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ROLL NO. : R254X46



o 2.1 Origin of magnetization

o 2.2 Magnetic domains
o 2.3 Curie temperature
o Magnetic tape.
o Transformer.


Ferromagnetic ordering of microscopic magnets (the magnetic moments of individual

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron)

form permanent magnets and/or exhibit strong interactions with magnets; it is responsible
for most phenomena of magnetism encountered in everyday life (for example,
refrigerator magnets). The attraction between a magnet and ferromagnetic material is "the
quality of magnetism first apparent to the ancient world, and to us today," according to a
classic text on ferromagnetism.

All permanent magnets (materials that can be magnetized by an external magnetic field
and which remain magnetized after the external field is removed) are either
ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic, as are the metals that are noticeably attracted to them.

Historically, the term Ferro magnet was used for any material that could exhibit
spontaneous magnetization: a net magnetic moment in the absence of an external
magnetic field. This general definition is still in common use. More recently, however,
different classes of spontaneous magnetization have been identified when there is more
than one magnetic ion per primitive cell of the material, leading to a stricter definition of
"ferromagnetism" that is often used to distinguish it from ferromagnetism. In particular, a
material is "ferromagnetic" in this narrower sense only if all of its magnetic ions add a
positive contribution to the net magnetization. If some of the magnetic ions subtract from
the net magnetization (if they are partially anti-aligned), then the material is
"ferrimagnetic". If the ions anti-align completely so as to have zero net magnetization,
despite the magnetic ordering, then it is an antiferromagnet. All of these alignment effects
only occur at temperatures below a certain critical temperature, called the Curie
temperature (for ferromagnets and ferrimagnets) or the Néel temperature (for

Ferromagnetic materials:
A selection of crystalline ferromagnetic (* = ferrimagnetic) materials,
along with their Curie temperatures in kelvins (K). (Kittel, p. 449.)


Co 1388

Fe 1043

FeOFe2O3* 858

NiOFe2O3* 858

CuOFe2O3* 728

MgOFe2O3* 713

MnBi 630

Ni 627

MnSb 587

MnOFe2O3* 573

Y3Fe5O12* 560

CrO2 386

MnAs 318

Gd 292

Dy 88

EuO 69

There are a number of crystalline materials that exhibit ferromagnetism (or

ferrimagnetism’s). The table on the right lists a representative selection of them here,
along with their Curie temperatures, the temperature above which they cease to exhibit
spontaneous magnetization (see below).

Ferromagnetism is a property not just of the chemical makeup of a material, but of its
crystalline structure and microscopic organization. There are ferromagnetic metal alloys
whose constituents are not themselves ferromagnetic, called Heusler alloys, named after
Fritz Heusler.

One can also make amorphous (non-crystalline) ferromagnetic metallic alloys by very
rapid quenching (cooling) of a liquid alloy. These have the advantage that their properties
are nearly isotropic (not aligned along a crystal axis); this results in low coercivity, low
hysteresis loss, high permeability, and high electrical resistivity. A typical such material
is a transition metal-metalloid alloy, made from about 80% transition metal (usually Fe,
Co, or Ni) and a metalloid component (B, C, Si, P, or Al) that lowers the melting point.

Relatively new classes of exceptionally strong ferromagnetic materials are the rare-earth
magnets. They contain lanthanide elements that are known for their ability to carry large
magnetic moments in well-localized f-orbital.

Physical origin:
The property of ferromagnetism is due to the direct influence of two effects from
quantum mechanics: spin and the Pauli exclusion principle.

Origin of magnetization:
The spin of an electron, combined with its orbital angular momentum, results in a
magnetic dipole moment and creates a magnetic field. (The classical analogue of
quantum-mechanical spin is a spinning ball of charge, but the quantum version has
distinct differences, such as the fact that it has discrete up/down states that are not
described by a vector; similarly for "orbital" motion, whose classical analogue is a
current loop.) In many materials (specifically, those with a filled electron shell), however,
the total dipole moment of all the electrons is zero (i.e., the spins are in up/down pairs).
Only atoms with partially filled shells (i.e., unpaired spins) can experience a net magnetic
moment in the absence of an external field. Ferromagnetic materials contain many atoms
with unpaired spins. When these tiny magnetic dipoles are aligned in the same direction,
they create a measurable macroscopic field.

These permanent dipoles (often called simply "spins" even though they also generally
include orbital angular momentum) tend to align in parallel to an external magnetic field,
an effect called paramagnetism. (A related but much weaker effect is diamagnetism, due
to the orbital motion induced by an external field, resulting in a dipole moment opposite
to the applied field.) Ferromagnetism involves an additional phenomenon, however: the
dipoles tend to align spontaneously, without any applied field. This is a purely quantum-
mechanical effect.

According to classical electromagnetism, two nearby magnetic dipoles will tend to align
in opposite directions (which would create an antiferromagnetic material). In a Ferro
magnet, however, they tend to align in the same direction because of the Pauli principle:
two electrons with the same spin cannot also have the same "position", which effectively
reduces the energy of their electrostatic interaction compared to electrons with opposite
spin. (Mathematically, this is expressed more precisely in terms of the spin-statistics
theorem: because electrons are fermions with half-integer spin, their wave functions are
antisymmetric under interchange of particle positions. This can be seen in, for example,

the Hartree-Fock approximation to lead to a reduction in the electrostatic potential
energy.) This difference in energy is called the exchange energy.

Magnetic domains:
At long distances (after many thousands of ions), the exchange energy advantage is
overtaken by the classical tendency of dipoles to anti-align. This is why, in an
equilibriated (non-magnetized) ferromagnetic material, the dipoles in the whole material
are not aligned. Rather, they organize into magnetic domains (also known as Weiss
domains) that are aligned (magnetized) at short range, but at long range adjacent domains
are anti-aligned.[3] The boundary between two domains, where the magnetization flips, is
called a domain wall (i.e., a Bloch/Néel wall, depending upon whether the magnetization
rotates parallel/perpendicular to the domain interface) and is a gradual transition on the
atomic scale (covering a distance of about 300 ions for iron).

Thus, an ordinary piece of iron generally has little or no net magnetic moment. However,
if it is placed in a strong enough external magnetic field, the domains will re-orient in
parallel with that field, and will remain re-oriented when the field is turned off, thus
creating a "permanent" magnet. The domains don't go back to their original minimum
energy configuration when the field is turned off because the domain walls tend to
become 'pinned' or 'snagged' on defects in the crystal lattice, preserving their parallel
orientation. This magnetization as a function of the external field is described by a
hysteresis curve. Although this state of aligned domains is not a minimal-energy
configuration, it is extremely stable and has been observed to persist for millions of years
in seafloor magnetite aligned by the Earth's magnetic field (whose poles can thereby be
seen to flip at long intervals). Alloys used for the strongest permanent magnets are "hard"
alloys made with many defects in their crystal structure where the domain walls "catch"
and stabilize. The net magnetization can be destroyed by heating and then cooling
(annealing) the material without an external field, however. The thermal motion allows

the domain boundaries to move, releasing them from any defects, to return to their low-
energy unaligned state.

Curie temperature:
As the temperature increases, thermal motion, or entropy, competes with the
ferromagnetic tendency for dipoles to align. When the temperature rises beyond a certain
point, called the Curie temperature, there is a second-order phase transition and the
system can no longer maintain a spontaneous magnetization, although it still responds
paramagnetically to an external field. Below that temperature, there is a spontaneous
symmetry breaking and random domains form (in the absence of an external field). The
Curie temperature itself is a critical point, where the magnetic susceptibility is
theoretically infinite and, although there is no net magnetization, domain-like spin
correlations fluctuate at all length scales.

The study of ferromagnetic phase transitions, especially via the simplified Ising spin
model, had an important impact on the development of statistical physics. There, it was
first clearly shown that mean field theory approaches failed to predict the correct
behavior at the critical point (which was found to fall under a universality class that
includes many other systems, such as liquid-gas transitions), and had to be replaced by
renormalization group theory.


Tape Reco

Erase Head
Before passing over the record head, a tape in a
recorder passes over the erase head which
applies a high amplitude, high frequency AC
magnetic field to the tape to erase any previously
recorded signal and to thoroughly randomize the
magnetization of the magnetic emulsion.
Typically, the tape passes over the erase head
immediately before passing over the record head.

The gap in the erase head is wider than those in

the record head; the tape stays in the field of the
head longer to thoroughly erase any previously
recorded signal.

High fidelity tape A magnetic
recording requires "image" of a
a high frequency sound signal can
biasing signal to be stored on tape
be applied to the in the form of
tape head along magnetized iron
with the signal to oxide or
"stir" the chromium
magnetization of dioxide granules
the tape and make in a magnetic
sure each part of emulsion. The
the signal has the tiny granules are
same magnetic fixed on a
starting conditions polyester film
for recording. This base, but the
is because direction and
magnetic tapes are extent of their
very sensitive to magnetization
their previous can be changed
magnetic history, a to record an
property called input signal from
hysteresis. a tape head.

Tape Playback
When a magnetized tape passes under the
playback head of a tape recorder, the
ferromagnetic material in the tape head is
magnetized and that magnetic field
penetrates a coil of wire which is wrapped
around it. Any change in magnetic field
induces a voltage in the coil according to
Faraday's law. This induced voltage forms
an electrical image of the signal which is
recorded on the tape.

Problem: The magnetization of the

magnetic emulsion is proportional to the I
recorded signal while the induced voltage
in the coil is proportional to the rate at
which the magnetization in the coil
changes. This means that for a signal with
twice the frequency, the output signal is
twice as great for the same degree of
magnetization of the tape. It is therefore
necessary to compensate for this increase
in signal to keep high frequencies from
being boosted by a factor of two for each
octave increase in pitch. This
compensation process is called

A transformer makes use of Faraday's law and the ferromagnetic properties of
an iron core to efficiently raise or lower AC voltages. It of course cannot
increase power so that if the voltage is raised, the current is proportionally
lowered and vice versa.

Transformer and Faraday's Law

Ideal Transformer Calculation

For an ideal transformer:

Primary voltage =

VP = volts.
Primary current =
IP = amps
Primary turns =
NP = turns

Secondary voltage =

VS = volts Power used = PP = PS = watts

Secondary current =
The ideal transformer neglects losses to resistive
heating in the primary coil and assumes ideal
IS = amps
coupling to the secondary (i.e., no magnetic losses).
Secondary turns =
NS = turns
Load resistor =
R= ohms

Notes: For this exploratory calculation, you may enter data for any parameter
except the power. Then click on the active text for the parameter you wish to
calculate; values will not be forced to be consistent until you do. For primary
calculations, the voltage and number of turns in the secondary will be
considered to be established and vice versa. Default values will be entered for
unspecified parameters, but all values except the power may be changed.

• Charles Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley: New York, 1996).
• Neil W. Ashcroft and N. David Mermin, Solid State Physics (Harcourt: Orlando,
• John David Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley: New York, 1999).
• E. P. Wohlfarth, ed., Ferromagnetic Materials (North-Holland, 1980).
• "Heusler alloy," Encyclopedia Britannica Online, retrieved Jan. 23, 2005.
• F. Heusler, W. Stark, and E. Haupt, Verh. der Phys. Ges. 5, 219 (1903).
• S. Vonsovsky Magnetism of elementary particles (Mir Publishers, Moscow,

External links:
• Electromagnetism - a chapter from an online textbook
• Sandeman, Karl (January 2008). "Ferromagnetic Materials". DoITPoMS. Dept. of
Materials Sci. and Metallurgy, Univ. of Cambridge. Retrieved on 2008-08-27.
Detailed nonmathematical description of ferromagnetic materials with animated

1. ^ Richard M. Bozorth, Ferromagnetism, first published 1951, reprinted 1993 by
IEEE Press, New York as a "Classic Reissue." ISBN 0-7803-1032-2.
2. ^ Feynman, Richard P.; Robert Leighton, Matthew Sands (1963). The Feynman
Lectures on Physics, Vol.2. USA: Addison-Wesley, Ch. 37. ISBN 0201020114H.
3. ^ Feynman 1963, p.37-6 to 37-9