Arundhati Roy Some people are born foolish some achieve foolishness while some are such that

have greatness thrust upon their foolishness. The great Big Mouth of India- unfortunately a winner of the Booker and the author of the most ridiculous best seller of the recent years- The God of Small Things, who somehow managed to complete a piece of fiction which could have been classed as something poorly written by the pseudo novelists like Khushwant Singh and Shobha Dey. Well. Destiny rules supreme and the novel, despite limited readability was a great success and a mediocre woman of letters suddenly became a super star in the horizon of Indo- Anglican literature. It seemed that the fool with the veneer of greatness, imported by the so called First and Third World, has the realization of the her own foolishness and the success coming to her as a master stroke of chance. She denied the possibility of any second novel that might expose her literary hypocrisy. But something she had to do. Yes. She knows that media forgets everything very soon. She took Maneka Gandhi as the ideal and embarked on the path of pseudo social services. The Fourth Estate embraced her half halfheartedly and she succeeded in what she thought to the most achievable of all. In due course of time she made a visit to the USA and later she fought against the Government for N number of causes; some acceptable while some as ridiculous as her novel. but she continued to poke her nose everywhere and earned the marks of vow. Literature was reduced to an act of seeking name in the head lights and amassing crowd. The foolishness inherent in all her endeavors remained blocked. Our media continued to take her as an intellectual and she was remained blessed with the ultimate. Well as a story goes a fox disguised as a tiger, is instructed not to speak but he fails to contain himself and starts with the bark and then in turn recognized as what he is. Arundhati is the same fox wth illusion of being an intellectual but when she opened her mouth on Kashmir issue, it became clear that she is actually a fox with the thick skin of a tiger. What Arundhati said is too meaningless to mention.Hope the country(specially the Fourth Estate will some come to understand that she is just a fox not a tiger.

Sunday, September 19, 2010 Archetypes; A General Introduction Archetypes are the original objects, patterns, images or even characters, events or situations from which the same is copied in various forms of art and literature. The Platonic idea of the world beyond the world of substance provides an ideal example of the archetype that led to the various prototypes of heaven. Similarly Plato’s concept of the table with one horizontal top and vertical supports constitutes the archetype of all tables regardless of its size, shape form and function. There are numerous forms of the archetype in literature. They are manifest in form of an idea, character, event and situation or even setting with some essential characteristics derived from some primitive or folk art form that render and general and universal value to that work rather than particular sophisticated or unique. The archetypes owe their origin to the myths, legends,

folk tales, rituals and even dreams and customs. After the advent of Sigmund Freud and Jung, there had been a great stress on the role of psychological archetypes, referring to the unconscious originals, in art and literature. The use of archetypes by D.H. Lawrence and Salvador Dali makes and fine instance of the importance of archetypes in contemporary art and literature. The sudden rise in the treatment of myths and legends by the great names like James Joyce and T. S. Eliot is another prominent testimony of the importance of archetypes in the twentieth century art and literature. The structural manifestation of the archetype in expressed with unambiguous authority the structural patterns of a tragedy which grows like a life and eventually ends with the death the hero. It can however not be denied that the use of psychological archetypes can be traced back to the dawn of literature. Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex is structured on the archetypal pattern which was later developed by Shakespeare in the Hamlet with the archetype of revenge borrowed by the revenge plays. John Milton’s two great works The Paradise Lost and Samson Agonists make use of the same archetypal figure in two different ways. The use of archetypes in the novel can be easily traced back to the birth and culmination of the form of the novel. The plot structure of Tom Jones is actually derived from the conventional fairly-tale set up. Charles Dickens also used the same archetypes for The Great Expectation as the structure of the novel owes its form to the fairy tale elements of a poor boy and a rich girl and a demonic figure keeping the heroin captive and acting a wall between two lovers. The growing complexity of the themes of the novel and the researches done in the field of psychology and anthropology together resulted into the abundant use of archetypes in the criticism and art and literature. The critics like Mod Bodkins established archetype as the pivotal aspect of modern critical theories. It is well known that Eliot’s famous poem – The Waste Land has Frazer’s The Golden Bough a major source. The use of archetypes in the Indian English Fiction is also an prominent, though oft neglected aspect of the craft. The novels of R. K. Narayan often make sudden and swift use of the archetypes that owe their genesis to the Indian folk tales and legends and chiefly to the mythology. Almost all the women characters of Narayan owe their origin to the classical Indian figures like Sita or Shakuntala. Savitri- the heroin of The Dark Room provided a fine instance of his passion for the use of archetypal figures in the novels. The novels of Anita Desai derive the patterns from various archetypal sources. The character of Maya in Cry the Peacock is one example of it and on the other hand the delineation of the city of Calcutta in the Bye Bye Black Bird is the prototype of hell. Salman Rushdie is another great reputation who is known for the subtle use of archetypes in his narratives. The birth images in Midnight’s Children and Shame are very conspicuous examples of the treatment of the archetypes. The theme of The God of Small Things is another very prominent example of the archetypal treatment of human relationship by Arundhati Roy. Thus, after a critical scrutiny of the history of Indian English Novels, it can easily be inferred that the archetypes contribute quite significantly to the making of the themes and techniques. Posted by Dr Rajesh Trivedi at 3:18 AM Links to this post Saturday, September 11, 2010 Lord of Flies William Gerald Golding was born in Cornwall, England on September 19, 1911. His father, Alec Golding, was a school master and his mother, Mildred Golding, was an active worker on behalf of women's suffrage and other causes. Golding's parents encouraged him towards science as an educational pursuit but, in his second year at Brasenoze College, Oxford, young Golding shifted his educational emphasis to literature. Today, he also admits to a fondness of archaeology, but it is rather a highly sophisticated knowledge of anthropology that crops us in his first two novels.

Golding's first published work was a slim volume of poetry, which appeared shortly after his Graduation from Oxford in 1934. He claims to have "wasted the next four years". When World war II began, he joined the Royal Navy in which he served with distinction for over five years. During this service, Golding had a variety of experiences, highlighted by his participation in the D–Day invasion of France. When Golding was discharged from the Navy at the war's end, he held the rank of lieutenant. There is no question that Golding's experiences in the Royal Navy were the most decisive of his life, particularly in his development as writer. Lord of Flies is undoubtedly one of the most pronounced illustration of the split of human cycle and the consequent transformation of man into a beast. The theme of the novel advances upon the pillars of Allegorical parallels and contrasts that structure the world lived in and realized by the author. It is also said to be a forceful allegorical representation of evil in human heart. The novel begins with the recreation of architypal pattern of a lonely individual in the disserted island. The beginning of the novel reminds us of Danial Defoe's Robinson Cruso (1719) swifts Guliver Travels Jules Vernice – The Mysterious Island. The architectural opening of the novel serves to intensity the effect, i.e. developed all along the length and breadth of the novel. At the same time, this opening renders a universal significance and value to the piece of fiction. The introduction of the location the island peopled by frightening vamparish image is imparted the pronounced metaphorical value and in turn is made a microcause of the world enduring onslaughts of the War on socio–cultural fabric of the world in general and Europe in particular. The views Ian Watt capture our attention. He in his appreciation of the first paragraph of The Ambassador says : The primary location of the narrative in a mental rather than a physical continuum gives the narrative a great freedom from the restrictions of particular time and place.1 Evidently the locale of the novel serves to emancipate the theme and action of the novel from the Tyranny of time and space, and imparts it a sound metaphorical value that serves to universalize the latent meaning and experience. Irony is unquestionably the most powerful weapon used by the author. The structure of the novel is built on the bricks of Irony and is veneered with the thick coat of allegory. The new habitation in a deserted island as an aftermyth of the ship–wreck is a new beginning where the dawn is fogged with dark clouds of various shades of evil. The antithesis is inevitable but the victory of evil over innocence and the defeat of intellect elucidated by the murder of Piggy by Rozer is a sound rectification of the meaning inherent in the narrative. It is obvious here that children are no longer children with conventional innocence but they are metaphors shaped by the whittling edges of irony. It is clear that the children in the novel issue forth an impression of graver reality that is shaping its own existence in an essential vicious and hostile world that is manifest along more than one direction. The views of Narcus Crouch invite our attention. He elevates the treatment of child characters and says : Some of the children's novels are about identity, about children exploring – in William Penn's phrase – 'The house of their mind'. These too are books in which the distinction between the adult and child is at its most indistinct2. Some of the best treatment in literature of entry into 'children's experience' and 'vision of living' are to be found in books that were written not for children but for adults. Our modern concept of childhood is built largely on the intelligent anti–determinant concern for children that has been enshrined in folklore, which was highly developed by Blake, Dickens, Charlotte Bronte and others. But, the most fashionable novels of our time often represent a complete rejection of those English tradition, as readers today admire the brutally selfish and anti– social man. Philosophical biology finds men to be an animal with an extral cultural dimension closely

leading to the formation of necessary evil in the society.. As the novel proceeds we get a view at the evil streak in the heart of human.M. blood and lust. The subject darkness in the human heart is made even more horrible by the fact that characters in the novel are children. nature and values inherited.. compelling allegory of the growth and corruption of political power3. Ballantyne's famous 19th century adventure story Coral Island.. Red colour signifies passion. Each one stands for a different cause reflecting his background. Ralph cheerfully says – This is our island. young ones at that6. But whereas the ship wrecked boys in his book soon organize themselves into a reasonable imitation of victorian God–fearing British Society. Lord of the Flies (1954) turns the long established boys' romance desert island tale into an intense.. The seed of rivalry is sown right in the beginning though Jack is only sub–consciously aware of it. Through its portrayals of human beings and human problems. In effect it is a present day reconstruction of R. Golding subtly explores the human psychology and gives a forewarning about Jack by hinting at the amount of pleasure he gets from the power he weilds. water for drinking is stored and the rock serves as lavatory. as. fire. Whole picture is of an ancient tribe with a chief and his kingdom.4 Golding is a man haunted by his own sense of human inadequacy. He is ruthless power– hungry. Ignorance and evil seems to drive the boys with the Fruedian ID which is an unconcious. most of those in Golding's novel just as quickly relapse into savagry . everything goes on fine as Ralph becomes the chief with a wise counsellor Piggy. i.. Symbolically. In his other life Maurice had received chastisement an excuse7. while wandering near the water the boys discover a large 'Conch'. The first Chapter opens with Ralph the hero. Soon they form a society where shelter are built. It demonstrates that humans are capable of intense evil. it brings forth important general principles of human behaviour and human relations.. intelligence. The characterization in the novel is quite detailed as the story hangs on three principal figures who serve as human landscape.for filling a younger eye with . Diana Neill rightly points out – Moral evil is the subject of Lord of Flies . it is a bold search which reflects his own vision of man. Initially. The rests are the members of a choir with a leader called Jack Merridew. This simple story starts with a few boys wrecked on an uninhabited island with no grown ups around. The story is about his psychological development from childhood to maturation. when a big one "Maurice" tries to be mean with a littlun percival.e. besides the picturesque island.. whose function is to ensure the survival instinct. Jack and his choir members become the hunters besides. as a result of their own nature and not because of any outside factor. this novel does not belong to the eddifying and counter eddifying stream of anger – instead. physically strong villain who is portrayed with ignoble instincts. who later on are addressed by the generic title of 'littluns'. It is a beautiful creamy pink shell which later on becomes the symbol of authority and sacredness as all the children are expected to show regards for it. William Golding's novels fall within this scope of post–war fantasy–fiction which is a psychological exploration. rational thinking and passion. fair–headed Ralph signifies his faith in being fair at everything as compared to the red–headed Jack. It is a good island. He encoutners a fat boy named Piggy. yet Golding has raised a very important point.related to his need for freedom. a moral force within the human mind. It slowly builds up the tension of a thriller. though mildly put. they are to take care of the fire on the mountain which is lighted to signal out for any passerby ship. The others who join in are some little ones. They depict the three essential qualities in man. Untill the grown ups come will have fun5. the difference in the nature of the two boys is hinted through their hair.

in which first advance was the rejection of idols in favour of a single God. punishment and law8 but he later on becomes a ruthless hunter and 'terror' as he beats us samneric and mercilessly and forces them to join in their tribe and work against Ralph. Golding has omniously placed the children in the primitive situation where God was military and jealous. It is believed that much evil and most human vices are due to repressive and overly demanding ways of life. This diety reflected a society where there is a tribal chief whom his people obeyed and he held supreme powers. Simon. This phrase has added a sexual connotation symbolically signifying the adult intimacy with evil. The Leader must possess it. They perch the head of the sow on a sharpened stick as a gift for the Beast.. who is bashful in public. A sensation is created where a dead parachutist drops on the mountain top and is called 'beast from air'. who throws stones at young Henry though to miss. The blackening blood has lot of flies gathered around and the pig head looks like Lord of Flies. Maurice still felt the unease of wrong doing. With it has come the painful realization that the understandable and lawful world was being disintegrated. caused by adherence to the false conventions and values of civilization. and not the merciful Lord Jesus. Now. It is born out of evil of ignorance. This event symbolizes their rejection of life and siding with death. For Piggy it is something sacred. This character is portrayed like a ray of hope that exist in the novel. the choir which used to sing the Angels prayers on soft rhythms of music. He appears as a shining hope.. The only child set apart from the rest is. and waiting to reveal himself only until such time as he is no longer held in check by the taboos of civilization11. though there was no parent to let fall a heavy hand. an epitome of wisdom. school. wanders off alone. At the back of his mind formed the uncertain outlines. as the rules set initially were followed less and less. a Christ–like figure. Culture is seen as taking a foremost place in human make up and especially in the development of the child and when this restrain is lifted they gradually develop from ordinary to extra ordinary–evil or good. is only human as he gets immense pleasure when he is successful in piercing the flesh of a pig with appearance. They involve themselves in the gruesome act of sheer violence when they spot a sow and injure her. In most cases. Quite unawarely the choir group cease to be Christian and become the followers of Beelzebub who was known as the Lord of Flies. A lurking note of irony is discernable here.sand. it destroys the essentially good and human qualities of people like Maurice and big bullies like Roger. as invisible yet strong was the taboo of the old life round the squatting child was protection of parents. While. but they neglect fire with the result a passing ship goes off without noticing them. The God of flies is none other than the Devil. God given and it is supreme. equating him with the Sea–God 'Proteus' who blows a horn. . lurking in the hearts of those fledglings. precious. particularly striking is his power to communicate the terror in Human heart before the unknown in nature and the all too clearly discernable cruelty in man12. They are successful in killing a pig. The value of conch has been suggested and emphasized time and again by Golding. now dances and sing. There is a symbolic association between Piggy and the conch. In ancient literature. His worth as an intelligent friend and counsellor Ralph has slowly realized.. . The choir group degenerates into a primitive tribe with painted faces and long hair. we have instances.. The hero too. The description of the devil compels us to agree with Diana Niell. Jack and hunters drop down from the level of humanity and are called 'savages'. It is not surprising because the atmosphere prevailing is anything but congenial. chase her excitedly as though 'wedded to her lust'.

that they refuse to acknowledge him 'as one of them' and mercilessly stab him to death. He untangles the dead body and runs down to tell others that they need not be scared of it any more. is the subject of the novel. Roger has now freed himself from the civilized world of parents and laws. Golding has visualized his memory of World War II and the brutal slaughter of human life. Moral evil then. Yet. The human race has time and again shown that Golding's vision is an accurate one. arrows. Ralph is chased and sought like an animal in utter barbarism with pass words. They assured Simon that every thing was a bad business . He turns out to be an absolute dictator. The outcome of the struggle in the last scene can be conceived optimistically or pessimistically. clay daubings and ceric battle cries. only this time not to miss. they feel guilty and responsible for the act against Nature. where original sin destroys the garden of innocence. . Roger hurls a big stone. Faustus about the consequences and tries to pursue him to go away. the last of the civilized society. He resembles Mephistophilis who warn Dr.. However. The movement is from specific to universal. Goldings view has a lesson of morality to teach humanity that the civilized behaviour is the only hope for mankind to achieve a higher and more desirable ethical state. with the officer. Ralph and Piggy were out of it all yet. Simon is sure that the only evil is 'in us'. The Conch and Piggy. The final nightmare scene is ended abruptly by the arrival of a rescue ship. It is the story told with meticulous realism and at the same time with a visionary clarity that shows up everything as symbolic. he goes to the mountain top and solves the mystery of beast and discover it to be a dead human being. transferred it to the world of children. deficient our modern society might seem but civilization is the only thing that restrains mankind from a life of barbarianism and dehumanization. Golding has made a major contribution in the field of self awareness as every reader feels actively involved in it. The storm breaks in all its fury. so. violence and tyranny14. depending upon how he interprets the miraculous rescue in the last scene. are smashed down together. The Lord of Flies tries to communicate to Simon. Ralph wept for the end of innocence and for Piggy. Knowledge of a problem is a great step in arriving at a solution. They put the entire island on fire creating the picture of war.Simon watches the whole scene from his small paradise where butterflies are dancing around. they show capacity for self harm. raids the shelters and runs away with Piggy's broken glasses and refuses to listen to any reasoning for returning them. policemen. and boys run for shelter and the body of Simon and dead Parachutist is washed out by sea. The half shut eyes were dim with the infinite cynicism of adult life. But he offers no direct solution to the problem he presents..13 He urge him to go back to others as entirely good has no chance on the earth. but to kill Piggy. there is no sense of relief since the darkness revealed in the human heart leaves little hope for future15. Ralph immediately replies to him that he is the Chief while Jack shrinks. The abuse of his power over the 'outsiders' leads him to a feeling of wild abandonment during which the symbol of sensible orderly procedure that is the coach is not merely destroyed but broken into a thousand fragments. But the satanic looking figures with painted faces were so soaked in their lustful dance. which is remote and distant. It is as though the devil is trying to communicate to Christ realizing fully well that Christ even today will be crucified. Yet he hints at certain saving graces like Piggy and Simon. the tragedies of the adult world are re–enacted. He finds himself unprepared to own his crime and hesitates. He beats us a boy called Wilfred after tying him up for several hours. where under extreme stress. of a group of small children wrecked on a desert island degenerating into a society based on fear. In the last encounter scene. Jack on the other hand refuses to acknowledge that they have committed a murder.

A History of the English Novel (New Delhi : Kalyani Publications. Posted by Dr Rajesh Trivedi at 1:39 PM Links to this post Githa Harirharan Githa Hariharan is one of the most prolific woman writers of India. This Ed. 1979. She has worked as a staff writer for WNET. In 1995. 12Neil 389. The novels of R. K. This Ed. The crisis of identity has always enjoyed a defining significance in the thematic framework of the Indio Anglican novels. short stories articles and columns and also the essays of different topics that interest her. Narayan. Githa Hariharan is also a social activist known for her care and concern for women. 1972) 196. Githa Hariharan has also authored a collection of short stories. The post colonial age represented by these three novelist was chiefly a quest for identity along different dimension of socio-political and economic order of . ed. 1982) 38. She published her first novel-The Thousand Faces of Night in 1992 and was awarded Commonwealth Writer’s Prize in 1993. and a books of short stories for children. 13Golding 152. 4Gilbert Philips. 1983.The Winning Team which came out in 2004. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature – The Presented Bories Ford (London : Penguin Book.The Art of Dying (1993). First Pub. This Ed. Lord of the Flies (London : Faber and Faber Limited. Mulkraj Anand. 1989) 533.. This Ed. This Ed. The First Paragraph of The Ambassador 20th Century Literary Criticism : A Reader. He was brought up in Bombay and Manila and got education in these two places besides the USA. First Pub. 1958. she challenged the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act as discriminatory in the Supreme Court of India and recorded victory. In Mumbai Chennai and Delhi she has been working as an editor first in a publishing house and then in as a freelancer. The works of Githa Hariharan include novels. 1972. 2Marcus Crouch. Her latest publication is Fugitive Histories which appeared in 2009. A Critical History of English Literature (New Delhi : Allied Publishers Limited. This novel was followed by The Ghost of Vasu Master (1994). The LIterary Scene. and Raja Rao redesigned the techno-thematic fabric of Indian English fiction and laid the foundation of the new Indian English fiction. 8Golding 67. The Nesbit Tradition The Children's Novels in England 1945–70 (London : Earnest Benn Limited. 1962. The Post–War English Novel (Pelican Guide) 435. 1987) 101. Her third novel When Dreams Travel appeared in 1999 and it was quickly followed by In Times of Siege (2003). 15Neil 389. 1979) 389. 10Golding 76. 7Golding 65.A Southern Harvest (1993) is a collection of short stories from South India translated by her into English and Sorry Best Friend! (2004) is a collection of short storied for children co-edited by her. Louis Cazamian. First Ed. Besides novels.References 1Ian Watt. 1979) 149. She was born in Coimbatore in 1954.Channel 13. The History of English Literature (New Delhi : Macmillan India Limited. 5William Golding. David Lodge (London : Longman. First Pub. 9Golding 75. First Pub. 1992) 1175. 3John Holloway. 11Emile Legoise. 14David Daiches. 6Diana Neil.

The other novels are also structured on the same idea explored along different dimensions.her most celebrated novels. The spirit of eighties was spearheaded by Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children published in 1980 and Shame published in 1983. His first novel. Narayan explores the idea of the crisis of identity along various dimensions. It can easily be inferred that Savitri in the beginning is same as Savitri in the end. (Anand. The incompatibility between these two dominant forces constitutes the dynamics of the action and the nature of the narrative. The Guide (1958) is another major novel of Narayan.spend their life locating their identity. and. Ramani is torn apart between marriage and infatuation. the search remains an effort in vain. She is ‘married to an unscrupulous husband’ but ‘rejects identity with him and escapes to Madras. A reference to The Dark Room( is obligatory as the crisis of identity plays.India. Almost all his novels are based on the idea of the crisis of identity and the consequent efforts to locate them.Cry the Peacock published in 1964 is an important landmark in history of Indian English literature. is another revelation of the perennial quest for identity which is put to stake under the chafing pressures of the cultural forces and the efforts to relocate it becomes a painful enterprise. Both these novels are knit around the idea of identity crisis which owes its birth and life to the direct collision between individual and history. (1935). Shanti Bai is the new representation of identity crisis. The crisis of identity plays vital role in the cast of the narrative of Anand. The crisis of identity and efforts to locate it along the finite dimensions of the narrative is the kernel of the techno-thematic frame work of her novels. I wonder what he did. Her first novel. It is however undeniable that her novels have been knit around the complex idea of identity crisis with a female character on the focus. The Untouchables. Barkha’s dramatic reaction to the situation when the modesty of his sister is attempted by a Brahmin aptly illustrates the agony of identity crisis at a socio-cultural level. has the seeds of the same theme manifest in form of children’ pains and pangs. however. The protagonist of her first novelMaya is a wrecked soul who longs for her identity realized in terms of marital harmony but never succeeds. interesting to note that the identity crisis of Savitri continues to grow more and more piercing.Bye Bye Black Bird( ) the crisis of identity is born of the conflict between the spirit of place and the protagonist’s soul. In Haroun and the Sea of Stories (1991) he takes the identity of a writer on the focus of the thematic structure and knits the narrative. The east-west confrontation play decisive role in the cast of the narrative and thus the crisis of identity owes its genesis to the this ideological conflict. She explored a world subsisting within the world and located the fragmentation of the protagonists’ identity. In Custody (1980) and Clear Light of the Day (1984) .Swami and Friends. I could kill that man. Father of fathers. The man must have made indecent suggestions to her. Savitri endures all the pains and alienation of a conventional.All the three major characters suffer the crisis of identity in their own ways. The novels of Anita Desai mark a parallel stream in the history of Indian English fiction. male dominated family set-up. I could kill that man. His novels like The Untouchables and The Coolie explore the hidden dimensions of human psyche along socio-economic and cultural dimensions. Anita Desai added impetus to the feminist wave that came into critical notice since the advent of Nayantara Sehgal in the horizon of Indian English writings. It is. The last scene of the narrative elucidates the perpetuity of the crisis of identity when she feels like calling her one time aid but realizes her helplessness and withdraws. The Vendor of Sweets is the most poignant representation of the identity crisis that owes its genesis to the conflicting values of the east and west. The success of these novels firmly . Both the major characters-Raju and Rosie. The Satanic Verses published in 1988 explores the religious identity of an Asian expatriate in England.’ (p16). K. The novels of Mulkraj Anand explored the thick congested fabric of Indian life and structured his fiction with unquestionable authority. In her second novel. 69) R.

It is also the decade which marks the flowering of Githa Hariharan as novelist. Amitav Ghosh’s The Shadow Lines ( ) is another masterpiece published in the same decade. The birth of a new woman in the old society practicing quaint orders and methods was the common phenomenon witnessed in all corners of the vast social set up. The concept of generation gap acquired new impetus and became more decisive in comparison to previous years. Devi the protagonist of the first novel-The Thousand Faces of Night.The God of Small Things published in 1995 and was awarded Booker in 1996. Her lover offers a temporary escape from the hollow .established the prominence of identity crisis in the thematic set up of the Indian English fiction. Thus it becomes clear that the society was changed and the women were no exception to it. The advent of the multinational companies is another very prominent feature responsible for the new shape of the society. along with Anita Desai.cultural history. The crisis of identity becomes evident in the contrast between Devi and her mother Sita. She. returns to Madras after obtaining a degree from the USA and she returns only to fall prey to the chafing pressures imposed upon her by the old existing order. Employment was also redefined.Arundhati Roy who surprised the world with a unique first. The spread of communication with easy access to information through cellular phones and internet are some other prominent feature contributing to the new cultural identity of India. On one hand she is an integral part of the larger part of the tradition. All the five novels that hit the literary horizon are written during this tumultuous era of Indian socio. The birth of a new order and new system became obligatory. The advent of the television and the consequent expansion of the news channels and entertainment channels is one most outstanding phenomenon that sped up the transitions. The novels that hit the literary horizon capture our attention for the prominence of the theme of identity crisis. The induction of new technology in the fields of computers paved way for the escape of Indian minds and women too became integral parts of this new wave. It is however interesting to know that the changes that took place confronted the traditional values system that that ruled over the Indian society with despotic authority. The nineties were the natural extension of the thematic boldness and technical innovativeness. The limitations of times and spaces were reduced to inexistence and movements of the young aspirants became more free. The God of Small Things is also knit around the complex idea of the crisis of identity realized at the level of human relationship. on the other hand. shares the diadem with another prominent figure of Indian English fiction. No transitional phase in the cultural history of India has been as forcefully accelerated as this. Githa Hariharan thus enjoys a crucial place in the history of Indian English fiction. It also explores the identity of the protagonist against the backdrop of the Indian culture and heritage. The age of Githa Hariharan is undisputedly the most complex phase of the cultural history of India. she is an important cord in the tradition of Indian women writers. It is clear from a close survey of these two traditions that the crisis of identity and the pivotal aspect of the techno-thematic network of the Indian English fiction. The simultaneous advent of so many decisive factors stirred the social set up of country with a number of new possibilities and probabilities rising up to meet the new challenges. The spread of technical education and management studies shaped the reshaped the mind of common Indians with handsome participation of women in reshaping the cultural history of India. There were quick transitions and subtle and unpredictable changes that redefined the identity of individual in general and of a woman in particular. Education too had a new form and a new function by acquiring international order. The spread of education is also a factor of great significance which took place during the last two decade. The education was not confined to make people literate but it had new functions to perform. It is interesting observation that Sita nurtures the dream of a happy conventional marriage for her daughter but it turns out to be a disaster for Devi.

The novel is structured around the ethnic identity of the individual in relation to the larger aspect of his identity. ranging from school boy indulging in his characteristic pranks in Swami and Friends to the old man about to renounce the world in The Vendor of Sweets. or rebels. provide essential fictional values to the narrative. The new definitions and dimension of human mind and human relations seek apt representation in the backdrop of what had been happening for generations.Narayan's The Dark Room R. Mala tries hard to relive the happiness of the past which is metaphorical to the reordering the fragmented identity. The quest for identity is identified with the journey of mind along times and spaces. The Ghosts of Vasu Master is another masterly structured tale of a school master who has retired from a school in a small town. The relation between Vasu and Mani together intensity the impact of crisis of identity of the school master who live too much in the past and has virtually no present. it is more then evident that the study of the crisis of identity in the novels of Githa Hariharan is to the study the most tumultuous transition in the study of India. Narayan is the novelist of an individual set in the milieu which is characteristic of an Indian middle class families. The narrative owes it basis to the gallant efforts of a Hindu girl Mala who marries Asad a Muslim boy of her choice. There is wide range of individuals with distinct mindset. therefore. When Dreams Travel is another masterstroke of fantasy well in cadence of the tales of Arabian Night. Naik rightly points out that Narayan is 'the novelist of the individual man. The crisis to which her characters are subjected is the crisis hovering over the society. Thus a study of the identity crisis in her novels is to explore the depth of the narrative and discover the latent meaning and experience of her narratives. Fugitive Histories. It is clear from the above discussion that the crisis of identity plays pivotal role in the thematic design of the novels of Gita Hariharan. M. In Times of Siege is another important novel of Githa Hariharan. A detailed study of the novels of Githa Hariharan acquaint us with the base realities of emerging social set up of India without any emotional or ideological veneer. R. just as Mulk Raj Anand is the novelist of social man and Raja Rao that of metaphysical man'. The novel unfolds many layers of human psyche as an individual along ethnic and nationalist dimensions.K. In the light of prevailing disparities and rapid transitional changes. interacting with one another in the fictional world of Narayan and these interaction widespread along a well defined range of time and space (generally Malgudi). Narayan. The protagonist of Narayan's novel is made to play his life role during the course which he or she either natures in the process. Teaching Mani who can’t speak is a great challenge before Vasu and that seems the only weapon to surmount the barrier of identity crisis and relocating the lost identity. K. It is through these subtle allusions. The strain between any two characters is the strain between any two individual making an institution and being a part of it. The age comes out and presents itself in all forms of realities hitherto mirrored or concealed. As the narrative advances. The observation of Naik holds perfect relevance in connection with the theme and characters of almost all the novels of Narayan. is a novel steeped in pathos. owe their origin to day to day experiences and . the last publication credited to Githa Hariharan. or simply drifts or again is chastised or even destroyed by a characteristic inner weakness1. myths and legends that the narrative acquires the desired intensity to mirror the agony of the crisis of identity. He further analyses the essentials of Narayan's fictional domain and says : The total fictional campus of R.K. presents a panorama of men and women in different life roles. It is another important observation that the characters and events which constitute the fabric of the novel. The use of myths and legends is the most outstanding part of the technique of narration.married life but the order rules over like a tyrant.K.

It is also remarkable that the harshness of Ramani is not confined to Savitri. It is important that the opening paragraph of The Dark Room. Most of the children that are born of the pen of Narayan are limited to playful delineation with humorous irony. What have you to do better than that ?4 Ramani's outburst makes the dominance clear and Savitri's subordination to masculine authority sets the nodes and antinodes of the tension that shapes the fiction. . You are really like some of the women in our ancient books"6. And in the bed he stayed till Ramani come in and asked – "What is this?"2 The opening paragraph of the novels introduces us the nature of action of the novel and also the major participants of the whole drama. It is obvious that the human relation contributes quite significantly to the theme of the novel. Savitri and Babu. Narayan delineates him with natural arrogance and short–temperedness. The Dark Room is also structured on the interactions between these characters. He. "Hope you have finished your dinner". As this was almost a daily routine. I slave all day in the office for this mouthful. who asked you to temper with the electric lights ? Babu stood stunned7. The opening paragraph introduces the three major characters Ramani. Ramani came very quickly towards the dining hall and said to Savitri. Generally. It is quite ironical that Savitri's submission seeks apt revelation in a comment passed by her autocratic husband : After undressing and changing. she thought : she had not the slightest power to do anything at home. The character of Babu demands attention at this point. It has been stated earlier that the interaction among individual makes the prime preference of Narayan as a novelist. and that after fifteen years of married life5. The Dark Room is a great example of the recreation of middle–class milieu with its agony and ecstasy fused into one structure. his wife Savitri and three children Babu. do the work yourself. The Dark Room is the novel about the family with Ramani. The nature of action revealed in the first paragraph of the novel is ratified again in the succeeding paragraph : I don't know when I shall have a little decent food to eat. The boy looked unwell and perhaps at that moment was very ill in his classHow impotent she was. No lack of expenses money for this and no money for that. as regular as her husband's lecture.occurrences of the middle class of the locale. the contempt for school is a common phenomenon in almost all the child characters of Narayan in his novels and short stories. "Not yet". It has been discussed earlier that the Narayan is a novelist of individual and his novels are structured on the interactions between these individuals. commenting on the introductory paragraph of The Ambassador. The novel opens with a simple dispute between Ramani and Savitri caused by Babu's sudden dress : At schooltime Baboo suddenly fell ill and Savitri fussed over him and put him to bed. He cuts special figure amidst the child characters of Narayan. is a fine instance of his attitude : When Babu returned from the Electric office. Ramani is delineated with sudden unpredictable outburst but Savitri endures the rage with convention submission of an Indian woman. in due course of the development of the narrative acquires new shades. "What a dutiful wife! would rather starve than precede her husband. Savitri ceased to play attention to it and ate in silence. The introductory paragraph of the novel reminds us of the views of Ian Wall. he found his father standing in the hall and shouting. The nature of interaction between the two principal characters foretells the nature of action during the whole narrative span of the novel. His thoughts reverted to Babu. As soon as he sighted Babu he asked. says : that 'the function of an introductory paragraph in a novel is presumably to introduce'3. You blackguards. performs the task with great success. If the cook can't cook properly. The event when Babu plays some mischief resulting into the power cut. which. Kamala and Sumati.

who is delineated with sharp wit and all worldly guts of snatching sympathy. 'and it will take a lot of answering'9. Ramani fell that he had been snubbed. he said. but presently he appreciated the candour and smartness which had released the snub. Since then I have been drifting about. she replies. It doesn't improve their lot a bit. Ramani endures subordination to the new participant of the enactment of the whole action. Ramani gets infatuated like a teenager and Shanta Bai's hypnotism works on him almost completely. otherwise he would have wasted some money and time in going to Mangalore8. Ramesh Srivastava rightly observes that 'his own childhood may easily be reconstructed from them'8. I have had odd teaching jobs and I have also been companion to a few rich children. On the whole it has been a very great struggle. It make the absence of the bench prominent through the words of Gangu. 'It is a difficult question'. asked Gangu and unwittingly started the very thoughts that Savitri had been at points to smother since morning11. He smiled and replied brickly that he was grateful for timely warning.A. three years ago. It is all nonsense to say that women's salvation lies in education. He is never worried about his wife and children but his care for Shanta Bai grows up day by day. It is an undeniable observation that Babu's character in the narrative is not restricted to the enactment of playful irony but he is delineated with will to act and imitate. her extrovert behaviour in fetching the sympathy of a man is another very conspicuous aspect of her character : I passed my B. 'It would be improper'. She drives Ramani crazy and makes him oblivious of his duties towards his wife and children. Shanta Bai. His visit to Electric office symbolizes his will and at the same time. She asks "What has happened to the bench which used to be here all these days ? You are lying on the floor". The new employee. replies with admirable candour when Ramani asks about the people around her. if you don't mind. The complication of the plot begins with a new appointment in Engladia Insurance company. Shanta Bai's guts and candour excites the passions of Ramani that works out the chaos and disorder in his family set up.These characters share their creator's contempt for school. Narayan make use of Savitri's bench to illustrate the idea. "I suggest that we go round Race Course Road and then. it leaves them as badly unemployed as the men10. Besides candour. whereas Rani on his 'unconventional' visits proclaims that she 'loves conventional things' otherwise 'she shouldn't be here but nursing children and cooking for a husband'13. Shanta Bai had a split marriage and then she did graduation from Madras and joined the office of Engladia Insurance Company. There is ironical reversal of the situation. "You don't mind the trouble ?" "Don't ask ridiculous question"14 . Ramani's growing endearment with Shanta Bai is paralleled with growing estrangement between Ramani and Savitri. Shanti Bai contributes to the complication of the situation. He develops a habit to visit the office on his way back home from the club. he tells himself and passes on 'but the car had hardly run a few yards when he told himself that ought to inspect his office periodically at nights'12. She earns Ramani care that is due for Savitri. to the river. it also puts forth a convincing testimony to this act in the future. Have you seen it at night ?" "Is it a very lovely night ?" "Come and see it yourself". The complication in the pre–existing set up is attributed to Shanta Bai. Ramani's growing fondness for Shanta Bai draws a close parallel with his growing indifference to Savitri and his children.

She refuses the food offered by Ponni not because of her social status but because of consciousness for identity. Mari tells the vendor of fruit about her consciousness for identity : . Suryanarayana Murti likes 'Shanta Bai's Life to be a failure in identity'. He points out that Ramani is 'an utterly self centered and self indulgent man'20. Sarayu was flowing in the dark with subdued ramble21 Savitri's exile remind us of many mythological characters who suffered exile. She fails to fulfil the insurance business. "Woman. She said.K. and failure forces her to leave Malgudi16. He lowered his hands and said. you are impure.The conversation quoted above is a wonderful illustration of the infatuation of Ramani for Shanta Bai.V. in this part of the narrative owes its meaning and experience to the leading female character of the Ramayana – Sita. He clenched his teeth and raised his hands. and thrives on luring identity with crazy Ramani. Even if I burn my skin. Valmiki which in the context acquires completeness in the temple. It is. 'she exhibited no aptitude for canvassing work'15.A.. so I have brought only fruits and coconut24. clearing her throat : I won't hide anything from you. moving away from him. I am not afraid". her exile is not an act of obedience to her husband but it is a revolt against male domination. On one hand he was incessantly growing indifferent for his wife and children. Sita and Shakuntala are two leading female characters of Indian mythology that invite a close comparison with Savitri. He further elaborates : Married to an unscrupulous husband she rejects identity with him and escapes to Madras. Naik. Ramani's attitude reminds us of the views of M. Ramani's involvement with Shanta Bai reminds us of the view of Suryanarayana Murti that Narayan's 'characters are prisoners of their ego and ignorance and their actions are silly'17. like Sita is submissive and dedicated but unlike Sita. studies up to B. This is the reason why K. Mari and Ponni reconstitute the identity of the sage. Movement'23. Ramani's eccentricities and infatuation bring out the wreck of the family. Savitri. The concept of myth invites our attention. But Ramani can hardly exempt her forever from doing her business. Savitri's exile in the temple is metaphorical to her quest for identity as a woman. The growing estrangement between Ramani and Savitri leads to revolt on the part of Savitri : "Don't touch me !" she cried. The use of Sita myth is an important aspect of the narrative. It is ironical that unlike Valmiki. I can't cleanse myself of the impurity of your touch". Savitri. I knew that you wouldn't like anything else cooked by me. Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics states : Myth may be defined as story or a complex of story elements taken as expressing and therefore as implicitly symbolizing certain deep lying aspects of human and trans–human experience22. They didn't stay very long in the theatre. She walked all the way to the north end of the town and reached the river an hour later. His visit to the movie is conveyed to Savitri by Gangu. . however. on the other hand. seeks a job and joins the Insurance Office of Ramani as Probationary Assistant. and this attitude of Ramnai obliges revolt in Savitri that begins with escape from her monstrous husband. Ramani is delineated with pathetic irony that he gets infatuated after fifteen years of marriage. he was beginning to feel worried about Shanta Bai because even after one month. Mari and Ponni are untouchables and cannot offer food to Savitri from their kitchen : Only fruits and coconut.. strike me. get away now"19. remarkable that Savitri is closer to Sita than Shakuntala. Irony operates the use of myth. "All right. The narrator confides : Gangu wept a little herself and said. "You are dirty.. She said something and both of them went out at ten o' clock18. It is chiefly the reason why Narayan himself take Savitri to be 'an early testament of Woman's Lib.

in the first part of the novel is applied with much simpler meaning but now in the last phrase of the narrative it is used with deeper layers of irony. Hard enough for men to get work these days25. Narayan from the point of view of the study of man–woman relation. Sarayu makes us identify Savitri with Sita. 2R. Fear returned. Oh . thus. References 31Murti.There is a mad woman in there who won't touch food unless she is given work. The temple under the old man.V. Savitri's stay in the dark room." But what about the fiery views. Raghavacharyulu infer that the novel 'has. which has been ratified through the recreation of the image of the dark room. home and accustomed comforts seized her'. The Dark Room. Savitri refuses mercy when Mari and his wife offers him food. 3Ian Walt. The Dark Room. And then the children. I must see Sumati and I must see Kamala. She felt 'unhappy' and felt that it was 'eman and unjust'30.K. The Dark Room (Chennai : Indian Thoughts Publications. The Dark Room. which. The Dark Room.K. how comforting the bed felt and how well one could sleep! Not this terrible state. Suryanarayana Murti opines that 'at once she realizes her helplessness and dependency in the house though she remains haunted by his cry'31. now excites nostalgia and home sickness. K. The symbol of the river. 'A nostalgia for children. Savitri's excitement draws a sharp contrast with her realization. is an important novel of R. "Monkey and Hanuman" Kohinoor in the Crown. She felt excited that she 'could give him food. Mathur observes that Savitri has more points of similarity with Sita. It was 'one afternoon when she was lying on her carpet in the hall' and heard the loved call from a distance "Lock repaired sirs. Savitri returns Narayan celebrates the festivity of her return by recreating the symbols of dialogues between Ramani who doesn't question anything about his wife's absence in the house. The woman is reborn. Narayan explore the wide range of human relations through a love triangle. Mari as a thief is Valmiki's past whereas the old man of the temple is the present. The rebel dies.V. 'All right I will live in this'. but the symbol of the temple and the dark room with stink of burning oil and smoke obliges realization on her part. 1989) 540. umbrellas repaired"30. and a contrast offered by the rustic couple. Mori and Ponni.. 2005) 1. She almost called him but she suddenly checked herself and let him pass. The novel begins with echoing reverberation of mate domination and ends with silent realization of it. The character of Valmiki has been split into Mari and old man. water and a magnificent gift and inquire about her great friend Poony'. 133.. 11. ed. 6Narayan. what a void they cheated! "I must see them : I must see Babu. after all been kept ajar to the influx of undeceived self vision'29. "The First Paragraph of the Ambassador" 20th Century Criticism – A Reader. makes the last station of Savitri's exile. The novel ends with a pathetic note on the Savitri's part which culminates the realization. It is a master stroke of irony that all the emotions that she forcefully denies are fused into one: When she shut the door and put out the lights. Narayan. she said choosing the lesser charity27. 4Narayan. She denies fear when she agrees to stay in the dark lonely shade: Charity! Charity! Savitri was appalled by the amount of it which threatened one. . There is cyclic recreation of the image of the dark room. the heroine of the Ramayana26. 2. and the coming out at midnight ?28 The realization of Savitri makes D.K. 5Narayan. Savitri's stay at the temple accounts for the realization. David Lodge (London : Longman. 5. Savitri's realization confirms the cyclic reversal of the situation that Savitri in the beginning of the novel is same as Savitri in the last page.

8Narayan.K. Mathur. 1) and the midnight 'shakes the memory' (L. 146. The Dark Room. 22Alex Preminger (ed.K. 23R. The Dark Room. The woman in the poem strikes us with manifold intensity of symbolic manifestation. . "Two Modern Versions of the Sita Myth : Narayan and Anand" Modern Indian English Fiction (New Delhi : Abhinav.K.. 14Narayan. 90. Rhapsody on a Windy Night "Rhapsody on a Windy Night" is another very important poem of this collection which unfolds many new and old shades of human relations. Ltd.7Narayan. 1975) 119. 26O. At "Half past three”: She winks a feeble eye.K. 10Narayan. The Dark Room. M. 1985) 38. 13Narayan. 140. a Hell devoid of consistency. The title of the poem suggests an ironical reversal of romantic connotations of the poem. 51. and isolation characterizing the urban milieu. 62. too stupid to punish anyone. 15Narayan. The Dark Room. The words of Stephen Spender capture attention. 20). 127. 28Narayan. 19) which is 'torn and stained with sand' (L. The Dark Room. My Days (London : Chatto and Windus. 20Naik 21. "Monkey and Hanuman" Kohinoor in the Crown (New Delhi : Sterling. The togetherness of man and woman illustrate scepticism. 112). The woman comes with the 'border of her dress' (L.V.K. The action ceases to be action and amounts to mean inaction and this inaction creates a milieu of Dante's Limbo. 17Murti. The Dark Room. 21Narayan. and the images used in the poem provide ratification to Eliot's debt to symbolise masters like Le Baudlaire and Laffergue. 50.) Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetic (London : Macmillan. The Dark Room. 12Narayan. 1979) 538. 161. 16K. 122. Naik The Ironic Vision : A Study of the Fiction of R. 11Narayan. The Dark Room. Naik (New Delhi : Abhinav. The constant reference to time suggests the advancement of action which is not action at all but the advancement of action is subservient to the movement of time.P.V. 87. 19Narayan. The Dark Room. The Dark Room. Suryanarayan Murti. 24Narayan. 25Narayan. 1M. The Dark Room. 1993) 70. 50. The Dark Room. 76. The Dark Room. 79. 66. 30Narayan. and without any moral severity' (10) characterized by 'a dead sameness about all their activities' (p. The Dark Room. 27Narayan. The Dark Room. Narayan (New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Pvt. 11). Raghavacharyulu. 1987) 133. 1983) 1. The cultural–disintegration is elucidated through the seduction of the woman before the arrival of the protagonist. 29D. Narayan. 60. 18Narayan. The Dark Room. 38. The Dark Room. "Small Scale Reflections on a Great House of Fiction" Pespectives on Indian Fiction in English" Ed. 123. 9Narayan. "Monkey and Hanuman" Kohinoor in the Crown. 64. He takes the 'modern life' to be 'a fragmentary Hell. The poem opens with reference to time – Twelve o' clock (L.

The idea of cultural disintegration. "Preludes" put–forth a world of sufferings. In "Preludes" there is no direct involvement of a woman character. (52–55) An analytical survey of the action of the woman makes us realize the pervasion of inaction in the contemporary cultural set up. the milieu of waste. The opening lines of Preludes II ratify the idea of urban hell. 22) owes its genesis to the rapid commercialization of contemporary Europe and consequent degeneration of human values and action. 112). The moon has lost her memory. "Preludes" I & II were written in October 1910 and III was written in July 1911 in Paris and IV in November 1911 at Harvard. and the woman serves to define an urban hell around herself. She smooths her hair grass. There is profound irony in the portraiture of the woman. There are suggestions of mechanical attitude towards sex and of consequent ratification of the theme of life in death and death in life. The image of 'crooked pin" (L. With the other masquerades (14–19) . "Preludes" are conspicuous for harmony of mood and tone. The morning comes to consciousness. The bed is open : the toothbrush hands on the wall. social disorder and spiritual vacuum. and then nothing' (p. Critical Analysis of Eliot’s Preludes "Preludes" further ratifies a distinct symbolic worth of woman in the poetry of Eliot. The poem records the memory of a young man as he makes his movement towards his rented room through the storm where prostitutes live and play their sordid business. 'Life that falls close to death'. indifference and detachment. The image of the open door as a 'grin' illustrate the nature of emotion of the woman with all its metaphorical magnificence. the second person pronoun often reminds us of the presence of a woman around the speaker. prepare for life. but. there is love with indifference and detachment. (Ll. The nothing out of dross and chaos is represented aptly by the woman in the poem. 'charts a progress through the night towards a mounting stair. "Rhapsody on a Windy Night" says I.She smiles into corners. The last stanza of the poem culminates the motif. Put you shoes at the door. (76-78) It is clear from the above discussion that "Rhapsody of the Windy Night" is an important poem from the point of view of delineation of the woman character with metaphorical magnificence. Urban images occur again with implications of waste and wild. The cyclic interdependence of life in death and death in life in action which ceases to be action. a hysteria and neurosis defined around the woman who is also a listener . The image of the moon draws a very close parallel with the woman in the poem. Mays. sleep.C. The woman in the poem plays a very important role in delineating the cultural disintegration. The last twists of the knife.C. in the socio–cultural set up of time and space. Of faint stale smell of beer From the saw–dust trampled street Will all its muddy feet that press To early coffee stands. The beauty and mystic charm of the moon has been replaced by the artificial glow of electric bulbs and multi–coloured lamps.

1959. He. It is also the reason why the publication of the novel was suspended for a fairly long period. who glorifies her vanity in her triumph over man and enjoys sadistic pleasure when she sees a man servile to her vanity and charm. 2010 Human Relationship in D. March 28. Lawrence (1885–1930) is one of the greatest names in the history of English novel. It is the least known of all of his novels. a man with conservative stamp of mind and mellowed by the stronger personality of his wife. The views of F. Despite being a failure.R. D. In a sharp contrast with her is the Leslie Lempast. London : Chatto and Windus. 69). the peacock. Lawrence's second novel The Tresspasser appeared in 1912. Joseph Conrad. Leavis rightly points out that Eliot "notes the nervous tension and suppressed hysteria of this world of frustrated rudderless cultured well to do people" (Lewis Pursuit. His mother's illness was another factor that went on creating new strains and stresses that reverberated incessantly in the writer's mind. Wipe your hand across your mouth and laugh : The worlds revolve like ancient women gathering fuel in the vacant lot (52-54) F. The White Peacock failed to earn critical acclaim but it predicts the birth of a genius the domain of novel writing. Sunday.R. H. Works Cited Lewis. Lawrence endured the shock of his brother's death in 1901 and the shock was so strong that he fell it. and watched the night revealing. . You lay upon your back and waited : You dozed. James Joyce is the man behind the form and function of the newly developed genre called Modern Novel. his first novel is significant for the portrayal of four characters. The Common Pursuit. Leavis sum up the real picture of Europe in the first two decades of this century. The thousand sordid images Of which your soul was constituted.Lawrence's Sons and Lovers Human relationship always defined the dynamics of the action of Lawrentian novel. The story lacked connectivity : the plot was too poor to speak about Hueffer. George the son of the soil who makes a mess of his life who falls prey to the seductive charms of a belle dame but faith with her love and invites frustration. This period was defined in terms of severe emotional complexity. F. (24–29) The images of suffering.H. and then Annabel who enshrines two Lawrentian myths the superiority of the rich and the charms of the white peacock. It is a great thing to the credit of Lawrence that these four characters recur incessantly in the fictional domain of Lawrence right till the end. loneliness and isolation become more transparent in Preludes IV. Lawrence published his first novel The White Peacock in 1911.R. along with Henry James. Letti.The opening of Preludes III immediately alarms us about the presence of a woman dressed in dross and waste: You tossed a blanket from the bed.

Mrs. Lawrence started writing the novel when his mother was on the death–bed. It is rather like Goethe and his mother.4 It is clear from Lawrence's letter to his critic–friend that the sexual dissatisfaction of the woman is at the center of the theme and out of that sexual dissatisfaction. These sons are urged into life by their reciprocal love for their mother–urge on and on. The son decides to leave his soul in his mother's hand and like his elder brother. She has a passion for her husband. the mother realizes what is the matter and begins to die. The battle goes on between the mother and the girl. The novel also marks the consummation of the first phase of the fictional writing. first the eldest. As soon as the young man came into contact with woman. they can't love because their mother is the strongest power in their lives and holds them. But they spin because he doesn't know where he is. Paul on the contrary was a man purely of flesh that resulted into the strain making pivot of the dynamics of the novel : . She is deeply religious and loves ideas and considered very intellectual. The first important point is that a sexually dissatisfied woman as a result of the cool and well nurtured rage adopts her own sons as lovers. fights his mother. all the sons hate and are jealous of father. He concluded this assessment say that an 'erotic work must be a good art which this is not'.2 Sons and Lovers published in 1913 is the most consummate form of the novel writing. The next son gets a woman who fights for his soul. It is obvious that mother fixation is one the prominent aspects of the thematic structure of the novel. and has no satisfaction in her own life. so the children are born of passion and have heaps of vitality. to convince his friendliest of the critic of his control over the medium. He is left in the end naked of everything with his drift towards death. But almost unconsciously. But as her sons grew up. a sense of erotic frustration'. then the second. goes for passion. Morel is the protagonist of the first part of the novel and both the aspects of the theme discussed above are defined chiefly through her. He gets passion then the split begins to fell again. The second important point deals with the inextricable relationship between the mother–fixation and the sex–life of the sons.commenting on the novel frankly opined that it is 'a rotten book of a genius'.1 'There is. Lawrence. There are two questions that form the extreme of the axis of the whole structure of the novel. The son loves the mother. But then they come to manhood. in a letter to Garnett explains : It follows this idea : a woman of character and refinement goes into the lower class. there is a split. she selects them as lovers. She belongs to a lower middle class family and is brought up with high moral sense that makes her legacy of generations of puritans.3 It is thus clear from the Gregory's views that Sons and Lovers is the first novel of conventional plot–structure and the growth of the character which closely resembled the conventional plot–structure of a victorian novel. to please Edward Garnett. she nurtures the children with the passion of lovers and the passion in turn perverts the life cycle of her sons. unambiguously makes the most celebrated example of the maestro's adherence to this theme and his fixation with the mother provides essential fictional value to the narrative. it was necessary for his first important work to have the texture of a complete novel. William gave his sex to a fribble and his mother holds his soul. with son as object. write Kenneth Young. France Van Stein and Christian. The strain comes as a result of the two moods sharply at variance with each other. The novel also offers reply to those who criticized him for his inability to write a well–framed novel. attends to his mother dying. Sons and Lovers. The son casts off his mistress. Horace Gregory rightly affirms : The process of writing Sons and Lovers was a process of mastering the technique of the novel : please himself. Young further explains that the 'physical elimination is neither felt nor visualized'. The mother gradually proves stronger because of the tie of blood.

For one thing. Mrs. . Morel's strict abnegation comes out with two fold implications : it reveals the struggle between the two classes and at the same time it also reveals the growing contempt of the mother for her children's father. They grow up under the strict supervision of their mother who never allows them to play with the children of miners. Morel and Mrs.5 Mrs. Mrs. The marital strains. the first born of Morels redefines the rhythm of the action with new strains. Lawrence that acquires a much prominent role in Aaron's Rod published in 1922. Mrs. aware of thuds downstairs. sexual incompatibility and the class struggle are so completely fused that to isolate one from the rest is nearly impossible and the fusion leads to a composite perception of the complex vision of the novel. The event also determines the course of action of the novel by aggravating the pore existing indifference between the couple and simultaneously the future of the mother and child and father and child relationship. The growing indifference between Walter Morel and Mrs. The birth of Paul is a starking instance of the irony of the real and desired. She tried to force him to face things. and the reader who does not grasp them artistically but is merely looking for simple social morals. is recreated again in the childhood of the children. It is more than obvious that Sons and Lovers is an autobiographical novel and the autobiographical elements are not manifest in terms of sexual strains and marital incompatibilities but the violent antithetic impulses between the lower and lower middle classes of the society also reflect here. lower and lower middle. specially in the light of the fact that she was pregnant.6 The relevance of Wilson's views are evidenced in the complexity of vision put to scrutiny and perception by Lawrence. but a complex vision of things. the new protagonist : Often Paul would wake up. The growing indifference of Morel obliges Mrs Morel to pour all her love on her first born. Paul gradually acquires protagonistic stature. which itself is not explicit but implicit. The recurrence of the class struggle is also a much prominent. Instantly he was wide awake. Morel remained harsh in dealing with her husband. He. The episode in which Morel drives her out of house in the wintry night is an apt revelation of this. The use of irony also predicts the nature of action and experience of the novel.His nature was purely sensuous and. The first part of the novel has very obvious strains of the class compartmentalization in the lower and lower middle classes of the contemporary society. in his celebrated article. In the circumstances of intoxication or squandering money. Lawrence narrates the family discord from the point of view of Paul. ignored aspect of the fictional domain of D. The first major twist in the direction of Oedipal manifestation is observed with the birth of jealousy in the mind of the father for his son. Morel and William. comments : Yet a man who tries to apply Marxist principles without real understanding of literature is liable to go horribly wrong. The birth of the child is aptly metaphorical to and illustrative of various forms of antithesis that define the dynamics of the plot structure of the novel. though. she strove to make him moral religious. William. Morel's act of clipping of the locks of William's hair when he was barely one year old illustrates the complex emotion pervading the universe peopled by the three : Waller Morel. it is usually true in works of highest order that the purport is not a single message. Morel's dislike for Jerry Purdy who was a bosom friend of Walter Morel have twin implications : one hand it reveals the vibrant strains between the husband and wife and on the other hand it reflects the antithesis within the society at various levels. "Marxism and Literature". The views of Edmund Wilson invite our attention. Morel didn't want the child but her motherly instinct shoot up meteorically and she resolves to produce the child. it drove him out of his mind. Then he heard the booming shouts of his father. The struggle between two classes. He could not endure it. after he had been asleep for a long time. is certain to be confused.H. she adopts a relentless attitude whereas her husband opts for rage and indifference.

bang of his father's fist on the table. The story in the first part of the novel is narrated from the point of view of Mrs. and nasty snarling about as the man's voice got higher. then the bang. The action and experience latent in the novel is redefined and it results into the making of new strain. Her reaction to Mirium was that she was 'one of those who will want to suck a man's soul and till he was none of his own left'. often Paul Morel. Even after teens their relationship does not acquire typical Lawrentian maturity. The wind came through. The tragedy owes its origin to Paul's mother fixation.7 The anguish of the children was shaped into by the mother for their father.come home nearly drunk. deeply religious. Mrs.10 Paul's fixation with his mother and obsession with Mirium tears him into pieces. It is an important observation that her intimacy with Paul is more subtle than with the first born. He was delivered only by death from the tormenting strain that owes its origin to the fragmented emotion of love. She keeps an eagle eye on him. They lay with their heart in the grip of immense anguish. He. Man–woman relation acquires new reverberations with a new unconventional love–triangle. He owes his mother a notion of faithfulness.8 Lawrence delineate Paul and Mirium with platonic inclination towards each other. Mrs. Mrs. It is more than predictable that Mrs. a kind of bristling in the darkness. Morel is no longer opposed to her brutish husband. Morel. Mirium was extremely sensitive. from the great wind swept ash tree. The children lay silent in suspense. and brings her home on Christmas. remarks : However. then the sharp replies of his mother. Morel's reaction to the growing attachment of Paul towards Mirium is predictable. the author enlists for Mrs. The narrative has a balance of the two paradoxical strains : the protagonist's love towards his mother and his love towards Mirium. It was also a latent desire of her mother that her son should marry wisely. And then the whole was drowned in the piercing medley of shrieks and cries. waiting for a lull in the wind to hear what their father was doing. Joseph Warren Beach rightly analyses the strains in the . made her mother proud. and a sense of blood. When Paul secures a job in London's Surgical Appliances Factory. Paul. The sympathy. Mirium loves Paul with body and soul but he could not enjoy the liberty of loving a girl as long as his mother lived : The fact that he might want her as a man wants a woman had in him been suppressed into shame. she is glutted with inordinate pride and relief. Williams' death also paves way for the protagonistic stature of Paul. Morel found the girl quite shallow and is least reluctant to show her dislike. He might hit their mother again. There was a feeling of horror. His perplexed childhood made him incapable of loving a girl. Whenever the mother returned home bitter and angry the children would surround their mother like tiny companions. The strains pervading different corners of the miner's house are redefined when William. William lived divided between love for his mother and infatuation for his girl friend. It was a tormenting love triangle. Paul's first love Mirium. her second son. falls in love with Miss Weston.8 Paul's love for Mirium reverberates and revitalizes the strain in the narrative. on this phase of the development of the novel. They were sexually immature so their love is manifest at sentimental level. Morel William and Miss Weston creates an unusual love–triangle. Lawrence intensifies the effect by cyclic recreation of time image. the Lawrence figure of the novel grows up. tale of woman's hunger for love and consequent perversion. in London. with many prizes and scholarships against his name that. Sons and Lovers transmutes into what is virtually a different book. Morel takes over William completely and when he secures employment as a clerk at some firm in London. Rather it is set against an object who may seem considerably less legitimate as a focus for enmity. The views of Philip Hobsbaum invite our attention. a promising student. Such enmity makes this second part into a bed story for Mrs. she was assured that her son was well on his way to prosperity. Morel.

See you are a nun. Paul's love for Mirium is a desperate attempt to free himself from his excessive attachment to his mother. I have given you what I would give a holy nun as a mystic monk to a holy nun. which Lawrence thought of as the disease syndrome of his time and of Europe. One day he gives her a large dose of Morphine and frees her from all her pains. I have given it to you this long long time but not embodied passion. . It results into the extinction of the life flame. The advent of Mrs. But this he cannot do. Clara Dawes is a significant event in the narrative that works and new twists and turns for the development of the theme. on twenty first birthday of Mirium writes to her : You see I can give you split love. Paul falters again. He walked towards the faintly humming glowing town quickly. It grew warm at the thought of Clara. Paul too had no intention to possess Clara but she was instrumental in working out a relief. She points out : Sons and Lovers ends with Paul a derelict in a drift towards death.11 Paul nearly wrecks when he confesses to Mirium : I can only give friendship – it is all I am capable of. Mrs. Let us have done.14 There is little antipathy between Clara and Mrs. Morel's spiritual ailment seeks a physical counterpart when he becomes a patient of cancer. And she was gone. his mouth set for. But the death drift or the death worship is for Lawrence a hideous distortion of the relationship of life to death. admits that 'there is some sort of perversity in' their 'souls' that makes them 'not want get away from the very thing they want'. he would not give in sharply. He cannot give to Mirium what has already been made over to his mother. to follow her. The views of Dorothy Van Ghent invite our attention. The thing over balances to one side.13 The confession of Paul ratifies the simultaneous existence of both the antithetic vibrations. He wanted her to touch him. One wanted to possess Paul spiritually while the other wanted him physically. He would have denied it forever. Mrs. Sex had become so complicated in him that he would have denied that he ever could want Clara or Mirium or any woman whom he knew. have him alongside with her. unlike Mirium.narrative. intermingled herself. He says : Sons and Lovers is primarily the story of mother fixation. it's a flaw in my make up. But no. Paul.12 The piece of epistle written by Paul to Mirium aptly illustrates pulsations of love of Paul for Mirium and simultaneously. I had a hoppling balance. But instead of smooth sexual interaction. however. Sex desire was a sort of detached thing for him that didn't belong to a woman. Sex instinct propell him fast towards Clara Dawes who. was a married woman. his fists were shut. and thus comes about that torturing dichotomy between him and the woman who wants all his love and to whom he can give but half. Paul pities his mother's pains and resolves to free her from all pains.12 Paul likes the divided love and this agony seeks expression when he. Paul realizes and reveals that he would not get the right woman until his mother survives. Morel's death was as much a relief for her as for her son but Paul's fixation with his mother was so strong that his soul oscillated between life and death : She was the only thing that held hours up amid all this. Morel. He would not take that direction. He was like so many young men of his own age.15 The above quoted excerpt make it clear that to realize life it is necessary to realize death and vice–versa. it also reflects the insurmountable burden of mother fixation. he knew the curves of her breasts and her shoulders as if they have been moulded inside him and yet he did not positively desire her.16 Dorothy Van Ghent makes it clear that for Lawrence death is as dynamic as life and life without death ceases to matter. He loved Mirium with his soul. he battled with her. to the darkness.

Beach.H. 16Dorothy. 1961) 261. 337.H. There are critics like Harry T. 1989) 247. D. 6Edmund Wilson. 1988. Van Ghent. 1934) 17–18. 1949) 33. Lawrence. 1952) 30. 345. "Marxism and Literature". D. Lawrence (London : Longman. 1950. Lawrence (London : Martin Secker.H. Letters to Edward Garnett. The Twentieth Century Novel – Studies in Technique. Sons and Lovers. Letters to Edward Garnett (London : Green and Company. 1960. The love dies and soon after their conjugation is solemnized but the pain not only defines the human relation along sexual and spiritual dimensions. Lawrence. The first important couple delineated to define human relation is of Walter Morel and Mrs.H. all the three are defined in terms of one great force determining the nature and experience of these relations. 7Phillip Hobsbaum. 1936. Sons and Lovers.H. Lawrence. Novelists on Novel.H. London : Green and Company. The tragedy of William and Mrs. The English Novel : Form and Function (London : Harper Torch Book. Lawrence (London : Thames and Hudson. 15Lawrence. but it also brings into being the idea of class struggle. A Critical Study of the Writings of D. Paul and Mirium and to a great extent Paul and Claura. Sons and Lovers.. it is widely spanning ambit encapsulates as many as three different permutations of man–woman relation. 12Lawrence. Horace. 8Lawrence. 1982.H. The tragedy of Sons and Lovers originates from the tragedy of author's life that pervaded the whole milieu for about one generation. Moore and Richard Aldington who opine that the novel is the first major representation of Freud's theories of psycho analysis. London : Penguin Books. Lawrence. It is aptly represented by the wrecking couples of William and Mrs. London : Marity Seeker. Rev. Philip. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Letters to Edward Garnett. 13Lawrence. 2Kenneth Young. 10Joseph Warren Beach (New Delhi : Kalyani. 1988) 379. Sons and Lovers. Sons and Lovers (London : Penguin Books. Abrams. A Pilgram of Apocalypse : A Critical Study of the Writings of D. The Trespasser. Lawrence. 221. Weston. Sons and Lovers. have direct bearings upon the life of the author and simultaneously on life of his own generation. D. 1950. Lawrence. New Delhi : Macmillan. A Reader's Guide to Lawrence. 14Lawrence. 199. 9Lawrence. Weston owes its cause to the mother complex. M. which is the factor responsible for twists and turns in the narrative and it is also the idea which reverberates with defining value in many other novels of the maestro. however. 20th Century Literary Criticism – A Reader. 1982) 15. D. New Delhi : Kalyani. Sons and Lovers.H. London : Penguin Books.The novel.H. David Lodge (London : Longman. . ed. 1981) 49. Ed. Pilgrim of Apocalypse. Allott. D. 307. Sons and Lovers.H. The White Peacock. London : Routledge and Kegan Paul. 4Lawrence. 3Horace Gregory. 271. London : Thames and Hudson. the novel had little to do with the Freud's theories of psycho analysis. 1949. Mirium.H. Aaron's Rod. Joseph Warren. 76. who possessed each other deeply but remained spiritually indifferent. Morel. A Reader's Guide to D. Gregory. 1988. Lawrence. D. 1950. London : Penguin. London : William Heinemann Ltd. and.H.H. 1981. Hobsbaum. 5D. D. 11Lawrence. But it is important to note that despite evident similarities. 1D. Lawrence. 501. Sons and Lovers.

Iyengar.S. March 26. uncertainties and unpredictable denoument2. The genesis of this form can be attributed to the intellectual limitations of the primitive audience that found certain elements like supernatural fantasy.Van Ghent. the hyperbolic beliefs associated with animals. The playwright intensifies mystery as "the presiding deity of the temple cannot be identified". 241–252. Karnad's approach is 'modern'. Young Kenneth. The performance of folk arts was chiefly associated with festivals and it is. almost of the type of nursery rhyme and the interpretation of nature and weather also has a distinct logic. "Marxism and Literature" 20th Century Criticism – A Reader. I am not talking of 'acting' dead. speaks. Agnes. The English Novel : Form and Function. Man : I may be dead within next few hours (Long Pause). identifiable with the author. Communal and regional elements are of defining significance in the folklore. He asserts that the Indo–English drama is 'neither rich in quantity nor on the whole is of high quality'1. Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics elaborates the idea that 'a song may have been composed by an individual but it does not become a folk song unless it is adopted by a folk and recreated communally"4. The authorial soliloquy begins with emphasis on the image of death. Dorothy. The action in the "Prologue" is set in a ruined temple with the broken idol. however. Posted by Dr Rajesh Trivedi at 4:15 AM Links to this post Labels: David Herbert Richards Lawrence Friday. The reference to the medicant further ratifies the pervasion of folklorish elements in the . London : Longman. 1989. Edmund. Actually dead. and nature to be more absorbing. 2010 Girish Karnad Girish Karnad is the most important name in the area of play writing in Indian English Literature.H. The idea is ratified by K. Abrams points out that "elements of folklore have at times entered into sophisticated written literature". imperative that the scope of festivity was not confined to the celebration of mirth but even the death rites contribute significantly to folk art. are both derived from folklore"3. The greatness of Girish Karnad lies the success on the stage as well as among the readers. mythical or legendary. The play begins with a long soliloquy. I might die right in front of your eyes. hence. Lawrence. and he deploys the conventions and motifs of folk art like masks and curtains to project a world of intensities. typical of the region that marks the growth of the art form. says : In all his three plays – be the theme historical. There had been inseparable correlation between the folk art and sophisticated art. The rhyme used in folk art is simple. myths and legends. He also cites the instance of "three caskets in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. Wilson. The use of folk elements is one of the reasons behind Karnad's success as a playwright. London : Harper Torch Book. It is unfortunate that the tradition of Indo–English drama earned minimum critical attention. 1952. It reveals the most important function of the folklore in a sophisticated piece of writing and it is to universalize the themes and add to the acceptability of the technical complexities. The man in the temple. It has been discussed earlier that the folk songs are designed chiefly in a festive mood and. D.R. Iyengar. London : Longman. The most unfortunate aspect of Indo–anglican drama is that it has never been fit for performance on the stage. Folk art originated in the areas where most of the people could not read and write. it should be so composed that it is adopted by a large audience with rustic mindset. 1961. and the superstition about the maiden's dream which is central to Keat's Eve of St. commenting on the dramatic technique of Karnad.

The Story and Flames perform the function of audience. acknowledges the enthusiastic welcome from the flames. The use of the supernatural is an inevitable in folk art. enters. The character of Story offers testimony to it : The Story. When it hung loose. The introduction of the second major character once again ratifies the author's respect for folk elements. you'll live. He. Fantasy is also manifest through personification. the fourth dimension or dividing into and dividing of personality. It is clear that except the folklorish fantasy contributes significantly to the design of the play. or finally the device of parody or adaptation7. midgut. The playwright introduces the idea of festivity of birth and death in a cyclic correlation. the Man and the Story remain on stage. The playwright also makes a share of rustic audience. any common name will do10. The character is Rani. The speaker confirms the importance of the supernatural. writes : It implies the supernatural but need not express it. a torrent of black. a black king Cobra lay curled on her neck. has tremendous figurative suggestions. the interior of the earth. Forster invite our attention. coil upon glistening coil. The reference to King Cobra foretells about another major character : For when her hair was tied up in a knot. The playwright says : Throughout the rest of the play. A medicant hold me : you must keep awake at least one whole night this month. The opening paragraph brings into focus a number of technical aspects that are taken from folk art. such as the introduction of a god. you'll die on the last night of the month5. however. the past. which accounts for the balance between the supernatural and the metaphorical. the 'Queen of the whole wide world'. in form of a woman. it was as though. It has been discussed earlier that the folk art is meant to entertain the audience with limited intellect.speech of the man in the temple. It is a characteristic beginning of a folk tale with a rich complicity of the modern tendencies because her 'real name doesn't matter'.9 Story introduces the first major character of the play and does in the manner of a folk tale. His name was – well. which is into no man's land. Often it does express it. in order to keep the audience absorbed. commenting on the function of fantasy. floating in the air ! Is that even possible ?6 It is. The conversation between the Flame 4 and the man is an apt justification of this fact. angel. If not. It is to be noted that the supernatural. and were that type of classification helpful we could make a list of the devices which writers of fantastic turn have used. The image of death and medicant are employed with absorbing intensity. Man : I don't believe it ! They are naked lamp flames ! No wicks. monster. The three flames on the stage with female voices introduce supernatural fantasy. the future. The Man tells Story that 'it is a matter of life and death' for him. besides being absorbing. through surprise. The flames too listen attentively though from distance. The piece of the monologue discussed above suggests the predominance of the folklorish elements in the play. About Rani's husband Story informs : Soon her husband came and took her with him to his village. The flames gather around her. No one holding them. noticeable that the supernatural in the modern literature is conspicuous for its figurative implications. along her young limbs. no lamps. The conventions of folk tales are operated upon by subtle onslaught of irony and creates the . with a languid waves of the hand and goes and sits in a corner looking most despondent. ghost. monkey. dressed in a new colourful sari. and got entangled in her silver anklets.8 Folk tales always enjoyed a fair degree of festivity which is involuntary of songs and music. The views of E. the tresses flowed. the narrator makes use of the supernatural. If you can do that. M. Just lamp flames on their own. Thus.

She was also blessed with power to share the boon with the one she wants to. she is not a 'trickster'. However. He was pleased with me and gave me three pieces of a root 'Any man who eats one of them will marry you'.15 It is interesting to note that the medicant in a recreation of Durvasa and Kurudavva is a recreation of Kunti. he said. He can't understand other people. Inside are iron pieces of roots. Karnad makes use of Kunti–myth. Brinda E. I looked after him in every way. It is an animal with characteristic implications that make it a complex symbol. as implicitly symbolizing certain deep lying aspects of human and trans–human experience14. I was alone. Kurudavva's revelation to Rani ratifies author's debt to the Mahabharata.milieu of a poor boy and a rich girl. The waters breaks down the door of the castle.12 It is interesting to note that the character of Kurudavva is typical of folk–tales character. The sea floods the city. They observe : Key female characters. furthermore are often like tricksters in that they hold underdog positions. She combines selflessness with moral courage and religious dedication to secure 'triumph' over 'less virtuous' woman. Beck and Peter of Clause observe in the "Introduction" to Folktales of India. the mother of Pandavas was blessed by Durvasa for conception at will. you can't do this ! You can't start meddling in other people's affairs. She contrives to accelerate the action by subtle use of the supernatural 'Women's role in these folk tales'. The mystery associated with Cobra always commands a distinct place in the folk tales. However. and. Appanna and Rani both belong to same status yet the names create an atmosphere of folk tales. Animal imagery has always been widely used in folk tales.11 Rituals always play an important role in the design of the folk art. it pours. let us go'. Then a big whale comes to Rani and says : 'Come Rani. also deserve special note'. She confides : One day a medicant came to our house. That Appanna should have been born a wild beast or a reptile. The legends knit around it further intensify the figurative implications inherent in it. Why do you want to tangle with him. Kunti. By some mistake. she in turn. does it with Madri. The blessings of Durvasa have been concretized in to three roots. Many triumphs against great idols (for example against less virtuous woman) by combining selflessness with moral courage and religious dedication.13 The views of Beck and Claus hold perfect relevance in interpreting the characters of Kurudavva. he got human birth. Karnad also fuses the famous conventions of folktales : the convention of a princess kept in cage by a monster. Cooked hot food specially for him and served him to his heart's content. Karnad recreates the duo of Kunti and Madri in a new form and with a new function. defines : Myth may be defined as story or a complex of story elements taken as expressing and. who contributes to the escalation of the action in the play. No one was home. Bring them. therefore. The first spark of this complex image is realized when Kapanna compares Appanna with Cobra : Kappanna : Mother. F. Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Appanna. It is important to note that King Cobra has been widely used for the delineation of complex themes and ideas. The first thing in the morning. Snakes have always been commanding an enviable position in the folk tale.16 . Then it rains for seven days and seven nights. in the beginning he draws parallel with Rani and inkles a princely valour but soon he is transformed into a new identity : Rani : So the demon locks her up in this castle. Kurudavva's initiative paves way for the use of myth which constitutes a necessary aspect of a folktale. The image of a coconut which is an image that owes its significance to local rites : Kurudavva : In the right hand side of the wooden box is a coconut shell wrapped in a piece of paper.

Looked at me. insatiated libidoes represented by the thin ambivalence between the real and the surreal. The conjugation between Rani and the Cobra is depicted through the dialogues between Rani and Kurudavva. But during the day I only have to open my mouth and you hiss–like a stupid snake (Naga Laughs) It is all very well for you to laugh. Cobra assuming human form is an old belief in India. waiting and pining for him'. That night. As you know. Karnad employs a number of supernatural beliefs. That day she floated out from the haunted well. The affirmative response of Rani to Kurudavva's query if she has 'started her married life' ratifies the union Kurudavva's giggling remark further ratifies the idea : Kurudavva (laughs) Tired ? Poor thing! So you see the power of my roots. Just now she stepped out of the cemetery. a Cobra can assume any form it likes. The growing intimacy between the Cobra and Rani define the complexity of the theme. Story's narration inkles the genesis of scepticism in the mind of Rani 'her husband' when he comes during the day 'had no scar on him'. The playwrite deploys Story to intensity – the dramatic effect caused by the supernatural myth of King Cobra acquiring any form and shape. The supernatural imparts dramatic intensity to the Legend. it entered the house through the bathroom drain and took the shape of –17 The Cobra myth performs the function of intensifying the dramatic effect and it also makes a complex metaphor that balances the modern and the ancient. 'There was no sign of Appanna at night after the death of the mongoose and Rani spent her nights crying. Rani : I have definite evidence to prove I was not fantasizing. I feel like crying18.19 Abrams' views hold perfect significance in Karnad's caste of the play and imagery.The use of folklorish elements acquire complexity with the inclusion of Naga who consumes the root that was meant for Appanna. The play makes a world of desire. When Appanna started visiting her at night 'his body was covered with wounds which had only partly healed'. the natural and the supernatural. Kapanna's revelation to his mother is an apt testimony of this preference of the playwrite which confirms his debt to the elements of folk : Kappanna : she is not a village girl. at the same time it also creates a complex metaphor. and. In creating Cobra myth.22 Karnad juxtapose the real with the illusory. the primitive and the sophisticated. frustration. The cobra myth provides the playwrite with an opportunity to use mask which is a conspicuous aspects of folk–drama. It is noticeable that the fight between the Cobra and the mongoose contribute more significantly to the theme of the play. Rani furnishes some complementation to story when she compares Apparna with a snake in conversation with Naga who has assumed the form of her husband : Rani : You talk so nicely at night. he further explains 'serves to explain (in terms of the intentions and actions of supernatural beings) why the world is as it is and things happen or they do'. Which village girl will dare step out at this hour ? And I am not making up stories. Didn't I tell you your husband will sting to you once he tastes it ?20 It is remarkable that besides the use of Cobra myth.H.21 The death of the dog is followed by the death of the mongoose. Story. the playwrite once again acknowledges his debt to folklorish elements. The use of myth acquires new reverberations when Rani reveals that she is pregnant. smiled and waved. Naga : What evidence ? .Abrams is again obligatory who defines a myth as one story in a mythology – a system of hereditary story which were once believed to be true by a particular cultural group and which. A reference to the views of M. The supernatural in the play is fused with hallucination and completes the bridge between the modern and the folklorish. The use the supernatural is fused with legend and myth.

Nor have I allowed any other male to touch me. Rani : When we cremate this snake..' Rani's clarifications at the questions raised at her firmly stablish simultaneous existence of the ironic : Yes. It is noticeable that metamorphosis of folklorish conventions is an integral aspect of modern literature. But I know What sense am I to make of my life that is worth nothing ?28 Cyclic recreation of words. Irony once again plays a functional role. You are no common person. .. The use of dramatic irony revitalizes the reverberations of thematic complexity. phrases and images is also an important technical aspect of folktales. It is evident from the above discussion that the use of folklorish element is one of the most conspicuous aspects of the dramatic technique of Girish Karnad in the design of the play. It is also noticeable that all the elements of folk art do not perform a restricted function but it endures the onslaughts of irony. Appanna : Aren't you going too far ? I mean that's done only for one's own father. Rani pulls the Cobra out and declares that 'Since coming to this village'. K. The Cobra indeed intensifies scintillations of the ironic prevailing the milieu. all that is taken for granted. nor functions meanings26. He. The crowd surged 'forward to postrate itself before her' and even Appanna 'falls at her feet'. The Cobra Ordeal leads to another aspect of the complex theme of the play. You know – it seems to have got caught in your hair and strangled itself. defines the complex theme with admirable candour. It is something one has to live with. the fire should be lit by our son. And I am still alive. Let the world say what it likes. my husband and this King Cobra. Likewise Cobra Ordeal is recreation of the myth of Sita's Agni Pareeksha. Rani with all her deprivation is transformed into a living goddess. like a husband who snores or a wife who is going bald. a female crocodile conceives through a drop of sweat fallen from the body of Hanuman.25 The folklorish end was onslaught of irony to reveal new significance.Rani : I am pregnant. If I lie let the cobra bite me. Let any miracle declare her a goddess. she has 'held by this hand only two . Except for these two I have not touched anyone of the male–sex. You are a goddess. In the Ramayana. while the great myths and local tales share similar structures and motifs. says : Yet.23 Karnad make use of the myth about the birth of child through the intercourse of human and animal. The Elders were right. The action arrives at a folklorish end that Rani 'lived happily ever after with her husband and child and servant'. Ramanujam invite our attention. we must not imagine they are put to the same uses or carry the same unchanging meanings. Motifs does not predict structures and structures do not predict functions. and intensify the theme of deification : Appanna : (Examining the dead snake). You sweep such headaches under the pillow and then press your head firmly down on them. The image of black King Cobra used in the opening of the play is recreated to determine the fate of the Naga. Rani. The views of A. It is commonly observed that Folk tales deal quite exclusively with gods and such heroic figure. Story replies to man in response to his query about the end and says : When one says : 'And they lived happily even after. undergoes metamorphosis and delineate a complex theme. The irony acquires spiral twist when Elder II declares that 'she is not a woman' but a 'divine being'24 and Elder II ratifies. Your long hair saved us. commenting on the use of 'myth and local tales'.29 Rani.27 The revelation is justified when Appanna sighs out helplessly and says : What am I to do ? Is the whole world against me ? Have I sinned so much that even Nature should laugh at me ? I know I haven't slept with my wife.30 Rani's insistence not to abnegate her culminates the one ironic overtones and the function of dramatic irony.

27. Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (London : Macmillan. 41. Ed. Act II. 1990) 106. Indian Writings in English. Act II.S. xxv–xxxi.F. 10Karnad. 17Karnad. 1998. 40. 22. Act II. 4Alex Preminger. Act II. Act II. Naga Mandala. Act I. Beck. 23Karnad. 30Karnad. Naga Mandala. 39. Indian Writings in English (New Delhi : Sterling. Ramanujam. 44. New Delhi : Oxford University Press. New Delhi : Macmillan. 9Karnad. Praphulladatta and Jawaharlal Handoo. Abrams. 26A. 1989.S. Naga Mandala. 8Karnad. Naga Mandala. 12. Alex.H. E. "Introduction" Folktales of India. 1927. 31.F. 16Karnad. 1989) xvii. "Foreword" Folktales of India. Ed. Act I. 1990. Naga Mandala.M. Naga Mandala. 2Iyengar 735. Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. F. Claus. Naga Mandala. Preminger. and Peter J. 27Karnad. London : Macmillan. Forster. 1989). Hayavadana. 6. Naga Mandala. 8. Naga Mandala : Play with a Cobra. Naga Mandala. Act I. Beck. 1990) 1. 1961. . Act II. 22Karnad. 29. Act II. A Glossary of Literary Terms (1941. Claus. Peter J. 1979) 283.R.References 1K. Claus. 12Karnad. Beck. Act II. K. 18. London : Penguin. New Delhi : Oxford University press. F. Select Bibliography Abrams. Beck. Karnad. Naga Mandala. Naga Mandala. 1990. Ltd. M. 13Branda E. Naga Mandala : Play with a Cobra (New Delhi : Oxford University Press. 1991. New Delhi : Sterling. Praphulladatta Goswami and Jawaharlal Handoo (New Delhi : Motilal Banarsidas Publishers Pvt. 28Karnad. New Delhi : Macmillan.K. Ltd. 1997). Naga Mandala. 18Karnad. Act I. 4. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Act I. 15Preminger 12. 28. Claus. 14Preminger 538. Act I. Ed. 44. Girish. Aspects of the Novel. 6Karnad. "Introduction" Folktales of India. 1998). Naga Mandala. Ed. Act I. Beck. Act II. 41. E. 25Karnad. 20Karnad. 24Karnad. Peter J. XXX. 1941. Act II.. Naga Mandala. Karnad. 29Karnad.R. Peter J. 7E. Girish. Act II. Act I. Brinda E. Brinda E. New Delhi : Motilal Banarsidas Publishers. Naga Mandala. London : Penguin. 11Karnad.. Naga Mandala. Peter J. Naga Mandala. 21Karnad. Forster. E. 2.H. 19Abrams 102. 5Girish Karnad. Iyengar. 3M. Aspects of the Novel (1927. 14–15. 5.M. Naga Mandala.F. 1997. Naga Mandala. Iyengar. Claus. Praphulla Datta and Jawaharlal Handoo (New Delhi : Motilal Banarsidas Publishers Pvt.

Eliot. The essay also brings forth Eliot's views on the inter–relation between traditional and individual talent. Ltd. xi–xxi. And it is at the same time what makes a writer most acute by conscious of his place in time of his contemporaneity . "Foreword". The essay brought into being two principal aspects of Eliot's critical domain – tradition and impersonality in art and poetry. Claus. New Delhi : Motilal Banarsias Publishers Pvt. March 25. 2010 critical review of "Tradition and Individual Talent" by Eliot (Part-2) "Tradition and Individual Talent" is the essay of lasting significance in the history of modern criticism.F. 1989. he says. Eliot further defines the idea of historical sense and says : The historical sense which is a sense of the timeless as well as of the temporal. The idea of Eliot's theory of tradition is based on the inevitable phenomenon of the continuity of the values during the process called civilization. Beck. Ramanujam.2 Eliot in the above quoted line puts forth a dynamic manifestation of tradition which shapes the minds of different poets of different generation. Eliot beings with a description that makes tradition a term of abuse and develops to a metaphor of unquestionable authenticity. The values and beliefs that constitute the tradition are living one with capacity of . 'Seldom perhaps'. Brende E. and of timeless and temporal together. A.. has a meaning beyond the conventional sense of term. He further says : You can hardly make the word aggreable to English ears without this comfortable reference to the reassuring science of archaeology. He elaborates the idea of historical sense and says : and the historical sense invokes a perception not only of the partners of the past but also of its presence : The historical sense compels a man to write not merely with his own generation in his bones but with a feeling that whole of the literature of Europe from Homer and within it the whole of the literature of his own country has a simultaneous existence and composes a simultaneous order. 'does the word appear except in a phrase of censure'. It begins with a historical sense and goes on acquiring new dimensions along political and cultural dimension.1979.1 The above quoted lines from one of the most celebrated critical endeavours make it clear that Eliot aims at developing a new concept and structuring a new approach to the very phenomenon called poetry.K. The values and the belief that die with the passage of time are subject to rejection. that rated over the realm of criticism. and this creates a system of axes for the assessment of the worth and genius of a poet. Folktales of India. Eliot also inkles that the poet's conformity into tradition is an act of rigorous intellectual efforts that constitute a poet in him. Eliot takes tradition to be an embodiment of values and beliefs shared by a race which leads to the idea that there is a process of natural selection and rejection. The identification discussed above makes it clear that the tradition according to Eliot is something more than mere conglomeration of dead works. The essay brought into being the new approach with poets of everlasting significance and it also provided the parameters for the assessment of the genius and the shortcomings of the masters but contributed to the history of English Literature. The identification of tradition with historical sense serves to ratify the stature of tradition in assessing the works and function of pets and poetry. Ed. Peter J. after beginning with the seemingly derogatory implications of the term imparts a new meaning and magnificence to the term when he identifies tradition with historical sense.3 The excerpt from the essay makes it clear that Eliot pus the whole term in a much wider context than it is otherwise used before. Praphulladatta Goswami and Jawaharlal Handoo. is what makes a writer tradition. The idea of tradition with all its magnificence. Posted by Dr Rajesh Trivedi at 9:30 AM Links to this post Labels: Girish Karnad Thursday.

then the individual talent in turn modifies tradition.8 The above quoted lines make clear the cyclic interdependence between tradition and individual talent. Eliot lays good emphasis on the idea of interactivity between the tradition and individual talent. He commenting on the function of historical sense in the caste of an individual talent says : This requires that the "bones" belong to the individual who recomposes simultaneity at every moment without losing a combination of the timeless and the merely temporal. the whole existing order must be. The past directs the present and is modified by the present. The simultaneous existence of the past and the present. values of each work of art towards the whole are readjusted. his appreciation in the appreciation of his relation to the dead poets and artists. Every new participation in the tradition results into restructuring of the same tradition with different emphasis.7 Individual talent is needed to acquire the sense of tradition. The relation between the new work of art and the tradition is another very complex idea enshrined in the essay. altered. Richard Shusterman rightly observes that the 'enduring demands preserved in a tradition make it capable of functioning as a synchronize structural system'.9 It is evident from the views of Shusterman that tradition is not anything fixed or static but it is something dynamic and everchanging. for order to persist after the supervention of interaction. The existing monument form an ideal order among themselves. proportions. however.6 It is remarkable that these apparently disparate modes of thinking are disciplined by values.4 Eliot reaffirms that the poet. true that the complete meaning of the poet is realized through his relationship with the tradition but the importance of individual talent cannot be set aside in a discussion on the Eliot's poetics. of the old and the new. Shusterman's view again oblige inclusion. evident that the poet is guided chiefly by the dynamics of the tradition. and this in conformity between the old and the new. Eliot further elaborates: No poet. It is. Eliot conceives tradition and individual talent as unifiable and show that the two have an equally important role to play in poetic creation. It is in the light of the past alone that an individual talent can be. His significance. 'Old and new elements'. It is. Eliot's views on tradition paves way for the theorization of the impersonality in art and poetry. It is constantly growing and changing and becoming different from what it has been earlier. You cannot value him alone. no artist has a complete meaning alone. in order to survive as a poet must invite close contrast and comparison with the dead poets. The old and the new interpenetrate and this interpenetration results into a new order defined in terms of the simultaneous existence of the values of the past and the present. This is the way Eliot subtly reconciles the tradition and the individual talent. 'derive their meaning from their reciprocal relations of contrast and coherence. you must set him from contrast and comparison among the dead. It is again noteworthy that the tradition and individual talent are not at a sharp contrast with each other but they are mutually complimentary. he points out. The new work of art is judged by the standards set by the past. Divergent views about Eliot's theory of objectivity have been discussed but it is . This is an apt revelation of the traditional capabilities of a poet. Eliot ratifies the dynamic nature of tradition. a poet is capable of doing that he ceases to matter in the history of poetry. The existing order is complete before the new work arrives. which is modified by the introduction of the new (the really new) work of art among them. The views of Jean Michael Rabate capture our attention. if ever so slightly. and so the relations. thus.5 Raman Selden observes that 'the standard theories of literature often combine these apparently disparate modes of thinking'. The past helps us understand the present and the present throws light on the past. Unless. If the individual talent needs to acquire tradition. The survival of past ratifies the presentness of it. in a larger whole of tradition which they themselves constitute as parts'.

.12 The analogy that Eliot puts forth makes it clear that the poetry is something entirely different from what is the personal identity of the poet. He asserts : When a poet's mind is perfectly equipped for its work. the poet has not a personality to express but a particular medium. and these two experiences have nothing to do with each other. the personality. The views of William K.13 Eliot puts forth similar views in his celebrated essay – "The Metaphysical Poets".. makes frequent use of terms like 'transmate'. the more perfectly will the mind digest and transmute the passions which are its material. They point out : Such an emphasis was bound to bring down upon Eliot. and emerges with a more candid elaboration of the mechanism of poetic expression. all along the length and breadth of his critical writings. etc. the ordinary experience is chaotic. irregular and fragmentary. The above quoted excerpts from "Tradition and Individual Talent" put forth a belligerently anti romantic view of poetry which lays emphasis on poetry and discards the very idea of the personality of the poet. 'digest'. He further suggests : . nevertheless the newly formed acid contains no trace of platinum. but.15 Edward Lobb comes out with a just explanation of the possibility of levelling such charges against the theory of Eliot.. He says : When the two gases.10 It is clear from the above quotation that Eliot lays heavy stress on the two different aspect of a creator what he is as an individual and at the same time what he is as a creator. Wimsatt and Cleanth Brooks invite our attention. Impressions and experiences which are important for the man may take no place in the poetry. Lobb points out that 'as a living thing. which is only a medium and not a personality. the more completely separate in him will be the man who suffers and the mind which creates. 'transform'. It is understandable that Eliot denies an outright and blind adherence to some peculiar faiths and belief but an emancipation from what is very personal on peculiar. the poet's mind can create a . or with noise of a typewriter or the smell of cooking. it is constantly amalgamatic disparate experience. and the platinum itself is apparently unaffected. This combination takes place. which free from the whims and eccentricities of the poet and has a wider significance. only if the platinum is present. The comparison made out by Eliot between the mind of the poet and the catalyst in a chemical reaction further confirms the point of view. the charges that has had reduced the poet to an automaton who secreted his poet in same unconscious and brainless way and that he had thus committed himself to the most romantic theory possible.. The latter falls in love or reads spinoza.. He says : . It is an easy inference from the above equation that Eliot's to his critical theories discards the emotion of strictly personal significance and centers his ideals on the transformation of what is personal but something of universal significance. It is obligatory to remember Aristotle as this point of time who.. in which impressions and experience combine in a peculiar and unexpected ways. it owes its genesis to the personality that emerges out of the creative personality of the poet. in the mind of the poet these experiences are always forming new wholes.observed that critics tend to generalize the theory to a common experience. but the more perfect the artist. against all odds takes 'plot' to be the 'soul of the tragedy' and claims that 'there can be tragedy than a character but not without a plot'. It is noticeable that the impersonality that Eliot discusses in his criticism does not imply a mechanical objectivity of a hoarding painter. This is principally the reason that Eliot.11 Eliot in these lines discovers a new possibility of a universal meaning.. and those important in the poetry may play quite a negligible part in the man.14 It is obvious that Eliot aims at the recreation of a non–mechanical unity and of the store of impressions and experiences in the poet's mind. previously mentioned are mixed in the presence of a filament of platinum they form sulphurous acid.

20 Eliot's views expressed earlier. If you examine any of Shakespeare's more successful tragedies.21 The theory of objective–correlative fully ratifies Eliot's adherence on the . The second personality is that of the poet who out of intense and passionate experience. Eliot's theory of impersonality of art gets apt justification in his essay. But. kindered to that.non–mechanical unity out of diverse. He makes the idea more clear in "Tradition and Individual Talent" when he says : Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion. particular emotion. Eliot further says that 'Hamlet (the man) is dominated by an emotion which is inexpressible. you will find this exact equivalence. a situation. but an escape from emtion. that which is natural to a skilful craftman and that which is more and more achieved by a maturing artist. defines poetry and says : Poetry is spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings : it takes its origin from the emotions recollected in tranquility till by a species of reaction tranquility gradually disappears and the emotion. you will find that the state of mind of Lady Macbeth walking in her sleep has been communicated to you by a skilful accumulation of imagined sensory impressions. is able to express a general truth. "Hamlet and His Problems". The first is that of what I have called 'anthology pieces' of lyric by Loveless or Suckling or Campion a fine poet than either. is gradually produced and does actually exists in the mind of the poet. which must terminate in sensory experiences are given. such that when the external facts. it is obligatory to compare Eliot's view on poetry with those of Wordsworth who represents the apex of Romantic idealogy. make the idea very clear that the emotion to be expressed in a work of art has a contextual significance only.18 It is obvious from the above quotations that personality and emotions are pre–requisites of the impersonality.17 It is obvious from the above quoted excerpt that the impersonality of first type is the impersonality without a personality. and this results into a chaos. Wordsworth in the Preface to Lyrical Ballads. it is not an expression of the personality but an escape from the personality. In order that Eliot's views on impersonality of poetry acquire the clarity of vision and theory. these words were automatically released by the last event in the series. the emotion is immediately evoked. which was before the subject of contemplation. retaining all the peculiarity of his experience and make it a general symbol. the emotion ceases to mean. the words of Macbeth hearing of his wife's death strike us as if given the sequence of events. He in his essay – "Yeats" (1940) reiterated the importance of personality in considering his later poetry to be superior to his earlier poetry as that is more profound revelation in the last phase of poetic existence. and outside the context of the work of art. because it is in excess of the facts as they appear'. even contradictory elements. only those who have personality and emotions know what it means to want to escape from them. in other words a set of objects.'16 Lobb compares him with Coleridge who 'found this ability to reconcile "opposite on discordant qualities" to be the characteristic of power of the living imagination'.16 The views of Lobb make it clear that the impersonality that Eliot aims at is not a mechanical impersonality but the impersonality of that owes its genesis to values prevailing in spatio–temporal continum. which shall be formula of that. He says : There are two forms of impersonality. of course. He says : The only way of expressing an emotion is by finding an "objective correlative".13 It is clear from the above definition of William Wordsworth that he aims at purifying the emotion to the most personal by 'a specie of reaction' and the possibility of 'concentration' or 'digestion' or 'transmutation' or formation of 'new wholes' is virtually in existent in the Romantic view of poetry. a chain of events.

Selected Essays. Preface to Lyrical Ballads (New Delhi : Macmillan. Wimsatt and Brooks rightly observes that 'the doctrine of the objective correlative' places thoroughly anti–romantic stress on craftsmanship. Selected Essays (London : Faber and Faber. Wimsatt and Cleanth Brooks. "Tradition and Individual Talent". In After Strange Gods he categorizes writer according to the faith and beliefs expressed in their works. 4Eliot. 49.B. The Eliot and the Philosophy of Criticism (London : Duckworths. ironical that Forester does not come out with anything specifically new and fails to establish . 18Eliot. The Sacred Wood. 22Wimsatt and Brooks 668. 9Shusterman 187. The Sacred Wood. Later Eliot propounded the view that the great work of art conforms to the idea of Christian orthodoxy. S. It puts forth two very important aspects of his critical mindset – tradition and impersonality of art and poetry that determine the nature and scope of his criticism. Eliot and the Romantic Critical Tradition (London : Rowledge and Kegan Paul. A. the development of a point of view. S.S. 100–101. The Sacred Wood (London : Metheun. The Sacred Wood. reprint 1987) 27. The Sacred Wood.inevitability of impersonality of the emotion of art. Aristotle's Theory of Poetry and Fine Arts (New Delhi : Kalyani. 2Eliot. "Yeats". T. 20Eliot. H. "Tradition and T. It is thus clear that "Tradition and Individual Talent" is one of the most important essay of Eliot. Eliot. 1988) 181. Literary Criticism : A Short History (New Delhi : Oxford and I. 6Raman Seldon. 14T. "Tradition and Individual Talent". later merged with the confinement of the work to the principles and dogmas propounded by Christian orthodoxy. 49. The Sacred Wood. 15William K. The Sacred Wood. Forster questioned the relevance of Aristotlean concept of plot structure. 11Aristotle. "Hamlet and His Problems". S. David Moody (London : Cambridge University Press. 16Edward Lobb. "The Metaphysical Poets". "Hamlet and His Problems". 10Eliot. Aristotle's concept of plot (Part-2) Aristotle's concept of plot remained unquestionable till the beginning of this century when E.. References 1T. Eliot". "Tradition and Individual Talent". 17Eliot. S. however. Trans. ed. 19William Wordsworth. 21Eliot. Later by the time of the pulication of After Strange Gods the idea of impersonality was apparalled in new form. M. 50. 7Jean Michael Rabate. 1994) 214.'22 It is also observed that the concept of impersonality continually grows and acquires new shades. 58. and his concept of impersonality. "Tradition and Individual Talent". 101. It is. Butcher. "Tradition and Individual Talent". 1965) 47. Eliot. What Eliot exalted most in his earlier writings. 13Eliot. 149. 1990) 405. 12Eliot. Publishing. 54. 8Eliot. 54. 1981) 129. "Tradition and Individual Talent". 1981) 23. Eliot. S.H. The Sacred Wood. 5Richard Shusterman. The Sacred Wood. 49. Selected Essays. The Theory of Criticism (New York : Longman. 3Eliot. The Sacred Wood. "Tradition and Individual Talent". 1976) 248. The Cambridge Comparison to T. 56. "Tradition and Individual Talent". The Poetics. "Tradition and Individual Talent". 1957) 665.

therefore.his abnegation to Aristotlean theory. catharsis of pity and fear. The views of B. He further elaborates his thesis by alluding to two principal demands of a plot intelligence and memory. Bernays firmly established the fact that catharsis is a metaphor taken from medical science. In the definition of tragedy Aristotle speaks of 'catharsis' as the specific function of a tragedy. Shrivastava's views in his elaboration of the controversial term katharsis capture our attention : It is true that the plot is the expression or representation of the poetic vision itself is the structure because in order to be fully bodied force. capable of experiencing the pain and ego such as that which we see affecting of threatening a person pitied. Forester lays emphasis on the element of cause and defines plot "as a narrative of events" with "the emphasis falling on causality". Y. The views of Stephen Halelo invite our attention. F. It is thus obvious from the above description that the Katharsis of pity and fear is not a process in two different steps but it is a singular and composite response of a man capable of thought and imagination. L. Y. Plato in his appreciation of a tragedy discusses the excitation of pity as function of a tragedy and Aristotle adds fear to it. Probably through Catharsis of pity and fear he means that the function of tragedy is to make us fear for ourselves the distress we pity in others. He says : The king died and then the queen died is a story. 'The kind died and then the queen died of grief' is a plot.G. The time sequence is preserved but the sense of casuality overshadows it14. "The plot maker". He points out : Pity and fear (though. Butcher and B. For centuries tragedy was considered to produce specific moral effect. Lucas asserts that catharsis "A definitely medical metaphor" – A metaphor of an apparent. . purification or 'purgation'. Water invite our attention.e. S. i. may have come into Aristotle's mouth from the same source. The doctrine is based on the fact that the person capable of pity is the person who nurtures the possibility of fear. Shrivastava's identification of plot with vision ratifies the importance of plot and consequently Aristotlean thesis on plot in connection with the plot structure of a tragedy. Even John Miltons was of the same view. The reason behind the critics' inclination towards this kind of interpretation is probably the fact that Aristotle was some of a physician. Intelligence lays emphasis on interconnection between any two events and memory is an indirect reference to magnitude and size. It has all the appearance of being an old word which is accepted and re–interpreted by Aristotle rather than a word freely chosen by him to denote the exact phenomenon he wishes to describe. H. The Aristotlean views on the plot of the tragedy bear a close relation with the function of a tragedy. Halliwell further justifies the same idea of integrated response to tragic action and says : But is also helps us to see how Aristotle conceives of the tragic emotions not as overwhelming waves of material of poetic drama. The framework for the experience of these emotions is nothing other than the cognitive understanding of the mimetic representation of human action and character. The plot structure of a short story demands intelligence when it is causally knit. but as responses to reality which are possible for a mind in which thought and emotion are integrated and interdependent. It is obvious that Forster is little different to Aristotle in his emphasis on the element of causality. Aristotle in his Rhetoric regards pity and fear as two sister emotions. Water are prone more to purgation theory. Yet the demand of memory in connection with the plot of short story is of limited significance as the definition of the genre itself restricts the presence of loose ends. it has got to be identical with the plot17. To the action around which the whole tragic framework has been composed. I hope it is not rash to surmise that the much depated word Katharsis. not these alone) are to be regarded not as uncontrollable instincts or forces. K. says "expects us to remember. we expect him to leave no loose ends"15. Through purification of passions most of the critics until nineteenth century like Jacob. The person capable of pity is the person with rich and strong imagination and is. of course.

In the grow of tragic excitement.In Rhetoric Aristotle defines fear as a form of pain or disturbance arising from an impression which is destructive or painful. 16Stephen Helliwel. 13Humphry House 59. 1990) 87. Forster 88. On the Art of Poetry 35. S. 1988) 49. References 1Aristotle. Tr. Catharsis is surely the principle expressing how emotions of an individual are made impersonal and how they are universalised. . S. 2Aristotle. W. 9Butcher 31. M. If there is only fear. The fear in case of a tragedy does not paralyse the mind of stun and sense as this is the direct of some impending calamity. It is clear then that Aristotle theory of catharsis gives us the larger vision of the world around us by assimilating various paradoxes of spontaneity and consciousness. Butcher. Aristotle's Theory of Poetry and Fine Art. Thus. The Aspects of Novel (1927. H. these feelings are so transformed that the net result is in noble emotional satisfaction. If the object of pity shares with us our essentials a pity is gradually transformed into fear. Pity and fear. G. The fear in the case of a tragedy is based on our imaginative. awakened in connection with larger aspects of human suffering become universalised emotion sparing what is personal and self regarding. 1973) 19. On the Art of Poetry 26–27. The spectator through the enlarging power of pity is elevated out of himself and identifies himself with the fade of mankind. 12Humphry House 59. Aristotle's Doctrine of Tragic Catharsis (Allahabad : Kitab Mahal. 3Aristotle. Tragedy must possess a typical universal value depicting the combination of the inevitable and the unexpected. 6Daiches 28. 20K. 14Butcher 41. Poetics. 31. 10Humphry House. thus hold immense significance as they bring about the catharsis and decide the fate of tragedy. 8Aristotle. 18E. Forster. 1982) 159. On the Art of Poetry Trans. 1971) 252. Aristotle's Theory of Poetry and Fine Art. 4David Daiches. It is important to note that fear is not caused by the direct apprehension of misfortune impending over our life but it is a sympathetic shudder we feel for a hero who in his essentials resembles us. Ingram Byewater (New Delhi : Oxford University Press. Critical Approaches to Literature (London : Longmans. (New Delhi : Kalyani. the work becomes the melodrama. Literary Criticism in Antiquity (London : Methuen. H. Poetics. 1959) 24. intellectual union with the hero. If there is only pity. Butcher. M. Shrivastava. Reprint 1987) 27. 1986) 213. the tragedy would become unjustly sentimental. pity and fear are correlated feelings and we pity others where under like circumstance we fear for ourselves. The Situation of the Novel (London : Pelican Books. London : Penguin. 19Bernard Bergonzi. 1925) 23. 11Humphry House 59. Aristotle's Poetics (London : Duckworth. H. He defines pity as a form of pain act – an evident evil of a destructive or painful variety in the case of one who does not deserve it. 17E. The emotion of pity and fear. 5Daiches 28. 7Aristotle. 15J. Alknis. Aristotle's Poetics (New Delhi : Kalyani. of intellect and emotions and of inward and outward dynamics of human mind. He quits the narrow sphere of an individual and identifies himself with the fate of mankind.

L.21F. Lucas. 1967) 123. Tragedy : Serious Drama in Relation to Aristotle's Poetics (New York : Collier Books. 22Ingram Bywater. March 24. 2010 ARISTOTLE(PART-1) . 173–174. Posted by Dr Rajesh Trivedi at 9:24 PM Links to this post Labels: Aristotle Wednesday. Aristotle on the Art of Poetry (New Delhi : Oxford University Press. 1985) 15–16. 23Halliwell.

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