provide effective control once they have
dispersed from host trees.
Please send observations and pictures of the
brood to Examples of One option is to move pregnant mares away
useful information include your location, date from identifiable concentrations of ETC. If this
you first noted emergence, estimated abundance is not practical, then physical removal of tents,
(light moderate heavy), date males started or spot treatment with insecticides is an
singing, egg-laying beginning, or other things alternative approach.
you find interesting. This information will be
posted at ETC was identified at the cause of foal loss during the Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome
ml outbreak that occurred during 1999-2001.

Carpenter Bees
Time to Assess Eastern Tent Caterpillar By Lee Townsend and Mike Potter
(ETC) Populations on Horse Farms
By Lee Townsend Carpenter
Over the closely
past 3 years resemble
ETC bumble bees
populations but have
have been bare, shiny
increasing black
gradually abdomens.
but there Figure 15. Carpenter bee gathering Bumble bees
are nectar and pollen. have hairy
Figure 14. ETC tent with massed relatively abdomens
caterpillars. wide with at least some yellow markings. Bumble
differences bees nest in the ground, while true to their name,
in numbers from one area to another. This is carpenter bees chew tunnels into wood to
normal for the dynamics of the insect. construct nesting sites.

ETC larvae should be mostly in the 0.5 to 0.75 Carpenter bees spend the winter in their galleries
inch range in central Kentucky. The caterpillars and begin to feed on nectar and pollen around
are beginning to move from 2- to 3-inch long early April. Females may begin a new nest or
tents near their egg mass to larger masses at use the existing one. The entryway is a round 0.5
major branch forks. Most tents should be in the inch diameter hole in the underside of a soft
baseball to softball size, making them easy to wood board. The gallery soon turns 90 degrees
see in trees on a sunny day. Consequently, now and follows the wood grain. Sawdust
is the time to check for tents along pasture and accumulates beneath the tunnel opening as the
paddock tree lines that contain wild cherry, if female extends it. The bees prefer bare or
weathered wood but a coating of paint or stain mite infestation on holly and taxus; Stigmina
will not guarantee the wood won’t be used. needle blight on spruce; and stress symptoms on
Liquid sprays of carbaryl (Sevin) or a pyrethroid white pine.
(e.g., permethrin or cyfluthrin) can be applied as
a preventive to wood surfaces which are
attracting bees. Residual effectiveness of these
insecticides is often only 1-2 weeks, however,
and the treatment may need to be repeated.
Tunnels which have already been excavated are INSECT TRAP COUNTS
best treated by puffing an insecticidal dust (e.g., April 1 - 8
5 percent carbaryl) into the nest opening.
Location Princeton, Lexington,
Aerosol sprays labeled for wasp or bee control KY KY
also are effective. Leave the hole open for a few Black cutworm 8 0
days after treatment to allow the bees to contact Armyworm 194 452
and distribute the insecticide throughout the nest Corn earworm 1 0
galleries. Then, plug the entrance hole with a European corn 0 0
piece of wooden dowel coated with carpenter's borer
glue, or wood putty. This will protect against Southwestern 0 0
future utilization of the old nesting tunnels and corn borer
reduce the chances of wood decay. Fall armyworm 0 0
Graphs of insect trap counts for the 2011 season are
Although carpenter bees are less aggressive than available on the IPM web site at -
wasps, female bees provisioning their nests will
sting. Treatment is best performed at night when View trap counts for Fulton County, Kentucky at -
the bees are less active, or while wearing
protective clothing.

Females begin to provision the gallery with

pollen and deposit eggs during May. Bee
development takes 40 to 50 days and 8 to 9 bees
are produced in an average gallery. Emerging
bees are not very active, they remain in the
tunnel for most of the summer and fall and take
up the “bee life” in the spring. Some females
live for two years.


By Julie Beale and Paul Bachi

Recent samples in the PDDL have included

Sclerotinia crown/stem rot and Pythium root rot
on alfalfa; white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) on
garlic; and black root rot and Pythium root rot
Note: Trade names are used to simplify the
on greenhouse petunia plugs. information presented in this newsletter. No
endorsement by the Cooperative Extension Service is
On landscape ornamentals, we have seen black intended, nor is criticism implied of similar products
root rot on holly; stippling from previous spider that are not named.