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My full name written in lower case is “yufei xu”. The ASSCII codes corresponding to

each alphabet are in the following table:

Alphabet ASSCII Code (Ai) Decimal

y 121

u 117

f 102

e 101

i 105

x 120

u 117

Therefore, I pick the second question in chapter 9.

Q_9.2 Perform encryption and decryption using the RSA algorithm, as in Figure 9.6 for

the following:

1. p=3; q=11; e=7; M=5

Answer:

n = p * q = 3 * 11 = 33

f(n) = (p-1) * (q-1) = 2 * 10 = 20

Now, we need to compute d = e-1 mod f(n) by using backward substitution of GCD

algorithm:

According to GCD:

20 = 7 * 2 + 6

7=6*1+1

6=1*6+0

Therefore, we have:

1=7–6

= 7 – (20 – 7 * 2)

= 7 – 20 + 7 * 2

= -20 + 7 * 3

Hence, we get d = e-1 mod f(n) = e-1 mod 20 = 3 mod 30 = 3

So,Plaintext

the public key is {7, 33} and the private key is {3, 33}, RSA encryption and

decryption

5 is following:

Encryption Decryption

ciphertext Plaintext

14 5

2. p=5; q=11; e=3; M=9

Answer:

n = p * q = 5 * 11 = 55

f(n) = (p-1) * (q-1) = 4 * 10 = 40

Now, we need to compute d = e-1 mod f(n) by using backward substitution of GCD

algorithm:

According to GCD:

40 = 3 * 13 + 1

13 = 1 * 13 + 0

Therefore, we have:

1 = 40 – 3 * 13

Hence, we get d = e-1 mod f(n) = e-1 mod 40 = -13 mod 40 = (27 – 40) mod 40 = 27

So, the public key is {3, 55} and the private key is {27, 55}, RSA encryption and

Plaintext

decryption

9 is following:

Encryption Decryption

ciphertext Plaintext

14 9

3. p=7; q=11; e=17; M=8

Answer:

n = p * q = 7 * 11 = 77

f(n) = (p-1) * (q-1) = 6 * 10 = 60

Now, we need to compute d = e-1 mod f(n) by using backward substitution of GCD

algorithm:

According to GCD:

60 = 17 * 3 + 9

17 = 9 * 1 + 8

9=8*1+1

8=1*8+0

Therefore, we have:

1=9–8

= 9 – (17 – 9)

= 9 – (17 – (60 – 17 * 3))

= 60 – 17*3 – (17 – 60 + 17*3)

= 60 – 17 *3 + 60 – 17*4

= 60*2 – 17*7

Hence, we get d = e-1 mod f(n) = e-1 mod 60 = -7 mod 60 = (53-60) mod 60 = 53

So, the public key is {17, 77} and the private key is {53, 77}, RSA encryption and

decryption is following:

Plaintext

8

Encryption Decryption

ciphertext Plaintext

57 8

5

817 Mod 77= 57 5753 Mod 77 = 8

Answer:

n = p * q = 11 * 13 = 143

f(n) = (p-1) * (q-1) = 10 * 12 = 120

Now, we need to compute d = e-1 mod f(n) by using backward substitution of GCD

algorithm:

According to GCD:

120 = 11 * 10 + 10

11 = 10 * 1 + 1

10 = 1 * 10 + 0

Therefore, we have:

1 = 11 – 10

= 11 – (120 – 11 * 10)

= 11 – 120 + 11 * 10

= -120 + 11 * 11

Hence, we get d = e-1 mod f(n) = e-1 mod 120 = 11 mod 120 = 11

So, the public key is {11, 143} and the private key is {11, 143}, RSA encryption and

decryption is following:

Plaintext

7

Encryption Decryption

ciphertext Plaintext

106 7

106 8

5. p=17; q=31; e=7; M=2

n = p * q = 17 * 31 = 527

f(n) = (p-1) * (q-1) = 16 * 30 = 480

Now, we need to compute d = e-1 mod f(n) by using backward substitution of GCD

algorithm:

According to GCD:

480 = 7 * 68 + 4

7=4*1+3

4=3*1+1

3=1*3+0

Therefore, we have:

1=4–3

= 4 – (7 – 4)

= 4 – (7 – (480 – 7*68))

= 4 – (7 – 480 + 7*68)

= 480 – 7*68 – 7 + 480 – 7*68

= 480*2 – 7*137

Hence, we get d = e-1 mod f(n) = e-1 mod 480 = -137 mod 480 = (343 – 480) mod 480

=343

So, the public key is {7, 527} and the private key is {343, 527}, RSA encryption and

decryption is following:

Plaintext

2 Encryption Decryption

ciphertext Plaintext

128 2

5

27 Mod 527 = 128343 Mod 527

128 =2

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