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Index
Program Description Options Input Formats
1. IEEE Common Format 2. WSCC Format 3. FACTS Format

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INDEX Index K Index + PFLOWWIN:005

Examples:
1. 173 bus ac-dc-FACTS system (173sys.bat) 2. IEEE 300 bus system (ieee300.bat)

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Program Description

UWPFLOW Continuation and Direct Methods to Locate Fold Bifurcations in AC/DC/FACTS Power Systems
By Claudio A. Canizares University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario N2K-2C4 CANADA claudio@iliniza.uwaterloo.ca http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca Fernando L. Alvarado University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin 53706 USA alvarado@ece.wisc.edu November 18, 1999 (First Version: December 20, 1996)

This program is provided without charge for testing purposes only. The program or any of its parts may not be used for any commercial applications. The authors would appreciate any comments and suggestions on how to improve the program. Any reports of problems should be directed to the
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DESCRIPTION Program Description K Program Applications; Program Description; References + PFLOWWIN:07

authors, who reserve their right to modify the program at any time without previous notification. DISCLAIMER: THE AUTHORS DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY OF THE RESULTS OBTAINED WITH THIS PROGRAM, NOR ITS PERFORMANCE.

BRIEF PROGRAM DESCRIPTION:
UWPFLOW is a research tool that has been designed to calculate local bifurcations related to system limits or singularities in the system Jacobian. The program also generates a series of output files that allow further analyses, such as tangent vectors, left and right eigenvectors at a singular bifurcation point, Jacobians, power flow solutions at different loading levels, voltage stability indices, etc. The program reads ac/dc power flow data in WSCC/BPA/EPRI formats [1,3] or IEEE common format [2]; FACTS devices data in a special format described in the on-line help file (WINDOWS) and using the models described in [5]; steadystate load model data in OH format [4] and steady-state generator data in a simple free format as explained in the on-line help. The program also reads ac data in other formats of interest to only some particular users (see on-line help). Additional unformatted data is required for bifurcation analysis, such as the direction of generation change, direction of load change, and maximum generator powers. The program assumes that one parameter, the "loading factor," is allowed to change. All steady state system controls remain operational unless otherwise specified through the program options. The program has been developed in C and C++ and runs under WINDOWS 95 and UNIX environments. It has no limitations on system size, other than those imposed by memory limitations in the corresponding environment, i.e., RAM and swap space in UNIX and WINDOWS. The program has been successfully used to study a real 2158 bus ac/dc system in PC machines, and HP, DEC and SUN SPARC UNIX stations. The program has the following features:

1. Adequate handling of generators limits, with generators being able to recover from a variety of limits, including S limits. 2. Steady state models of generators and their control limits (AVR and Primemover limits) are included. This requires at least one additional input file defining Ra, Xd, and Xq data, as well as Ia and Eq limits. Read the on-line help, examples and corresponding data files carefully to figure out how this works. 3. Voltage dependent load models for voltage stability analysis are also included. To use these models, an additional data file in OH (Ontario Hydro) or ADD (Italian COLAS program) formats is needed. Read the on-line help, examples and corresponding data files carefully to figure out how this works. 4. Either BPA/WSCC ac-dc input data formats (and variations) or IEEE common format may be used. An ac input data format based on an Italian power flow format (.DAT files) and COLAS (.ADD files) can be used also. A fairly complete description of the WSCC and IEEE formats is now provided in the on-line help files. 5. Detailed and reliable steady state models of SVC, TCSC and STATCOM models, and their controls with the corresponding limits are included. The input data format is described on the on-line help files. 6. Secondary voltage control, as defined by ENEL, can be modeled and simulated in the program. 7. The program is able to compute the minimum real eigenvalue and the related right and left eigenvectors at any loading conditions. Several voltage stability indices and tangent vector information can be generated by the program as well. This information allows the user to carry on a variety of sensitivity analyses. 8. The program generates a wide variety of output ASCII and MATLAB (.m) files as well as IEEE common format data files for analysis and plotting of the results.

Cañizares. ENEL and Politecnico di Milano. pp. 1973. Nov. L.e.9. "Common Format for Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data. A. "Methodology for the Integration of HVDC Links in Large AC SystemsPhase 2: Advanced Concepts. Cañizares and F. 29 pages.11.ca REFERENCES: [1] "Extended Transient-Midterm Stability Package: User's Manual for the Power Flow Program.6." IEEE Trans. 1-8. C." EPRI computer code manual EL-2002-CCM.. Vol. Italy. 1999. EPRI user manual EL-6678. February 1993. EPRI technical report EL-4365." Version 2.power. pp. January 1987. 19161925. DOS batch or UNIX script files." IEEE Trans. Working Group report. 6." Vol.12]. 1. Milan.uwaterloo. No.7. Alvarado. 92. "Small Signal Stability Analysis Program Package. A. 8. April 1987. For a PDF copy of most of these documents. January 1990. Power Systems.10. Power Apparatus and Systems. C./Dec. access the WEB server URL: http://www." Internal Report. 1. The program has being designed to automatically run script files. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] .9. "Point of Collapse and Continuation Methods for Large AC/DC Systems. i. models and the techniques used refer to [5. Vol. No. This feature is used to run the tutorials provided with the program.8. For more details about the program capabilities. "Modeling of TCR and VSI Based FACTS Controllers. September 9.

H. Cañizares. Chapter 4 of the IEEE/PES Power Systems Stability Subcommittee Report on Voltage Stability Assessment. 7. Alvarado. A. "Point of Collapse Methods Applied to AC/DC Power Systems. pp." Final Draft. Vol. Faur. May 1992. Dobson. C. I. "Analysis of SVC and TCSC Controllers in Voltage Collapse. ECC Inc. F. Cañizares.[7] C. August 1994." IEEE Trans. Power Systems. "Improving Continuation Methods for Tracing Bifurcation Diagrams in Power Systems. Switzerland. 71 pages. "Voltage Stability Indices." Bulk Power System Voltage Phenomena-III Seminar.. de Souza. Z. 158-165. No. H. 1995. A. January 1999. W. February 1999. de Souza and V. 2. Davos. A. "On Bifurcations. L. Voltage Collapse and Load Modeling. Quintana. C. 1. 673-683. C. pp. C." IEEE Trans. Vol. Vol. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] . F." IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. DeMarco. A. Canizares and V. pp. Cañizares. A. August 1997. Power Systems. A. A." IEEE Trans. Power Systems. No. Quintana. 12. "New Techniques to Speed Up Voltage Collapse Computations Using Tangent Vectors. Long. No. C. Cañizares et al. L. A.. Cañizares and Z. 1380-1387. Z. C. Procedures and Guides. Paper 94 SM 512-4 PWRS. 14. 3.

It can also write the solved case in a file in IEEE common format using the -W or -w option (HVDC links are written in EPRI’s ETMSP format and FACTS devices are written in their own format).. i. command-line options (-option) with redirection of output (>) from screen into files: uwpflow [-options] input_file [[>]output_file] Input file: The input_file could be in WSCC/BPA/EPRI format (or Anarede's variation) or IEEE common format (or Electrocon's variation) for the ac system. etc. although it just deals with the standard two-terminal HVDC problem. Other AC formats may be used (see options below). Solution Technique: # $ OPTIONS Program Options K Command Line. Output files: The program writes the solution into the output_file in ASCII.#$K+ Program Options on Toolbar Define opitons using menu Execute|Command Line or pressing Usage: Like any other UNIX program. The FACTS devices format was specifically designed for this program and is explained in the help file and test systems provided with the program. Additional files can be created for postprocessing analyses (see options below).e. The dc data could be on either WSCC/BPA or multiterminal EPRI format. Program Options + PFLOWWIN:010 . Jacobians for SMMS or MATLAB studies. such as the bifurcation diagram (nose curve) in column form for plotting with MATLAB or other programs.

Solve base case before changing the loading factor lambda. Must be used with the -K option. however. The base case loading can be initialized using the -L option. which is based on the load model: Pl=Pn*V^a+Pz*V^2 Ql=Qn*V^b+Qz*V^2 -Bnum -cfile -Cfile -d -Dfile . Direct method studies. Read load model data from 'file'.The power flows are solved with simultaneous N-R. Options: -a -A -b Turns off tap and angle limits in regulating transformers. loading factor lambda for a given generation and load direction. area interchange. Must be used with the -K option. using Ontario Hydro (OH) format. angles. i. Generates some debug output. Must be used with -K and -v options. and/or active and reactive power flows). PQ bus number 'num' where the voltage is fixed in order to find the loading factor (lambda) for voltage collapse studies. the program calculates an initial loading of the system before the direct method is applied. The left evector is written in 'file' (optional). 8 ac voltages that change the most. The output (optional 'file') is a list of max. allowing for asynchronous systems. Increases the loading factor lambda using a continuation method for finding voltage profiles.. find the max.e. remote voltage control. plus 3 additional variables for each dc bus (see -e option). Turns off interchange area control. and local and remote regulating transformers (LTCs and phase shifters controlling voltages.

and 3 internal variables for generators in the output list during the continuation process (see the -i option). the program chooses the bus with the maximum initial voltage entry in the tangent vector. Stability/sparsity value 'val' for factorization (def. this option eliminates that possibility. Force Q in generators to zero when reading data in IEEE common format. if this number is not defined. 8 ac -Efile -fnum -Fval -g -G -h -Hfile .If a bus is not defined in the list.01). The number 'num' defines the bus for which the voltage entry and rank in the tangent vector are printed out (tanget vector index). The output (optional 'file') is a list of max. 0. a value of 1 means choose a pivot based on stability only. Pn=Qn=0 is assumed. For example. Print in 'file' the continuation method direction vector at the maximum loading factor (PoC right e-vector). Prints this message in standard output. -e Output 3 dc variables per dc link. A value of 0 means choose a pivot based on sparsity only. Output Sensitivity Factors (SF) and Voltage Sensitivity Factors (VSF and tangent vector) during continuation method computations. Turns off recovery from some ac device limits in the program. the program allows to recover voltage control after a Q-limit is reached by monitoring the voltage. Increases the loading factor lambda using a parameterized continuation method for finding voltage profiles. since sometimes a value of Qg creates convergence problems.

var'. mismatches and variables corresponding to the system without the loading factor as a variable. or PA for MW area flow. D for angle. it generates the Jacobian. QL. The equation mismatches and the system variables are also written in 'name. For PoC studies (-C option) it generates the nxn system Jacobian.jac'. 'name. Factor 'val' used in the homotopy continuation method for finding the increments in the loading factor lambda -I -jname -Jname -kval . The corresponding Jacobian. PG for MW generated. Use zero when either the number or the name are unknown. The input format is: Number Name [VarType]. respectively. QG for Mvar generated. mismatches and variables. PG or QG. mismatches and variables are written in I J VALUE format in 'name. If Name has spaces. With the -B option.voltages that change the most.mis' and 'name.var'. VarType is optional and can be: V for voltage (default). Write the Jacobian of the solved case in I J VALUE format in 'name. If Name and Number are both equal to 0 and VarType is either PL. QL for Mvar load. the program will print the corresponding total load or generation in MW or Mvar. -ifile List of numbers and names in 'file' for printing variable profiles with the -c and -H options. plus 3 additional variables for each dc bus (see -e option). Must be used with the -K option. AC input data in IEEE common format. wrap it in double or single quotes. use the -j option.jac'. PL for MW load. respectively.mis' and 'name. for the complete (2n+1)x(2n+1) PoC Jacobian.

The load is represented by: Pl=(Pn+Pnl*lambda)*V^a+(Pz+Pzl*lambda)*V^2 Ql=(Qn+Qnl*lambda)*V^b+(Qz+Qzl*lambda)*V^2 where Pn.. 0). If the -D option is not used. -Kfile Read generation and load distribution factors from 'file'. Qnl or PgMax are unknown. -lfile -Lval -m -Mnum -n -N -otol . Vmin. 1). a. the load model default values are: a=b=0. Pz=Qz=0. Turns off all ac system limits. If BusName has spaces. give them a value of zero. Must be used with the -c and -H options.u. Smax. Write standard error output to 'file' (log file).e. i. The tolerance 'tol' controls the application of limits during the continuation process. Pz. The smaller this value. Turns off all ac system controls. Output continuation profiles in MATLAB format. use the -O option.(def. Busses not in the list are assumed to have zero distribution factors. Loading factor 'val' (def. Simulates load changes in conjunction with the load distribution factors (-K option). and b are defined with the -D option. and lambda corresponds to the loading factor. Number 'num' of max. N-R iterations. Pnl. Vmax. If the input variables DPg. Pzl and Qzl are optional. If TEF profiles are needed. Qz. ||DPg||=1 per area. and must be separated by spaces: BusNumber BusName DPg Pnl Qnl PgMax [Smax Vmax Vmin Pzl Qzl]. wrap it in double or single quotes. overriding input data (default 50). The generation factors DPg are normalized for each area. All data is assumed p. Qn.

the program defaults the PI controller gains (Kp and Ki) of all HVDC converters for dc computations to 'typical' values of Ki=75 and Kp=1. Turns off Q limits in PV busses. 10). Turns off remote voltage generator control.000001). The program also generates two MATLAB '.the more steps required of the continuation method (default 0. These values can later be changed in the MATLAB output file. Generators will control their own terminal voltages at their given values. The integer 'num' corresponds to the number of significant digits in TEF (default and min. 'addtotef. Turns off remote voltage control in reactance-controlled (BX) busses. These busses are defined in the Italian ADD input data file. These busses are defined in the ETMSP/EPRI/BPA input data file. max.m' files needed for plotting and computation of the ac/dc energy function. The local bus voltage will be used for the -p -P -q -qx -qz -Q -QX . Turns off V limits in reactance-controlled (BX) busses. Turns off Q limits in reactance-controlled (BZ) busses. Turns off P and Q control by regulating transformers. If the system has HVDC links. namely. Turns off P and Q limits in regulating transformers.m' (only if dc lines present) and 'tefprof.m'. -Onum This option is used together with -m to output ac/dc TEF information during the continuation method to determine the energy profiles with the help of MATLAB. 6.

or singularity problems. based on the tangent vector technique.2). If the relative error of two consecutive iteration mismatches is larger than 'tol'.U. 0. increase the number of steps in the -U option and/or reduce the value of 'val' in -u. Voltage magnitude 'mag' at the first PQ bus (unless otherwise specified by -B option) to find the -R -s -Sval -ttol -Ttol -uval -Unum -vmag . i. 0 or no reduction. -r Turns off V limits in regulating transformers and PV busses. max. Stop value 'val' for the loading factor lambda in the continuation method (-c and -H options). backtracking. If this happens. The default is 0 for a complete trace of the bifurcation diagram (min. WARNING: This option might produce cycling. Turns off V control by regulating transformers. The default number is 10 (min. 2.. max. Suppress ASCII output_file. tolerance 'tol' for N-R method (default 1e-4).1). Number 'num' of steps of the continuation method (-c and -H options) between system reductions. P. of the maximum lambda. Used with the -u option. in p. max. 0. voltage limits and regulating transformer limits are applied (default 0. 1. lambda maximum). 100).u.control. The default is 1e-3 (min.e. Value 'val' of the tolerance used to reduce the number of equations in the continuation method (-c and -H options).

for ac busses. kv. deg.corresponding lambda for voltage collapse studies. Print in 'file' an approximation of the right e-vector of the smallest real |e-value| at the current operating point. If the input variables are unknown give them a value of zero. would represent the dc variables Alpha. BusNumber BusName V_mag V_ang(deg). For defining the dc variable. Amp. The data must be separated by spaces.g. as the Jacobian may be significantly affected by this option. use the same EPRI format used to define the control modes in the dc lines (e. Similar to -w option. for dc busses. i. Do not enforce maximum active generation limits (PgMax). WARNING: This might create some convergence problems. ALGAPA. Write solved case into 'file' using IEEE CARD common format. If BusName has spaces. wrap it in double or single quotes.. See -K option.e. MW. the values must be given in standard units. Gamma and Power). Busses not in the list are given a flat start. Ignore distribution factors for generations during the initial power flow solution (use only one slack bus). -wfile -Wfile -x -X -yfile -Yfile . Must be used with -K option. Print in 'file' an approximation of the left e-vector of the smallest real |e-value| at the current operating point. and BusNumber BusName Variables Values. -Vfile Read initial guesses for ac and dc variables from 'file'... i. MVAR.e. but the solved case is written in 'file' using IEEE TAPE common format.

where # stands for the step number in the continuation method (c or -H options). WARNING: This option generates a lot of output files that might clutter your system. Used with -0 option. Together with the -Z option.-znum Stop continuation method after 'num' steps. Define the number 'num' of steps used to determine the change of direction of the loading parameter lambda in the continuation method (-c or -H options) due to -Zfile -0name -1num -2num . * Minimum |e-value| and singular value for reduced Q matrix. it can be used to print a tangent vector for a particular value of the loading parameter lambda.m'. or if the bus 'num' does not correspond to a load bus. If this option is not used. it must be used with caution.m' file needed for the computation of these indices. * Test function and reduced determinant for a given bus (-1 option). Print in 'file' the normalized tangent vector to the bifurcation manifold at step 'num' of the continuation method (as defined by -z). Print in MATLAB format the Jacobian matrices needed to compute several voltage stability indices. and defines the load bus at which the test functions are computed. The program generates the MATLAB 'inviter. A file 'name. It is used with the -c or -H options. These matrices are printed in the files 'name#. the program chooses the bus with the maximum voltage entry in the initial tangent vector.m' is also created with all the MATLAB instructions to compute and plot 6 distinct indices: * Minimum |e-value| and singular value for full matrix.

a COLAS ADD file is read. however. min. force Vmax and Vmin on system busses during the Enforce Vmax and Vmin on system busses during the continuation process (-c or –H options). The program assumes the following default values: Ra=0. This file may be used instead of the -K and -D files. or define Xq=0. and max. give it a 0 value. if one of this is not known. Ia_max=large. Do not enforce maximum power generation limits -4 -5 -6file -7 -8 -9 . The program uses either the BusNumber or the BusName to identify the bus. and generator and load directions.voltages increasing after Q-limits are encountered (default 5). -3file Read generator steady-state data from 'file' using free format: BusNumber BusName Ra Xd Xq Ia_max Eq_max Eq_min. load voltage coefficients 'a' and 'b'. Turns off Eq limits in all generators. these files take precedence over the ADD file in defining similar variables for collapse studies. For BusNames with spaces. Enforce Imax limits on transmission elements during the continuation process (-c or –H options). See -3 option. For round-rotor machines. AC input data in ITALIAN format. If 'file' name is given. bus voltages. wrap the word in double or single quotes. Turns off Ia limits in all generators. Pl=(Pn+Pnl*lambda)*V^a Ql=(Qn+Qnl*lambda)*V^b pilot nodes and generators for secondary voltage control (-# option).e. make Xd=Xq. Eq_max=large. See -3 option.. which defines: new bus kV levels. Xq=<Xd. Eq_min=0. i.

e.(Smax). * under excited -> qi=Qmini/Sum Qmin of pilot bus gens. -$val Define the base power value 'val'. remote voltage control of pilot busses by generators with participation factors defined as: * over excited -> qi=Qmaxi/Sum Qmax of pilot bus gens. See -K option. i. overriding the value given in the input data file.. Use secondary voltage control as defined by ENEL. -# .

enter zeros instead. 6. The partial description presented here is based on a general description available at the following web site: http://www. AC Data + PFLOWWIN:012 .washington. Floating point items should have explicit decimal point.#$K+ IEEE Common Format The complete description of the IEEE Common Data Format can be found in the paper "Common Data Format for the Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data. in format DD/MM/YY with leading zeros.Integer (right justified) F . pp. No. and FACTS controllers can be defined using the FACTS format. November/December 1973.Floating point (right justified) * . Originator's name [A] MVA Base [F] * Year [I] Season (S . No implicit decimal points are used.9 11-30 32-37 39-42 44 46-73 Date.Mandatory item Title Data * Columns Columns Columns Columns Column Column 2.ee.html The data file has lines of up to 128 characters (TAPE option). PAS-92. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. DC links can be defined using the WSCC format. provided. Data items are entered in specific columns. Common Format.Alphanumeric (no special characters) I .edu/research/pstca/pg_testcase. Vol." Working Group on a Common Format for the Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data. use 0b/0b/0b where b is blank. 1916-1925.Winter) Case identification [A] If no date Bus Data * # $ IEEE IEEE Common Format K Input Format. Data type codes: A . W . The lines are grouped into sections with section headers.Summer. No blank items are allowed.

p. PV) 3 .) Columns 91-98 Maximum MVAR or voltage limit [F] Columns 99-106 Minimum MVAR or voltage limit [F] Columns 107-114 Shunt conductance G (per unit) [F] * Columns 115-122 Shunt susceptance B (per unit) [F] * Columns 124-127 Remote controlled bus number Section end card: Columns 1.Unregulated (load. must always have one) Columns 28-33 Final voltage. PQ) 2 .4 6. [F] * Columns 34-40 Final angle. (gen.Hold MVAR generation within voltage limits.Hold voltage within VAR limits (gen. V-Theta. the side of the model .4 -999 Branch Data * Section start card *: Columns 1-16 BRANCH DATA FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than BRANCH is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.? NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Bus data cards *: Columns 1. Don't use zero! * Loss zone number [I] Type [I] * 0 .9 Tap bus number [I] * For transformers or phase shifters.Hold voltage and angle (swing. Z bus number [I] * For transformers and phase shifters. the side of the model the non-unity tap is on. PQ) 1 . degrees [F] * Columns 41-49 Load MW [F] * Columns 50-59 Load MVAR [F] * Columns 60-67 Generation MW [F] * Columns 68-75 Generation MVAR [F] * Columns 77-83 Base kV [F] Columns 85-90 Desired volts (pu) [F] (This is desired remote voltage if this bus is controlling another bus.Section start card *: Columns Columns 1-16 BUS DATA FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than BUS in 1-3 is significant) * 40?.? Branch data cards *: Columns Columns 1.u.4 Columns 6-17 Columns 19-20 Columns 21-23 Columns 25-26 Bus number [I] * Name [A] (left justify) * Load flow area number [I].

Transmission line 1 .Variable tap (turns ratio) for MVAR control 4 . per unit [F] * (total line charging.? Loss Zone Cards: Columns Columns 1.3 5-16 Loss zone number [I] * Loss zone name [A] Section end card: Columns 1. per unit [F] * No zero impedance lines Columns 41-50 Line charging B. MVAR or MW limit [F] Columns 120-126 Maximum voltage. +B) Columns 51-55 Line MVA rating No 1 [I] Left justify! Columns 57-61 Line MVA rating No 2 [I] Left justify! Columns 63-67 Line MVA rating No 3 [I] Left justify! Columns 69-72 Control bus number Column 74 Side [I] 0 .Controlled bus is one of the terminals 1 .Controlled bus is near the tap side 2 . per unit [F] * Columns 30-40 Branch reactance X.Controlled bus is near the impedance side (Z bus) Columns 77-82 Transformer final turns ratio [F] Columns 84-90 Transformer (phase shifter) final angle [F] Columns 91-97 Minimum tap or phase shift [F] Columns 98-104 Maximum tap or phase shift [F] Columns 106-111 Step size [F] Columns 113-119 Minimum voltage.4 -999 Loss Zone Data Section start card: Columns 1-16 LOSS ZONES FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than LOSS is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.Fixed tap 2 .3 -99 Interchange Data . MVAR or MW limit [F] Columns Columns Column Column 11-12 13-15 17 19 Section end card: Columns 1. LTC) 3 .Variable phase angle for MW control (phase shifter) Columns 20-29 Branch resistance R.the device impedance is on. Load flow area [I] Loss zone [I] Circuit [I] * (Use 1 for single lines) Type [I] * 0 .Variable tap for voltage control (TCUL.

3 -999 . no zeros! * Interchange slack bus number [I] * Alternate swing bus name [A] Area interchange export. MW [F] * Area code (abbreviated name) [A] * Area name [A] Section end card: Columns 1.2 -9 Tie Line Data Section start card: Columns 1-16 TIE LINES FOLLOW (not clear that any more than TIE is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.2 4.4 7-8 11-14 17-18 21 Metered bus number [I] * Metered area number [I] * Non-metered bus number [I] * Non-metered area number [I] * Circuit number Section end card: Columns 1.? Interchange Data Cards: Columns Columns Columns Columns Columns Columns Columns 1.7 9-20 21-28 30-35 38-43 46-75 Area number [I].Section start card: Columns 1-16 INTERCHANGE DATA FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than first word is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.? Tie Line Cards: Columns Columns Columns Columns Column 1. MW [F] (+ = out) * Area interchange tolerance.

" EPRI computer code manual EL-2002-CCM. WSCC and EPRI’s ETMPS Format. C C Format of input data: C A -> Alphanumeric (no special characters) C I -> Integer (right justified) C F -> Floating point (right justified) C C******************************************************************************* C C Title cards start with the HDG card HDG THREE TITLE CARDS (A80) ARE PLACED BETWEEN THE HDG AND BAS CARDS BAS C C System data starts with the BAS card C The order of the data cards does not matter.#$K+ WSCC and EPRI's ETMSP Formats The complete description of these Formats can be found in EPRI’s ETMSP manual "Extended Transient-Midterm Stability Package: User's Manual for the Power Flow Program. C C******************************************************************************* C C AC BUSSES C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C | SHUNT | |REMOTE BUS C |Ow|Name |kV |Z|PL |QL |MW |Mva|PM |P |QM |Qm |Vpu|Vm |Name |kV |%Q Bx BUS DATA CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C # $ WSCC WSCC and EPRI’s Format K Input Format. January 1987. The dc data cards described below can be used to define dc links in the IEEE format and should be placed before the END OF DATA card. AC/DC Data + PFLOWWIN:013 . The following format is presented here in terms of the "input data" cards needed (see the 173-bus ac/dc/FACTS example). C C Comment cards start with "C".

QL (F5.Remote kV (F4.0) -> Remote controlled bus kV for "BG" busses.Name (A8) -> Bus Name C .Type (A2) -> "X " C . (max.kV2 (F4.3) -> Min.0) -> P load in MW C .kV (F4.SHUNT (2F4. generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of controlled bus.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . shunt C reactances are added to the bus.Remote %Q (I3) -> Percentage of Q of remote bus control for "BG" busses.0) -> Q load in MVars C . or indc. generator P power in MW C . C .0) -> Max. as defined on the C the "X" cards (see below) C "BG" -> PQ generator bus with Q limits controlling voltage on C a remote PV load bus C "BC" -> PV load bus with remote voltage control C "BT" -> PQ load bus with voltage controlled by LTC transformer C "BS" -> Swing bus C . C .Name_1 (A8) -> Name of controlling bus.kV1 (F4.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 1 increment: . voltage for "BV" or "BX" busses.Remote Name (A8) -> Remote controlled bus name for "BG" busses.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .3)-> PV desired voltage magnitude in p.0) -> Max. voltage for C "BV" or "BX" busses) C . not needed if it is the same as the C controlling bus C . C .PL (F5.QM (F5.Z (2A) -> Zone C .Vpu (F4.C Bus Input Data: C . generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .0) -> generator P power in MW C . new capac.u.0) -> kV base for remote bus C – S1 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 1 C – MVAr (F5.Qm (F5. C C******************************************************************************* C C X CARDS C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1 |Name_2 |kV2||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr X DATA CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C X Input Data for BX Busses: C .Type (A2) -> "B " -> PQ load bus C "BQ" -> PV generator bus with Q limits C "BE" -> PV generator bus with no Q limits C "BV" -> PQ generator bus with V limits C "BX" -> PQ generator bus with local or remote V limits.0) -> Bus kV base C .0) -> Min. C As these limits are reached.Vm (F4.PM (F4.P (F5.0) -> MW and MVars shunts (+ for Capacitors) C .0) -> kV base for controlling bus C . C .

kV1 (F4.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 6 increment C – S7 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 7 C – MVAr (F5.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 4 increment C – S5 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 5 C – MVAr (F5.R (F6.1) -> Length in miles C C******************************************************************************* C C TRANSFORMERS C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||Sn | R | X | G | B |Tap1|Tap2| T CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C .5) -> p.u.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 5 increment C – S6 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 6 C – MVAr (F5. -MVAr for inductors C – S2 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 2 C – MVAr (F5.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C . series R of PI equivalent C .u.Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .S (I1) -> Section number C .M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .C +MVAr for capacitors.5) -> p.kV2 (F4.u. C .In (F4.Type (A2) -> "L " C .N (I1) -> Circuit number C .0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 7 increment C – S8 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 8 C – MVAr (F5.X (F6.G/2 (F6. shunt B/2 of PI equivalent C .0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 3 increment C – S4 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 4 C – MVAr (F5.5) -> p. shunt G/2 of PI equivalent C .0) -> Rated Amps.0) -> kV base for sending bus C .0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 2 increment C – S3 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 3 C – MVAr (F5.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 8 increment C C******************************************************************************* C C AC LINES C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS N C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||In || R | X | G/2 | B/2 |Mil| L LINE DATA CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C Line Input Data: C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .5) -> p.B/2 (F6.Mil (F4.u. series X of PI equivalent C .

shunt B of equivalent circuit C .C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .5) -> p.u.5) -> p.0) -> kV base for controlled bus C – Tmax (F5.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . tap in kV with respect to kV1 for LTCs.kV2 (F4. C – Sch/Max (F5.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C . phase angle in degrees for Phase Shifters C – # (2I) -> Number of tap steps.kV1 (F4.Name (A8) -> Name of controlled bus C – kV (F4.R (F6.N (I1) -> Circuit number C .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .X (F6.S (I1) -> Section number C .C Transformer Input Data: C .G (F6.2) -> Min. series R of equivalent circuit C . or C Max.M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .Tap2 (F5.Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .5) -> p.Tap1 (F5. tap in kV with respect to kV1 for LTCs. MVar or MW for "RN" and "RM" types .5) -> p. series X of equivalent circuit C .u.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C . or C Min.0) -> Scheduled MVar or MW for "RQ" and "RP" types.Type (A2) -> "T " C . or C Max.u.kV1 (F4.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .0) -> Rated MVA C .M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .B (F6.2) -> kV tap for sending bus C .u.kV2 (F4. shunt G of equivalent circuit C .0) -> kV base for sending bus C .2) -> kV tap for receiving bus C C******************************************************************************* C C REGULATING TRANSFORMERS C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |REMOTE BUS |Sch/|Min C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2| |Name |kV |Tmax|Tmin|#|Max |P/Q | RT CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C Regulating Transformer Input Data: A corresponding "T" card must be used to C define the impedance and ratings C .Type (A2) -> "R " -> LTC controlling voltage on "BT" load bus with C tap limits C "RQ" -> LTC controlling Q out of sending bus C "RN" -> LTC keeping Q out of sending bus within C Max/Min Mvar limits C "RP" -> Phase Shifter controlling P out of sending bus C "RM" -> Phase Shifter keeping P out of sending bus within C Max/Min MW limits C .0) -> kV base for sending bus C .Sn (F4. phase angle in degrees for Phase Shifters C – Tmin (F5.2) -> Max.

C .N (I2) -> Number of converter bridges C .Name (A10) -> Area Name C .1) -> Min.3) -> p.Slack Name (A8) -> Area slack bus name C .u.4) -> Nominal voltage ratio of transformer C .Amn (F4. max.1) -> Max. voltage of the area for printed reports C C******************************************************************************* C C DC BUS DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |AC bus C C |Name_1 |Name_2 |Name |kV ||Gr|Z|N|Xc |Rat |Tstp|Tmin|Tmax|Amn|Amx|Gmn|Imx BD CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C DC Bus Input Data: C .Imx (F4.3) -> Commutation reactance in Ohms C . (F8.Gmn (F4.Xc (F5.Type (A2) -> "BD" C .Amx (F4.C (I1) -> Circuit number C . min.Slack kV (F4.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .1) -> Min.Z (A2) -> Zone C .Tmin (F5.0) -> MW scheduled export for the area C .u. tap in p. tap in p. gamma C .C – Min P/Q (F5.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C . alpha C .VM (F4.AC bus kV (F4. |1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9||0| |VM |Vm A CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C Area Input Data: C .3) -> p.3) -> Tap steps in % C .u.3) -> Max.Type (2A) -> "A " C .0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C .0) -> Min.Rat (F5.u. MVar or MW for "RN" and "RM" types C C******************************************************************************* C C AREA DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |Slack bus | | ZONES | C |Name |Name |kV ||MW Exp. C . alpha C .3) -> Min.ZONES (10A2) -> Zone names that belong to the area (up to 10) C .0) -> kV base for slack bus C .AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C . current in amps.Tstp (F5. voltage of the area for printed reports C .MW Exp.1) -> Max. C C******************************************************************************* C .Gr (A3) -> Group C .Vm (F4.Tmax (F5.

AL=alpha.AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C .C DC BUS CONTROL DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C|Mod|Set Points T C |Name_1 |Name_2 |AC bus |kV ||1|2| 1 | 2 | BZ CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C DC Bus Control Input Data: C .1) -> Max.Mod 1 & 2 (2A2) -> Converter control modes: ID=current. C VD=Voltage.R (F6.Type (A2) -> "BZ" C .L (F6. MW. C . or deg.Gr (A3) -> Group C .T (A1) -> Type: R=rectifier.2) -> Capacitance in uF (optional) C .Z (A2) -> Zone C .C (I1) -> Circuit number C .2)-> Control mode values: A.C (I1) -> Circuit number C . QA=Q_power C .C (F6. current in amps. Mvar. (optional) C C******************************************************************************* C C SOLUTION CONTROL CARD C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |Max| |SLACK BUS | C |Itr| |Name |kV| |Angle | SOL CARD FOLLOWS THIS FORMAT C C Solution control card: .2) -> Inductance in mH (optional) C .Type (A2) -> "BD" C . GA=gamma.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C . I=inverter C C******************************************************************************* C C DC LINE DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C C |Name_1 |Name_2 ||Gr|Z|Ow|R ohm|L mH|C uF|Imax | LD CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C DC Line Input Data: C .Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C . PA=P_power.Set Points (2F5.Imax (F6.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . kV.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .AC bus kV (F4.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .2) -> Resistance in Ohms C .

C .4) -> Reference angle for slack bus in degrees C C******************************************************************************* C C Finish system data with ZZ card ZZ C C******************************************************************************* C C Finish data file with END card END .kV (F4.Name (A8) -> Name of the slack bus C .Angle (F10.0) -> kV base for slack bus C .Max Itr (I5) -> Maximum number of Newton-Raphson iteration C .

MVA and kV1 base. to MVA and kV1 base. MVA and kV1 base. C . S for SVC).t.aM (F3.r.Type (A2) -> "FS" (F for FACTS.kV2 (F4.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where SVC is connected." Internal Report. FACTS Format. ENEL and Politecnico di Milano.0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees. "Modeling of TCR and VSI Based FACTS Controllers.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . C .t. they can be placed anywhere between the BAS and END data cards (see the 173-bus ac/dc/FACTS example). C .Xc (F8. C C Format of input data: C A -> Alphanumeric (no special characters) C I -> Integer (left justified) C F -> Floating point (right justified) C C******************************************************************************* C C SVC DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|s|MVA|Vrf|kV |Xth |al FS CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C SVC Input Data: C .r.s (F2. Cañizares. C .am (F3.r. # $ FACTS FACTS Format K Input Format.7) -> Per unit SVC capacitive X w.7) -> Per unit SVC inductive X w. 1999. Italy.kV1 (F4. C .0) -> SVC control slope in % w. Milan.#$K+ FACTS Formats The input data formats for FACTS controllers were chosen based on the models described in C. FACTS Data + PFLOWWIN:014 . C . September.0) -> Bus 2 kV base.0) -> Bus 1 kV base. C C Comment cards start with "C". C . The FACTS "input data" cards described below follow the ac input data cards in the IEEE format and should be placed before the END OF DATA card.Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that SVC controls.t. C . For the WSCC format.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees.Xl (F8. C . A.

. Defaults to MVA system base.r.0) -> Needed for determining series line reactance for % X C control: M1=Xc/Xline.r.M1 (F4. C .aM (F3. C . to SVC MVA C rating and kV1 (optional).3) -> p. C . C .r. C .0) -> Bus 1 kV base. C .MVA (F4. C for TCSC). I for current.0) -> Bus 2 kV base. C .C .3)-> TCSC control value: % of X.7) -> Step-down transformer reactance in p.R (F6.u.kV2 (F4. C D for angle.7) -> Per unit TCSC inductive X w.cont (F8.Xth (F8. C .Mode (A1) -> Control mode: X for reactance.u.u.Type (A2) -> "FC" (F for FACTS.0) -> Low kV side of step-down transformer (optional). C . reference control voltage.Type (A2) -> "FT" (F for FACTS. w.Xl (F8. C C******************************************************************************* C C STATCOM DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|R |X |Gc |Im |IM |s |MVA |Vrf||Con FT CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C STATCOM Input Data: C . C . MVA and kV1 base.Bus2 (A8) -> Receiving bus where TCSC is connected.u.0) -> TCSC rating in MVA.Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that STATCOM controls. C . w.Xc (F8.0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees. C .kV1 (F4.0) -> Bus 1 kV base.al (F5. P for power.t MVA and kV1 base.0) -> Bus 2 kV base. C C******************************************************************************* C C TCSC DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|cont ||MVA|al |M1 | FC CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C TCSC Input Data: C . MVA and kV1 base. C .5) -> AC X in p. C . C . MW for P. C .0) -> AC R in p.r.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .al (F5.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees.kV (F4. w.kV1 (F4.X (F6.7) -> Per unit TCSC capacitive X w. C . C . KA for I.r.MVA (F4.kV2 (F4. C .0) -> SVC maximum rating in MVAr (capacitive).1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional).t. C . C . T for STATCOM).Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where STATCOM is connected.t. C .am (F3. C .t MVA and kV1 base.1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional).Bus1 (A8) -> Sending bus where TCSC is connected.t. degrees for D.Vrf (F4.

Con (F6.t.C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C .r.t.u. P for phase control.Gc (F6. .u.r. . MVA and a kVdc base defined by the secondary side of the STATCOM transformer(s). kV1 base.r.t. a kVdc base (defaults to 1 p.u.M (A1) -> Control mode: W for PWM control (default).4) -> Max.MVA (F5.r.r.). inductive current (Imax>0) in p.r. MVA and kV1 base.0) -> AC voltage control slope in % w.t.0) -> Rating in MVA (defaults to the system base). MVA and kV1 base.t.DC reference voltage for PWM control in p.t. w. to MVA and kV1 base. . capacitive current (Imin>0) in p.4) -> Max. w.u. . w. w. . . . w.3) -> AC reference voltage in p. .5) -> DC G in p.Vrf (F4.s (F3. .9 for a 12 pulse VSI if no value is given).IM (F6.k constant for phase control (defaults to a value of 0.u.u.Im (F6.5) -> Control variable value: .

#$K+ Menu Clear Open Save Save As Edit Exit Alt+F4 F10 F2 F3 Clears the window screen Opens a log (ASCII) file and loads it into the window screen Saves the window screen into a log file Saves the window screen into a new log file Edit input data using Notepad/WordPad Exit UWPflow File Execute Command Line F4 Defines UWPflow's options Executes UWPflow with the options defined above Run a batch/script file and/or define the input data directory Show help window UWPflow program authorship Run UWPflow F5 Batch/Script File F6 Help Help F1 About UWPflow # $ MENU Menu K Menu description + PFLOWWIN:015 .

#$K+ Toolbar Clear Screen Open a log file Saves screen in log file Clear Screen Edit input data using Notepad/WordPad Define command line options and run program Run UWPflow using defined options Run a batch/script file and/or define the input data directory About UWPflow Help # $ TOOLBAR Toolbar K Toolbar description + PFLOWWIN:020 .

# $ MOUSE Mouse K Mouse buttons + PFLOWWIN:025 . Left button: Right button: Saves screen into log file. Equivalent to pressing the toolbar button . Equivalent to pressing the toolbar button .#$K+ Mouse Define UWPflow's command line options.

#$K+ 173 Bus AC-DC-FACTS Test System . However.jac sysjac.cf Observe that the IEEE Common Format file created.e.var'.k' (-K option). the generator maximum power information is not available in the IEEE format.jac' with the corresponding mismatch and solution vectors in '173sys.wsc'. Notice that this example illustrates the use of a distributed slack # $ 173 173 ac-dc-FACTS sample system (173sys.m The MATLAB data is stored in this case in the output file 'sysjac. To run this case open the batch/script file 173sys. The Jacobian can be transformed into MATLAB matrix format using the AWK filter 'tomatlab'.pf0'. respectively: uwpflow 173sys.bat + PFLOWWIN:030 . has the HVDC and FACTS data in the same format as the original input file '173sys. For this study one needs the generation and load direction information in the file '173sys. 2. Run a power flow with a load increase of 0.m'.wsc 173sys.mis' and '173sys..cf' with the final solution (-W option).pf0 -j173sys -W173sys. Also create the IEEE Common Format file '173sys. including the options and files needed to run different cases for an ac/dc/FACTS system in WSCC (EPRI) format. Demos.bat) K 173 Bus System. and write the Jacobian (-j option) in '173sys. 173sys.cf'.bat using This tutorial briefly illustrates several possible applications of the program 'uwpflow'.03 (-L option). Run a standard ac/dc/FACTS power flow and write in ASCII the output file '173sys. '173sys. 1. i. tomatlab 173sys.

g. but ignoring maximum active power generation limits (-X option). uwpflow 173sys.cf'.8 of the maximum value of the loading factor (-S option): uwpflow 173sys. the right and left eigenvectors of the smallest eigenvalue of the system Jacobian are stored in the files '173sys. and the tracing of the bifurcation diagram is again stopped after the bifurcation point at 0.pf1 -L0. To do this the generation and load direction information stored in file '173sys.w For on-line help on 'maxim' type: maxim -h 3.v' and '173sys.bus to solve the power flow problem. Run a parameterized continuation power flow (-H option).k' is needed (-K option). In this example the final ASCII output is suppressed (-s option). e. Also.v' (-Y option) and '173sys.lg3' (-l option).wsc -K173sys.k -Y173sys.8 of the maximum value of the loading factor (-S option).lg2' (-l option). is used as the input data in this case (-I option).pf1'. The IEEE Common Format file created in the previous run.w The maximum normalized entries in '173sys. The tracing of the bifurcation diagram is stopped after the bifurcation point at 0.w' (-y option).k -c -X -s -l173sys. similar to the previous case 3. '173sys. Also. Run another continuation power flow (-c option).lg1' (-l option). The ASCII output is stored in the file '173sys.lg1 -S0.k' is needed (-K option). The log information is stored in the file '173sys.pf2 -l173sys. The last solution point is written in ASCII in the output file '173sys.cf 173sys.8 5.v -y173sys.w' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'..lg2 -S0. in this case the ASCII output is suppressed (-s option). and the convergence information is stored in the log file '173sys. once again the direction file '173sys. maxim 173sys.pf2'. Run a continuation power flow (-c option).wsc -K173sys. and the log information is stored in the file '173sys. The nose curve information is stored .8 4. respectively. uwpflow -I 173sys.k -c 173sys.03 -K173sys.

The options -i and -e are used to obtain the desired output. VSF. Pl = Pn*V^a + Pz*V^2 Ql = Qn*V^b + Qz*V^2 The -D option is used in this case to define the values of Pn..k -c -l173sys.lg3 -s -k0.wsc -K173sys.k -Hsysvp..e.k' are needed (-K option).lg5' using the -l option.m -m -n -l173sys. and the -e option is used to print out some HVDC variable information. Xd.vp' (-i option).oh -i173sys. TV) are printed out (-f option). the generation and load direction defined in '173sys. however. uwpflow 173sys..gen' using the -3 option. obtain more points in the bifurcation diagram. The computation takes a couple of minutes. In this case.wsc -K173sys. Pz. All ac limits are turned off (-n option). and b stored in OH (SMMS) format in '173sys. several voltage stability indices (SF. which considers Ra. a. and the -S option is used to stop the continuation process after the maximum loading point is reached. Finally. Xq.9 6. i.8 7. together with the voltages and angles of the busses defined in '173sys.in the file 'sysvp. but in this case the system load is modeled as a nonlinear function of the voltage.lg4 -s -D173sys.k -3173sys.m' in MATLAB format (-m option).e. and the convergence information is stored in the file '173sys.vp -f -S0. be aware that PgMax information must be defined then in the 'K' file). Qz. Once more... uwpflow 173sys. This example also shows some convergence difficulties due to the lack of adequate initial guesses for the internal generator variables (this problem can be significantly reduced by using an IEEE Common Format input file.wsc -K173sys. Qn. please wait. 4 and 5. the option -k is used to reduce the step size in the continuation method. Similar to examples 3. This example shows the use of the program to obtain a bifurcation manifold using a detailed generator steady state model.5 -e -S0. i. The generator data is read from the file '173sys. uwpflow 173sys.lg5 .gen -c -i173sys. and stator and rotor limits (in Ia and Eq).oh'.vp -e -s -l173sys.

and the bifurcation point is stored in IEEE Common Format in '173sys.k' are needed (-K option). . an initial solution close to the bifurcation point is needed.lft' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'.8. Once more. thus the -L option is used here to move the system closer to the singularity point detected in case 7. uwpflow 173sys.poc -L0. Finally. The right eigenvector at the bifurcation point is written in the file '173sys. the generation and load direction defined in '173sys. the -3 option is used again to read the steady state generator data stored in file '173sys.k -C173sys.poc' (-W option). For the program to converge to the desired solution. Hence.lft'.lft -s -W173sys.05 -3173sys.wsc -K173sys.gen The maximum normalized entries in '173sys. observe the convergence difficulties due to the lack of good initial guesses for the internal generator variables. this example depicts how to use the program to find the exact bifurcation point using a direct method (-C option). Again.gen'.

cf -s -lieee300.bat using This tutorial briefly illustrates several possible applications of the program 'uwpflow'. including the options and files needed to run the different test cases. Run a standard power flow suppressing ASCII output (-s option). To run this case open the batch/script file ieee300. and write convergence information in the log file 'ieee300. and write Jacobian information (-j option) in the files 'ieee300.bat) K 300 Bus System.pf0 file 2. # $ 300 IEEE 300 bus sample system (ieee300.jac' (Jacobian). since the input data is in IEEE Common Format.lg0' (-l option): uwpflow -I ieee300. An on-line description of the program and all its options is available by running: uwpflow -h In all cases the -I option (input data in IEEE Common Format) are used. 1. Run a standard power flow suppressing ASCII output (-s option).pf0' (output redirection is optional): uwpflow -I ieee300. Demos. ieee300.#$K+ IEEE 300 Bus Test System . and write the solution in TAPE IEEE Common Format in the file 'ieee300. Run a standard power flow and write ASCII output in the output 'ieee300.cf -s -Wieee300.tap' (-W option): uwpflow -I ieee300.lg0 3.tap 4.bat + PFLOWWIN:035 .cf >ieee300. Run a standard power flow suppressing the ASCII output (-s option).

m' contains the Jacobian matrix in MATLAB format to be used directly by this program.01 p.crd'. To do this the generation and load direction information in the file 'ieee300.rgt' (-E option). deltaQ's. An approximation of the right eigenvector at the bifurcation point is written in the file 'ieee300.pf1': uwpflow -I ieee300.mis' (mismatches.k -c -N -Eieee300. i.k ieee300.e.cf -Kieee300. The -N option is used to turn off all system controls: uwpflow -I ieee300.rgt -s -lieee300.01 -x -Kieee300. and the final output is suppressed using the -s option.pf1 6.k' (-K option). Run a continuation power flow (-c option)..).lg1' (-l option). and 'ieee300. Run a power flow with a distributed slack bus by using the generation direction information defined in the file 'ieee300. P's.v yieee300. (-L option). V's. The solution information is logged into the file 'ieee300. etc.m The file 'ieeejac.e. i.k' (-K option).v' and 'ieee300.u. and write the results in the output file 'ieee300.k' is needed (-K option).): uwpflow -I ieee300.w'.e.lg1 . For this study one needs the generation and load direction information in the file 'ieee300.cf -L0. etc. i.jac ieeejac.crd -s -Yieee300. tomatlab ieee300.w 7.'ieee300.var' (variables. Q's. and the option -Y and -y are used to write the right and left e-vectors associated to the smallest Jacobian eigenvalue in the files 'ieee300. 5. In this example the program is forced to use only one slack bus by using the -x option.cf -Kieee300.k -wieee300. Run a power flow with a load increase of 0.cf -s -jieee300 The Jacobian can be transformed to MATLAB matrix format using the AWK filter 'tomatlab'.. The results are written in CARD IEEE Common Format in the file 'ieee300.. deltaP's. respectively: uwpflow -I ieee300.

lg2 -0sys One of the MATLAB files created is 'sys.pf3'.tg The maximum entries in 'ieee300.vp' is used to define the desired output busses for the voltage profiles (-i option).k' is needed (-K option). and reduced determinants.k -c -N -s -lieee300.m') that are used to compute several voltage stability indices.cf -Kieee300.k -c -s -z5 -Zieee300. However.lg3' (-l option).. and the corresponding tangent vector at that point is written in the file 'ieee300.tg' (-Z option). at about 80 % of the maximum value.tg' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'. Run a parameterized continuation power flow (-H option). the generation and load direction information in the file 'ieee300. Run a continuation power flow similar to case 7. e. in this example the continuation process is stopped after 5 steps (-z option). .lg2': uwpflow -I ieee300.cf -Kieee300. In this example the final ASCII output is stored in 'ieee300. but now the -0 option is used to generate a series of MATLAB files ('sys*. which can be used to compute and plot the desired indices together with the generated file 'inviter. test functions.The maximum entries in 'ieee300. once again the direction file 'ieee300. 9.k' is needed (-K option). The file 'ieee300. The solution information is logged in the same file 'ieee300.m'.rgt' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'. Hence.rgt For on-line help on 'maxim' type: maxim -h 8. The final output is suppressed using the -s option. eigenvalues.g.m'. and the convergence information is stored in 'ieee300. 10. Run a continuation power flow (-c option) similar to case 7. uwpflow -I ieee300. maxim ieee300. namely. The -S option stops the program after the maximum loading point is computed. singular values.

The computation takes a couple of minutes. All limits are turned off (-n option). .8 ieee300. an initial solution close to the bifurcation point is needed.m' files needed in this case to run 'ieeevp.k -H -lieee300.5 The program generates the required MATLAB '*.TXT).vp 11. For the program to converge.lg4 -s -k0. however. The option -k is used to reduce the step size in the continuation method.poc' (W option). please wait. system limits are also turned off using the -n option.pf3 -iieee300. uwpflow -I ieee300.lg3 -S0.. so that more points on the bifurcation diagram can be computed.uwpflow -I ieee300.k' are needed (K option).3 -n The maximum entries in 'ieee300. this example depicts how to use the program to find the exact bifurcation point detected above (case 11) using a direct method (-C option).lft'. the generation and load direction defined in 'ieee300. but in this case the nose curve and Transient Energy Function (TEF) information are stored in the file 'ieeevp.cf -Kieee300.cf -Kieee300. The right eigenvector at the bifurcation point is written in the file 'ieee300. Finally.m' in MATLAB. uwpflow -I ieee300.k -cieeevp.cf -Kieee300. 12... thus the -L option is used here to move the system closer to the singularity point.poc -L0. observe the slow convergence as the system is not close enough to the desired solution point.m -m -O -n -lieee300.lft -s -Wieee300.lft' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'.m' in MATLAB format (-m and -O options).k -Cieee300. and the bifurcation point is stored in TAPE IEEE Common Format in 'ieee300. so that the TEF can be correctly processed in MATLAB (read program BUGS in README. Similar to examples 7 and 8. Again.

0) -> MW and MVars shunts (+ for Capacitors) C .P (F5.QL (F5. voltage for "BV" PV bus type. FACTS Input Data Example. DC Input Data Example. voltage for C "BV" PV bus type) C .SHUNT (2F4. generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .kV (F4. (max.0) -> Bus kV base C .u.Vm (F4.0) -> Max.Vpu (F4. 173sys.PM (F4.Z (2A) -> Zone C .3)-> PV desired voltage magnitude in p.0) -> generator P power in MW C .0) -> Max.wsc + PFLOWWIN:040 K .QM (F5.PL (F5. generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .0) -> Q load in MVars C .0) -> Min.0) -> P load in MW C .3) -> Min.Name (A8) -> Bus Name C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C . # $ 173WSCC 173 ac-dc-FACTS sample system input data 173 Bus System Data.Type (A2) -> "B " -> PQ load bus C "BQ" -> PV generator bus with Q limits C "BE" -> PV generator bus with no Q limits C "BV" -> PQ generator bus with V limits C "BG" -> PQ generator bus with Q limits controlling voltage on C a remote PV load bus C "BC" -> PV load bus with remote voltage control C "BT" -> PQ load bus with voltage controlled by LTC transformer C "BS" -> Swing bus C . WSCC Format Example.#$K+ 173 Bus AC-DC-FACTS Test System Data C 173 BUS AC/DC/FACTS TEST SYSTEM: C WSCC data file C C Case Title (3 A8 lines) HDG 173 BUS AC/DC/FACTS SYSTEM WSCC/ETMSP DATA FORMAT NOVEMBER 1999 BAS C C C System Data C C AC BUSSES C C Bus Input Data: C .Qm (F5. generator P power in MW C .

-146 B BUS_15 345 840.8 BQ BUS_9 20.-127.723.0 25402540.0-525.980 B BUS_10 500 90.4000.0-440.0-280..0 2060. B BUS_38 500 B BUS_39 230 BQ BUS_40 18.8-17.0 20001680. 5.0300.0 16001590.4 207.960 B BUS_14 500 793.00 B BUS_8 230 139.0-300.950 B BUS_5 500 -113 B BUS_6 345 239.0-134.0 1000862.Remote Name (A8) -> Remote controlled bus name for "BG" type bus.00 -190 BQ BUS_11 26.1050 B BUS_17 500 617.9 430.1020 B BUS_48 230 121.Remote kV (F4.110.1000 B BUS_12 500 -391 BQ BUS_13 24.. -69.1050 B BUS_46 230 -72.700.1000 B BUS_44 345 52. BQ BUS_35 20.0 1000700. -56.0 460.0-220.5320. 25.900.027. BQ BUS_4 22.1300. 0.0 BQ BUS_16 22.5 113.1.0 -155 BQ BUS_7 22..0070.0 1200998.-400.C .1009 B BUS_37 500 912.5-32.00 B BUS_42 230 BQ BUS_43 18.1020 B BUS_41 230 135.268.160.0400. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C | SHUNT | |REMOTE BUS C |Ow|Name |kV |Z|PL |QL |MW |Mva|PM |P |QM |Qm |Vpu|Vm |Name |kV |%Q B BUS_1 345 1750.0 50004600. BQ BUS_47 11. 0.-35001020 BQ BUS_36 22 20001590.0300.Remote %Q (I3) -> Percentage of Q of remote bus control for "BG" type bus. C .-40001000 B BUS_31 500 44001000. C .0-400.-56.00 .700. B BUS_32 500 B BUS_33 230 B BUS_34 230 3600 700.0 BQ BUS_2 20.0300.0 79004400.0-500.0100.1040 B BUS_3 345 2350.0) -> Remote controlled bus kV for "BG" type bus.0-900.0-300.0 30002000.600.0 -427 B BUS_19 500 B BUS_20 500 B BUS_21 500 B BUS_22 500 B BUS_23 500 B BUS_24 500 B BUS_25 500 B BUS_26 500 B BUS_28 500 B BUS_29 500 BQ BUS_30 20. BQ BUS_45 26.0-100.850.0 424.-900.

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BQ B B B B BQ B B B BQ B BQ B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BQ B B BUS_49 BUS_50 BUS_51 BUS_52 BUS_53 BUS_54 BUS_55 BUS_56 BUS_57 BUS_58 BUS_59 BUS_60 BUS_61 BUS_62 BUS_63 BUS_64 BUS_65 BUS_66 BUS_67 BUS_68 BUS_69 BUS_70 BUS_71 BUS_72 BUS_73 BUS_74 BUS_75 BUS_76 BUS_77 BUS_78 BUS_79 BUS_80 BUS_81 BUS_82 BUS_83 BUS_84 BUS_85 BUS_86 BUS_87 BUS_88 BUS_89 BUS_90 BUS_91 BUS_92 BUS_93 BUS_94 BUS_95 BUS_96 BUS_97 BUS_98 BUS_99 BUS_100 BUS_101 BUS_102 500 230 138 287 287 230 230 500 230 230 230 230 230 230 287 500 20.0 500 200 -80. -7.1 -91.0.7 -6.031.2 1700.500.0 500 500 500 500 500 345 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 200 200 500 25.028. .6 -129. 792.2 138.8 500 20. 1200 550. -339.8132. 610.2 200 401.400.00 -108 3100 28601500. 80.0 -44.222. -414.1055 3200.00 987.0 210.0 500 115 230 500 13.00 907.065. 160.-20001000 1200 -220 -674 -110 -220 -870 1085 60004045.1100. 462.0-310.00 121.4 -77.024.0 -66. 300. 320.692. 15001201.25 -67.0330.025.-119.217.5780.0 5000.1 117.00 1180600. 50.00 237.6 205.3 20. 32.6 -97.-10001000 1000 1035 83.6 1043 0. 99999900. 3500.8 230 500 500 13.2-63.6 27.-18501000 -43.0-711.5160.0025.2649.50 -0.98 305.

6 175.-99991.7 118.1. 100. 54.0-400.-900. 630.8 406.7300. 777.9999.78.0 1066. 454.-99991.1050 2100. 41.02 -128 -91.5 1570.0 230 500 230 20. 300.6 32. -0. -7.1. 19.3491.2-28.464.0 200 500 500 20. -300.0 20.2500.6 -329.010 55.B B B B BQ B B B BQ B BQ B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BQ B BQ B B B BQ B B B BQ BQ B B B B B B B B B BQ B B BQ BUS_103 BUS_104 BUS_105 BUS_106 BUS_107 BUS_108 BUS_109 BUS_110 BUS_111 BUS_112 BUS_113 BUS_114 BUS_115 BUS_116 BUS_117 BUS_118 BUS_119 BUS_120 BUS_121 BUS_122 BUS_123 BUS_124 BUS_126 BUS_127 BUS_128 BUS_129 BUS_130 BUS_131 BUS_132 BUS_133 BUS_27 BUS_134 BUS_135 BUS_136 BUS_137 BUS_138 BUS_139 BUS_140 BUS_141 BUS_142 BUS_143 BUS_144 BUS_145 BUS_146 BUS_147 BUS_148 BUS_149 BUS_150 BUS_151 BUS_152 BUS_153 BUS_18 BUS_154 BUS_155 200 500 200 500 20. -600.0 8.6 -189. -91.02 .8 255.0 882.0 500 20. 12. -400.05 -319 3055.02 902. 72.0 230 500 500 500 230 345 345 230 345 20.9 11.05 -32.0 500 230 500 22. 18.9 148.1.0 200 20.9 116.5 148.-10001000 1500 856.1 38.05 3098.7 81.1010 3118.4 3191.4 -62. 3367.600.3-11.0 1230.1189.0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 230 20.8 457. 204. -196 15801580.7 33.00 -190 -60. 370.900.2000.2 377. -300.09999.-10.5 884.1.700. -220 1590. 400.1. -327 -130 1500957.8 5661.0 345 230 20.0-300.61. 400.

0) -> Rated Amps.5) -> p.u.00811.6 11.5 -18.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .R (F6.kV2 (F4. -50.4 B BUS_159 345 379.In (F4.11000 1.00977.Mil (F4. -43.05865 243280 .5 B BUS_161 500 B BUS_162 500 B BUS_163 500 B BUS_164 500 B BUS_165 500 B BUS_166 500 B BUS_167 500 B BUS_168 500 B BUS_169 500 B BUS_170 500 B BUS_171 500 B BUS_172 500 B BUS_173 500 -220 C C******************************************************************************* C C AC LINES C C Line Input Data: C .M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .kV1 (F4.04410 L BUS_15 345 BUS_3 3451 . shunt G/2 of PI equivalent C .5) -> p.1) -> Length in miles C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS N C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||In || R | X | G/2 | B/2 |Mil| L BUS_3 345 BUS_18 3451 .5) -> p.u. series R of PI equivalent C . B BUS_158 345 141. shunt B/2 of PI equivalent C .B BUS_156 345 B BUS_157 345 31.2174 L BUS_6 345 BUS_1 3451 . series X of PI equivalent C .00530 .0000 L BUS_10 500 BUS_19 5001 -00634 L BUS_19 500 BUS_20 5001 .u.u. 78.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .N (I1) -> Circuit number C . C .00179.B/2 (F6.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .01988 1.5) -> p.00241.271.0005 .01804 .S (I1) -> Section number C .X (F6.G/2 (F6.Type (A2) -> "L " C .13690 1.0) -> kV base for sending bus C . B BUS_160 345 185.69921 L BUS_20 500 BUS_12 5001 -00634 L BUS_10 500 BUS_21 5001 -01188 L BUS_21 500 BUS_22 5001 .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .00077.2880 L BUS_6 345 BUS_15 3451 .

00964 .00970 .04824 .01257 .04189 -00612 .04120 .83334 .03074 .01530 .00415 .00393 .00120.07905 .01060 .00623 .03443 .00459 .04244 -00826 -01795 .00459 .00221.00035.00960 -00408 .00281.00159 .01279 .0020 .00073.01116 .01070.00110.04677 .00970 .8576 1.00027.00055.07905 .00040.00040.00459 .00393 .18335 .00141.800 .00602 .01399 .01025 .00141.00723 .01244 .01668 .04959 -01795 .00238.00177.04142 .00027.00083.01884 .00030.03422 .00138.L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L BUS_22 BUS_12 BUS_23 BUS_24 BUS_12 BUS_25 BUS_26 BUS_14 BUS_14 BUS_5 BUS_28 BUS_29 BUS_31 BUS_33 BUS_52 BUS_53 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_57 BUS_57 BUS_57 BUS_57 BUS_62 BUS_64 BUS_41 BUS_37 BUS_37 BUS_37 BUS_37 BUS_42 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_50 BUS_50 BUS_50 BUS_50 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_39 BUS_39 BUS_39 BUS_39 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_75 BUS_75 BUS_77 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 230 287 287 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 500 230 500 500 500 500 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 500 500 500 BUS_17 BUS_23 BUS_24 BUS_17 BUS_25 BUS_26 BUS_27 BUS_17 BUS_17 BUS_28 BUS_29 BUS_12 BUS_32 BUS_34 BUS_63 BUS_63 BUS_41 BUS_58 BUS_58 BUS_42 BUS_54 BUS_54 BUS_58 BUS_55 BUS_49 BUS_58 BUS_38 BUS_56 BUS_64 BUS_64 BUS_58 BUS_62 BUS_62 BUS_42 BUS_42 BUS_57 BUS_58 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_46 BUS_48 BUS_59 BUS_60 BUS_46 BUS_59 BUS_59 BUS_59 BUS_59 BUS_60 BUS_60 BUS_60 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_75 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5002 5001 5001 5001 5001 2301 2871 2871 2301 2301 2302 2301 2301 2302 2301 2301 5001 2301 5001 5001 5001 5002 2301 2301 2302 2301 2302 2301 2301 2301 2302 2301 2301 2301 2301 2301 2301 2302 2303 2304 2301 2302 2303 5001 5002 5001 -01188 -00826 .4000 .00220.01583 .01116 .0035 .00971 .00229.07000 .02000 .00082.03669 .01279 .03858 .00475 .04296 .45190 167230 2.00020.00366 .00434 .00073.00309.18335 .00820 169610 197580 .00971 .01244 .00074.06001 .01583 .03422 .00967 .00290.6500 .02000 .00161.01235 .00393 .01189 .00138.00812 .00207.00229.01399 .59401 .03346 .00159 .00536 .00179.00027.00161.00226.00586 .01861 .303 .00201.00029.00037.02316 .00128.00960 .00119.00967 .70132 .01235 .05040 .01070.06001 .00119.03753 .03800 .03669 .45190 .00047.00979 .01025 .01530 .00964 .

747.02409 .02338 .00023.00001-01120 .01428 -01263 .00006.01036 .20460 .00002-00998 .00131 .63786 .02102 .00166 .99210 . 752.03643 .06642 .02235.00066.09171 .01428 -01263 .16938 .00446 .00020.00074.00140.71260 .02482.12236 .01050.00264.10963 .16106 .09268 .01266 -01263 .02408 .00001.00006.00078.01502 .91225 .02338 .00041.00717 .00074. 602.00063.01382.00140.56905 .01668.15536 .00076.01952 -01000 .06678 .05530 .5411 .0148 .15250 .47988 . .77771 .01382 -00858 .00066.00001-00666 .10116 .03580 .53317 264533 .03430 .03903.00082.00020.01413 . 838.00012.00001-01120 .10101 .00116 . 838.77674 . 747. 838.01105.00189 .00072.00001-00755 .50728 .00060.00095.36347 .73750 115570 .01266 -01263 .5411 .02119 -01000 .6500 .00030 .16660 . 747.54878 .06804 .00820 .05356 -02667 -01000 .00030 .01113.03409 .00922 .00074.00001-00666 .00451 .06033 .06540 .00238 .47988 .00109.00001.03058.L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L BUS_77 BUS_68 BUS_68 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_79 BUS_79 BUS_79 BUS_79 BUS_84 BUS_85 BUS_80 BUS_86 BUS_87 BUS_79 BUS_88 BUS_89 BUS_90 BUS_91 BUS_79 BUS_92 BUS_93 BUS_94 BUS_95 BUS_78 BUS_96 BUS_106 BUS_115 BUS_116 BUS_117 BUS_118 BUS_109 BUS_119 BUS_120 BUS_109 BUS_121 BUS_122 BUS_110 BUS_123 BUS_124 BUS_110 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_97 BUS_98 BUS_102 BUS_98 BUS_103 BUS_114 500 230 230 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 500 BUS_75 BUS_71 BUS_71 BUS_72 BUS_72 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_84 BUS_85 BUS_83 BUS_86 BUS_87 BUS_83 BUS_88 BUS_89 BUS_90 BUS_91 BUS_80 BUS_92 BUS_93 BUS_94 BUS_95 BUS_80 BUS_96 BUS_81 BUS_115 BUS_116 BUS_117 BUS_118 BUS_114 BUS_119 BUS_120 BUS_110 BUS_121 BUS_122 BUS_110 BUS_123 BUS_124 BUS_114 BUS_126 BUS_108 BUS_108 BUS_108 BUS_112 BUS_97 BUS_112 BUS_102 BUS_112 BUS_103 BUS_112 BUS_127 5002 2301 2302 5001 5002 5001 5002 5001 5002 5003 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 2001 2002 2003 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 5001 3020 3020 3450 3450 2175 2175 3450 3020 3020 3450 2000 3450 3600 2000 3600 3020 2400 3020 2400 3020 3020 2000 3020 2000 3020 3600 1732 2667 2894 2667 2894 2667 1800 2396 1800 1800 2396 1800 2667 2450 2667 2450 752.11381 .00108. 838.73750 .00002-00998 .01412 .27403 .00154.00737 -01263 .

00021.01125 .07977 .01720 .02400 .34280 .07200 .79020 .02380 .09650 .00138.00520.00240.00138.03399 .00080.05626 .00190.00093.05370 .00930 .03490 .03649 .00002-01331 .00001-01098 .29120 .28610 .L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L BUS_127 BUS_128 BUS_114 BUS_129 BUS_101 BUS_130 BUS_101 BUS_99 BUS_99 BUS_136 BUS_136 BUS_136 BUS_27 BUS_141 BUS_131 BUS_136 BUS_139 BUS_145 BUS_136 BUS_136 BUS_144 BUS_144 BUS_132 BUS_132 BUS_135 BUS_148 BUS_140 BUS_150 BUS_149 BUS_150 BUS_149 BUS_149 BUS_152 BUS_149 BUS_149 BUS_149 BUS_152 BUS_152 BUS_18 BUS_18 BUS_151 BUS_152 BUS_31 BUS_75 BUS_80 BUS_161 BUS_162 BUS_80 BUS_163 BUS_164 BUS_80 BUS_165 BUS_166 BUS_104 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 230 345 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 BUS_128 BUS_104 BUS_129 BUS_101 BUS_130 BUS_104 BUS_99 BUS_104 BUS_104 BUS_147 BUS_147 BUS_141 BUS_136 BUS_27 BUS_146 BUS_145 BUS_145 BUS_146 BUS_139 BUS_139 BUS_148 BUS_148 BUS_137 BUS_144 BUS_137 BUS_137 BUS_137 BUS_160 BUS_160 BUS_149 BUS_18 BUS_18 BUS_157 BUS_152 BUS_152 BUS_158 BUS_159 BUS_159 BUS_159 BUS_159 BUS_154 BUS_158 BUS_77 BUS_66 BUS_161 BUS_162 BUS_109 BUS_163 BUS_164 BUS_109 BUS_165 BUS_166 BUS_106 BUS_167 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5002 5001 5002 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5002 2301 2302 2301 2301 2301 2301 2301 3451 3451 3451 3451 3452 3451 3451 3452 3451 3451 3452 3451 3452 2301 3451 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 2450 1800 2450 2450 2450 2450 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 2320 2320 2320 1160 2320 2320 2320 1800 3020 1800 1800 3020 1800 2134 .00042.00160.00340.02580 .01060 .00190.07400 -00720 .00035.08780 .00110.27680 .03320 .16168 .00380.03100 .02087 .54395 .00103.19050 .00845.06328 .00285.00044.00490.00960.02390 70.47310 .05399 .16480 .10195 .02338 -00720 -00864 .05719 .435 .00060.650 2.01270 .00165.25868 .72855 .00210.03400 .03720 .52145 .41460 207010 233560 .00103.01415 .01280 .00056.02779 .00087.00340.03950 .07034 .41460 .00320.50500 .02087 .19960 .00072.33397 .01080.00193.03230 -01000 -00935 123870 .32620 1.02260 .71325 .30910 .02470 -00720 -01000 .00044.06020 .31040 .00002-00998 .14935 .00040.04920 .00120.02250 .00170.01937 .00087.00028.03740 .00107.76350 139800 .44215 .69475 .19225 .29245 .72855 .07626 .00340.00750 .00079.03644 .00457 .03920 83.01600 .00905 .00320.66425 .00753 .01125 .

shunt G of equivalent circuit C .5) -> p.00140.X (F6.00020.02967 107650 L BUS_78 500 BUS_173 5001 1732 -02667 L BUS_173 500 BUS_83 5001 3600 . series X of equivalent circuit C .u.26773 L BUS_27 500 BUS_64 5002 .R (F6.2) -> kV tap for sending bus C .00122.00179.0) -> kV base for sending bus C .B (F6.21960 L BUS_156 345 BUS_6 3451 .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .02524 .99351 L BUS_168 500 BUS_147 5001 2134 -00935 L BUS_104 500 BUS_169 5001 2134 -00944 L BUS_169 500 BUS_170 5001 3600 .Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .00 .00180.5) -> p.00179. shunt B of equivalent circuit C .C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .91793 L BUS_172 500 BUS_147 5001 2100 -00840 L BUS_136 500 BUS_64 5001 .00410 .Type (A2) -> "T " C .04360 .02662 .02450 .21960 L BUS_44 345 BUS_18 3452 .26773 L BUS_144 230 BUS_61 2301 3070 .00123.01187 .00180.02336 L BUS_132 230 BUS_61 2301 3070 .06730 .M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .00065.u.00259.u. series R of equivalent circuit C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .02659 .G (F6.02450 .00259.00006.00539 5300023.00123.5) -> p.01500 3450020.00480.50970 L BUS_14 500 BUS_131 5001 1800 .35390 C C******************************************************************************* C C TRANSFORMERS C C Transformer Input Data: C .L BUS_167 500 BUS_168 5001 3600 .00 T BUS_14 500 BUS_13 24.00112.0) -> Rated MVA C .01 .00 T BUS_1 345 BUS_2 20.02373 110355 L BUS_150 345 BUS_82 3451 .00065.kV2 (F4.01 .5) -> p.u.05100 L BUS_10 500 BUS_27 5001 1630 .01200 3550020.Tap1 (F5.02110 .14810 L BUS_27 500 BUS_64 5001 .02640 .02517 .00280.02336 L BUS_144 230 BUS_61 2302 3070 .S (I1) -> Section number C .kV1 (F4.Tap2 (F5.01 3066 .55780 L BUS_44 345 BUS_18 3451 .Sn (F4.2) -> kV tap for receiving bus C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||Sn | R | X | G | B |Tap1|Tap2| T BUS_3 345 BUS_9 20.00620.99440 L BUS_170 500 BUS_147 5001 2134 -00935 L BUS_104 500 BUS_171 5001 2134 -00935 L BUS_171 500 BUS_172 5001 3600 .02524 .02967 107650 L BUS_14 500 BUS_131 5002 1800 .01187 .N (I1) -> Circuit number C .

2350052500 2350052500 2350052500 5250025.00020.0 233.0 500 20.00520 500 . 3450022.00590 .00499.01380 .0035 .01079 .00 20.01 20.02845 .01491 .0 20.0 200 20.00008.0 345 345 345 345 BUS_16 BUS_6 BUS_6 BUS_7 BUS_8 BUS_8 BUS_11 BUS_33 BUS_30 BUS_35 BUS_63 BUS_45 BUS_65 BUS_82 BUS_76 BUS_71 BUS_67 BUS_68 BUS_68 BUS_74 BUS_70 BUS_108 BUS_109 BUS_114 BUS_112 BUS_114 BUS_104 BUS_104 BUS_100 BUS_148 BUS_148 BUS_148 BUS_27 BUS_142 BUS_135 BUS_139 BUS_140 BUS_51 BUS_51 BUS_51 BUS_51 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_48 BUS_43 BUS_48 BUS_47 BUS_40 BUS_61 BUS_144 BUS_4 BUS_153 BUS_156 BUS_151 22. 1120 840.00580 .01149 .005 .00 2280022500 20.0 218.015 .01 2301 2302 2303 5001 22. 2350052500 20.00018.00018.02330 .01 3451 3452 22.01491 .00000.00009.01330 .00200 .01 2301 11.51 18.01 2301 5001 2301 1381 1381 1381 1382 2301 2302 2301 18.81 13.01 3451 20. 1008 1300 5000 2000 840.00 5315623000 5315623000 5315623000 20.0192 .00013.00085.01130 .00027.01 2301 2301 22.01 3451 2301 3000 430.00120 .00013.00 3450023000 3450023000 5400026.00667 . 20.00250 .01000 .01134 .00029.00 5250023000 2410011.00 3450034500 3450023000 .01100 .01578 .00030.010 .01 2301 20.0 502.00150 .T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T BUS_15 BUS_5 BUS_5 BUS_6 BUS_6 BUS_6 BUS_10 BUS_32 BUS_31 BUS_34 BUS_64 BUS_44 BUS_66 BUS_81 BUS_77 BUS_72 BUS_68 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_73 BUS_68 BUS_107 BUS_108 BUS_113 BUS_111 BUS_112 BUS_105 BUS_105 BUS_99 BUS_147 BUS_147 BUS_147 BUS_133 BUS_141 BUS_134 BUS_138 BUS_139 BUS_52 BUS_53 BUS_54 BUS_54 BUS_56 BUS_56 BUS_38 BUS_42 BUS_49 BUS_48 BUS_39 BUS_60 BUS_143 BUS_3 BUS_152 BUS_157 BUS_150 345 500 500 345 345 345 500 500 500 230 500 345 500 500 500 500 230 500 500 500 230 20.00026.01 2871 26.00 5500023000 52500 2000 23000 2000 4902828750 3536226.00410 .50 2300018.0 220.11473 .01390 .01 2301 2302 26.01578 .00050.00020.01 20.00693 . 5250022. 20. 1120 1120 1120 1120 .01950 .00059.00013.00600 .00030.0 529.00000.81 2001 5001 5001 2001 5001 5001 5002 25.005 .00000.02535 .0 235.015 . 5000023000 2875013800 2875013800 2300013800 2300013800 5053023000 5053023000 5250023000 2413018.00028.01386 .0 500 287 287 230 230 500 500 500 230 500 230 230 230 20.0 200 200 200 500 500 500 500 20.00200 .00720 .00980 .01 2301 1151 2301 2302 13.00 54500 2000 5250034500 53300 2000 5373024150 2328011790 5375024150 5375024150 5250013.00030.00018.00058.01340 .01386 .01100 .01149 .00666 .00059.01149 .004 .00 3400020.20 2300013.01810 3600022.00 5315034500 5315034500 3450022. 430.20 20.01071 .01386 .00980 .01238 .0 20.0 508.02380 . 2000 1500 2500 250.01 20.

00000.E3 BD GROUND DC1-I-P-BUS_60 2301 117.3) -> Commutation reactance in Ohms C .E3 BD DC2-R-P+GROUND BUS_44 3451 124.40 90. . 0.001 .Mod 1 & 2 (2A2) -> Converter control modes: ID=current. 0. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |AC bus C C |Name_1 |Name_2 |Name |kV ||Gr|Z|N|Xc |Rat |Tstp|Tmin|Tmax|Amn|Amx|Gmn|Imx BD DC1-R-P+GROUND BUS_71 2301 117. 5.00 C C******************************************************************************* C C DC BUS DATA C C DC Bus Input Data: C . GA=gamma.843 .Gmn (F4. PA=P_power.0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C . 170. C VD=Voltage.001 .40 5.15 5.194 .3 1.Type (A2) -> "BD" C .1) -> Min.C (I1) -> Circuit number C .80 1. gamma C .Xc (F5. or deg.Rat (F5.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .16.7 0.92 1.3) -> Max.00460 3450022.001 .3) -> Min.808 .3) -> Tap steps in % C .E3 BD GROUND DC2-I-P-BUS_37 5001 123.843 . 170.01 . tap in p.7 1. 4. Mvar. 4.7 0.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .001 . 0.80 1.Tmax (F5.4) -> Nominal voltage ratio of transformer C .001 .1) -> Max.92 1. 5.00050.843 .843 .7 1.u.E3 BD GROUND DC1-R-P-BUS_71 2301 117.3 1.6 1. QA=Q_power C .T BUS_154 230 BUS_155 20. C .Gr (A3) -> Group C . tap in p.20 90.92 1.808 .E3 BD GROUND DC2-R-P-BUS_44 3451 124.AC bus kV (F4.00 T BUS_82 345 BUS_36 221 2000 . MW.Set Points (2F5. AL=alpha.AC bus kV (F4. 100.16.E3 BD DC2-I-P+GROUND BUS_37 5001 123.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C . 4.001 .80 1. 5.15 5.2)-> Control mode values: A.40 5.Amx (F4.20 90. alpha C . C .80 1.AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C . current in amps.0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C .E3 C C******************************************************************************* C C DC BUS CONTROL DATA C C DC Bus Control Input Data: C .1) -> Max. 5.AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C .N (I2) -> Number of converter bridges C . kV.u. 0.1) -> Min.Tstp (F5. 170.E3 BD DC1-I-P+GROUND BUS_60 2301 117.001 . 100.C (I1) -> Circuit number C .6 1. alpha C . 100.Tmin (F5.01410 2435220.18.92 1.001 .Z (A2) -> Zone C . 4.194 .Amn (F4.Imx (F4.Type (A2) -> "BZ" C . 170.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .40 90. 100.18.

Ow (A3) -> Owner C . I C C******************************************************************************* C C DC LINE DATA C C DC Line Input Data: C . 15. R BZ DC1-I-P+GROUND BUS_60 2301VDGA 447. I BZ GROUND DC1-I-P-BUS_60 2301VDGA 447. 15. LD DC1-R-P-DC1-I-P-1 19.r.1) -> Max.7) -> Per unit SVC inductive X w.Xl (F8. R BZ GROUND DC1-R-P-BUS_71 2301IDAL 3100. LD DC2-R-P+DC2-I-P+1 7.2) -> Capacitance in uF (optional) C . 16. LD DC2-R-P-DC2-I-P-1 7.2) -> Inductance in mH (optional) C . C .Xc (F8.2) -> Resistance in Ohms C .C (I1) -> Circuit number C .r. 15.0) -> Bus 2 kV base.Type (A2) -> "BD" C .C (F6.t.Z (A2) -> Zone C .Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .C .T (A1) -> Type: R=rectifier. 18.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where SVC is connected.Type (A2) -> "FS" (F for FACTS.L (F6.82 693. C . R BZ GROUND DC2-R-P-BUS_44 3451IDAL 1920.0) -> Bus 1 kV base. 1300.kV1 (F4. 15.t. C . . 16. S for SVC). C . I BZ GROUND DC2-I-P-BUS_37 5001VDGA 485.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .Gr (A3) -> Group C .R (F6. 1300. MVA and kV1 base.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C . I=inverter C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C|Mod|Set Points T C |Name_1 |Name_2 |AC bus |kV ||1|2| 1 | 2 | BZ DC1-R-P+GROUND BUS_71 2301IDAL 3100. I BZ DC2-R-P+GROUND BUS_44 3451IDAL 1920. R BZ DC2-I-P+GROUND BUS_37 5001VDGA 485. C .Imax (F6.82 693. C . current in amps.Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that SVC controls. MVA and kV1 base. 18. C C******************************************************************************* C C SVC DATA C C SVC Input Data: C .7) -> Per unit SVC capacitive X w.kV2 (F4. (optional) C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C C |Name_1 |Name_2 ||Gr|Z|Ow|R ohm|L mH|C uF|Imax | LD DC1-R-P+DC1-I-P+1 19.

C .0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees.r.al (F5. C .r. C . .000526 144175 90.u.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where STATCOM is connected.Xl (F8. C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C . C . degrees for D.1708 0.C .t MVA and kV1 base. C .0) -> Bus 1 kV base.kV2 (F4. KA for I. 26.3) -> p.Xth (F8. C . C . C . C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|s|MVA|Vrf|kV |Xth |al FS BUS_114 500 BUS_114 500 1. P for power.al (F5. T for STATCOM). C . w.Mode (A1) -> Control mode: X for reactance. C .0) -> Bus 2 kV base.0) -> Low kV side of step-down transformer (optional).3)-> TCSC control value: % of X.kV1 (F4.cont (F8.t.t. C D for angle.aM (F3.Xc (F8. C .M1 (F4. C C******************************************************************************* C C STATCOM DATA C C STATCOM Input Data: C . to SVC MVA C rating and kV1 (optional).7) -> Step-down transformer reactance in p.0) -> Needed for determining series line reactance for % X C control: M1=Xc/Xline.0 X 4. reference control voltage.kV (F4. C .0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees. C .MVA (F4.7) -> Per unit TCSC capacitive X w.Type (A2) -> "FT" (F for FACTS. C . C for TCSC).Bus2 (A8) -> Receiving bus where TCSC is connected. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|cont ||MVA|al |M1 | FC BUS_126 500 BUS_114 500 .kV1 (F4.1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional). C .MVA (F4. C . to MVA and kV1 base.0) -> Bus 1 kV base.0) -> SVC control slope in % w.s (F2.Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that STATCOM controls. C .u.0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees.aM (F3. C .Type (A2) -> "FC" (F for FACTS.r.00526 .0) -> SVC maximum rating in MVAr (capacitive).7) -> Per unit TCSC inductive X w.1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional).am (F3.am (F3. C . MW for P.Bus1 (A8) -> Sending bus where TCSC is connected.r. 0.0) -> TCSC rating in MVA.4925 90175 2 200 1. I for current. Defaults to MVA system base. C . C .t MVA and kV1 base. C .Vrf (F4.1 C C******************************************************************************* C C TCSC DATA C C TCSC Input Data: C .

r.2000.t.Max Iter (I5) -> Maximum number of Newton-Raphson iteration C .t.t.u.5) -> Control variable value: C . w. MVA and a kVdc base defined by the C secondary side of the STATCOM transformer(s).DC reference voltage for PWM control in p. kV1 base.4) -> Max. w. C C ZZ END . C MVA and kV1 base. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|R |X |Gc |Im |IM |s |MVA |Vrf||Con FT BUS_60 230 BUS_60 230 0.0) -> kV base for slack bus C . C .5) -> DC G in p.t.3) -> AC reference voltage in p. C .r. MVA and kV1 base.M (A1) -> Control mode: W for PWM control (default).5) -> AC X in p.145 .IM (F6.9 for a 12 pulse VSI if no value is given).). w.Gc (F6.R (F6. P for phase C control. w.4) -> Max.MVA (F5.t.r.u. MVA and kV1 base. w. 1.8 0.kV2 (F4.t. C .9 C C******************************************************************************* C C SOLUTION CONTROL CARD C C Solution control card: C . C .r.C . 2. 1. C .0017 1. C .s (F3.u.r.0) -> AC R in p. C .kV (F4.u.r. capacitive current (Imin>0) in p.u. to MVA and kV1 base.u.u.Name (A8) -> Name of the slack bus C . P 0.Con (F6. C .0 0.t. C a kVdc base (defaults to 1 p.Angle (F10. inductive current (Imax>0) in p. C MVA and kV1 base. w.0) -> Rating in MVA (defaults to the system base).0) -> Bus 2 kV base.r. w. C .u. C .Vrf (F4.t.4) -> Reference angle for slack bus in degrees C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |Max| |SLACK BUS | C |Itr| |Name |kV| |Angle | SOL 50 BUS_74 13.Im (F6. C .0) -> AC voltage control slope in % w.k constant for phase control (defaults to a value C of 0.r.X (F6.

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