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Index
Program Description Options Input Formats
1. IEEE Common Format 2. WSCC Format 3. FACTS Format

Menu Toolbar Mouse

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INDEX Index K Index + PFLOWWIN:005

Examples:
1. 173 bus ac-dc-FACTS system (173sys.bat) 2. IEEE 300 bus system (ieee300.bat)

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Program Description

UWPFLOW Continuation and Direct Methods to Locate Fold Bifurcations in AC/DC/FACTS Power Systems
By Claudio A. Canizares University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario N2K-2C4 CANADA claudio@iliniza.uwaterloo.ca http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca Fernando L. Alvarado University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin 53706 USA alvarado@ece.wisc.edu November 18, 1999 (First Version: December 20, 1996)

This program is provided without charge for testing purposes only. The program or any of its parts may not be used for any commercial applications. The authors would appreciate any comments and suggestions on how to improve the program. Any reports of problems should be directed to the
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DESCRIPTION Program Description K Program Applications; Program Description; References + PFLOWWIN:07

authors, who reserve their right to modify the program at any time without previous notification. DISCLAIMER: THE AUTHORS DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY OF THE RESULTS OBTAINED WITH THIS PROGRAM, NOR ITS PERFORMANCE.

BRIEF PROGRAM DESCRIPTION:
UWPFLOW is a research tool that has been designed to calculate local bifurcations related to system limits or singularities in the system Jacobian. The program also generates a series of output files that allow further analyses, such as tangent vectors, left and right eigenvectors at a singular bifurcation point, Jacobians, power flow solutions at different loading levels, voltage stability indices, etc. The program reads ac/dc power flow data in WSCC/BPA/EPRI formats [1,3] or IEEE common format [2]; FACTS devices data in a special format described in the on-line help file (WINDOWS) and using the models described in [5]; steadystate load model data in OH format [4] and steady-state generator data in a simple free format as explained in the on-line help. The program also reads ac data in other formats of interest to only some particular users (see on-line help). Additional unformatted data is required for bifurcation analysis, such as the direction of generation change, direction of load change, and maximum generator powers. The program assumes that one parameter, the "loading factor," is allowed to change. All steady state system controls remain operational unless otherwise specified through the program options. The program has been developed in C and C++ and runs under WINDOWS 95 and UNIX environments. It has no limitations on system size, other than those imposed by memory limitations in the corresponding environment, i.e., RAM and swap space in UNIX and WINDOWS. The program has been successfully used to study a real 2158 bus ac/dc system in PC machines, and HP, DEC and SUN SPARC UNIX stations. The program has the following features:

1. Adequate handling of generators limits, with generators being able to recover from a variety of limits, including S limits. 2. Steady state models of generators and their control limits (AVR and Primemover limits) are included. This requires at least one additional input file defining Ra, Xd, and Xq data, as well as Ia and Eq limits. Read the on-line help, examples and corresponding data files carefully to figure out how this works. 3. Voltage dependent load models for voltage stability analysis are also included. To use these models, an additional data file in OH (Ontario Hydro) or ADD (Italian COLAS program) formats is needed. Read the on-line help, examples and corresponding data files carefully to figure out how this works. 4. Either BPA/WSCC ac-dc input data formats (and variations) or IEEE common format may be used. An ac input data format based on an Italian power flow format (.DAT files) and COLAS (.ADD files) can be used also. A fairly complete description of the WSCC and IEEE formats is now provided in the on-line help files. 5. Detailed and reliable steady state models of SVC, TCSC and STATCOM models, and their controls with the corresponding limits are included. The input data format is described on the on-line help files. 6. Secondary voltage control, as defined by ENEL, can be modeled and simulated in the program. 7. The program is able to compute the minimum real eigenvalue and the related right and left eigenvectors at any loading conditions. Several voltage stability indices and tangent vector information can be generated by the program as well. This information allows the user to carry on a variety of sensitivity analyses. 8. The program generates a wide variety of output ASCII and MATLAB (.m) files as well as IEEE common format data files for analysis and plotting of the results.

pp. EPRI technical report EL-4365. 8. No. A. DOS batch or UNIX script files. 1973. 1. 1-8.power. 1. No. ENEL and Politecnico di Milano. Cañizares and F. Vol.9. models and the techniques used refer to [5. February 1993. i. Cañizares.11. For more details about the program capabilities." IEEE Trans. 1999. "Point of Collapse and Continuation Methods for Large AC/DC Systems. "Small Signal Stability Analysis Program Package.12]. "Common Format for Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data. 6. Working Group report. access the WEB server URL: http://www. 19161925.7." IEEE Trans. Milan. This feature is used to run the tutorials provided with the program." Vol. January 1990. For a PDF copy of most of these documents. pp.8. EPRI user manual EL-6678. Alvarado.ca REFERENCES: [1] "Extended Transient-Midterm Stability Package: User's Manual for the Power Flow Program. C.10." EPRI computer code manual EL-2002-CCM. January 1987. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] .uwaterloo. April 1987.. C. September 9.6. The program has being designed to automatically run script files.9./Dec. 92. Nov." Internal Report." Version 2. Power Systems. A. "Modeling of TCR and VSI Based FACTS Controllers. 29 pages. "Methodology for the Integration of HVDC Links in Large AC SystemsPhase 2: Advanced Concepts. L. Power Apparatus and Systems. Vol.e. Italy.

Faur. pp. 7. Power Systems. Dobson. I. Davos. 2. Cañizares. L.. 14. Procedures and Guides. Cañizares et al. "New Techniques to Speed Up Voltage Collapse Computations Using Tangent Vectors." IEEE Trans. A. Long. C. Z." IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Power Systems. L. A. de Souza and V. H. August 1997. A. A. F. H. pp. February 1999. Voltage Collapse and Load Modeling. C. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] ." Final Draft. C. C. Vol. A. C. 1995. Vol. January 1999. Switzerland. "On Bifurcations. "Point of Collapse Methods Applied to AC/DC Power Systems. ECC Inc. Canizares and V. Paper 94 SM 512-4 PWRS. A. No. No." Bulk Power System Voltage Phenomena-III Seminar. A. Cañizares. Quintana. August 1994. Vol. No. 3. F. May 1992. "Voltage Stability Indices." IEEE Trans. "Analysis of SVC and TCSC Controllers in Voltage Collapse. C." IEEE Trans. de Souza. 673-683. "Improving Continuation Methods for Tracing Bifurcation Diagrams in Power Systems. pp. 12.. Cañizares and Z.[7] C. Power Systems. W. 158-165. A. 1. Chapter 4 of the IEEE/PES Power Systems Stability Subcommittee Report on Voltage Stability Assessment. Alvarado. Z. 1380-1387. DeMarco. 71 pages. Quintana. Cañizares.

i.e. It can also write the solved case in a file in IEEE common format using the -W or -w option (HVDC links are written in EPRI’s ETMSP format and FACTS devices are written in their own format). Additional files can be created for postprocessing analyses (see options below). Other AC formats may be used (see options below). Jacobians for SMMS or MATLAB studies.#$K+ Program Options on Toolbar Define opitons using menu Execute|Command Line or pressing Usage: Like any other UNIX program. command-line options (-option) with redirection of output (>) from screen into files: uwpflow [-options] input_file [[>]output_file] Input file: The input_file could be in WSCC/BPA/EPRI format (or Anarede's variation) or IEEE common format (or Electrocon's variation) for the ac system. The dc data could be on either WSCC/BPA or multiterminal EPRI format. Solution Technique: # $ OPTIONS Program Options K Command Line. The FACTS devices format was specifically designed for this program and is explained in the help file and test systems provided with the program. although it just deals with the standard two-terminal HVDC problem. Output files: The program writes the solution into the output_file in ASCII.. etc. Program Options + PFLOWWIN:010 . such as the bifurcation diagram (nose curve) in column form for plotting with MATLAB or other programs.

remote voltage control. using Ontario Hydro (OH) format. PQ bus number 'num' where the voltage is fixed in order to find the loading factor (lambda) for voltage collapse studies.. Must be used with the -K option. The base case loading can be initialized using the -L option. Must be used with the -K option. and/or active and reactive power flows). Generates some debug output. which is based on the load model: Pl=Pn*V^a+Pz*V^2 Ql=Qn*V^b+Qz*V^2 -Bnum -cfile -Cfile -d -Dfile . i.The power flows are solved with simultaneous N-R. Direct method studies.e. Read load model data from 'file'. The left evector is written in 'file' (optional). find the max. plus 3 additional variables for each dc bus (see -e option). however. and local and remote regulating transformers (LTCs and phase shifters controlling voltages. allowing for asynchronous systems. Solve base case before changing the loading factor lambda. the program calculates an initial loading of the system before the direct method is applied. area interchange. Options: -a -A -b Turns off tap and angle limits in regulating transformers. angles. 8 ac voltages that change the most. Increases the loading factor lambda using a continuation method for finding voltage profiles. Turns off interchange area control. loading factor lambda for a given generation and load direction. Must be used with -K and -v options. The output (optional 'file') is a list of max.

The output (optional 'file') is a list of max. Prints this message in standard output. For example. The number 'num' defines the bus for which the voltage entry and rank in the tangent vector are printed out (tanget vector index). Turns off recovery from some ac device limits in the program. Output Sensitivity Factors (SF) and Voltage Sensitivity Factors (VSF and tangent vector) during continuation method computations. Stability/sparsity value 'val' for factorization (def. Print in 'file' the continuation method direction vector at the maximum loading factor (PoC right e-vector). the program chooses the bus with the maximum initial voltage entry in the tangent vector.If a bus is not defined in the list. this option eliminates that possibility. Pn=Qn=0 is assumed.01). and 3 internal variables for generators in the output list during the continuation process (see the -i option). the program allows to recover voltage control after a Q-limit is reached by monitoring the voltage. -e Output 3 dc variables per dc link. if this number is not defined. a value of 1 means choose a pivot based on stability only. since sometimes a value of Qg creates convergence problems. Force Q in generators to zero when reading data in IEEE common format. Increases the loading factor lambda using a parameterized continuation method for finding voltage profiles. 0. A value of 0 means choose a pivot based on sparsity only. 8 ac -Efile -fnum -Fval -g -G -h -Hfile .

QG for Mvar generated. respectively. respectively. The input format is: Number Name [VarType].mis' and 'name. the program will print the corresponding total load or generation in MW or Mvar. For PoC studies (-C option) it generates the nxn system Jacobian. PL for MW load. With the -B option. Must be used with the -K option. -ifile List of numbers and names in 'file' for printing variable profiles with the -c and -H options. Write the Jacobian of the solved case in I J VALUE format in 'name. wrap it in double or single quotes. QL for Mvar load.jac'. Use zero when either the number or the name are unknown. PG or QG. VarType is optional and can be: V for voltage (default). mismatches and variables are written in I J VALUE format in 'name.var'. use the -j option.mis' and 'name.voltages that change the most. PG for MW generated. mismatches and variables corresponding to the system without the loading factor as a variable. mismatches and variables. for the complete (2n+1)x(2n+1) PoC Jacobian. The equation mismatches and the system variables are also written in 'name. Factor 'val' used in the homotopy continuation method for finding the increments in the loading factor lambda -I -jname -Jname -kval . If Name has spaces. it generates the Jacobian. AC input data in IEEE common format.var'. plus 3 additional variables for each dc bus (see -e option). QL. D for angle.jac'. The corresponding Jacobian. or PA for MW area flow. 'name. If Name and Number are both equal to 0 and VarType is either PL.

Turns off all ac system limits.e. -Kfile Read generation and load distribution factors from 'file'. The tolerance 'tol' controls the application of limits during the continuation process. Must be used with the -c and -H options. If BusName has spaces. All data is assumed p. Vmin. overriding input data (default 50). If the -D option is not used. -lfile -Lval -m -Mnum -n -N -otol . N-R iterations. 0). and must be separated by spaces: BusNumber BusName DPg Pnl Qnl PgMax [Smax Vmax Vmin Pzl Qzl]. a. and lambda corresponds to the loading factor.(def. ||DPg||=1 per area. Turns off all ac system controls. Pz. Pnl. Qnl or PgMax are unknown. The smaller this value. Write standard error output to 'file' (log file). Output continuation profiles in MATLAB format. If the input variables DPg. The load is represented by: Pl=(Pn+Pnl*lambda)*V^a+(Pz+Pzl*lambda)*V^2 Ql=(Qn+Qnl*lambda)*V^b+(Qz+Qzl*lambda)*V^2 where Pn. and b are defined with the -D option.. Vmax. Pz=Qz=0. wrap it in double or single quotes. If TEF profiles are needed. give them a value of zero. i. the load model default values are: a=b=0. Number 'num' of max. Busses not in the list are assumed to have zero distribution factors. Pzl and Qzl are optional. Loading factor 'val' (def. The generation factors DPg are normalized for each area. Qn. Qz. 1). Simulates load changes in conjunction with the load distribution factors (-K option). use the -O option. Smax.u.

10). -Onum This option is used together with -m to output ac/dc TEF information during the continuation method to determine the energy profiles with the help of MATLAB. max. Turns off P and Q limits in regulating transformers. These busses are defined in the Italian ADD input data file.m' files needed for plotting and computation of the ac/dc energy function. the program defaults the PI controller gains (Kp and Ki) of all HVDC converters for dc computations to 'typical' values of Ki=75 and Kp=1. Turns off V limits in reactance-controlled (BX) busses. Turns off Q limits in PV busses. If the system has HVDC links. Turns off remote voltage generator control. Turns off P and Q control by regulating transformers. 'addtotef. The local bus voltage will be used for the -p -P -q -qx -qz -Q -QX . Turns off remote voltage control in reactance-controlled (BX) busses. These busses are defined in the ETMSP/EPRI/BPA input data file.m' (only if dc lines present) and 'tefprof. namely. The integer 'num' corresponds to the number of significant digits in TEF (default and min.the more steps required of the continuation method (default 0. The program also generates two MATLAB '.000001). Turns off Q limits in reactance-controlled (BZ) busses. Generators will control their own terminal voltages at their given values. These values can later be changed in the MATLAB output file.m'. 6.

. based on the tangent vector technique. 100). tolerance 'tol' for N-R method (default 1e-4). lambda maximum). 0 or no reduction.U. of the maximum lambda. Turns off V control by regulating transformers.control. 1.1). P. 0. voltage limits and regulating transformer limits are applied (default 0. or singularity problems. The default number is 10 (min.2). 0. WARNING: This option might produce cycling. Voltage magnitude 'mag' at the first PQ bus (unless otherwise specified by -B option) to find the -R -s -Sval -ttol -Ttol -uval -Unum -vmag . increase the number of steps in the -U option and/or reduce the value of 'val' in -u. Value 'val' of the tolerance used to reduce the number of equations in the continuation method (-c and -H options). backtracking. max. The default is 1e-3 (min. If the relative error of two consecutive iteration mismatches is larger than 'tol'. i. max. Suppress ASCII output_file. -r Turns off V limits in regulating transformers and PV busses. Number 'num' of steps of the continuation method (-c and -H options) between system reductions. The default is 0 for a complete trace of the bifurcation diagram (min. 2.u. Stop value 'val' for the loading factor lambda in the continuation method (-c and -H options).e. in p. max. Used with the -u option. If this happens.

as the Jacobian may be significantly affected by this option.g. use the same EPRI format used to define the control modes in the dc lines (e. WARNING: This might create some convergence problems.e. Print in 'file' an approximation of the left e-vector of the smallest real |e-value| at the current operating point. but the solved case is written in 'file' using IEEE TAPE common format. the values must be given in standard units. Write solved case into 'file' using IEEE CARD common format. Ignore distribution factors for generations during the initial power flow solution (use only one slack bus).. deg. for dc busses. The data must be separated by spaces. would represent the dc variables Alpha. MW. Amp. ALGAPA.e. Do not enforce maximum active generation limits (PgMax). See -K option. Gamma and Power). Similar to -w option.. and BusNumber BusName Variables Values. MVAR. For defining the dc variable. Print in 'file' an approximation of the right e-vector of the smallest real |e-value| at the current operating point. -Vfile Read initial guesses for ac and dc variables from 'file'. -wfile -Wfile -x -X -yfile -Yfile .corresponding lambda for voltage collapse studies. Must be used with -K option. wrap it in double or single quotes. BusNumber BusName V_mag V_ang(deg).. for ac busses. i. If BusName has spaces. i. kv. If the input variables are unknown give them a value of zero. Busses not in the list are given a flat start.

These matrices are printed in the files 'name#.m' file needed for the computation of these indices. it must be used with caution. Print in MATLAB format the Jacobian matrices needed to compute several voltage stability indices. WARNING: This option generates a lot of output files that might clutter your system. If this option is not used. Define the number 'num' of steps used to determine the change of direction of the loading parameter lambda in the continuation method (-c or -H options) due to -Zfile -0name -1num -2num . * Test function and reduced determinant for a given bus (-1 option). Used with -0 option. A file 'name.-znum Stop continuation method after 'num' steps. or if the bus 'num' does not correspond to a load bus. where # stands for the step number in the continuation method (c or -H options). It is used with the -c or -H options. it can be used to print a tangent vector for a particular value of the loading parameter lambda. the program chooses the bus with the maximum voltage entry in the initial tangent vector. Print in 'file' the normalized tangent vector to the bifurcation manifold at step 'num' of the continuation method (as defined by -z). The program generates the MATLAB 'inviter.m' is also created with all the MATLAB instructions to compute and plot 6 distinct indices: * Minimum |e-value| and singular value for full matrix. Together with the -Z option. * Minimum |e-value| and singular value for reduced Q matrix. and defines the load bus at which the test functions are computed.m'.

AC input data in ITALIAN format. which defines: new bus kV levels. The program uses either the BusNumber or the BusName to identify the bus. Pl=(Pn+Pnl*lambda)*V^a Ql=(Qn+Qnl*lambda)*V^b pilot nodes and generators for secondary voltage control (-# option). and generator and load directions. If 'file' name is given. See -3 option. See -3 option. Eq_max=large. however.. Turns off Ia limits in all generators. Ia_max=large. make Xd=Xq. or define Xq=0. these files take precedence over the ADD file in defining similar variables for collapse studies. give it a 0 value.voltages increasing after Q-limits are encountered (default 5). i. Eq_min=0. force Vmax and Vmin on system busses during the Enforce Vmax and Vmin on system busses during the continuation process (-c or –H options). -3file Read generator steady-state data from 'file' using free format: BusNumber BusName Ra Xd Xq Ia_max Eq_max Eq_min. The program assumes the following default values: Ra=0. load voltage coefficients 'a' and 'b'. For round-rotor machines.e. Do not enforce maximum power generation limits -4 -5 -6file -7 -8 -9 . Enforce Imax limits on transmission elements during the continuation process (-c or –H options). wrap the word in double or single quotes. if one of this is not known. Xq=<Xd. bus voltages. For BusNames with spaces. and max. min. a COLAS ADD file is read. This file may be used instead of the -K and -D files. Turns off Eq limits in all generators.

-$val Define the base power value 'val'.(Smax). -# .. i. overriding the value given in the input data file. See -K option. remote voltage control of pilot busses by generators with participation factors defined as: * over excited -> qi=Qmaxi/Sum Qmax of pilot bus gens. * under excited -> qi=Qmini/Sum Qmin of pilot bus gens.e. Use secondary voltage control as defined by ENEL.

Floating point (right justified) * . DC links can be defined using the WSCC format. in format DD/MM/YY with leading zeros. Vol. enter zeros instead. Data items are entered in specific columns. The partial description presented here is based on a general description available at the following web site: http://www.edu/research/pstca/pg_testcase. No implicit decimal points are used. provided.html The data file has lines of up to 128 characters (TAPE option).washington. 1916-1925. Data type codes: A .Summer.Alphanumeric (no special characters) I . use 0b/0b/0b where b is blank.ee. 6. No. Originator's name [A] MVA Base [F] * Year [I] Season (S . Floating point items should have explicit decimal point.Mandatory item Title Data * Columns Columns Columns Columns Column Column 2. and FACTS controllers can be defined using the FACTS format.9 11-30 32-37 39-42 44 46-73 Date. AC Data + PFLOWWIN:012 . Common Format. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. The lines are grouped into sections with section headers. pp. PAS-92. W .#$K+ IEEE Common Format The complete description of the IEEE Common Data Format can be found in the paper "Common Data Format for the Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data. November/December 1973.Integer (right justified) F . No blank items are allowed.Winter) Case identification [A] If no date Bus Data * # $ IEEE IEEE Common Format K Input Format." Working Group on a Common Format for the Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data.

V-Theta.Unregulated (load. [F] * Columns 34-40 Final angle. (gen. PQ) 1 .) Columns 91-98 Maximum MVAR or voltage limit [F] Columns 99-106 Minimum MVAR or voltage limit [F] Columns 107-114 Shunt conductance G (per unit) [F] * Columns 115-122 Shunt susceptance B (per unit) [F] * Columns 124-127 Remote controlled bus number Section end card: Columns 1. PQ) 2 .Hold voltage and angle (swing. must always have one) Columns 28-33 Final voltage.Section start card *: Columns Columns 1-16 BUS DATA FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than BUS in 1-3 is significant) * 40?. Z bus number [I] * For transformers and phase shifters.Hold voltage within VAR limits (gen. Don't use zero! * Loss zone number [I] Type [I] * 0 . the side of the model .9 Tap bus number [I] * For transformers or phase shifters.Hold MVAR generation within voltage limits. degrees [F] * Columns 41-49 Load MW [F] * Columns 50-59 Load MVAR [F] * Columns 60-67 Generation MW [F] * Columns 68-75 Generation MVAR [F] * Columns 77-83 Base kV [F] Columns 85-90 Desired volts (pu) [F] (This is desired remote voltage if this bus is controlling another bus.4 6.? NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Bus data cards *: Columns 1.u. p.4 Columns 6-17 Columns 19-20 Columns 21-23 Columns 25-26 Bus number [I] * Name [A] (left justify) * Load flow area number [I]. the side of the model the non-unity tap is on.? Branch data cards *: Columns Columns 1. PV) 3 .4 -999 Branch Data * Section start card *: Columns 1-16 BRANCH DATA FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than BRANCH is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.

Load flow area [I] Loss zone [I] Circuit [I] * (Use 1 for single lines) Type [I] * 0 . MVAR or MW limit [F] Columns Columns Column Column 11-12 13-15 17 19 Section end card: Columns 1.4 -999 Loss Zone Data Section start card: Columns 1-16 LOSS ZONES FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than LOSS is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.Controlled bus is one of the terminals 1 .? Loss Zone Cards: Columns Columns 1.Variable phase angle for MW control (phase shifter) Columns 20-29 Branch resistance R.Variable tap (turns ratio) for MVAR control 4 .Controlled bus is near the tap side 2 .Transmission line 1 . +B) Columns 51-55 Line MVA rating No 1 [I] Left justify! Columns 57-61 Line MVA rating No 2 [I] Left justify! Columns 63-67 Line MVA rating No 3 [I] Left justify! Columns 69-72 Control bus number Column 74 Side [I] 0 .Fixed tap 2 . per unit [F] * (total line charging.3 -99 Interchange Data .Variable tap for voltage control (TCUL.Controlled bus is near the impedance side (Z bus) Columns 77-82 Transformer final turns ratio [F] Columns 84-90 Transformer (phase shifter) final angle [F] Columns 91-97 Minimum tap or phase shift [F] Columns 98-104 Maximum tap or phase shift [F] Columns 106-111 Step size [F] Columns 113-119 Minimum voltage. LTC) 3 .3 5-16 Loss zone number [I] * Loss zone name [A] Section end card: Columns 1. per unit [F] * No zero impedance lines Columns 41-50 Line charging B. MVAR or MW limit [F] Columns 120-126 Maximum voltage. per unit [F] * Columns 30-40 Branch reactance X.the device impedance is on.

MW [F] * Area code (abbreviated name) [A] * Area name [A] Section end card: Columns 1.? Tie Line Cards: Columns Columns Columns Columns Column 1. no zeros! * Interchange slack bus number [I] * Alternate swing bus name [A] Area interchange export. MW [F] (+ = out) * Area interchange tolerance.4 7-8 11-14 17-18 21 Metered bus number [I] * Metered area number [I] * Non-metered bus number [I] * Non-metered area number [I] * Circuit number Section end card: Columns 1.3 -999 .? Interchange Data Cards: Columns Columns Columns Columns Columns Columns Columns 1.2 4.2 -9 Tie Line Data Section start card: Columns 1-16 TIE LINES FOLLOW (not clear that any more than TIE is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.7 9-20 21-28 30-35 38-43 46-75 Area number [I].Section start card: Columns 1-16 INTERCHANGE DATA FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than first word is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.

" EPRI computer code manual EL-2002-CCM. C C Comment cards start with "C". January 1987. C C******************************************************************************* C C AC BUSSES C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C | SHUNT | |REMOTE BUS C |Ow|Name |kV |Z|PL |QL |MW |Mva|PM |P |QM |Qm |Vpu|Vm |Name |kV |%Q Bx BUS DATA CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C # $ WSCC WSCC and EPRI’s Format K Input Format.#$K+ WSCC and EPRI's ETMSP Formats The complete description of these Formats can be found in EPRI’s ETMSP manual "Extended Transient-Midterm Stability Package: User's Manual for the Power Flow Program. The dc data cards described below can be used to define dc links in the IEEE format and should be placed before the END OF DATA card. AC/DC Data + PFLOWWIN:013 . WSCC and EPRI’s ETMPS Format. C C Format of input data: C A -> Alphanumeric (no special characters) C I -> Integer (right justified) C F -> Floating point (right justified) C C******************************************************************************* C C Title cards start with the HDG card HDG THREE TITLE CARDS (A80) ARE PLACED BETWEEN THE HDG AND BAS CARDS BAS C C System data starts with the BAS card C The order of the data cards does not matter. The following format is presented here in terms of the "input data" cards needed (see the 173-bus ac/dc/FACTS example).

0) -> Q load in MVars C .u.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 1 increment: .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .3)-> PV desired voltage magnitude in p.kV1 (F4.Vm (F4.0) -> Bus kV base C . C . (max.0) -> MW and MVars shunts (+ for Capacitors) C .Type (A2) -> "B " -> PQ load bus C "BQ" -> PV generator bus with Q limits C "BE" -> PV generator bus with no Q limits C "BV" -> PQ generator bus with V limits C "BX" -> PQ generator bus with local or remote V limits.0) -> Max.P (F5. not needed if it is the same as the C controlling bus C .SHUNT (2F4. as defined on the C the "X" cards (see below) C "BG" -> PQ generator bus with Q limits controlling voltage on C a remote PV load bus C "BC" -> PV load bus with remote voltage control C "BT" -> PQ load bus with voltage controlled by LTC transformer C "BS" -> Swing bus C . C As these limits are reached. generator P power in MW C .Qm (F5. new capac.Remote Name (A8) -> Remote controlled bus name for "BG" busses.Name (A8) -> Bus Name C . voltage for C "BV" or "BX" busses) C .Remote %Q (I3) -> Percentage of Q of remote bus control for "BG" busses. C . C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of controlled bus.0) -> Min.0) -> kV base for remote bus C – S1 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 1 C – MVAr (F5.kV (F4.Vpu (F4. voltage for "BV" or "BX" busses.kV2 (F4.3) -> Min.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of controlling bus.0) -> Max.Remote kV (F4. C .C Bus Input Data: C . shunt C reactances are added to the bus.Z (2A) -> Zone C .0) -> P load in MW C .Type (A2) -> "X " C .PM (F4. generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C . generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .0) -> kV base for controlling bus C .0) -> Remote controlled bus kV for "BG" busses.QM (F5.QL (F5. C C******************************************************************************* C C X CARDS C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1 |Name_2 |kV2||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr X DATA CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C X Input Data for BX Busses: C .PL (F5. or indc.0) -> generator P power in MW C .

Ow (A3) -> Owner C .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .5) -> p.kV1 (F4.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 3 increment C – S4 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 4 C – MVAr (F5.5) -> p.u.1) -> Length in miles C C******************************************************************************* C C TRANSFORMERS C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||Sn | R | X | G | B |Tap1|Tap2| T CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C .0) -> Rated Amps. shunt G/2 of PI equivalent C .B/2 (F6.In (F4.u.X (F6.u.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 7 increment C – S8 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 8 C – MVAr (F5.Type (A2) -> "L " C . series X of PI equivalent C .0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 4 increment C – S5 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 5 C – MVAr (F5. C .G/2 (F6.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 6 increment C – S7 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 7 C – MVAr (F5.5) -> p.S (I1) -> Section number C .N (I1) -> Circuit number C .u.C +MVAr for capacitors.M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .kV2 (F4. shunt B/2 of PI equivalent C .0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 2 increment C – S3 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 3 C – MVAr (F5.R (F6.5) -> p.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .0) -> kV base for sending bus C .Mil (F4. -MVAr for inductors C – S2 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 2 C – MVAr (F5.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C . series R of PI equivalent C .0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 5 increment C – S6 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 6 C – MVAr (F5.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 8 increment C C******************************************************************************* C C AC LINES C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS N C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||In || R | X | G/2 | B/2 |Mil| L LINE DATA CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C Line Input Data: C .

0) -> kV base for sending bus C .Tap1 (F5.u.M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C . series R of equivalent circuit C .5) -> p. or C Min.2) -> Min. phase angle in degrees for Phase Shifters C – # (2I) -> Number of tap steps.0) -> kV base for controlled bus C – Tmax (F5. MVar or MW for "RN" and "RM" types . phase angle in degrees for Phase Shifters C – Tmin (F5.u.Name (A8) -> Name of controlled bus C – kV (F4. or C Max.5) -> p.Type (A2) -> "T " C .R (F6. or C Max.C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .X (F6.2) -> kV tap for receiving bus C C******************************************************************************* C C REGULATING TRANSFORMERS C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |REMOTE BUS |Sch/|Min C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2| |Name |kV |Tmax|Tmin|#|Max |P/Q | RT CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C Regulating Transformer Input Data: A corresponding "T" card must be used to C define the impedance and ratings C . tap in kV with respect to kV1 for LTCs.kV1 (F4.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C . series X of equivalent circuit C .u.Type (A2) -> "R " -> LTC controlling voltage on "BT" load bus with C tap limits C "RQ" -> LTC controlling Q out of sending bus C "RN" -> LTC keeping Q out of sending bus within C Max/Min Mvar limits C "RP" -> Phase Shifter controlling P out of sending bus C "RM" -> Phase Shifter keeping P out of sending bus within C Max/Min MW limits C .5) -> p.2) -> Max.Sn (F4.N (I1) -> Circuit number C . tap in kV with respect to kV1 for LTCs. shunt G of equivalent circuit C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .kV2 (F4.2) -> kV tap for sending bus C .M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .0) -> kV base for sending bus C .0) -> Scheduled MVar or MW for "RQ" and "RP" types.5) -> p. shunt B of equivalent circuit C .kV1 (F4.C Transformer Input Data: C . C – Sch/Max (F5.kV2 (F4.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .u.B (F6.0) -> Rated MVA C .S (I1) -> Section number C .G (F6.Tap2 (F5.

0) -> MW scheduled export for the area C . max. tap in p.0) -> Min. voltage of the area for printed reports C .N (I2) -> Number of converter bridges C .1) -> Min.Z (A2) -> Zone C .Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .MW Exp.u.0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C .1) -> Max.Imx (F4.u. (F8.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .4) -> Nominal voltage ratio of transformer C . tap in p.Type (A2) -> "BD" C .Rat (F5.AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C . gamma C . voltage of the area for printed reports C C******************************************************************************* C C DC BUS DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |AC bus C C |Name_1 |Name_2 |Name |kV ||Gr|Z|N|Xc |Rat |Tstp|Tmin|Tmax|Amn|Amx|Gmn|Imx BD CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C DC Bus Input Data: C .Type (2A) -> "A " C .Slack kV (F4.C (I1) -> Circuit number C .Amx (F4. C .3) -> p.1) -> Max. min.Name (A10) -> Area Name C .3) -> p.3) -> Max.AC bus kV (F4. MVar or MW for "RN" and "RM" types C C******************************************************************************* C C AREA DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |Slack bus | | ZONES | C |Name |Name |kV ||MW Exp.u.ZONES (10A2) -> Zone names that belong to the area (up to 10) C . alpha C .3) -> Commutation reactance in Ohms C . current in amps.Xc (F5. |1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9||0| |VM |Vm A CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C Area Input Data: C . C .Vm (F4.Tstp (F5.C – Min P/Q (F5.VM (F4.Tmin (F5.1) -> Min.Slack Name (A8) -> Area slack bus name C .Tmax (F5.0) -> kV base for slack bus C .Gr (A3) -> Group C .3) -> Tap steps in % C .3) -> Min.u.Gmn (F4. alpha C .Amn (F4. C C******************************************************************************* C .

kV. or deg.Mod 1 & 2 (2A2) -> Converter control modes: ID=current.2)-> Control mode values: A.Imax (F6.2) -> Capacitance in uF (optional) C . current in amps.C (I1) -> Circuit number C .C (F6.AC bus kV (F4.AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C . GA=gamma. C VD=Voltage.Type (A2) -> "BZ" C .C (I1) -> Circuit number C .T (A1) -> Type: R=rectifier.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .R (F6.2) -> Inductance in mH (optional) C . PA=P_power. Mvar.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C . C . (optional) C C******************************************************************************* C C SOLUTION CONTROL CARD C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |Max| |SLACK BUS | C |Itr| |Name |kV| |Angle | SOL CARD FOLLOWS THIS FORMAT C C Solution control card: .Type (A2) -> "BD" C . I=inverter C C******************************************************************************* C C DC LINE DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C C |Name_1 |Name_2 ||Gr|Z|Ow|R ohm|L mH|C uF|Imax | LD CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C DC Line Input Data: C .Set Points (2F5.2) -> Resistance in Ohms C .C DC BUS CONTROL DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C|Mod|Set Points T C |Name_1 |Name_2 |AC bus |kV ||1|2| 1 | 2 | BZ CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C DC Bus Control Input Data: C .Gr (A3) -> Group C .Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .1) -> Max.0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C . QA=Q_power C .Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .L (F6. MW.Z (A2) -> Zone C . AL=alpha.

C .Name (A8) -> Name of the slack bus C .4) -> Reference angle for slack bus in degrees C C******************************************************************************* C C Finish system data with ZZ card ZZ C C******************************************************************************* C C Finish data file with END card END .0) -> kV base for slack bus C .Max Itr (I5) -> Maximum number of Newton-Raphson iteration C .kV (F4.Angle (F10.

A. S for SVC). 1999.am (F3. September. FACTS Data + PFLOWWIN:014 .Type (A2) -> "FS" (F for FACTS.t. C . FACTS Format. ENEL and Politecnico di Milano.0) -> SVC control slope in % w.r.kV1 (F4.t. MVA and kV1 base. C . The FACTS "input data" cards described below follow the ac input data cards in the IEEE format and should be placed before the END OF DATA card. Milan.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where SVC is connected. C . C . C . C . C C Comment cards start with "C". For the WSCC format.s (F2.t. C . C . MVA and kV1 base.kV2 (F4. "Modeling of TCR and VSI Based FACTS Controllers. # $ FACTS FACTS Format K Input Format.7) -> Per unit SVC capacitive X w. Cañizares.#$K+ FACTS Formats The input data formats for FACTS controllers were chosen based on the models described in C.Xl (F8.0) -> Bus 1 kV base.0) -> Bus 2 kV base.r. C C Format of input data: C A -> Alphanumeric (no special characters) C I -> Integer (left justified) C F -> Floating point (right justified) C C******************************************************************************* C C SVC DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|s|MVA|Vrf|kV |Xth |al FS CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C SVC Input Data: C ." Internal Report.0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees. to MVA and kV1 base.r. they can be placed anywhere between the BAS and END data cards (see the 173-bus ac/dc/FACTS example).Ow (A3) -> Owner C .Xc (F8.aM (F3. Italy.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees.Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that SVC controls. C .7) -> Per unit SVC inductive X w.

1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional). MVA and kV1 base.3)-> TCSC control value: % of X. I for current.0) -> Low kV side of step-down transformer (optional). C .u.Xth (F8.5) -> AC X in p. C . w.kV (F4.C . T for STATCOM).Type (A2) -> "FT" (F for FACTS.0) -> Bus 2 kV base.t.Bus2 (A8) -> Receiving bus where TCSC is connected.Xc (F8.al (F5.Type (A2) -> "FC" (F for FACTS. C .1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional).t. w.t MVA and kV1 base.u.X (F6. KA for I.M1 (F4.am (F3. C .0) -> AC R in p.al (F5. w. reference control voltage. C .3) -> p.R (F6. C . C .r.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .u. Defaults to MVA system base.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where STATCOM is connected. C C******************************************************************************* C C TCSC DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|cont ||MVA|al |M1 | FC CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C TCSC Input Data: C . . C D for angle.kV2 (F4.cont (F8.0) -> Bus 1 kV base. C C******************************************************************************* C C STATCOM DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|R |X |Gc |Im |IM |s |MVA |Vrf||Con FT CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C STATCOM Input Data: C . C .0) -> Bus 2 kV base.0) -> TCSC rating in MVA.Mode (A1) -> Control mode: X for reactance. C .0) -> Needed for determining series line reactance for % X C control: M1=Xc/Xline. C . degrees for D. C .kV2 (F4. C .t MVA and kV1 base.aM (F3. C .0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees. MVA and kV1 base.MVA (F4. C . C .Bus1 (A8) -> Sending bus where TCSC is connected.r. C .Vrf (F4. P for power.r. C . C . MW for P.r.MVA (F4.7) -> Per unit TCSC inductive X w.kV1 (F4. to SVC MVA C rating and kV1 (optional).r. C . C . C .0) -> Bus 1 kV base. C .0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees. C .t.u.7) -> Step-down transformer reactance in p.kV1 (F4.0) -> SVC maximum rating in MVAr (capacitive). C for TCSC).Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that STATCOM controls.Xl (F8.7) -> Per unit TCSC capacitive X w.

3) -> AC reference voltage in p.r.4) -> Max. MVA and kV1 base. w. capacitive current (Imin>0) in p.DC reference voltage for PWM control in p.Im (F6.C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C .u.r. . P for phase control.r.s (F3. . .MVA (F5.0) -> Rating in MVA (defaults to the system base).u.9 for a 12 pulse VSI if no value is given).k constant for phase control (defaults to a value of 0.Gc (F6.0) -> AC voltage control slope in % w.t. .u. .M (A1) -> Control mode: W for PWM control (default).Con (F6.IM (F6.u.t.t. kV1 base.u.u. w. MVA and kV1 base.5) -> DC G in p. a kVdc base (defaults to 1 p. .5) -> Control variable value: . w. MVA and a kVdc base defined by the secondary side of the STATCOM transformer(s). inductive current (Imax>0) in p. . .r.Vrf (F4.t.t.r.r. w. to MVA and kV1 base.). .4) -> Max. w.t.

#$K+ Menu Clear Open Save Save As Edit Exit Alt+F4 F10 F2 F3 Clears the window screen Opens a log (ASCII) file and loads it into the window screen Saves the window screen into a log file Saves the window screen into a new log file Edit input data using Notepad/WordPad Exit UWPflow File Execute Command Line F4 Defines UWPflow's options Executes UWPflow with the options defined above Run a batch/script file and/or define the input data directory Show help window UWPflow program authorship Run UWPflow F5 Batch/Script File F6 Help Help F1 About UWPflow # $ MENU Menu K Menu description + PFLOWWIN:015 .

#$K+ Toolbar Clear Screen Open a log file Saves screen in log file Clear Screen Edit input data using Notepad/WordPad Define command line options and run program Run UWPflow using defined options Run a batch/script file and/or define the input data directory About UWPflow Help # $ TOOLBAR Toolbar K Toolbar description + PFLOWWIN:020 .

# $ MOUSE Mouse K Mouse buttons + PFLOWWIN:025 . Left button: Right button: Saves screen into log file. Equivalent to pressing the toolbar button .#$K+ Mouse Define UWPflow's command line options. Equivalent to pressing the toolbar button .

bat using This tutorial briefly illustrates several possible applications of the program 'uwpflow'. '173sys. However. 173sys. To run this case open the batch/script file 173sys.bat + PFLOWWIN:030 .cf'.e.m'.03 (-L option).jac sysjac. The Jacobian can be transformed into MATLAB matrix format using the AWK filter 'tomatlab'.m The MATLAB data is stored in this case in the output file 'sysjac. Demos..bat) K 173 Bus System.mis' and '173sys.k' (-K option).cf Observe that the IEEE Common Format file created. respectively: uwpflow 173sys. Notice that this example illustrates the use of a distributed slack # $ 173 173 ac-dc-FACTS sample system (173sys.pf0 -j173sys -W173sys.wsc 173sys. including the options and files needed to run different cases for an ac/dc/FACTS system in WSCC (EPRI) format. Also create the IEEE Common Format file '173sys. and write the Jacobian (-j option) in '173sys. 2.jac' with the corresponding mismatch and solution vectors in '173sys.cf' with the final solution (-W option).pf0'. i. For this study one needs the generation and load direction information in the file '173sys. has the HVDC and FACTS data in the same format as the original input file '173sys.var'. Run a power flow with a load increase of 0. tomatlab 173sys. 1. the generator maximum power information is not available in the IEEE format.wsc'.#$K+ 173 Bus AC-DC-FACTS Test System . Run a standard ac/dc/FACTS power flow and write in ASCII the output file '173sys.

in this case the ASCII output is suppressed (-s option).cf'.w The maximum normalized entries in '173sys. The IEEE Common Format file created in the previous run.k' is needed (-K option).. The ASCII output is stored in the file '173sys.k -c -X -s -l173sys. Run a parameterized continuation power flow (-H option). The log information is stored in the file '173sys. The last solution point is written in ASCII in the output file '173sys. Also. the right and left eigenvectors of the smallest eigenvalue of the system Jacobian are stored in the files '173sys. and the convergence information is stored in the log file '173sys. In this example the final ASCII output is suppressed (-s option). e.k -Y173sys.pf2 -l173sys.cf 173sys.w For on-line help on 'maxim' type: maxim -h 3.lg1' (-l option). once again the direction file '173sys.v' and '173sys.lg1 -S0. Run a continuation power flow (-c option).k -c 173sys.k' is needed (-K option).lg2' (-l option).lg2 -S0.pf1'. maxim 173sys. similar to the previous case 3.03 -K173sys.wsc -K173sys.bus to solve the power flow problem. To do this the generation and load direction information stored in file '173sys.8 5. Also. and the tracing of the bifurcation diagram is again stopped after the bifurcation point at 0.w' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'.w' (-y option). The tracing of the bifurcation diagram is stopped after the bifurcation point at 0. uwpflow 173sys. uwpflow -I 173sys.lg3' (-l option).pf1 -L0. and the log information is stored in the file '173sys. respectively.8 4.8 of the maximum value of the loading factor (-S option).v' (-Y option) and '173sys. '173sys.g.v -y173sys. but ignoring maximum active power generation limits (-X option).8 of the maximum value of the loading factor (-S option): uwpflow 173sys.pf2'. Run another continuation power flow (-c option). The nose curve information is stored .wsc -K173sys. is used as the input data in this case (-I option).

in the file 'sysvp. together with the voltages and angles of the busses defined in '173sys.oh'.lg5 . however. please wait. and the convergence information is stored in the file '173sys. The computation takes a couple of minutes. be aware that PgMax information must be defined then in the 'K' file). but in this case the system load is modeled as a nonlinear function of the voltage. Xd...5 -e -S0..gen -c -i173sys. In this case. The generator data is read from the file '173sys.e..wsc -K173sys.e. obtain more points in the bifurcation diagram. 4 and 5. which considers Ra.9 6. several voltage stability indices (SF. Pz.8 7.k -c -l173sys. Xq. and the -e option is used to print out some HVDC variable information. Similar to examples 3. The options -i and -e are used to obtain the desired output.m' in MATLAB format (-m option).k' are needed (-K option). and stator and rotor limits (in Ia and Eq). uwpflow 173sys.gen' using the -3 option. uwpflow 173sys. the option -k is used to reduce the step size in the continuation method. TV) are printed out (-f option). the generation and load direction defined in '173sys.k -3173sys.vp' (-i option).m -m -n -l173sys. Finally.wsc -K173sys. Qz..vp -f -S0.lg3 -s -k0. Qn. VSF. i.lg4 -s -D173sys. i. This example also shows some convergence difficulties due to the lack of adequate initial guesses for the internal generator variables (this problem can be significantly reduced by using an IEEE Common Format input file. uwpflow 173sys.lg5' using the -l option. Once more. All ac limits are turned off (-n option).wsc -K173sys. and the -S option is used to stop the continuation process after the maximum loading point is reached.k -Hsysvp.vp -e -s -l173sys.oh -i173sys. This example shows the use of the program to obtain a bifurcation manifold using a detailed generator steady state model. Pl = Pn*V^a + Pz*V^2 Ql = Qn*V^b + Qz*V^2 The -D option is used in this case to define the values of Pn. and b stored in OH (SMMS) format in '173sys. a.

05 -3173sys. observe the convergence difficulties due to the lack of good initial guesses for the internal generator variables.lft' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'.lft'.gen The maximum normalized entries in '173sys.k -C173sys. Finally. thus the -L option is used here to move the system closer to the singularity point detected in case 7. Once more.poc -L0. the -3 option is used again to read the steady state generator data stored in file '173sys.gen'. . For the program to converge to the desired solution. this example depicts how to use the program to find the exact bifurcation point using a direct method (-C option). the generation and load direction defined in '173sys. and the bifurcation point is stored in IEEE Common Format in '173sys. an initial solution close to the bifurcation point is needed.k' are needed (-K option). Hence.poc' (-W option). uwpflow 173sys.8.wsc -K173sys. The right eigenvector at the bifurcation point is written in the file '173sys.lft -s -W173sys. Again.

pf0 file 2. To run this case open the batch/script file ieee300.lg0' (-l option): uwpflow -I ieee300.lg0 3. including the options and files needed to run the different test cases.cf >ieee300.tap' (-W option): uwpflow -I ieee300.#$K+ IEEE 300 Bus Test System . Run a standard power flow and write ASCII output in the output 'ieee300. Run a standard power flow suppressing the ASCII output (-s option). Demos. and write Jacobian information (-j option) in the files 'ieee300. and write convergence information in the log file 'ieee300.bat) K 300 Bus System.pf0' (output redirection is optional): uwpflow -I ieee300. An on-line description of the program and all its options is available by running: uwpflow -h In all cases the -I option (input data in IEEE Common Format) are used. 1. Run a standard power flow suppressing ASCII output (-s option). and write the solution in TAPE IEEE Common Format in the file 'ieee300.tap 4.jac' (Jacobian). # $ 300 IEEE 300 bus sample system (ieee300. since the input data is in IEEE Common Format.bat + PFLOWWIN:035 .cf -s -Wieee300.bat using This tutorial briefly illustrates several possible applications of the program 'uwpflow'.cf -s -lieee300. Run a standard power flow suppressing ASCII output (-s option). ieee300.

m The file 'ieeejac.k' (-K option). and the option -Y and -y are used to write the right and left e-vectors associated to the smallest Jacobian eigenvalue in the files 'ieee300. and 'ieee300.cf -Kieee300. Run a continuation power flow (-c option). Q's.01 p.k -c -N -Eieee300.lg1 . etc. For this study one needs the generation and load direction information in the file 'ieee300. deltaQ's. An approximation of the right eigenvector at the bifurcation point is written in the file 'ieee300..e. (-L option).cf -s -jieee300 The Jacobian can be transformed to MATLAB matrix format using the AWK filter 'tomatlab'.v yieee300.).cf -L0.'ieee300.): uwpflow -I ieee300.rgt -s -lieee300.w 7.pf1': uwpflow -I ieee300.k' (-K option).cf -Kieee300.crd -s -Yieee300.. and the final output is suppressed using the -s option.var' (variables.rgt' (-E option).crd'.k ieee300.m' contains the Jacobian matrix in MATLAB format to be used directly by this program. deltaP's.mis' (mismatches.e. P's.01 -x -Kieee300.w'.. V's. To do this the generation and load direction information in the file 'ieee300.k' is needed (-K option).lg1' (-l option). The -N option is used to turn off all system controls: uwpflow -I ieee300. i. The results are written in CARD IEEE Common Format in the file 'ieee300.k -wieee300. Run a power flow with a load increase of 0. i.pf1 6. Run a power flow with a distributed slack bus by using the generation direction information defined in the file 'ieee300. In this example the program is forced to use only one slack bus by using the -x option. i. The solution information is logged into the file 'ieee300.jac ieeejac. etc.e. respectively: uwpflow -I ieee300.u. 5. tomatlab ieee300.v' and 'ieee300. and write the results in the output file 'ieee300.

. Run a continuation power flow (-c option) similar to case 7. . However. uwpflow -I ieee300.cf -Kieee300. but now the -0 option is used to generate a series of MATLAB files ('sys*. and reduced determinants.rgt' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'.rgt For on-line help on 'maxim' type: maxim -h 8. singular values. namely. 10.k' is needed (-K option). the generation and load direction information in the file 'ieee300. The final output is suppressed using the -s option. eigenvalues. Run a continuation power flow similar to case 7. 9. which can be used to compute and plot the desired indices together with the generated file 'inviter. and the corresponding tangent vector at that point is written in the file 'ieee300. Run a parameterized continuation power flow (-H option). once again the direction file 'ieee300.m') that are used to compute several voltage stability indices.m'. The -S option stops the program after the maximum loading point is computed.k' is needed (-K option).tg' (-Z option).vp' is used to define the desired output busses for the voltage profiles (-i option). In this example the final ASCII output is stored in 'ieee300.lg2': uwpflow -I ieee300.g.lg2 -0sys One of the MATLAB files created is 'sys.k -c -N -s -lieee300. maxim ieee300.k -c -s -z5 -Zieee300.m'. The file 'ieee300. at about 80 % of the maximum value. and the convergence information is stored in 'ieee300.pf3'.tg' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'. Hence.cf -Kieee300.The maximum entries in 'ieee300.tg The maximum entries in 'ieee300.lg3' (-l option). The solution information is logged in the same file 'ieee300. in this example the continuation process is stopped after 5 steps (-z option). test functions. e.

and the bifurcation point is stored in TAPE IEEE Common Format in 'ieee300.lg4 -s -k0. The computation takes a couple of minutes.k' are needed (K option). please wait. .lft' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'.poc' (W option).k -H -lieee300.lft'. Again.k -cieeevp.pf3 -iieee300..vp 11.cf -Kieee300.lg3 -S0. The option -k is used to reduce the step size in the continuation method.cf -Kieee300. so that more points on the bifurcation diagram can be computed. the generation and load direction defined in 'ieee300.cf -Kieee300. uwpflow -I ieee300.m' files needed in this case to run 'ieeevp.5 The program generates the required MATLAB '*. Similar to examples 7 and 8.TXT). All limits are turned off (-n option). this example depicts how to use the program to find the exact bifurcation point detected above (case 11) using a direct method (-C option).3 -n The maximum entries in 'ieee300. an initial solution close to the bifurcation point is needed..k -Cieee300. Finally.m' in MATLAB format (-m and -O options). however.lft -s -Wieee300. but in this case the nose curve and Transient Energy Function (TEF) information are stored in the file 'ieeevp.m -m -O -n -lieee300. so that the TEF can be correctly processed in MATLAB (read program BUGS in README. 12.uwpflow -I ieee300.8 ieee300. The right eigenvector at the bifurcation point is written in the file 'ieee300. For the program to converge.poc -L0. thus the -L option is used here to move the system closer to the singularity point. system limits are also turned off using the -n option.m' in MATLAB. uwpflow -I ieee300.. observe the slow convergence as the system is not close enough to the desired solution point.

Vpu (F4.0) -> MW and MVars shunts (+ for Capacitors) C . voltage for C "BV" PV bus type) C .0) -> Max.QL (F5.3)-> PV desired voltage magnitude in p. FACTS Input Data Example.0) -> Bus kV base C .Z (2A) -> Zone C . # $ 173WSCC 173 ac-dc-FACTS sample system input data 173 Bus System Data.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .wsc + PFLOWWIN:040 K .0) -> Q load in MVars C .P (F5.u. voltage for "BV" PV bus type.QM (F5. generator P power in MW C .PM (F4.SHUNT (2F4. DC Input Data Example.kV (F4.Vm (F4.PL (F5. WSCC Format Example. generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .0) -> Min.3) -> Min.Type (A2) -> "B " -> PQ load bus C "BQ" -> PV generator bus with Q limits C "BE" -> PV generator bus with no Q limits C "BV" -> PQ generator bus with V limits C "BG" -> PQ generator bus with Q limits controlling voltage on C a remote PV load bus C "BC" -> PV load bus with remote voltage control C "BT" -> PQ load bus with voltage controlled by LTC transformer C "BS" -> Swing bus C .0) -> P load in MW C .Name (A8) -> Bus Name C .#$K+ 173 Bus AC-DC-FACTS Test System Data C 173 BUS AC/DC/FACTS TEST SYSTEM: C WSCC data file C C Case Title (3 A8 lines) HDG 173 BUS AC/DC/FACTS SYSTEM WSCC/ETMSP DATA FORMAT NOVEMBER 1999 BAS C C C System Data C C AC BUSSES C C Bus Input Data: C .0) -> Max. generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C . (max.0) -> generator P power in MW C . 173sys.Qm (F5.

-400.900.110.0 -155 BQ BUS_7 22.-35001020 BQ BUS_36 22 20001590.0-440.1.268.5 113. B BUS_38 500 B BUS_39 230 BQ BUS_40 18.700.C . 25.0 79004400.00 -190 BQ BUS_11 26..0 1000700.Remote kV (F4.723.0 25402540.8 BQ BUS_9 20.0100.0 16001590.0300.0-900.700.1000 B BUS_12 500 -391 BQ BUS_13 24.0 50004600.0-400. C .-127.1300.5320. BQ BUS_47 11. B BUS_32 500 B BUS_33 230 B BUS_34 230 3600 700.1050 B BUS_46 230 -72.0-300.5-32.Remote %Q (I3) -> Percentage of Q of remote bus control for "BG" type bus.600.4 207.0 BQ BUS_16 22.0 460.160.027.-56.0 30002000. 0.0070. BQ BUS_4 22..9 430.0 424.-900. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C | SHUNT | |REMOTE BUS C |Ow|Name |kV |Z|PL |QL |MW |Mva|PM |P |QM |Qm |Vpu|Vm |Name |kV |%Q B BUS_1 345 1750.950 B BUS_5 500 -113 B BUS_6 345 239.0-525.0300. -56. -146 B BUS_15 345 840.8-17. BQ BUS_45 26.00 B BUS_8 230 139. 0.4000.1000 B BUS_44 345 52.0 2060.0-100. 5.0-134. -69.-40001000 B BUS_31 500 44001000.0) -> Remote controlled bus kV for "BG" type bus.0-280.0 1000862.0 1200998.1050 B BUS_17 500 617. C . BQ BUS_35 20.1009 B BUS_37 500 912.00 B BUS_42 230 BQ BUS_43 18.0-220.850.0300.980 B BUS_10 500 90.0400.0-500.0 20001680.960 B BUS_14 500 793.0-300.0 BQ BUS_2 20.1040 B BUS_3 345 2350.1020 B BUS_41 230 135.0 -427 B BUS_19 500 B BUS_20 500 B BUS_21 500 B BUS_22 500 B BUS_23 500 B BUS_24 500 B BUS_25 500 B BUS_26 500 B BUS_28 500 B BUS_29 500 BQ BUS_30 20.1020 B BUS_48 230 121.00 ..Remote Name (A8) -> Remote controlled bus name for "BG" type bus.

4 -77.8132.0 -66.0025.0-711.00 121. 320.0 500 115 230 500 13. 160.0.7 -6.0 210.2-63. -7. 50.8 500 20.025.0 -44.6 -97.500.5780.0 500 200 -80.0330.6 205.50 -0. 80.00 987.-119.6 1043 0.5160.0 5000.0-310. 1200 550.98 305.031.692. 462. -414.400.B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BQ B B B B BQ B B B BQ B BQ B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BQ B B BUS_49 BUS_50 BUS_51 BUS_52 BUS_53 BUS_54 BUS_55 BUS_56 BUS_57 BUS_58 BUS_59 BUS_60 BUS_61 BUS_62 BUS_63 BUS_64 BUS_65 BUS_66 BUS_67 BUS_68 BUS_69 BUS_70 BUS_71 BUS_72 BUS_73 BUS_74 BUS_75 BUS_76 BUS_77 BUS_78 BUS_79 BUS_80 BUS_81 BUS_82 BUS_83 BUS_84 BUS_85 BUS_86 BUS_87 BUS_88 BUS_89 BUS_90 BUS_91 BUS_92 BUS_93 BUS_94 BUS_95 BUS_96 BUS_97 BUS_98 BUS_99 BUS_100 BUS_101 BUS_102 500 230 138 287 287 230 230 500 230 230 230 230 230 230 287 500 20.-10001000 1000 1035 83. -339.3 20.024.25 -67.217.00 -108 3100 28601500.2649. 610. 3500. 32.1055 3200.00 907.00 237.1100.2 1700. 99999900.8 230 500 500 13.065.1 117.2 200 401.1 -91. 792.2 138.028.-20001000 1200 -220 -674 -110 -220 -870 1085 60004045.0 500 500 500 500 500 345 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 200 200 500 25. 300.6 -129.-18501000 -43. .6 27.222.00 1180600. 15001201.

-327 -130 1500957.464.02 -128 -91.05 -319 3055.2 377. 400. 204.0 882.B B B B BQ B B B BQ B BQ B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BQ B BQ B B B BQ B B B BQ BQ B B B B B B B B B BQ B B BQ BUS_103 BUS_104 BUS_105 BUS_106 BUS_107 BUS_108 BUS_109 BUS_110 BUS_111 BUS_112 BUS_113 BUS_114 BUS_115 BUS_116 BUS_117 BUS_118 BUS_119 BUS_120 BUS_121 BUS_122 BUS_123 BUS_124 BUS_126 BUS_127 BUS_128 BUS_129 BUS_130 BUS_131 BUS_132 BUS_133 BUS_27 BUS_134 BUS_135 BUS_136 BUS_137 BUS_138 BUS_139 BUS_140 BUS_141 BUS_142 BUS_143 BUS_144 BUS_145 BUS_146 BUS_147 BUS_148 BUS_149 BUS_150 BUS_151 BUS_152 BUS_153 BUS_18 BUS_154 BUS_155 200 500 200 500 20.7300.1050 2100.0 500 20. 370.1189.0 8.0-400.1. 630.0 20. 300.0 345 230 20. -300.1 38.05 -32.8 406.010 55.1. -300.0 1230. 454.6 32.00 -190 -60.2000.9999. -600.7 81.6 -329.1010 3118. -220 1590.1.8 255.02 . 54. -91.8 5661. 12. 72.02 902.1. -400.7 33.-900.9 148.0 500 230 500 22. 41.2-28.61. 400.0 230 500 500 500 230 345 345 230 345 20.6 -189.0 200 20. -196 15801580.-99991. 777.0-300.9 116.700. 18.1. 19.05 3098.7 118.0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 230 20.3-11.78.0 230 500 230 20.4 3191. -0.900.5 1570. 100.3491.-10.2500.0 1066.5 148.09999.0 200 500 500 20.-10001000 1500 856. 3367.4 -62.6 175.9 11.600.5 884. -7.-99991.8 457.

0) -> kV base for sending bus C .5 B BUS_161 500 B BUS_162 500 B BUS_163 500 B BUS_164 500 B BUS_165 500 B BUS_166 500 B BUS_167 500 B BUS_168 500 B BUS_169 500 B BUS_170 500 B BUS_171 500 B BUS_172 500 B BUS_173 500 -220 C C******************************************************************************* C C AC LINES C C Line Input Data: C .kV2 (F4.00811.N (I1) -> Circuit number C . series X of PI equivalent C .00077. B BUS_158 345 141.0005 .69921 L BUS_20 500 BUS_12 5001 -00634 L BUS_10 500 BUS_21 5001 -01188 L BUS_21 500 BUS_22 5001 .u.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .Type (A2) -> "L " C .271.S (I1) -> Section number C .C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .u.04410 L BUS_15 345 BUS_3 3451 . B BUS_160 345 185.kV1 (F4.05865 243280 .5 -18.6 11.G/2 (F6.00241.X (F6.R (F6.0000 L BUS_10 500 BUS_19 5001 -00634 L BUS_19 500 BUS_20 5001 .00179.In (F4. -50.u.Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C . shunt B/2 of PI equivalent C .5) -> p.00530 .13690 1.11000 1. -43.01988 1. C .0) -> Rated Amps.u.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C . 78.2174 L BUS_6 345 BUS_1 3451 .B BUS_156 345 B BUS_157 345 31.5) -> p.5) -> p.Mil (F4.2880 L BUS_6 345 BUS_15 3451 .01804 .M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .5) -> p.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .1) -> Length in miles C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS N C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||In || R | X | G/2 | B/2 |Mil| L BUS_3 345 BUS_18 3451 .4 B BUS_159 345 379. series R of PI equivalent C . shunt G/2 of PI equivalent C .00977.B/2 (F6.

03753 .0035 .18335 .00393 .07000 .00119.00226.02000 .00229.00220.00221.18335 .01279 .00602 .00820 169610 197580 .01070.00161.03422 .00161.07905 .00960 .00970 .02000 .70132 .00138.00027.00393 .00475 .45190 167230 2.00281.00309.01235 .00290.04189 -00612 .01025 .01583 .06001 .00040.00366 .800 .04142 .00073.00459 .00201.45190 .00964 .00074.03669 .00047.04824 .00586 .00970 .04296 .00179.00177.00459 .01116 .04959 -01795 .01668 .00035.00027.03422 .00138.05040 .01530 .00110.00030.83334 .00229.01070.01244 .00459 .04120 .00037.04244 -00826 -01795 .00082.00119.03346 .01279 .01116 .59401 .00238.03074 .00979 .01060 .00040.00971 .04677 .0020 .00812 .01530 .00207.00027.L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L BUS_22 BUS_12 BUS_23 BUS_24 BUS_12 BUS_25 BUS_26 BUS_14 BUS_14 BUS_5 BUS_28 BUS_29 BUS_31 BUS_33 BUS_52 BUS_53 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_57 BUS_57 BUS_57 BUS_57 BUS_62 BUS_64 BUS_41 BUS_37 BUS_37 BUS_37 BUS_37 BUS_42 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_50 BUS_50 BUS_50 BUS_50 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_39 BUS_39 BUS_39 BUS_39 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_75 BUS_75 BUS_77 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 230 287 287 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 500 230 500 500 500 500 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 500 500 500 BUS_17 BUS_23 BUS_24 BUS_17 BUS_25 BUS_26 BUS_27 BUS_17 BUS_17 BUS_28 BUS_29 BUS_12 BUS_32 BUS_34 BUS_63 BUS_63 BUS_41 BUS_58 BUS_58 BUS_42 BUS_54 BUS_54 BUS_58 BUS_55 BUS_49 BUS_58 BUS_38 BUS_56 BUS_64 BUS_64 BUS_58 BUS_62 BUS_62 BUS_42 BUS_42 BUS_57 BUS_58 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_46 BUS_48 BUS_59 BUS_60 BUS_46 BUS_59 BUS_59 BUS_59 BUS_59 BUS_60 BUS_60 BUS_60 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_75 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5002 5001 5001 5001 5001 2301 2871 2871 2301 2301 2302 2301 2301 2302 2301 2301 5001 2301 5001 5001 5001 5002 2301 2301 2302 2301 2302 2301 2301 2301 2302 2301 2301 2301 2301 2301 2301 2302 2303 2304 2301 2302 2303 5001 5002 5001 -01188 -00826 .00029.02316 .03669 .01583 .01257 .01399 .00536 .03858 .03800 .00159 .01399 .00141.03443 .00960 -00408 .00073.4000 .00964 .06001 .00128.01884 .01189 .00120.00141.00083.00971 .303 .00967 .00055.00415 .01861 .00393 .07905 .00967 .01025 .00723 .01244 .01235 .6500 .00159 .8576 1.00434 .00623 .00020.

838.02338 .01502 . 838.00001-01120 .47988 .10116 .5411 .00074.5411 .03643 .00066. 838.06540 .00238 .02482.36347 .99210 .77674 .00082.00074.00189 .03430 .6500 .03058.00001.15250 .00020.10963 .00030 .02119 -01000 .00012.02409 .00001-00666 .00041.00030 .06033 .00023. 747.00154.02408 .16106 .91225 .00737 -01263 .L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L BUS_77 BUS_68 BUS_68 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_79 BUS_79 BUS_79 BUS_79 BUS_84 BUS_85 BUS_80 BUS_86 BUS_87 BUS_79 BUS_88 BUS_89 BUS_90 BUS_91 BUS_79 BUS_92 BUS_93 BUS_94 BUS_95 BUS_78 BUS_96 BUS_106 BUS_115 BUS_116 BUS_117 BUS_118 BUS_109 BUS_119 BUS_120 BUS_109 BUS_121 BUS_122 BUS_110 BUS_123 BUS_124 BUS_110 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_97 BUS_98 BUS_102 BUS_98 BUS_103 BUS_114 500 230 230 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 500 BUS_75 BUS_71 BUS_71 BUS_72 BUS_72 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_84 BUS_85 BUS_83 BUS_86 BUS_87 BUS_83 BUS_88 BUS_89 BUS_90 BUS_91 BUS_80 BUS_92 BUS_93 BUS_94 BUS_95 BUS_80 BUS_96 BUS_81 BUS_115 BUS_116 BUS_117 BUS_118 BUS_114 BUS_119 BUS_120 BUS_110 BUS_121 BUS_122 BUS_110 BUS_123 BUS_124 BUS_114 BUS_126 BUS_108 BUS_108 BUS_108 BUS_112 BUS_97 BUS_112 BUS_102 BUS_112 BUS_103 BUS_112 BUS_127 5002 2301 2302 5001 5002 5001 5002 5001 5002 5003 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 2001 2002 2003 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 5001 3020 3020 3450 3450 2175 2175 3450 3020 3020 3450 2000 3450 3600 2000 3600 3020 2400 3020 2400 3020 3020 2000 3020 2000 3020 3600 1732 2667 2894 2667 2894 2667 1800 2396 1800 1800 2396 1800 2667 2450 2667 2450 752.09171 .00108.16938 .03903.0148 .50728 .01428 -01263 .01266 -01263 .01952 -01000 .02338 .73750 115570 . 602.16660 .00922 .00131 . .01113.00076.00264.06642 .01382.00078.00001-00666 .01382 -00858 .53317 264533 .01668. 747.54878 . 838.11381 .00095. 752.01412 .01428 -01263 .02102 .01266 -01263 .00020.00140.56905 .00166 .06678 .00820 .00060.00072.00717 .03409 .20460 .73750 . 747.00066.10101 .00001-00755 .00140.00002-00998 .00446 .05530 .15536 .00074.01105.00006.27403 .05356 -02667 -01000 .06804 .00063.12236 .00451 .01036 .01050.63786 .03580 .09268 .02235.47988 .00001.00109.00002-00998 .00116 .00006.00001-01120 .71260 .01413 .77771 .

00107.32620 1.00060.10195 .25868 .00028.03400 .00110.41460 .00035.05399 .01125 .00120.05719 .00340.00340.03920 83.50500 .00087.00138.07400 -00720 .00002-00998 .33397 .01060 .00103.02779 .00079.52145 .72855 .00320.00072.03490 .29120 .72855 .01600 .03230 -01000 -00935 123870 .08780 .00080.03950 .01270 .00457 .28610 .07977 .00490.19960 .02338 -00720 -00864 .00087.00210.02260 .02087 .19225 .00240.00002-01331 .54395 .00138.03100 .00520.00001-01098 .03740 .L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L BUS_127 BUS_128 BUS_114 BUS_129 BUS_101 BUS_130 BUS_101 BUS_99 BUS_99 BUS_136 BUS_136 BUS_136 BUS_27 BUS_141 BUS_131 BUS_136 BUS_139 BUS_145 BUS_136 BUS_136 BUS_144 BUS_144 BUS_132 BUS_132 BUS_135 BUS_148 BUS_140 BUS_150 BUS_149 BUS_150 BUS_149 BUS_149 BUS_152 BUS_149 BUS_149 BUS_149 BUS_152 BUS_152 BUS_18 BUS_18 BUS_151 BUS_152 BUS_31 BUS_75 BUS_80 BUS_161 BUS_162 BUS_80 BUS_163 BUS_164 BUS_80 BUS_165 BUS_166 BUS_104 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 230 345 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 BUS_128 BUS_104 BUS_129 BUS_101 BUS_130 BUS_104 BUS_99 BUS_104 BUS_104 BUS_147 BUS_147 BUS_141 BUS_136 BUS_27 BUS_146 BUS_145 BUS_145 BUS_146 BUS_139 BUS_139 BUS_148 BUS_148 BUS_137 BUS_144 BUS_137 BUS_137 BUS_137 BUS_160 BUS_160 BUS_149 BUS_18 BUS_18 BUS_157 BUS_152 BUS_152 BUS_158 BUS_159 BUS_159 BUS_159 BUS_159 BUS_154 BUS_158 BUS_77 BUS_66 BUS_161 BUS_162 BUS_109 BUS_163 BUS_164 BUS_109 BUS_165 BUS_166 BUS_106 BUS_167 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5002 5001 5002 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5002 2301 2302 2301 2301 2301 2301 2301 3451 3451 3451 3451 3452 3451 3451 3452 3451 3451 3452 3451 3452 2301 3451 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 2450 1800 2450 2450 2450 2450 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 2320 2320 2320 1160 2320 2320 2320 1800 3020 1800 1800 3020 1800 2134 .00170.02470 -00720 -01000 .01720 .19050 .66425 .05626 .02250 .71325 .01415 .16480 .07034 .00285.00056.00905 .00193.02390 70.07626 .00040.02380 .03649 .16168 .03720 .34280 .00190.00960.00753 .00165.00021.00103.00044.30910 .44215 .03320 .00093.04920 .06328 .27680 .650 2.09650 .01280 .00320.00044.435 .00750 .00380.06020 .07200 .29245 .69475 .05370 .01080.76350 139800 .00160.00340.79020 .01937 .03399 .41460 207010 233560 .02400 .00930 .31040 .01125 .00845.47310 .00190.00042.03644 .14935 .02087 .02580 .

Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .04360 .00180.02659 .02450 .02110 .00065.N (I1) -> Circuit number C .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .00065.02662 .21960 L BUS_156 345 BUS_6 3451 .00620.00 T BUS_1 345 BUS_2 20.00259.02524 .G (F6.91793 L BUS_172 500 BUS_147 5001 2100 -00840 L BUS_136 500 BUS_64 5001 .35390 C C******************************************************************************* C C TRANSFORMERS C C Transformer Input Data: C . series X of equivalent circuit C .26773 L BUS_144 230 BUS_61 2301 3070 .Type (A2) -> "T " C .u.0) -> Rated MVA C .02640 .Sn (F4.00480.99351 L BUS_168 500 BUS_147 5001 2134 -00935 L BUS_104 500 BUS_169 5001 2134 -00944 L BUS_169 500 BUS_170 5001 3600 .02967 107650 L BUS_78 500 BUS_173 5001 1732 -02667 L BUS_173 500 BUS_83 5001 3600 .02524 .01 .Tap1 (F5.00122.14810 L BUS_27 500 BUS_64 5001 .00180.2) -> kV tap for receiving bus C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||Sn | R | X | G | B |Tap1|Tap2| T BUS_3 345 BUS_9 20.M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .00006.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .5) -> p.01 .06730 .0) -> kV base for sending bus C .01 3066 .00 .kV1 (F4.00179.01200 3550020.00280.5) -> p.B (F6.00 T BUS_14 500 BUS_13 24.99440 L BUS_170 500 BUS_147 5001 2134 -00935 L BUS_104 500 BUS_171 5001 2134 -00935 L BUS_171 500 BUS_172 5001 3600 .01187 .00410 .00140.2) -> kV tap for sending bus C .u.50970 L BUS_14 500 BUS_131 5001 1800 .21960 L BUS_44 345 BUS_18 3452 .00123. series R of equivalent circuit C .5) -> p.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .01187 . shunt B of equivalent circuit C .00539 5300023.u.5) -> p.02373 110355 L BUS_150 345 BUS_82 3451 .55780 L BUS_44 345 BUS_18 3451 .L BUS_167 500 BUS_168 5001 3600 .00112.01500 3450020.S (I1) -> Section number C .02517 .R (F6.00179.X (F6.Tap2 (F5.02450 .02336 L BUS_144 230 BUS_61 2302 3070 .02967 107650 L BUS_14 500 BUS_131 5002 1800 .C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .u.00259.kV2 (F4.26773 L BUS_27 500 BUS_64 5002 .02336 L BUS_132 230 BUS_61 2301 3070 .05100 L BUS_10 500 BUS_27 5001 1630 .00020. shunt G of equivalent circuit C .00123.

0 502.0 218.00120 .00013.01491 .004 .0 200 200 200 500 500 500 500 20.01238 .00580 .50 2300018.00 3450023000 3450023000 5400026.01 2301 11.20 2300013.00667 .00499.00693 .00520 500 .01810 3600022.01134 .01 2301 1151 2301 2302 13.00 5500023000 52500 2000 23000 2000 4902828750 3536226.00027.01950 .01 20.0 529. 5000023000 2875013800 2875013800 2300013800 2300013800 5053023000 5053023000 5250023000 2413018.81 13.02380 .11473 .01 2301 2301 22.00030. 1120 840.00009.00150 .00200 .01 2301 2302 2303 5001 22.00 5250023000 2410011.01386 .01 20.0035 .01 20.01079 .00600 .0 233.01149 .00030.00020. 20.01 3451 2301 3000 430.81 2001 5001 5001 2001 5001 5001 5002 25.00030.00018.0 20. 2000 1500 2500 250.01130 .02330 .01380 .01491 .00000.00020.00200 .00013.00000. 1008 1300 5000 2000 840.01 3451 20.00 3400020.00 54500 2000 5250034500 53300 2000 5373024150 2328011790 5375024150 5375024150 5250013.01578 .00059.00013.00028.00250 .0 345 345 345 345 BUS_16 BUS_6 BUS_6 BUS_7 BUS_8 BUS_8 BUS_11 BUS_33 BUS_30 BUS_35 BUS_63 BUS_45 BUS_65 BUS_82 BUS_76 BUS_71 BUS_67 BUS_68 BUS_68 BUS_74 BUS_70 BUS_108 BUS_109 BUS_114 BUS_112 BUS_114 BUS_104 BUS_104 BUS_100 BUS_148 BUS_148 BUS_148 BUS_27 BUS_142 BUS_135 BUS_139 BUS_140 BUS_51 BUS_51 BUS_51 BUS_51 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_48 BUS_43 BUS_48 BUS_47 BUS_40 BUS_61 BUS_144 BUS_4 BUS_153 BUS_156 BUS_151 22.005 . 1120 1120 1120 1120 .00590 .01386 .01071 .01149 .00026.00720 .00059.0 220.00666 .00058.01 2301 5001 2301 1381 1381 1381 1382 2301 2302 2301 18.01 2871 26.20 20.01100 .015 .00980 . 430. 3450022.T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T BUS_15 BUS_5 BUS_5 BUS_6 BUS_6 BUS_6 BUS_10 BUS_32 BUS_31 BUS_34 BUS_64 BUS_44 BUS_66 BUS_81 BUS_77 BUS_72 BUS_68 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_73 BUS_68 BUS_107 BUS_108 BUS_113 BUS_111 BUS_112 BUS_105 BUS_105 BUS_99 BUS_147 BUS_147 BUS_147 BUS_133 BUS_141 BUS_134 BUS_138 BUS_139 BUS_52 BUS_53 BUS_54 BUS_54 BUS_56 BUS_56 BUS_38 BUS_42 BUS_49 BUS_48 BUS_39 BUS_60 BUS_143 BUS_3 BUS_152 BUS_157 BUS_150 345 500 500 345 345 345 500 500 500 230 500 345 500 500 500 500 230 500 500 500 230 20. 2350052500 20. 20.00008.00410 .015 .005 .02845 .02535 .00 5315623000 5315623000 5315623000 20. 2350052500 2350052500 2350052500 5250025.01578 .00018.0 500 287 287 230 230 500 500 500 230 500 230 230 230 20.00018.0 235.01390 .01 2301 2302 26.00085.0 500 20.00000.01386 .0 508.51 18.0 200 20.01330 .01000 .01 3451 3452 22.01340 .00 2280022500 20.01149 .0192 .0 20.00980 .01100 .00029.01 2301 20.00 20.010 .00 3450034500 3450023000 . 5250022.00 5315034500 5315034500 3450022.00050.

AL=alpha.E3 C C******************************************************************************* C C DC BUS CONTROL DATA C C DC Bus Control Input Data: C .92 1. 100.3) -> Tap steps in % C .001 .843 . C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |AC bus C C |Name_1 |Name_2 |Name |kV ||Gr|Z|N|Xc |Rat |Tstp|Tmin|Tmax|Amn|Amx|Gmn|Imx BD DC1-R-P+GROUND BUS_71 2301 117.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .40 5.Xc (F5.01410 2435220.Gmn (F4.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C . 0.40 90.E3 BD DC2-I-P+GROUND BUS_37 5001 123.Type (A2) -> "BZ" C . PA=P_power. alpha C .6 1.3) -> Max.1) -> Max.00000.1) -> Min.843 .E3 BD GROUND DC2-I-P-BUS_37 5001 123. .1) -> Max.001 . GA=gamma. 4. 170.Tstp (F5.Amx (F4.Set Points (2F5.00 T BUS_82 345 BUS_36 221 2000 .3) -> Commutation reactance in Ohms C .808 .15 5.AC bus kV (F4.Rat (F5.80 1. 0. tap in p.001 .7 0.6 1. C VD=Voltage.7 1. 5.AC bus kV (F4.194 .001 .843 .C (I1) -> Circuit number C .C (I1) -> Circuit number C .00460 3450022.E3 BD DC2-R-P+GROUND BUS_44 3451 124.92 1.843 .u. QA=Q_power C .E3 BD GROUND DC2-R-P-BUS_44 3451 124. alpha C .0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C .E3 BD DC1-I-P+GROUND BUS_60 2301 117.92 1.16.T BUS_154 230 BUS_155 20.808 . 170.00050. tap in p.3 1. kV. 0.001 . gamma C . 100.001 .Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .80 1.Gr (A3) -> Group C .01 .20 90. C . C .00 C C******************************************************************************* C C DC BUS DATA C C DC Bus Input Data: C .001 . or deg. MW.7 0.4) -> Nominal voltage ratio of transformer C . current in amps.3) -> Min.u. 170.92 1.E3 BD GROUND DC1-I-P-BUS_60 2301 117.1) -> Min.001 . 100. 5.Mod 1 & 2 (2A2) -> Converter control modes: ID=current. 4. 0.15 5.Amn (F4.40 90.AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C .Tmax (F5.18.18.3 1.Z (A2) -> Zone C . 4.194 . Mvar. 100.Type (A2) -> "BD" C .7 1.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .20 90.N (I2) -> Number of converter bridges C . 4.80 1.E3 BD GROUND DC1-R-P-BUS_71 2301 117. 5.2)-> Control mode values: A.16.Tmin (F5. 5.0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C .80 1.Imx (F4.40 5. 170.AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C .

C .82 693. 15.7) -> Per unit SVC capacitive X w.C . 15.0) -> Bus 2 kV base.T (A1) -> Type: R=rectifier.7) -> Per unit SVC inductive X w. R BZ GROUND DC1-R-P-BUS_71 2301IDAL 3100. C . current in amps. I BZ GROUND DC1-I-P-BUS_60 2301VDGA 447. I C C******************************************************************************* C C DC LINE DATA C C DC Line Input Data: C . I BZ DC2-R-P+GROUND BUS_44 3451IDAL 1920. C C******************************************************************************* C C SVC DATA C C SVC Input Data: C .C (I1) -> Circuit number C . C . C .r. LD DC2-R-P+DC2-I-P+1 7. 15.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where SVC is connected.2) -> Inductance in mH (optional) C .Xc (F8. I=inverter C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C|Mod|Set Points T C |Name_1 |Name_2 |AC bus |kV ||1|2| 1 | 2 | BZ DC1-R-P+GROUND BUS_71 2301IDAL 3100.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .Type (A2) -> "FS" (F for FACTS.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C . R BZ DC1-I-P+GROUND BUS_60 2301VDGA 447.kV2 (F4.82 693. . R BZ DC2-I-P+GROUND BUS_37 5001VDGA 485.kV1 (F4. 1300. 18.1) -> Max. MVA and kV1 base.L (F6.Type (A2) -> "BD" C . LD DC1-R-P-DC1-I-P-1 19. C . I BZ GROUND DC2-I-P-BUS_37 5001VDGA 485. C .0) -> Bus 1 kV base. S for SVC).r.Gr (A3) -> Group C .Imax (F6.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .2) -> Resistance in Ohms C .2) -> Capacitance in uF (optional) C . (optional) C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C C |Name_1 |Name_2 ||Gr|Z|Ow|R ohm|L mH|C uF|Imax | LD DC1-R-P+DC1-I-P+1 19. 15.R (F6.C (F6. MVA and kV1 base.Z (A2) -> Zone C .t. 16. 1300.t. 18. 16.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . LD DC2-R-P-DC2-I-P-1 7. R BZ GROUND DC2-R-P-BUS_44 3451IDAL 1920.Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that SVC controls.Xl (F8.

0) -> Bus 2 kV base.M1 (F4. C . to MVA and kV1 base.0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees.t MVA and kV1 base. P for power.3)-> TCSC control value: % of X. C C******************************************************************************* C C STATCOM DATA C C STATCOM Input Data: C . .0) -> Bus 1 kV base.0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees.cont (F8. C . C .Xth (F8.MVA (F4.r.Vrf (F4.s (F2.kV1 (F4.u.Type (A2) -> "FT" (F for FACTS.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .0) -> Bus 1 kV base. C .t MVA and kV1 base. C for TCSC). C . C .r.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where STATCOM is connected.Bus1 (A8) -> Sending bus where TCSC is connected.t.kV (F4.7) -> Per unit TCSC inductive X w.Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that STATCOM controls.r.0) -> TCSC rating in MVA.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees. C .am (F3.0 X 4.3) -> p.7) -> Step-down transformer reactance in p.MVA (F4. C D for angle.0) -> SVC control slope in % w. C .1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional). C . w.0) -> Low kV side of step-down transformer (optional). C .1 C C******************************************************************************* C C TCSC DATA C C TCSC Input Data: C . C .aM (F3. reference control voltage. 26. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|s|MVA|Vrf|kV |Xth |al FS BUS_114 500 BUS_114 500 1. C . degrees for D. C . KA for I.000526 144175 90.u. I for current. C . C .4925 90175 2 200 1. C .t. Defaults to MVA system base.0) -> SVC maximum rating in MVAr (capacitive).Xc (F8. MW for P. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|cont ||MVA|al |M1 | FC BUS_126 500 BUS_114 500 .0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees. C . C .kV1 (F4.Xl (F8. to SVC MVA C rating and kV1 (optional). 0.00526 .1708 0.am (F3. C . C .al (F5.Bus2 (A8) -> Receiving bus where TCSC is connected. T for STATCOM). C .7) -> Per unit TCSC capacitive X w.aM (F3.1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional).0) -> Needed for determining series line reactance for % X C control: M1=Xc/Xline. C .Type (A2) -> "FC" (F for FACTS.Mode (A1) -> Control mode: X for reactance.r.al (F5.C . C .kV2 (F4.

0) -> AC voltage control slope in % w.5) -> DC G in p.R (F6. C a kVdc base (defaults to 1 p. C .8 0. C .0) -> Bus 2 kV base. C MVA and kV1 base.MVA (F5.r.r.t.u. C .).0017 1.t. MVA and kV1 base. 1. C .u.t. kV1 base.Gc (F6. 2. capacitive current (Imin>0) in p. C C ZZ END . C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|R |X |Gc |Im |IM |s |MVA |Vrf||Con FT BUS_60 230 BUS_60 230 0. C .s (F3.2000.4) -> Max.k constant for phase control (defaults to a value C of 0. C .t. P 0.M (A1) -> Control mode: W for PWM control (default). to MVA and kV1 base.t. C MVA and kV1 base.r. C . w.9 for a 12 pulse VSI if no value is given).r.u. P for phase C control.t.DC reference voltage for PWM control in p. w.4) -> Max.5) -> Control variable value: C .Angle (F10. C . C .Con (F6.kV2 (F4.r.4) -> Reference angle for slack bus in degrees C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |Max| |SLACK BUS | C |Itr| |Name |kV| |Angle | SOL 50 BUS_74 13. w.u. w.u.IM (F6.u.Im (F6.r.r.0) -> Rating in MVA (defaults to the system base).Name (A8) -> Name of the slack bus C .9 C C******************************************************************************* C C SOLUTION CONTROL CARD C C Solution control card: C .kV (F4.0) -> kV base for slack bus C .u.t. C .0 0. w.t.C .145 . inductive current (Imax>0) in p. MVA and kV1 base.3) -> AC reference voltage in p. w.Max Iter (I5) -> Maximum number of Newton-Raphson iteration C . 1.Vrf (F4.u.5) -> AC X in p. w. MVA and a kVdc base defined by the C secondary side of the STATCOM transformer(s). C .0) -> AC R in p.X (F6.r.

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