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Index
Program Description Options Input Formats
1. IEEE Common Format 2. WSCC Format 3. FACTS Format

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INDEX Index K Index + PFLOWWIN:005

Examples:
1. 173 bus ac-dc-FACTS system (173sys.bat) 2. IEEE 300 bus system (ieee300.bat)

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Program Description

UWPFLOW Continuation and Direct Methods to Locate Fold Bifurcations in AC/DC/FACTS Power Systems
By Claudio A. Canizares University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario N2K-2C4 CANADA claudio@iliniza.uwaterloo.ca http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca Fernando L. Alvarado University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin 53706 USA alvarado@ece.wisc.edu November 18, 1999 (First Version: December 20, 1996)

This program is provided without charge for testing purposes only. The program or any of its parts may not be used for any commercial applications. The authors would appreciate any comments and suggestions on how to improve the program. Any reports of problems should be directed to the
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DESCRIPTION Program Description K Program Applications; Program Description; References + PFLOWWIN:07

authors, who reserve their right to modify the program at any time without previous notification. DISCLAIMER: THE AUTHORS DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY OF THE RESULTS OBTAINED WITH THIS PROGRAM, NOR ITS PERFORMANCE.

BRIEF PROGRAM DESCRIPTION:
UWPFLOW is a research tool that has been designed to calculate local bifurcations related to system limits or singularities in the system Jacobian. The program also generates a series of output files that allow further analyses, such as tangent vectors, left and right eigenvectors at a singular bifurcation point, Jacobians, power flow solutions at different loading levels, voltage stability indices, etc. The program reads ac/dc power flow data in WSCC/BPA/EPRI formats [1,3] or IEEE common format [2]; FACTS devices data in a special format described in the on-line help file (WINDOWS) and using the models described in [5]; steadystate load model data in OH format [4] and steady-state generator data in a simple free format as explained in the on-line help. The program also reads ac data in other formats of interest to only some particular users (see on-line help). Additional unformatted data is required for bifurcation analysis, such as the direction of generation change, direction of load change, and maximum generator powers. The program assumes that one parameter, the "loading factor," is allowed to change. All steady state system controls remain operational unless otherwise specified through the program options. The program has been developed in C and C++ and runs under WINDOWS 95 and UNIX environments. It has no limitations on system size, other than those imposed by memory limitations in the corresponding environment, i.e., RAM and swap space in UNIX and WINDOWS. The program has been successfully used to study a real 2158 bus ac/dc system in PC machines, and HP, DEC and SUN SPARC UNIX stations. The program has the following features:

1. Adequate handling of generators limits, with generators being able to recover from a variety of limits, including S limits. 2. Steady state models of generators and their control limits (AVR and Primemover limits) are included. This requires at least one additional input file defining Ra, Xd, and Xq data, as well as Ia and Eq limits. Read the on-line help, examples and corresponding data files carefully to figure out how this works. 3. Voltage dependent load models for voltage stability analysis are also included. To use these models, an additional data file in OH (Ontario Hydro) or ADD (Italian COLAS program) formats is needed. Read the on-line help, examples and corresponding data files carefully to figure out how this works. 4. Either BPA/WSCC ac-dc input data formats (and variations) or IEEE common format may be used. An ac input data format based on an Italian power flow format (.DAT files) and COLAS (.ADD files) can be used also. A fairly complete description of the WSCC and IEEE formats is now provided in the on-line help files. 5. Detailed and reliable steady state models of SVC, TCSC and STATCOM models, and their controls with the corresponding limits are included. The input data format is described on the on-line help files. 6. Secondary voltage control, as defined by ENEL, can be modeled and simulated in the program. 7. The program is able to compute the minimum real eigenvalue and the related right and left eigenvectors at any loading conditions. Several voltage stability indices and tangent vector information can be generated by the program as well. This information allows the user to carry on a variety of sensitivity analyses. 8. The program generates a wide variety of output ASCII and MATLAB (.m) files as well as IEEE common format data files for analysis and plotting of the results.

"Small Signal Stability Analysis Program Package.. No. 92.7. Italy. Cañizares." Internal Report. ENEL and Politecnico di Milano. September 9. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] . L. Cañizares and F./Dec. C. Power Systems.uwaterloo.6. pp.12]. Milan. A. A. "Modeling of TCR and VSI Based FACTS Controllers.power. January 1987." Vol.10. i. 19161925. 1.11. 1. Vol. Vol. Nov. This feature is used to run the tutorials provided with the program. Power Apparatus and Systems. 8.9. "Common Format for Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data. 6. 1999. April 1987. "Point of Collapse and Continuation Methods for Large AC/DC Systems. Alvarado. models and the techniques used refer to [5.ca REFERENCES: [1] "Extended Transient-Midterm Stability Package: User's Manual for the Power Flow Program. pp." IEEE Trans. C." IEEE Trans. 1-8. January 1990. The program has being designed to automatically run script files. 1973.8. For more details about the program capabilities. access the WEB server URL: http://www. No.9. 29 pages." Version 2. EPRI user manual EL-6678. DOS batch or UNIX script files. February 1993. Working Group report." EPRI computer code manual EL-2002-CCM. For a PDF copy of most of these documents. "Methodology for the Integration of HVDC Links in Large AC SystemsPhase 2: Advanced Concepts. EPRI technical report EL-4365.e.

. "Improving Continuation Methods for Tracing Bifurcation Diagrams in Power Systems. "Analysis of SVC and TCSC Controllers in Voltage Collapse. A. Power Systems. August 1997. 14. de Souza and V. F. L. 1380-1387. W. A. Cañizares and Z. 3. C. 71 pages. 7. Chapter 4 of the IEEE/PES Power Systems Stability Subcommittee Report on Voltage Stability Assessment. C. C." IEEE Trans. 2. L. Procedures and Guides. 1. I. pp. Vol. C. Power Systems. Z. August 1994. H. pp. Dobson. Switzerland." IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] . ECC Inc. Davos. Cañizares. Quintana. Faur. 1995. "Voltage Stability Indices. 12. No. No. Alvarado. A. F.[7] C. H. 158-165. Cañizares. A." Final Draft. January 1999. Power Systems. 673-683. de Souza. Voltage Collapse and Load Modeling. No. A." IEEE Trans. "Point of Collapse Methods Applied to AC/DC Power Systems. Z. C. Vol." IEEE Trans. Long. "On Bifurcations. Cañizares et al. DeMarco." Bulk Power System Voltage Phenomena-III Seminar. "New Techniques to Speed Up Voltage Collapse Computations Using Tangent Vectors. Paper 94 SM 512-4 PWRS. Cañizares. pp. February 1999. A. A. C.. May 1992. Vol. Canizares and V. A. Quintana.

#$K+ Program Options on Toolbar Define opitons using menu Execute|Command Line or pressing Usage: Like any other UNIX program.e. Solution Technique: # $ OPTIONS Program Options K Command Line. Additional files can be created for postprocessing analyses (see options below). i. It can also write the solved case in a file in IEEE common format using the -W or -w option (HVDC links are written in EPRI’s ETMSP format and FACTS devices are written in their own format). Output files: The program writes the solution into the output_file in ASCII. Other AC formats may be used (see options below). etc. command-line options (-option) with redirection of output (>) from screen into files: uwpflow [-options] input_file [[>]output_file] Input file: The input_file could be in WSCC/BPA/EPRI format (or Anarede's variation) or IEEE common format (or Electrocon's variation) for the ac system. The FACTS devices format was specifically designed for this program and is explained in the help file and test systems provided with the program. The dc data could be on either WSCC/BPA or multiterminal EPRI format. Program Options + PFLOWWIN:010 . although it just deals with the standard two-terminal HVDC problem. Jacobians for SMMS or MATLAB studies.. such as the bifurcation diagram (nose curve) in column form for plotting with MATLAB or other programs.

using Ontario Hydro (OH) format. PQ bus number 'num' where the voltage is fixed in order to find the loading factor (lambda) for voltage collapse studies. Options: -a -A -b Turns off tap and angle limits in regulating transformers. The output (optional 'file') is a list of max.The power flows are solved with simultaneous N-R. however. angles. Must be used with the -K option. Increases the loading factor lambda using a continuation method for finding voltage profiles. The left evector is written in 'file' (optional). i. area interchange. loading factor lambda for a given generation and load direction. Turns off interchange area control. Direct method studies.e. Must be used with the -K option. find the max. The base case loading can be initialized using the -L option. plus 3 additional variables for each dc bus (see -e option). the program calculates an initial loading of the system before the direct method is applied. remote voltage control. Solve base case before changing the loading factor lambda. 8 ac voltages that change the most. which is based on the load model: Pl=Pn*V^a+Pz*V^2 Ql=Qn*V^b+Qz*V^2 -Bnum -cfile -Cfile -d -Dfile . Generates some debug output. Must be used with -K and -v options. Read load model data from 'file'. allowing for asynchronous systems. and local and remote regulating transformers (LTCs and phase shifters controlling voltages. and/or active and reactive power flows)..

Turns off recovery from some ac device limits in the program. Force Q in generators to zero when reading data in IEEE common format. a value of 1 means choose a pivot based on stability only. the program chooses the bus with the maximum initial voltage entry in the tangent vector. 8 ac -Efile -fnum -Fval -g -G -h -Hfile . and 3 internal variables for generators in the output list during the continuation process (see the -i option). 0. Prints this message in standard output. the program allows to recover voltage control after a Q-limit is reached by monitoring the voltage. this option eliminates that possibility.01). Pn=Qn=0 is assumed. For example. since sometimes a value of Qg creates convergence problems. -e Output 3 dc variables per dc link.If a bus is not defined in the list. The number 'num' defines the bus for which the voltage entry and rank in the tangent vector are printed out (tanget vector index). if this number is not defined. Increases the loading factor lambda using a parameterized continuation method for finding voltage profiles. A value of 0 means choose a pivot based on sparsity only. Print in 'file' the continuation method direction vector at the maximum loading factor (PoC right e-vector). The output (optional 'file') is a list of max. Output Sensitivity Factors (SF) and Voltage Sensitivity Factors (VSF and tangent vector) during continuation method computations. Stability/sparsity value 'val' for factorization (def.

Must be used with the -K option. PG or QG.mis' and 'name. mismatches and variables are written in I J VALUE format in 'name.voltages that change the most. If Name has spaces. QG for Mvar generated.jac'. The equation mismatches and the system variables are also written in 'name. AC input data in IEEE common format. The corresponding Jacobian.mis' and 'name.jac'. Factor 'val' used in the homotopy continuation method for finding the increments in the loading factor lambda -I -jname -Jname -kval . QL. QL for Mvar load. For PoC studies (-C option) it generates the nxn system Jacobian. mismatches and variables.var'. the program will print the corresponding total load or generation in MW or Mvar. or PA for MW area flow. it generates the Jacobian. D for angle. respectively. Use zero when either the number or the name are unknown. use the -j option. -ifile List of numbers and names in 'file' for printing variable profiles with the -c and -H options. for the complete (2n+1)x(2n+1) PoC Jacobian. wrap it in double or single quotes.var'. With the -B option. If Name and Number are both equal to 0 and VarType is either PL. respectively. Write the Jacobian of the solved case in I J VALUE format in 'name. PG for MW generated. PL for MW load. VarType is optional and can be: V for voltage (default). 'name. plus 3 additional variables for each dc bus (see -e option). The input format is: Number Name [VarType]. mismatches and variables corresponding to the system without the loading factor as a variable.

and lambda corresponds to the loading factor. All data is assumed p. Qz. Qn. Pnl. i. Simulates load changes in conjunction with the load distribution factors (-K option).e. The load is represented by: Pl=(Pn+Pnl*lambda)*V^a+(Pz+Pzl*lambda)*V^2 Ql=(Qn+Qnl*lambda)*V^b+(Qz+Qzl*lambda)*V^2 where Pn. Write standard error output to 'file' (log file). Turns off all ac system controls. use the -O option. If the -D option is not used. The tolerance 'tol' controls the application of limits during the continuation process. Smax. N-R iterations.u. Busses not in the list are assumed to have zero distribution factors. -lfile -Lval -m -Mnum -n -N -otol .(def.. Loading factor 'val' (def. Number 'num' of max. If the input variables DPg. give them a value of zero. 0). Pzl and Qzl are optional. and must be separated by spaces: BusNumber BusName DPg Pnl Qnl PgMax [Smax Vmax Vmin Pzl Qzl]. The generation factors DPg are normalized for each area. Vmin. Pz=Qz=0. 1). The smaller this value. Vmax. the load model default values are: a=b=0. Output continuation profiles in MATLAB format. a. If BusName has spaces. If TEF profiles are needed. -Kfile Read generation and load distribution factors from 'file'. overriding input data (default 50). wrap it in double or single quotes. Pz. Turns off all ac system limits. ||DPg||=1 per area. Qnl or PgMax are unknown. and b are defined with the -D option. Must be used with the -c and -H options.

6. The integer 'num' corresponds to the number of significant digits in TEF (default and min. max. These busses are defined in the Italian ADD input data file.m'. The program also generates two MATLAB '. 'addtotef. Turns off P and Q limits in regulating transformers.m' (only if dc lines present) and 'tefprof. The local bus voltage will be used for the -p -P -q -qx -qz -Q -QX . -Onum This option is used together with -m to output ac/dc TEF information during the continuation method to determine the energy profiles with the help of MATLAB. If the system has HVDC links.000001). Turns off Q limits in reactance-controlled (BZ) busses. Turns off P and Q control by regulating transformers. Turns off remote voltage generator control. Turns off V limits in reactance-controlled (BX) busses. These busses are defined in the ETMSP/EPRI/BPA input data file.m' files needed for plotting and computation of the ac/dc energy function. namely. 10). the program defaults the PI controller gains (Kp and Ki) of all HVDC converters for dc computations to 'typical' values of Ki=75 and Kp=1.the more steps required of the continuation method (default 0. Turns off Q limits in PV busses. Turns off remote voltage control in reactance-controlled (BX) busses. Generators will control their own terminal voltages at their given values. These values can later be changed in the MATLAB output file.

2.1). The default number is 10 (min. based on the tangent vector technique. P. If the relative error of two consecutive iteration mismatches is larger than 'tol'. The default is 0 for a complete trace of the bifurcation diagram (min. i. 100). lambda maximum).2). max. Stop value 'val' for the loading factor lambda in the continuation method (-c and -H options). -r Turns off V limits in regulating transformers and PV busses. Used with the -u option. max. 0.u. 0.U. The default is 1e-3 (min. 1. max. WARNING: This option might produce cycling. 0 or no reduction. voltage limits and regulating transformer limits are applied (default 0.. or singularity problems. increase the number of steps in the -U option and/or reduce the value of 'val' in -u. in p.e. tolerance 'tol' for N-R method (default 1e-4). Suppress ASCII output_file. of the maximum lambda. Value 'val' of the tolerance used to reduce the number of equations in the continuation method (-c and -H options). Number 'num' of steps of the continuation method (-c and -H options) between system reductions. Voltage magnitude 'mag' at the first PQ bus (unless otherwise specified by -B option) to find the -R -s -Sval -ttol -Ttol -uval -Unum -vmag . Turns off V control by regulating transformers. If this happens. backtracking.control.

MW. -Vfile Read initial guesses for ac and dc variables from 'file'. use the same EPRI format used to define the control modes in the dc lines (e. If the input variables are unknown give them a value of zero. Do not enforce maximum active generation limits (PgMax). If BusName has spaces.corresponding lambda for voltage collapse studies.e... Similar to -w option. WARNING: This might create some convergence problems. For defining the dc variable. See -K option. Amp. wrap it in double or single quotes.e. for dc busses. i. Ignore distribution factors for generations during the initial power flow solution (use only one slack bus). deg. kv. as the Jacobian may be significantly affected by this option. but the solved case is written in 'file' using IEEE TAPE common format. would represent the dc variables Alpha. and BusNumber BusName Variables Values. Gamma and Power). MVAR. Busses not in the list are given a flat start. Write solved case into 'file' using IEEE CARD common format. Must be used with -K option.g. ALGAPA. -wfile -Wfile -x -X -yfile -Yfile . The data must be separated by spaces. Print in 'file' an approximation of the left e-vector of the smallest real |e-value| at the current operating point. for ac busses. the values must be given in standard units. BusNumber BusName V_mag V_ang(deg). Print in 'file' an approximation of the right e-vector of the smallest real |e-value| at the current operating point.. i.

Print in 'file' the normalized tangent vector to the bifurcation manifold at step 'num' of the continuation method (as defined by -z). it must be used with caution. WARNING: This option generates a lot of output files that might clutter your system. A file 'name. where # stands for the step number in the continuation method (c or -H options). It is used with the -c or -H options. If this option is not used.m' is also created with all the MATLAB instructions to compute and plot 6 distinct indices: * Minimum |e-value| and singular value for full matrix. and defines the load bus at which the test functions are computed. Define the number 'num' of steps used to determine the change of direction of the loading parameter lambda in the continuation method (-c or -H options) due to -Zfile -0name -1num -2num . or if the bus 'num' does not correspond to a load bus. The program generates the MATLAB 'inviter. * Test function and reduced determinant for a given bus (-1 option). the program chooses the bus with the maximum voltage entry in the initial tangent vector. Used with -0 option.m'. it can be used to print a tangent vector for a particular value of the loading parameter lambda.m' file needed for the computation of these indices.-znum Stop continuation method after 'num' steps. Print in MATLAB format the Jacobian matrices needed to compute several voltage stability indices. Together with the -Z option. * Minimum |e-value| and singular value for reduced Q matrix. These matrices are printed in the files 'name#.

a COLAS ADD file is read. -3file Read generator steady-state data from 'file' using free format: BusNumber BusName Ra Xd Xq Ia_max Eq_max Eq_min. Turns off Ia limits in all generators. This file may be used instead of the -K and -D files. See -3 option. See -3 option. these files take precedence over the ADD file in defining similar variables for collapse studies. wrap the word in double or single quotes. however. force Vmax and Vmin on system busses during the Enforce Vmax and Vmin on system busses during the continuation process (-c or –H options). i. AC input data in ITALIAN format. make Xd=Xq. if one of this is not known. and generator and load directions. If 'file' name is given. bus voltages. The program uses either the BusNumber or the BusName to identify the bus. Eq_min=0.voltages increasing after Q-limits are encountered (default 5).e. min. Xq=<Xd.. Turns off Eq limits in all generators. Do not enforce maximum power generation limits -4 -5 -6file -7 -8 -9 . load voltage coefficients 'a' and 'b'. The program assumes the following default values: Ra=0. or define Xq=0. and max. give it a 0 value. For round-rotor machines. Eq_max=large. For BusNames with spaces. Ia_max=large. Enforce Imax limits on transmission elements during the continuation process (-c or –H options). which defines: new bus kV levels. Pl=(Pn+Pnl*lambda)*V^a Ql=(Qn+Qnl*lambda)*V^b pilot nodes and generators for secondary voltage control (-# option).

. Use secondary voltage control as defined by ENEL.e. -# . -$val Define the base power value 'val'. remote voltage control of pilot busses by generators with participation factors defined as: * over excited -> qi=Qmaxi/Sum Qmax of pilot bus gens. See -K option. * under excited -> qi=Qmini/Sum Qmin of pilot bus gens. i. overriding the value given in the input data file.(Smax).

AC Data + PFLOWWIN:012 . No implicit decimal points are used.Integer (right justified) F . No blank items are allowed. in format DD/MM/YY with leading zeros.#$K+ IEEE Common Format The complete description of the IEEE Common Data Format can be found in the paper "Common Data Format for the Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data. Common Format.9 11-30 32-37 39-42 44 46-73 Date.ee.Mandatory item Title Data * Columns Columns Columns Columns Column Column 2. Data type codes: A .Alphanumeric (no special characters) I .washington. The partial description presented here is based on a general description available at the following web site: http://www.html The data file has lines of up to 128 characters (TAPE option). Vol. provided.Winter) Case identification [A] If no date Bus Data * # $ IEEE IEEE Common Format K Input Format. Originator's name [A] MVA Base [F] * Year [I] Season (S . W . use 0b/0b/0b where b is blank. 1916-1925. PAS-92. enter zeros instead. No. pp. DC links can be defined using the WSCC format.Summer." Working Group on a Common Format for the Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data.Floating point (right justified) * . 6. Data items are entered in specific columns. November/December 1973. The lines are grouped into sections with section headers. and FACTS controllers can be defined using the FACTS format. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems.edu/research/pstca/pg_testcase. Floating point items should have explicit decimal point.

must always have one) Columns 28-33 Final voltage.Section start card *: Columns Columns 1-16 BUS DATA FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than BUS in 1-3 is significant) * 40?.4 Columns 6-17 Columns 19-20 Columns 21-23 Columns 25-26 Bus number [I] * Name [A] (left justify) * Load flow area number [I].4 6.4 -999 Branch Data * Section start card *: Columns 1-16 BRANCH DATA FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than BRANCH is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.Hold voltage within VAR limits (gen.Unregulated (load. [F] * Columns 34-40 Final angle.Hold MVAR generation within voltage limits. p. (gen.9 Tap bus number [I] * For transformers or phase shifters. the side of the model . Don't use zero! * Loss zone number [I] Type [I] * 0 . PQ) 1 . PQ) 2 . PV) 3 .) Columns 91-98 Maximum MVAR or voltage limit [F] Columns 99-106 Minimum MVAR or voltage limit [F] Columns 107-114 Shunt conductance G (per unit) [F] * Columns 115-122 Shunt susceptance B (per unit) [F] * Columns 124-127 Remote controlled bus number Section end card: Columns 1. the side of the model the non-unity tap is on.u. V-Theta.? NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Bus data cards *: Columns 1.? Branch data cards *: Columns Columns 1.Hold voltage and angle (swing. degrees [F] * Columns 41-49 Load MW [F] * Columns 50-59 Load MVAR [F] * Columns 60-67 Generation MW [F] * Columns 68-75 Generation MVAR [F] * Columns 77-83 Base kV [F] Columns 85-90 Desired volts (pu) [F] (This is desired remote voltage if this bus is controlling another bus. Z bus number [I] * For transformers and phase shifters.

+B) Columns 51-55 Line MVA rating No 1 [I] Left justify! Columns 57-61 Line MVA rating No 2 [I] Left justify! Columns 63-67 Line MVA rating No 3 [I] Left justify! Columns 69-72 Control bus number Column 74 Side [I] 0 .Transmission line 1 . MVAR or MW limit [F] Columns 120-126 Maximum voltage.Controlled bus is near the tap side 2 .Controlled bus is one of the terminals 1 .3 5-16 Loss zone number [I] * Loss zone name [A] Section end card: Columns 1. per unit [F] * (total line charging.Variable tap for voltage control (TCUL.Fixed tap 2 .4 -999 Loss Zone Data Section start card: Columns 1-16 LOSS ZONES FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than LOSS is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.? Loss Zone Cards: Columns Columns 1.Controlled bus is near the impedance side (Z bus) Columns 77-82 Transformer final turns ratio [F] Columns 84-90 Transformer (phase shifter) final angle [F] Columns 91-97 Minimum tap or phase shift [F] Columns 98-104 Maximum tap or phase shift [F] Columns 106-111 Step size [F] Columns 113-119 Minimum voltage. LTC) 3 . per unit [F] * No zero impedance lines Columns 41-50 Line charging B. MVAR or MW limit [F] Columns Columns Column Column 11-12 13-15 17 19 Section end card: Columns 1.the device impedance is on. Load flow area [I] Loss zone [I] Circuit [I] * (Use 1 for single lines) Type [I] * 0 . per unit [F] * Columns 30-40 Branch reactance X.Variable tap (turns ratio) for MVAR control 4 .3 -99 Interchange Data .Variable phase angle for MW control (phase shifter) Columns 20-29 Branch resistance R.

no zeros! * Interchange slack bus number [I] * Alternate swing bus name [A] Area interchange export. MW [F] * Area code (abbreviated name) [A] * Area name [A] Section end card: Columns 1.? Interchange Data Cards: Columns Columns Columns Columns Columns Columns Columns 1.2 4.3 -999 . MW [F] (+ = out) * Area interchange tolerance.7 9-20 21-28 30-35 38-43 46-75 Area number [I].2 -9 Tie Line Data Section start card: Columns 1-16 TIE LINES FOLLOW (not clear that any more than TIE is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.? Tie Line Cards: Columns Columns Columns Columns Column 1.4 7-8 11-14 17-18 21 Metered bus number [I] * Metered area number [I] * Non-metered bus number [I] * Non-metered area number [I] * Circuit number Section end card: Columns 1.Section start card: Columns 1-16 INTERCHANGE DATA FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than first word is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.

AC/DC Data + PFLOWWIN:013 . January 1987. The following format is presented here in terms of the "input data" cards needed (see the 173-bus ac/dc/FACTS example). WSCC and EPRI’s ETMPS Format.#$K+ WSCC and EPRI's ETMSP Formats The complete description of these Formats can be found in EPRI’s ETMSP manual "Extended Transient-Midterm Stability Package: User's Manual for the Power Flow Program. The dc data cards described below can be used to define dc links in the IEEE format and should be placed before the END OF DATA card. C C Format of input data: C A -> Alphanumeric (no special characters) C I -> Integer (right justified) C F -> Floating point (right justified) C C******************************************************************************* C C Title cards start with the HDG card HDG THREE TITLE CARDS (A80) ARE PLACED BETWEEN THE HDG AND BAS CARDS BAS C C System data starts with the BAS card C The order of the data cards does not matter." EPRI computer code manual EL-2002-CCM. C C******************************************************************************* C C AC BUSSES C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C | SHUNT | |REMOTE BUS C |Ow|Name |kV |Z|PL |QL |MW |Mva|PM |P |QM |Qm |Vpu|Vm |Name |kV |%Q Bx BUS DATA CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C # $ WSCC WSCC and EPRI’s Format K Input Format. C C Comment cards start with "C".

Remote kV (F4. C C******************************************************************************* C C X CARDS C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1 |Name_2 |kV2||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr X DATA CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C X Input Data for BX Busses: C .0) -> Max. (max.C Bus Input Data: C .0) -> generator P power in MW C .0) -> kV base for controlling bus C . or indc.QM (F5. C .kV (F4.Name (A8) -> Bus Name C .0) -> Remote controlled bus kV for "BG" busses. generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .PM (F4. new capac.0) -> Min. shunt C reactances are added to the bus.SHUNT (2F4. generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .3)-> PV desired voltage magnitude in p.Vm (F4.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . C As these limits are reached.Name_2 (A8) -> Name of controlled bus. generator P power in MW C . C .0) -> MW and MVars shunts (+ for Capacitors) C . C . as defined on the C the "X" cards (see below) C "BG" -> PQ generator bus with Q limits controlling voltage on C a remote PV load bus C "BC" -> PV load bus with remote voltage control C "BT" -> PQ load bus with voltage controlled by LTC transformer C "BS" -> Swing bus C .Type (A2) -> "X " C .0) -> kV base for remote bus C – S1 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 1 C – MVAr (F5.kV2 (F4. voltage for "BV" or "BX" busses.Qm (F5.u.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of controlling bus.Remote %Q (I3) -> Percentage of Q of remote bus control for "BG" busses.0) -> Bus kV base C . not needed if it is the same as the C controlling bus C .PL (F5.P (F5.Z (2A) -> Zone C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .Remote Name (A8) -> Remote controlled bus name for "BG" busses.Vpu (F4.Type (A2) -> "B " -> PQ load bus C "BQ" -> PV generator bus with Q limits C "BE" -> PV generator bus with no Q limits C "BV" -> PQ generator bus with V limits C "BX" -> PQ generator bus with local or remote V limits.3) -> Min.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 1 increment: .QL (F5. C .kV1 (F4.0) -> Max.0) -> P load in MW C . voltage for C "BV" or "BX" busses) C .0) -> Q load in MVars C .

series X of PI equivalent C .0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 2 increment C – S3 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 3 C – MVAr (F5.1) -> Length in miles C C******************************************************************************* C C TRANSFORMERS C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||Sn | R | X | G | B |Tap1|Tap2| T CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C .C +MVAr for capacitors.Type (A2) -> "L " C .u.X (F6. -MVAr for inductors C – S2 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 2 C – MVAr (F5.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 3 increment C – S4 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 4 C – MVAr (F5.kV1 (F4.M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 8 increment C C******************************************************************************* C C AC LINES C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS N C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||In || R | X | G/2 | B/2 |Mil| L LINE DATA CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C Line Input Data: C .0) -> kV base for sending bus C .B/2 (F6.R (F6.5) -> p.Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C . series R of PI equivalent C .Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C . shunt G/2 of PI equivalent C .In (F4.0) -> Rated Amps.u.u.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .N (I1) -> Circuit number C . shunt B/2 of PI equivalent C .S (I1) -> Section number C .0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 4 increment C – S5 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 5 C – MVAr (F5.Mil (F4.u.C (I1) -> Circuit ID C . C .5) -> p.G/2 (F6.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 7 increment C – S8 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 8 C – MVAr (F5.5) -> p.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 6 increment C – S7 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 7 C – MVAr (F5.5) -> p.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 5 increment C – S6 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 6 C – MVAr (F5.kV2 (F4.

or C Max.u. MVar or MW for "RN" and "RM" types . tap in kV with respect to kV1 for LTCs.G (F6.Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C . shunt B of equivalent circuit C .Type (A2) -> "R " -> LTC controlling voltage on "BT" load bus with C tap limits C "RQ" -> LTC controlling Q out of sending bus C "RN" -> LTC keeping Q out of sending bus within C Max/Min Mvar limits C "RP" -> Phase Shifter controlling P out of sending bus C "RM" -> Phase Shifter keeping P out of sending bus within C Max/Min MW limits C .kV1 (F4. or C Min.S (I1) -> Section number C .C (I1) -> Circuit ID C . series R of equivalent circuit C . tap in kV with respect to kV1 for LTCs.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .2) -> kV tap for receiving bus C C******************************************************************************* C C REGULATING TRANSFORMERS C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |REMOTE BUS |Sch/|Min C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2| |Name |kV |Tmax|Tmin|#|Max |P/Q | RT CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C Regulating Transformer Input Data: A corresponding "T" card must be used to C define the impedance and ratings C .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .u.N (I1) -> Circuit number C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .kV2 (F4.Tap1 (F5.M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .0) -> Scheduled MVar or MW for "RQ" and "RP" types. C – Sch/Max (F5.C Transformer Input Data: C .5) -> p.0) -> kV base for controlled bus C – Tmax (F5. series X of equivalent circuit C .0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .u.5) -> p.5) -> p. phase angle in degrees for Phase Shifters C – Tmin (F5.M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .Name (A8) -> Name of controlled bus C – kV (F4.2) -> kV tap for sending bus C .Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C . shunt G of equivalent circuit C .B (F6.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .R (F6.2) -> Max. or C Max.Sn (F4.kV1 (F4.0) -> kV base for sending bus C .0) -> kV base for sending bus C .Type (A2) -> "T " C . phase angle in degrees for Phase Shifters C – # (2I) -> Number of tap steps.5) -> p.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .kV2 (F4.2) -> Min.Tap2 (F5.0) -> Rated MVA C .X (F6.u.

Name (A10) -> Area Name C .3) -> p.3) -> p.0) -> kV base for slack bus C .Imx (F4.0) -> MW scheduled export for the area C .Xc (F5.Gmn (F4. alpha C .3) -> Commutation reactance in Ohms C .Gr (A3) -> Group C .ZONES (10A2) -> Zone names that belong to the area (up to 10) C .AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C . voltage of the area for printed reports C C******************************************************************************* C C DC BUS DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |AC bus C C |Name_1 |Name_2 |Name |kV ||Gr|Z|N|Xc |Rat |Tstp|Tmin|Tmax|Amn|Amx|Gmn|Imx BD CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C DC Bus Input Data: C . current in amps.1) -> Min. max.4) -> Nominal voltage ratio of transformer C . C C******************************************************************************* C . min. tap in p.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .1) -> Min.1) -> Max.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .Slack Name (A8) -> Area slack bus name C .3) -> Tap steps in % C .VM (F4. tap in p.Slack kV (F4. (F8.3) -> Max.N (I2) -> Number of converter bridges C . voltage of the area for printed reports C .1) -> Max.0) -> Min. C .Type (A2) -> "BD" C .u. gamma C . MVar or MW for "RN" and "RM" types C C******************************************************************************* C C AREA DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |Slack bus | | ZONES | C |Name |Name |kV ||MW Exp.C – Min P/Q (F5.u.Tmin (F5.0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C . C .Tstp (F5.Type (2A) -> "A " C .Z (A2) -> Zone C .Vm (F4.Rat (F5. alpha C .AC bus kV (F4.Tmax (F5.Amx (F4. |1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9||0| |VM |Vm A CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C Area Input Data: C .MW Exp.u.Amn (F4.u.C (I1) -> Circuit number C .3) -> Min.

C (F6.2)-> Control mode values: A.Set Points (2F5.C DC BUS CONTROL DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C|Mod|Set Points T C |Name_1 |Name_2 |AC bus |kV ||1|2| 1 | 2 | BZ CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C DC Bus Control Input Data: C . PA=P_power.Z (A2) -> Zone C .C (I1) -> Circuit number C .T (A1) -> Type: R=rectifier.AC bus kV (F4.Imax (F6. C VD=Voltage.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .1) -> Max.Type (A2) -> "BZ" C .0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C .L (F6. I=inverter C C******************************************************************************* C C DC LINE DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C C |Name_1 |Name_2 ||Gr|Z|Ow|R ohm|L mH|C uF|Imax | LD CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C DC Line Input Data: C . current in amps. C .Mod 1 & 2 (2A2) -> Converter control modes: ID=current.Gr (A3) -> Group C . QA=Q_power C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .2) -> Capacitance in uF (optional) C .2) -> Resistance in Ohms C . or deg.R (F6.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C . GA=gamma. Mvar.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C . (optional) C C******************************************************************************* C C SOLUTION CONTROL CARD C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |Max| |SLACK BUS | C |Itr| |Name |kV| |Angle | SOL CARD FOLLOWS THIS FORMAT C C Solution control card: . MW. kV. AL=alpha.AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C .Type (A2) -> "BD" C .C (I1) -> Circuit number C .2) -> Inductance in mH (optional) C .Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .

4) -> Reference angle for slack bus in degrees C C******************************************************************************* C C Finish system data with ZZ card ZZ C C******************************************************************************* C C Finish data file with END card END .Angle (F10.C .Name (A8) -> Name of the slack bus C .0) -> kV base for slack bus C .Max Itr (I5) -> Maximum number of Newton-Raphson iteration C .kV (F4.

C . C .0) -> SVC control slope in % w.aM (F3. C ." Internal Report. "Modeling of TCR and VSI Based FACTS Controllers.#$K+ FACTS Formats The input data formats for FACTS controllers were chosen based on the models described in C. FACTS Data + PFLOWWIN:014 .t. C .0) -> Bus 2 kV base. 1999. MVA and kV1 base.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees. C .Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where SVC is connected. ENEL and Politecnico di Milano.kV2 (F4. Italy. C .0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees.Type (A2) -> "FS" (F for FACTS.7) -> Per unit SVC capacitive X w. C . The FACTS "input data" cards described below follow the ac input data cards in the IEEE format and should be placed before the END OF DATA card. C C Comment cards start with "C". Cañizares.r.s (F2.Xl (F8. C . September. Milan. FACTS Format.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . they can be placed anywhere between the BAS and END data cards (see the 173-bus ac/dc/FACTS example). MVA and kV1 base.r. C . S for SVC). C C Format of input data: C A -> Alphanumeric (no special characters) C I -> Integer (left justified) C F -> Floating point (right justified) C C******************************************************************************* C C SVC DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|s|MVA|Vrf|kV |Xth |al FS CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C SVC Input Data: C .r.t.0) -> Bus 1 kV base.am (F3.7) -> Per unit SVC inductive X w.t. A. to MVA and kV1 base. # $ FACTS FACTS Format K Input Format. For the WSCC format.Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that SVC controls.kV1 (F4.Xc (F8.

Ow (A3) -> Owner C .0) -> Bus 1 kV base. C D for angle. C C******************************************************************************* C C STATCOM DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|R |X |Gc |Im |IM |s |MVA |Vrf||Con FT CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C STATCOM Input Data: C . P for power. w. C .0) -> Bus 2 kV base. C .r. C .0) -> Bus 1 kV base. .Vrf (F4.M1 (F4. C .1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional). C .X (F6. KA for I.0) -> Bus 2 kV base.t.Mode (A1) -> Control mode: X for reactance. C . C .Type (A2) -> "FC" (F for FACTS.r. C C******************************************************************************* C C TCSC DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|cont ||MVA|al |M1 | FC CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C TCSC Input Data: C .r. C for TCSC). to SVC MVA C rating and kV1 (optional).kV1 (F4. MW for P.MVA (F4.0) -> Low kV side of step-down transformer (optional). w.t MVA and kV1 base.u.u. C . C .u. I for current. T for STATCOM).kV1 (F4.Bus2 (A8) -> Receiving bus where TCSC is connected.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where STATCOM is connected.al (F5.0) -> Needed for determining series line reactance for % X C control: M1=Xc/Xline.t MVA and kV1 base.kV (F4.7) -> Per unit TCSC capacitive X w. C .aM (F3.3)-> TCSC control value: % of X.kV2 (F4.t. C . C .kV2 (F4. C . C .7) -> Step-down transformer reactance in p.Xth (F8.MVA (F4.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees.Type (A2) -> "FT" (F for FACTS. C . C .cont (F8. C . C . MVA and kV1 base.1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional). Defaults to MVA system base.0) -> AC R in p.Xl (F8. C .Bus1 (A8) -> Sending bus where TCSC is connected.am (F3. reference control voltage.u.Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that STATCOM controls. C .0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees.r.C . MVA and kV1 base. degrees for D. C . C . w.t.0) -> SVC maximum rating in MVAr (capacitive).al (F5.5) -> AC X in p.R (F6.0) -> TCSC rating in MVA.Xc (F8.7) -> Per unit TCSC inductive X w.3) -> p. C .r.

kV1 base. .t.r. MVA and kV1 base.r. .0) -> Rating in MVA (defaults to the system base). a kVdc base (defaults to 1 p. .9 for a 12 pulse VSI if no value is given).Gc (F6.MVA (F5. . inductive current (Imax>0) in p.s (F3.C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C . P for phase control.DC reference voltage for PWM control in p. . w.t.t.). w.3) -> AC reference voltage in p.Vrf (F4.r.t.4) -> Max.t. MVA and kV1 base.u. MVA and a kVdc base defined by the secondary side of the STATCOM transformer(s).5) -> DC G in p.u.Con (F6.u.4) -> Max.u.Im (F6. to MVA and kV1 base.r. w.u. .t. w.r.IM (F6.5) -> Control variable value: . .u. capacitive current (Imin>0) in p. .r. . w.k constant for phase control (defaults to a value of 0.0) -> AC voltage control slope in % w.M (A1) -> Control mode: W for PWM control (default).

#$K+ Menu Clear Open Save Save As Edit Exit Alt+F4 F10 F2 F3 Clears the window screen Opens a log (ASCII) file and loads it into the window screen Saves the window screen into a log file Saves the window screen into a new log file Edit input data using Notepad/WordPad Exit UWPflow File Execute Command Line F4 Defines UWPflow's options Executes UWPflow with the options defined above Run a batch/script file and/or define the input data directory Show help window UWPflow program authorship Run UWPflow F5 Batch/Script File F6 Help Help F1 About UWPflow # $ MENU Menu K Menu description + PFLOWWIN:015 .

#$K+ Toolbar Clear Screen Open a log file Saves screen in log file Clear Screen Edit input data using Notepad/WordPad Define command line options and run program Run UWPflow using defined options Run a batch/script file and/or define the input data directory About UWPflow Help # $ TOOLBAR Toolbar K Toolbar description + PFLOWWIN:020 .

Equivalent to pressing the toolbar button . # $ MOUSE Mouse K Mouse buttons + PFLOWWIN:025 .#$K+ Mouse Define UWPflow's command line options. Left button: Right button: Saves screen into log file. Equivalent to pressing the toolbar button .

jac sysjac. has the HVDC and FACTS data in the same format as the original input file '173sys.e. Run a power flow with a load increase of 0.wsc 173sys. The Jacobian can be transformed into MATLAB matrix format using the AWK filter 'tomatlab'.cf Observe that the IEEE Common Format file created. Also create the IEEE Common Format file '173sys.pf0 -j173sys -W173sys. For this study one needs the generation and load direction information in the file '173sys.#$K+ 173 Bus AC-DC-FACTS Test System .m The MATLAB data is stored in this case in the output file 'sysjac.bat + PFLOWWIN:030 . Demos.cf'. respectively: uwpflow 173sys. To run this case open the batch/script file 173sys. and write the Jacobian (-j option) in '173sys..pf0'. tomatlab 173sys.m'. i.mis' and '173sys. 173sys. '173sys.bat) K 173 Bus System. including the options and files needed to run different cases for an ac/dc/FACTS system in WSCC (EPRI) format.03 (-L option). Run a standard ac/dc/FACTS power flow and write in ASCII the output file '173sys. 1.cf' with the final solution (-W option).bat using This tutorial briefly illustrates several possible applications of the program 'uwpflow'.wsc'. the generator maximum power information is not available in the IEEE format.var'.jac' with the corresponding mismatch and solution vectors in '173sys.k' (-K option). However. 2. Notice that this example illustrates the use of a distributed slack # $ 173 173 ac-dc-FACTS sample system (173sys.

and the convergence information is stored in the log file '173sys.k -c 173sys.k' is needed (-K option).v -y173sys. '173sys. once again the direction file '173sys.wsc -K173sys.lg3' (-l option).w For on-line help on 'maxim' type: maxim -h 3.lg2 -S0. To do this the generation and load direction information stored in file '173sys. Also. respectively. but ignoring maximum active power generation limits (-X option).8 of the maximum value of the loading factor (-S option).cf'. Run another continuation power flow (-c option).lg2' (-l option).w' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'.8 of the maximum value of the loading factor (-S option): uwpflow 173sys.pf2 -l173sys.8 5.. maxim 173sys. Run a continuation power flow (-c option).w The maximum normalized entries in '173sys. in this case the ASCII output is suppressed (-s option).03 -K173sys.pf1'. e. the right and left eigenvectors of the smallest eigenvalue of the system Jacobian are stored in the files '173sys. The nose curve information is stored . similar to the previous case 3. is used as the input data in this case (-I option). In this example the final ASCII output is suppressed (-s option).v' (-Y option) and '173sys. The last solution point is written in ASCII in the output file '173sys. and the tracing of the bifurcation diagram is again stopped after the bifurcation point at 0.k -c -X -s -l173sys. uwpflow -I 173sys. uwpflow 173sys. and the log information is stored in the file '173sys.pf2'.8 4. Run a parameterized continuation power flow (-H option).lg1 -S0.k' is needed (-K option).k -Y173sys.cf 173sys.v' and '173sys. The log information is stored in the file '173sys.bus to solve the power flow problem. The tracing of the bifurcation diagram is stopped after the bifurcation point at 0.pf1 -L0.g. The IEEE Common Format file created in the previous run.lg1' (-l option). Also.wsc -K173sys.w' (-y option). The ASCII output is stored in the file '173sys.

m -m -n -l173sys. be aware that PgMax information must be defined then in the 'K' file). Pz. a. and stator and rotor limits (in Ia and Eq). This example shows the use of the program to obtain a bifurcation manifold using a detailed generator steady state model. which considers Ra. uwpflow 173sys. and the -S option is used to stop the continuation process after the maximum loading point is reached.5 -e -S0.vp' (-i option). the generation and load direction defined in '173sys. however. and the convergence information is stored in the file '173sys.lg5' using the -l option.9 6. the option -k is used to reduce the step size in the continuation method.. uwpflow 173sys. but in this case the system load is modeled as a nonlinear function of the voltage. together with the voltages and angles of the busses defined in '173sys. Pl = Pn*V^a + Pz*V^2 Ql = Qn*V^b + Qz*V^2 The -D option is used in this case to define the values of Pn. Finally.vp -f -S0. TV) are printed out (-f option).8 7. i.oh -i173sys.lg5 .gen -c -i173sys. Xd.vp -e -s -l173sys. 4 and 5.k -Hsysvp.k' are needed (-K option). The generator data is read from the file '173sys. Qn.. All ac limits are turned off (-n option).lg3 -s -k0. Xq. Once more..k -3173sys.e.e. uwpflow 173sys. In this case.wsc -K173sys. The computation takes a couple of minutes..in the file 'sysvp. Qz. and the -e option is used to print out some HVDC variable information. obtain more points in the bifurcation diagram. i.m' in MATLAB format (-m option).lg4 -s -D173sys. This example also shows some convergence difficulties due to the lack of adequate initial guesses for the internal generator variables (this problem can be significantly reduced by using an IEEE Common Format input file.wsc -K173sys.wsc -K173sys.. VSF.oh'.k -c -l173sys. Similar to examples 3. and b stored in OH (SMMS) format in '173sys. several voltage stability indices (SF. please wait.gen' using the -3 option. The options -i and -e are used to obtain the desired output.

05 -3173sys. an initial solution close to the bifurcation point is needed.lft' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'. the generation and load direction defined in '173sys.lft'. Hence. observe the convergence difficulties due to the lack of good initial guesses for the internal generator variables. Finally. uwpflow 173sys.poc' (-W option). Again. and the bifurcation point is stored in IEEE Common Format in '173sys.poc -L0.k' are needed (-K option).8.lft -s -W173sys. Once more.k -C173sys. For the program to converge to the desired solution. the -3 option is used again to read the steady state generator data stored in file '173sys.gen'. . The right eigenvector at the bifurcation point is written in the file '173sys. this example depicts how to use the program to find the exact bifurcation point using a direct method (-C option). thus the -L option is used here to move the system closer to the singularity point detected in case 7.gen The maximum normalized entries in '173sys.wsc -K173sys.

cf >ieee300. Demos. An on-line description of the program and all its options is available by running: uwpflow -h In all cases the -I option (input data in IEEE Common Format) are used. # $ 300 IEEE 300 bus sample system (ieee300.bat) K 300 Bus System. and write Jacobian information (-j option) in the files 'ieee300. Run a standard power flow and write ASCII output in the output 'ieee300.lg0 3.cf -s -lieee300.pf0' (output redirection is optional): uwpflow -I ieee300. including the options and files needed to run the different test cases. since the input data is in IEEE Common Format.lg0' (-l option): uwpflow -I ieee300.#$K+ IEEE 300 Bus Test System .jac' (Jacobian). Run a standard power flow suppressing ASCII output (-s option). Run a standard power flow suppressing the ASCII output (-s option). 1.bat + PFLOWWIN:035 .pf0 file 2.cf -s -Wieee300. and write convergence information in the log file 'ieee300. To run this case open the batch/script file ieee300.tap' (-W option): uwpflow -I ieee300. Run a standard power flow suppressing ASCII output (-s option). and write the solution in TAPE IEEE Common Format in the file 'ieee300.bat using This tutorial briefly illustrates several possible applications of the program 'uwpflow'.tap 4. ieee300.

To do this the generation and load direction information in the file 'ieee300. In this example the program is forced to use only one slack bus by using the -x option.k' (-K option).lg1 . P's.01 p. (-L option).cf -Kieee300.k -wieee300.'ieee300. and the option -Y and -y are used to write the right and left e-vectors associated to the smallest Jacobian eigenvalue in the files 'ieee300..).pf1 6.k' (-K option). i. Run a power flow with a distributed slack bus by using the generation direction information defined in the file 'ieee300.w'. The solution information is logged into the file 'ieee300.e. etc. V's. etc.v yieee300.u.jac ieeejac.m' contains the Jacobian matrix in MATLAB format to be used directly by this program.v' and 'ieee300..mis' (mismatches. Run a continuation power flow (-c option).k' is needed (-K option). i. Run a power flow with a load increase of 0. Q's. tomatlab ieee300.w 7. For this study one needs the generation and load direction information in the file 'ieee300. respectively: uwpflow -I ieee300..e. i. 5. and write the results in the output file 'ieee300. and the final output is suppressed using the -s option.crd -s -Yieee300.k ieee300.cf -L0. The results are written in CARD IEEE Common Format in the file 'ieee300. deltaP's.crd'.e. An approximation of the right eigenvector at the bifurcation point is written in the file 'ieee300.k -c -N -Eieee300.pf1': uwpflow -I ieee300. and 'ieee300.cf -s -jieee300 The Jacobian can be transformed to MATLAB matrix format using the AWK filter 'tomatlab'. deltaQ's.lg1' (-l option).): uwpflow -I ieee300.var' (variables.rgt' (-E option). The -N option is used to turn off all system controls: uwpflow -I ieee300.rgt -s -lieee300.01 -x -Kieee300.m The file 'ieeejac.cf -Kieee300.

Hence.pf3'.The maximum entries in 'ieee300.cf -Kieee300.m') that are used to compute several voltage stability indices. e.m'. . Run a continuation power flow (-c option) similar to case 7. eigenvalues. test functions. maxim ieee300. The -S option stops the program after the maximum loading point is computed. 10. and reduced determinants. Run a continuation power flow similar to case 7.lg3' (-l option). and the corresponding tangent vector at that point is written in the file 'ieee300. in this example the continuation process is stopped after 5 steps (-z option). The solution information is logged in the same file 'ieee300. Run a parameterized continuation power flow (-H option).lg2': uwpflow -I ieee300. which can be used to compute and plot the desired indices together with the generated file 'inviter. namely.tg The maximum entries in 'ieee300. once again the direction file 'ieee300..k' is needed (-K option). The file 'ieee300. but now the -0 option is used to generate a series of MATLAB files ('sys*.lg2 -0sys One of the MATLAB files created is 'sys.rgt' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'. the generation and load direction information in the file 'ieee300. The final output is suppressed using the -s option.tg' (-Z option). uwpflow -I ieee300. In this example the final ASCII output is stored in 'ieee300.tg' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'.vp' is used to define the desired output busses for the voltage profiles (-i option).cf -Kieee300.k' is needed (-K option).k -c -s -z5 -Zieee300.g. singular values. 9. However.k -c -N -s -lieee300.rgt For on-line help on 'maxim' type: maxim -h 8. at about 80 % of the maximum value.m'. and the convergence information is stored in 'ieee300.

the generation and load direction defined in 'ieee300.lft' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'. uwpflow -I ieee300.k -cieeevp. so that the TEF can be correctly processed in MATLAB (read program BUGS in README.8 ieee300.poc' (W option).m' in MATLAB.m' files needed in this case to run 'ieeevp.. uwpflow -I ieee300. this example depicts how to use the program to find the exact bifurcation point detected above (case 11) using a direct method (-C option).. Finally.uwpflow -I ieee300. an initial solution close to the bifurcation point is needed. The right eigenvector at the bifurcation point is written in the file 'ieee300. please wait.cf -Kieee300. . All limits are turned off (-n option).poc -L0.m -m -O -n -lieee300. so that more points on the bifurcation diagram can be computed. The computation takes a couple of minutes.. however.k -H -lieee300. system limits are also turned off using the -n option.k' are needed (K option).TXT).lft -s -Wieee300.k -Cieee300. Again. and the bifurcation point is stored in TAPE IEEE Common Format in 'ieee300.cf -Kieee300. The option -k is used to reduce the step size in the continuation method.lft'. but in this case the nose curve and Transient Energy Function (TEF) information are stored in the file 'ieeevp. Similar to examples 7 and 8. thus the -L option is used here to move the system closer to the singularity point.lg3 -S0.lg4 -s -k0.3 -n The maximum entries in 'ieee300.pf3 -iieee300.cf -Kieee300.vp 11. observe the slow convergence as the system is not close enough to the desired solution point.m' in MATLAB format (-m and -O options). For the program to converge.5 The program generates the required MATLAB '*. 12.

Ow (A3) -> Owner C . FACTS Input Data Example.3) -> Min. # $ 173WSCC 173 ac-dc-FACTS sample system input data 173 Bus System Data.#$K+ 173 Bus AC-DC-FACTS Test System Data C 173 BUS AC/DC/FACTS TEST SYSTEM: C WSCC data file C C Case Title (3 A8 lines) HDG 173 BUS AC/DC/FACTS SYSTEM WSCC/ETMSP DATA FORMAT NOVEMBER 1999 BAS C C C System Data C C AC BUSSES C C Bus Input Data: C .0) -> Min.0) -> Bus kV base C .PL (F5. 173sys.kV (F4. (max.wsc + PFLOWWIN:040 K .0) -> Max.Qm (F5.0) -> Max.QM (F5. voltage for "BV" PV bus type.u.Vpu (F4.Vm (F4. WSCC Format Example.P (F5.0) -> Q load in MVars C . generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .PM (F4. DC Input Data Example. generator P power in MW C .0) -> MW and MVars shunts (+ for Capacitors) C .SHUNT (2F4. voltage for C "BV" PV bus type) C . generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .Z (2A) -> Zone C .0) -> generator P power in MW C .3)-> PV desired voltage magnitude in p.Type (A2) -> "B " -> PQ load bus C "BQ" -> PV generator bus with Q limits C "BE" -> PV generator bus with no Q limits C "BV" -> PQ generator bus with V limits C "BG" -> PQ generator bus with Q limits controlling voltage on C a remote PV load bus C "BC" -> PV load bus with remote voltage control C "BT" -> PQ load bus with voltage controlled by LTC transformer C "BS" -> Swing bus C .QL (F5.0) -> P load in MW C .Name (A8) -> Bus Name C .

1000 B BUS_44 345 52.980 B BUS_10 500 90. B BUS_38 500 B BUS_39 230 BQ BUS_40 18.8 BQ BUS_9 20.0-300.0-900. -56.0 25402540.0) -> Remote controlled bus kV for "BG" type bus.850.0-100.1009 B BUS_37 500 912.1020 B BUS_41 230 135.0400.0 30002000.0 79004400.0 50004600.0-400.1020 B BUS_48 230 121.Remote %Q (I3) -> Percentage of Q of remote bus control for "BG" type bus.4 207. C . BQ BUS_47 11.0-300.027.0-220.5-32. 25.600.0 BQ BUS_16 22.5 113.700.0-134.0 1000862.Remote kV (F4. 0.0100. BQ BUS_35 20.1040 B BUS_3 345 2350.0300.0 2060.960 B BUS_14 500 793.5320.-400.0-525.9 430..950 B BUS_5 500 -113 B BUS_6 345 239.1050 B BUS_17 500 617. B BUS_32 500 B BUS_33 230 B BUS_34 230 3600 700.723.0-500.0 -155 BQ BUS_7 22.1000 B BUS_12 500 -391 BQ BUS_13 24.8-17.00 B BUS_42 230 BQ BUS_43 18.-35001020 BQ BUS_36 22 20001590.-56. 5. -69. -146 B BUS_15 345 840.0-440. BQ BUS_45 26.0 460.0 BQ BUS_2 20..0 20001680.00 B BUS_8 230 139.0 16001590. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C | SHUNT | |REMOTE BUS C |Ow|Name |kV |Z|PL |QL |MW |Mva|PM |P |QM |Qm |Vpu|Vm |Name |kV |%Q B BUS_1 345 1750.Remote Name (A8) -> Remote controlled bus name for "BG" type bus.-127.0-280.-40001000 B BUS_31 500 44001000.0 -427 B BUS_19 500 B BUS_20 500 B BUS_21 500 B BUS_22 500 B BUS_23 500 B BUS_24 500 B BUS_25 500 B BUS_26 500 B BUS_28 500 B BUS_29 500 BQ BUS_30 20.900. C .700.110.00 .0 1000700.1300.0 1200998. 0..1050 B BUS_46 230 -72. BQ BUS_4 22.0 424.00 -190 BQ BUS_11 26.0300.160.4000.1.0300.268.0070.C .-900.

3500. 15001201. 792.-10001000 1000 1035 83.2 200 401.222.692.0 500 115 230 500 13.25 -67. 160.7 -6.2 1700. 610.50 -0.8 230 500 500 13.500.0-310.8132. 1200 550.031.1 117.2 138.00 121. 32. .0330.00 -108 3100 28601500. -414.-119.0025.6 1043 0.00 987. 99999900.0 500 500 500 500 500 345 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 200 200 500 25.1 -91.1100.4 -77.00 1180600.B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BQ B B B B BQ B B B BQ B BQ B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BQ B B BUS_49 BUS_50 BUS_51 BUS_52 BUS_53 BUS_54 BUS_55 BUS_56 BUS_57 BUS_58 BUS_59 BUS_60 BUS_61 BUS_62 BUS_63 BUS_64 BUS_65 BUS_66 BUS_67 BUS_68 BUS_69 BUS_70 BUS_71 BUS_72 BUS_73 BUS_74 BUS_75 BUS_76 BUS_77 BUS_78 BUS_79 BUS_80 BUS_81 BUS_82 BUS_83 BUS_84 BUS_85 BUS_86 BUS_87 BUS_88 BUS_89 BUS_90 BUS_91 BUS_92 BUS_93 BUS_94 BUS_95 BUS_96 BUS_97 BUS_98 BUS_99 BUS_100 BUS_101 BUS_102 500 230 138 287 287 230 230 500 230 230 230 230 230 230 287 500 20. -7. 462.5780.6 205.0-711. 80.065.0 -44.00 237. 320.-20001000 1200 -220 -674 -110 -220 -870 1085 60004045.00 907.217.0 5000.6 27.025.2-63.028.3 20.5160.0 500 200 -80.-18501000 -43.1055 3200.024.400.0 -66.0 210.6 -97. -339.2649.6 -129.98 305. 300.0.8 500 20. 50.

900.8 255.09999.1050 2100. 100. 19.1010 3118.0 20. -7.2500.1189. -0.-10001000 1500 856. -220 1590.1.0-400.0 882.0 500 20.2-28. -300.-900. 370.4 3191.5 148.7 81.0 345 230 20. 204.5 884.6 -329.2 377.1 38.5 1570.02 . 3367.600. -327 -130 1500957.-99991.9 148.0 200 500 500 20.0 8.2000. -196 15801580. 72.010 55. -600. 12.1. -400.-10.8 406.6 32. 54.61.3491.9999.00 -190 -60. 400.3-11. 18.1.6 175.0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 230 20. 300.7 33.0-300.7300.05 3098. 630.0 1066. -91.464.7 118.05 -319 3055.0 200 20.0 230 500 500 500 230 345 345 230 345 20.700.0 500 230 500 22.9 11.4 -62.8 5661.B B B B BQ B B B BQ B BQ B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BQ B BQ B B B BQ B B B BQ BQ B B B B B B B B B BQ B B BQ BUS_103 BUS_104 BUS_105 BUS_106 BUS_107 BUS_108 BUS_109 BUS_110 BUS_111 BUS_112 BUS_113 BUS_114 BUS_115 BUS_116 BUS_117 BUS_118 BUS_119 BUS_120 BUS_121 BUS_122 BUS_123 BUS_124 BUS_126 BUS_127 BUS_128 BUS_129 BUS_130 BUS_131 BUS_132 BUS_133 BUS_27 BUS_134 BUS_135 BUS_136 BUS_137 BUS_138 BUS_139 BUS_140 BUS_141 BUS_142 BUS_143 BUS_144 BUS_145 BUS_146 BUS_147 BUS_148 BUS_149 BUS_150 BUS_151 BUS_152 BUS_153 BUS_18 BUS_154 BUS_155 200 500 200 500 20. 777.0 230 500 230 20.02 -128 -91.6 -189. 41. 400.8 457.-99991.1. -300.05 -32.0 1230.1.9 116.02 902. 454.78.

5) -> p. shunt B/2 of PI equivalent C .00179.In (F4. B BUS_160 345 185.69921 L BUS_20 500 BUS_12 5001 -00634 L BUS_10 500 BUS_21 5001 -01188 L BUS_21 500 BUS_22 5001 .1) -> Length in miles C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS N C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||In || R | X | G/2 | B/2 |Mil| L BUS_3 345 BUS_18 3451 .13690 1.0000 L BUS_10 500 BUS_19 5001 -00634 L BUS_19 500 BUS_20 5001 .5) -> p.u.11000 1.6 11.0005 .5) -> p.0) -> kV base for sending bus C .u.S (I1) -> Section number C .01988 1.271.B/2 (F6. series X of PI equivalent C .00530 .B BUS_156 345 B BUS_157 345 31.00077. -50.5) -> p.kV2 (F4.2880 L BUS_6 345 BUS_15 3451 . B BUS_158 345 141.01804 .Type (A2) -> "L " C . -43.00241.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .05865 243280 .0) -> Rated Amps.Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .4 B BUS_159 345 379. shunt G/2 of PI equivalent C . C . series R of PI equivalent C .R (F6.C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .u.u.00977.5 B BUS_161 500 B BUS_162 500 B BUS_163 500 B BUS_164 500 B BUS_165 500 B BUS_166 500 B BUS_167 500 B BUS_168 500 B BUS_169 500 B BUS_170 500 B BUS_171 500 B BUS_172 500 B BUS_173 500 -220 C C******************************************************************************* C C AC LINES C C Line Input Data: C .00811.G/2 (F6.Mil (F4.N (I1) -> Circuit number C .X (F6. 78.M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .04410 L BUS_15 345 BUS_3 3451 .2174 L BUS_6 345 BUS_1 3451 .Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .kV1 (F4.5 -18.

00040.00226.45190 167230 2.01116 .00964 .00073.04244 -00826 -01795 .01235 .00141.0020 .01279 .04677 .00138.00229.59401 .01244 .00179.03669 .00082.02000 .00459 .00971 .01399 .00177.00281.00393 .00459 .02316 .01583 .00415 .00161.00220.04142 .00964 .03074 .06001 .00623 .00055.00221.00073.00035.8576 1.07000 .00586 .03422 .45190 .07905 .06001 .18335 .01861 .00723 .00159 .00074.00027.00037.04189 -00612 .01399 .00141.03858 .00971 .04296 .18335 .01884 .00110.00536 .83334 .01070.01070.00119.01279 .00290.00020.04120 .01257 .00238.00979 .01116 .00475 .00030.00366 .6500 .00970 .01668 .00820 169610 197580 .00120.02000 .03443 .00970 .00161.00812 .00960 .00083.00602 .00201.01244 .01530 .00967 .01060 .07905 .03346 .00459 .00119.03753 .00128.00040.01530 .00434 .800 .00960 -00408 .03800 .01025 .03669 .00029.00967 .00229.01189 .00138.01583 .00393 .00393 .00309.05040 .00047.01025 .00207.00159 .03422 .00027.00027.L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L BUS_22 BUS_12 BUS_23 BUS_24 BUS_12 BUS_25 BUS_26 BUS_14 BUS_14 BUS_5 BUS_28 BUS_29 BUS_31 BUS_33 BUS_52 BUS_53 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_57 BUS_57 BUS_57 BUS_57 BUS_62 BUS_64 BUS_41 BUS_37 BUS_37 BUS_37 BUS_37 BUS_42 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_50 BUS_50 BUS_50 BUS_50 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_39 BUS_39 BUS_39 BUS_39 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_75 BUS_75 BUS_77 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 230 287 287 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 500 230 500 500 500 500 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 500 500 500 BUS_17 BUS_23 BUS_24 BUS_17 BUS_25 BUS_26 BUS_27 BUS_17 BUS_17 BUS_28 BUS_29 BUS_12 BUS_32 BUS_34 BUS_63 BUS_63 BUS_41 BUS_58 BUS_58 BUS_42 BUS_54 BUS_54 BUS_58 BUS_55 BUS_49 BUS_58 BUS_38 BUS_56 BUS_64 BUS_64 BUS_58 BUS_62 BUS_62 BUS_42 BUS_42 BUS_57 BUS_58 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_46 BUS_48 BUS_59 BUS_60 BUS_46 BUS_59 BUS_59 BUS_59 BUS_59 BUS_60 BUS_60 BUS_60 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_75 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5002 5001 5001 5001 5001 2301 2871 2871 2301 2301 2302 2301 2301 2302 2301 2301 5001 2301 5001 5001 5001 5002 2301 2301 2302 2301 2302 2301 2301 2301 2302 2301 2301 2301 2301 2301 2301 2302 2303 2304 2301 2302 2303 5001 5002 5001 -01188 -00826 .04824 .70132 .01235 .04959 -01795 .303 .4000 .0035 .

00078.47988 .06678 .77771 .10101 .03058.00001-00666 .00001-01120 .12236 .02338 .00060.00109.10116 . 752. 602.5411 .73750 .03643 . 838.00001-00755 .00166 .01113.00446 .09171 .56905 . . 838.00922 .00082.99210 .20460 .00020.00023.02102 .00737 -01263 .00002-00998 .02482.00072. 838.00116 .00820 .00076. 747.27403 .15250 .03430 .01266 -01263 .01105.5411 .00264.00066.00041.01428 -01263 .00189 .00012.00131 .01668.03409 .00154.03580 .00140.L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L BUS_77 BUS_68 BUS_68 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_79 BUS_79 BUS_79 BUS_79 BUS_84 BUS_85 BUS_80 BUS_86 BUS_87 BUS_79 BUS_88 BUS_89 BUS_90 BUS_91 BUS_79 BUS_92 BUS_93 BUS_94 BUS_95 BUS_78 BUS_96 BUS_106 BUS_115 BUS_116 BUS_117 BUS_118 BUS_109 BUS_119 BUS_120 BUS_109 BUS_121 BUS_122 BUS_110 BUS_123 BUS_124 BUS_110 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_97 BUS_98 BUS_102 BUS_98 BUS_103 BUS_114 500 230 230 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 500 BUS_75 BUS_71 BUS_71 BUS_72 BUS_72 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_84 BUS_85 BUS_83 BUS_86 BUS_87 BUS_83 BUS_88 BUS_89 BUS_90 BUS_91 BUS_80 BUS_92 BUS_93 BUS_94 BUS_95 BUS_80 BUS_96 BUS_81 BUS_115 BUS_116 BUS_117 BUS_118 BUS_114 BUS_119 BUS_120 BUS_110 BUS_121 BUS_122 BUS_110 BUS_123 BUS_124 BUS_114 BUS_126 BUS_108 BUS_108 BUS_108 BUS_112 BUS_97 BUS_112 BUS_102 BUS_112 BUS_103 BUS_112 BUS_127 5002 2301 2302 5001 5002 5001 5002 5001 5002 5003 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 2001 2002 2003 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 5001 3020 3020 3450 3450 2175 2175 3450 3020 3020 3450 2000 3450 3600 2000 3600 3020 2400 3020 2400 3020 3020 2000 3020 2000 3020 3600 1732 2667 2894 2667 2894 2667 1800 2396 1800 1800 2396 1800 2667 2450 2667 2450 752.01382 -00858 . 838.00020. 747.00095.00001-01120 .00108.73750 115570 .00074.06033 .01412 .00002-00998 .01036 .71260 .00001-00666 .00074.16938 .01502 .00001.77674 .00006.09268 .00006.05530 .02119 -01000 .47988 .01952 -01000 .00066.53317 264533 .01266 -01263 .01413 .00030 .01382.10963 .02409 .54878 .91225 .00030 .00001.06804 .01428 -01263 .00074.0148 .11381 .16106 .00451 .16660 .6500 .15536 . 747.05356 -02667 -01000 .00140.50728 .02408 .00063.02338 .00238 .06642 .02235.03903.63786 .01050.36347 .06540 .00717 .

29120 .00035.28610 .00103.03490 .19960 .03399 .00093.34280 .04920 .00087.03720 .00190.02580 .07400 -00720 .00002-00998 .02470 -00720 -01000 .L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L BUS_127 BUS_128 BUS_114 BUS_129 BUS_101 BUS_130 BUS_101 BUS_99 BUS_99 BUS_136 BUS_136 BUS_136 BUS_27 BUS_141 BUS_131 BUS_136 BUS_139 BUS_145 BUS_136 BUS_136 BUS_144 BUS_144 BUS_132 BUS_132 BUS_135 BUS_148 BUS_140 BUS_150 BUS_149 BUS_150 BUS_149 BUS_149 BUS_152 BUS_149 BUS_149 BUS_149 BUS_152 BUS_152 BUS_18 BUS_18 BUS_151 BUS_152 BUS_31 BUS_75 BUS_80 BUS_161 BUS_162 BUS_80 BUS_163 BUS_164 BUS_80 BUS_165 BUS_166 BUS_104 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 230 345 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 BUS_128 BUS_104 BUS_129 BUS_101 BUS_130 BUS_104 BUS_99 BUS_104 BUS_104 BUS_147 BUS_147 BUS_141 BUS_136 BUS_27 BUS_146 BUS_145 BUS_145 BUS_146 BUS_139 BUS_139 BUS_148 BUS_148 BUS_137 BUS_144 BUS_137 BUS_137 BUS_137 BUS_160 BUS_160 BUS_149 BUS_18 BUS_18 BUS_157 BUS_152 BUS_152 BUS_158 BUS_159 BUS_159 BUS_159 BUS_159 BUS_154 BUS_158 BUS_77 BUS_66 BUS_161 BUS_162 BUS_109 BUS_163 BUS_164 BUS_109 BUS_165 BUS_166 BUS_106 BUS_167 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5002 5001 5002 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5002 2301 2302 2301 2301 2301 2301 2301 3451 3451 3451 3451 3452 3451 3451 3452 3451 3451 3452 3451 3452 2301 3451 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 2450 1800 2450 2450 2450 2450 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 2320 2320 2320 1160 2320 2320 2320 1800 3020 1800 1800 3020 1800 2134 .01080.09650 .03320 .00040.00028.00240.00845.01415 .00056.05719 .06020 .01125 .14935 .25868 .00160.03740 .69475 .00165.00080.00044.00750 .33397 .03950 .02779 .00087.03100 .29245 .00021.00138.01060 .01720 .00380.00285.16480 .00193.00190.66425 .01937 .27680 .02338 -00720 -00864 .00320.07626 .05626 .00960.07200 .19225 .02250 .435 .01270 .02400 .71325 .50500 .00060.00138.10195 .02390 70.00120.00110.00210.72855 .76350 139800 .72855 .32620 1.00107.02087 .44215 .31040 .41460 .16168 .19050 .00457 .41460 207010 233560 .00520.03230 -01000 -00935 123870 .79020 .00001-01098 .01280 .00170.52145 .00490.00103.00930 .00340.01600 .54395 .03920 83.00905 .30910 .00079.06328 .02260 .02380 .03649 .00002-01331 .00042.00340.00753 .05399 .00044.07977 .00340.00072.02087 .03644 .650 2.00320.05370 .07034 .03400 .47310 .01125 .08780 .

00123.u.00 .L BUS_167 500 BUS_168 5001 3600 .01187 .00006.5) -> p.00123.kV1 (F4.u.2) -> kV tap for sending bus C .02517 .S (I1) -> Section number C .21960 L BUS_44 345 BUS_18 3452 .04360 .u.00 T BUS_1 345 BUS_2 20.02967 107650 L BUS_14 500 BUS_131 5002 1800 .01 3066 .01 .55780 L BUS_44 345 BUS_18 3451 .00620.00480.00539 5300023.5) -> p.C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .26773 L BUS_144 230 BUS_61 2301 3070 .00065.N (I1) -> Circuit number C .00259.05100 L BUS_10 500 BUS_27 5001 1630 .99351 L BUS_168 500 BUS_147 5001 2134 -00935 L BUS_104 500 BUS_169 5001 2134 -00944 L BUS_169 500 BUS_170 5001 3600 .02450 .02659 .G (F6.06730 .14810 L BUS_27 500 BUS_64 5001 .00140. shunt G of equivalent circuit C .01 .Type (A2) -> "T " C .X (F6.00280.01187 .21960 L BUS_156 345 BUS_6 3451 .00179. shunt B of equivalent circuit C .02524 .02524 .00410 .kV2 (F4.50970 L BUS_14 500 BUS_131 5001 1800 .00180.26773 L BUS_27 500 BUS_64 5002 .91793 L BUS_172 500 BUS_147 5001 2100 -00840 L BUS_136 500 BUS_64 5001 .00179.02110 .00259.2) -> kV tap for receiving bus C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||Sn | R | X | G | B |Tap1|Tap2| T BUS_3 345 BUS_9 20.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .u.00122.0) -> kV base for sending bus C .35390 C C******************************************************************************* C C TRANSFORMERS C C Transformer Input Data: C .02662 .B (F6.99440 L BUS_170 500 BUS_147 5001 2134 -00935 L BUS_104 500 BUS_171 5001 2134 -00935 L BUS_171 500 BUS_172 5001 3600 .01500 3450020.02967 107650 L BUS_78 500 BUS_173 5001 1732 -02667 L BUS_173 500 BUS_83 5001 3600 .0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .Sn (F4.00020.02450 .02373 110355 L BUS_150 345 BUS_82 3451 .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .00180.0) -> Rated MVA C .00 T BUS_14 500 BUS_13 24.Tap2 (F5. series R of equivalent circuit C .5) -> p.02336 L BUS_144 230 BUS_61 2302 3070 . series X of equivalent circuit C .01200 3550020.M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .00065.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .R (F6.5) -> p.02336 L BUS_132 230 BUS_61 2301 3070 .00112.Tap1 (F5.02640 .

02845 .00499.00030.00000.015 .20 2300013.20 20.004 .0 508.00000.01149 .00009.01340 .00580 .00410 .00200 . 2350052500 2350052500 2350052500 5250025.01 2301 2301 22.01 20. 5000023000 2875013800 2875013800 2300013800 2300013800 5053023000 5053023000 5250023000 2413018.00050.00 5315034500 5315034500 3450022.01 3451 2301 3000 430.00030.00020.00200 .01810 3600022.00018. 2350052500 20.01380 .01330 .02380 .00150 .0 20.010 .005 . 2000 1500 2500 250.00 3450023000 3450023000 5400026. 3450022.01 20.01149 .01491 .01000 .0 345 345 345 345 BUS_16 BUS_6 BUS_6 BUS_7 BUS_8 BUS_8 BUS_11 BUS_33 BUS_30 BUS_35 BUS_63 BUS_45 BUS_65 BUS_82 BUS_76 BUS_71 BUS_67 BUS_68 BUS_68 BUS_74 BUS_70 BUS_108 BUS_109 BUS_114 BUS_112 BUS_114 BUS_104 BUS_104 BUS_100 BUS_148 BUS_148 BUS_148 BUS_27 BUS_142 BUS_135 BUS_139 BUS_140 BUS_51 BUS_51 BUS_51 BUS_51 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_48 BUS_43 BUS_48 BUS_47 BUS_40 BUS_61 BUS_144 BUS_4 BUS_153 BUS_156 BUS_151 22.00 54500 2000 5250034500 53300 2000 5373024150 2328011790 5375024150 5375024150 5250013.81 13.01 2301 11.00590 .01386 .00013.81 2001 5001 5001 2001 5001 5001 5002 25.00059. 1120 1120 1120 1120 .00029.00008.01950 .00020.00000.00058.00980 .00013.01 20.00018.00980 .00600 .00666 .50 2300018.01491 .T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T BUS_15 BUS_5 BUS_5 BUS_6 BUS_6 BUS_6 BUS_10 BUS_32 BUS_31 BUS_34 BUS_64 BUS_44 BUS_66 BUS_81 BUS_77 BUS_72 BUS_68 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_73 BUS_68 BUS_107 BUS_108 BUS_113 BUS_111 BUS_112 BUS_105 BUS_105 BUS_99 BUS_147 BUS_147 BUS_147 BUS_133 BUS_141 BUS_134 BUS_138 BUS_139 BUS_52 BUS_53 BUS_54 BUS_54 BUS_56 BUS_56 BUS_38 BUS_42 BUS_49 BUS_48 BUS_39 BUS_60 BUS_143 BUS_3 BUS_152 BUS_157 BUS_150 345 500 500 345 345 345 500 500 500 230 500 345 500 500 500 500 230 500 500 500 230 20.0 529.00693 . 5250022.00 20.01 2301 5001 2301 1381 1381 1381 1382 2301 2302 2301 18.01149 .005 .00 5500023000 52500 2000 23000 2000 4902828750 3536226.0 20.01100 .01 3451 3452 22.0192 .00 3400020.00 5250023000 2410011.01134 . 430.02535 .00085.00 3450034500 3450023000 .01386 .00520 500 .0 500 287 287 230 230 500 500 500 230 500 230 230 230 20.0 200 200 200 500 500 500 500 20.0 220.00059.00720 .01578 .11473 . 1120 840.0 200 20.01578 .00 2280022500 20.01 2871 26.0 235.015 .0 233.01 2301 2302 26.00027.01079 .01 3451 20.01 2301 20.01238 .00250 . 1008 1300 5000 2000 840.01100 .00028.0035 .00026. 20.02330 .51 18.01071 .01 2301 1151 2301 2302 13.0 500 20.01390 .01 2301 2302 2303 5001 22. 20.00030.01386 .0 218.00013.00 5315623000 5315623000 5315623000 20.00120 .0 502.00667 .01130 .00018.

40 90.01410 2435220. C . QA=Q_power C .Rat (F5.3) -> Max.001 . 0. 100.N (I2) -> Number of converter bridges C .E3 BD DC1-I-P+GROUND BUS_60 2301 117.Amx (F4.843 .C (I1) -> Circuit number C .AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C .4) -> Nominal voltage ratio of transformer C .001 .E3 BD GROUND DC2-R-P-BUS_44 3451 124. 170. 170.18.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .Gr (A3) -> Group C .194 .194 .01 .843 .00000.Set Points (2F5.7 0.E3 BD GROUND DC1-R-P-BUS_71 2301 117.AC bus kV (F4. Mvar.Imx (F4.40 5.AC bus kV (F4.2)-> Control mode values: A.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C . GA=gamma.3 1.0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C . MW.E3 C C******************************************************************************* C C DC BUS CONTROL DATA C C DC Bus Control Input Data: C .Mod 1 & 2 (2A2) -> Converter control modes: ID=current.C (I1) -> Circuit number C .92 1.Xc (F5.843 .1) -> Min.40 5. 170.7 1.001 . PA=P_power. C . 100.6 1. 5.7 1. 100. current in amps. tap in p.Tmin (F5. 0.001 .Amn (F4.00460 3450022.808 .80 1. tap in p.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C . 170. .001 .Type (A2) -> "BD" C .80 1.20 90.92 1.Gmn (F4.u.0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C . 4.18. or deg.Type (A2) -> "BZ" C .843 . gamma C . kV. 5.16. 0.Tstp (F5.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .1) -> Min.92 1.15 5. 5.20 90. alpha C .15 5.001 .3 1. alpha C .E3 BD GROUND DC1-I-P-BUS_60 2301 117.AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C .3) -> Tap steps in % C .1) -> Max. 100.001 .E3 BD DC2-R-P+GROUND BUS_44 3451 124.00 C C******************************************************************************* C C DC BUS DATA C C DC Bus Input Data: C . C VD=Voltage. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |AC bus C C |Name_1 |Name_2 |Name |kV ||Gr|Z|N|Xc |Rat |Tstp|Tmin|Tmax|Amn|Amx|Gmn|Imx BD DC1-R-P+GROUND BUS_71 2301 117.001 .7 0. 4.40 90.80 1. 0.E3 BD DC2-I-P+GROUND BUS_37 5001 123.E3 BD GROUND DC2-I-P-BUS_37 5001 123.1) -> Max. 4.808 .80 1. 5.3) -> Min.Tmax (F5.3) -> Commutation reactance in Ohms C .Z (A2) -> Zone C . AL=alpha.00050.u.T BUS_154 230 BUS_155 20.6 1.92 1. 4.00 T BUS_82 345 BUS_36 221 2000 .16.

LD DC2-R-P+DC2-I-P+1 7.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where SVC is connected. R BZ GROUND DC1-R-P-BUS_71 2301IDAL 3100. current in amps. I=inverter C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C|Mod|Set Points T C |Name_1 |Name_2 |AC bus |kV ||1|2| 1 | 2 | BZ DC1-R-P+GROUND BUS_71 2301IDAL 3100.2) -> Capacitance in uF (optional) C .C (I1) -> Circuit number C . C C******************************************************************************* C C SVC DATA C C SVC Input Data: C .Xl (F8. 1300.0) -> Bus 2 kV base.82 693. I BZ GROUND DC1-I-P-BUS_60 2301VDGA 447. 15.0) -> Bus 1 kV base. LD DC1-R-P-DC1-I-P-1 19.Type (A2) -> "BD" C .kV1 (F4. C .r. MVA and kV1 base.2) -> Inductance in mH (optional) C . C . R BZ GROUND DC2-R-P-BUS_44 3451IDAL 1920. 15.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C . C . C . 1300.r.kV2 (F4.Imax (F6. 16. 18. . C .Type (A2) -> "FS" (F for FACTS. 18.Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that SVC controls.1) -> Max. LD DC2-R-P-DC2-I-P-1 7. R BZ DC2-I-P+GROUND BUS_37 5001VDGA 485.L (F6. (optional) C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C C |Name_1 |Name_2 ||Gr|Z|Ow|R ohm|L mH|C uF|Imax | LD DC1-R-P+DC1-I-P+1 19. I BZ DC2-R-P+GROUND BUS_44 3451IDAL 1920.C .82 693.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .Gr (A3) -> Group C . 15.R (F6. R BZ DC1-I-P+GROUND BUS_60 2301VDGA 447. 16.T (A1) -> Type: R=rectifier.Z (A2) -> Zone C .2) -> Resistance in Ohms C .7) -> Per unit SVC inductive X w.t.Xc (F8. I BZ GROUND DC2-I-P-BUS_37 5001VDGA 485.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . 15.C (F6.7) -> Per unit SVC capacitive X w. S for SVC).Ow (A3) -> Owner C . MVA and kV1 base. I C C******************************************************************************* C C DC LINE DATA C C DC Line Input Data: C . C .t.

P for power.0) -> Bus 2 kV base.3) -> p.0) -> Bus 1 kV base. reference control voltage.M1 (F4.kV1 (F4. w.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . MW for P. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|s|MVA|Vrf|kV |Xth |al FS BUS_114 500 BUS_114 500 1. C .Xth (F8. C .Xl (F8.r.Type (A2) -> "FC" (F for FACTS. 26. Defaults to MVA system base.aM (F3.0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees.00526 . C .0 X 4.Bus2 (A8) -> Receiving bus where TCSC is connected.t MVA and kV1 base.0) -> TCSC rating in MVA.cont (F8. C . C . T for STATCOM).3)-> TCSC control value: % of X. C .1 C C******************************************************************************* C C TCSC DATA C C TCSC Input Data: C .Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that STATCOM controls.Mode (A1) -> Control mode: X for reactance. C . C .kV (F4. C .000526 144175 90.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees.am (F3.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where STATCOM is connected.1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional). C .0) -> Low kV side of step-down transformer (optional).Xc (F8. C . C C******************************************************************************* C C STATCOM DATA C C STATCOM Input Data: C .u.Vrf (F4.u. C . C .Bus1 (A8) -> Sending bus where TCSC is connected. C .1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional).7) -> Per unit TCSC inductive X w.am (F3. I for current.C . to MVA and kV1 base. C .0) -> SVC control slope in % w.Type (A2) -> "FT" (F for FACTS.t MVA and kV1 base.0) -> Bus 1 kV base.t. 0. . C . C . KA for I. C . C D for angle.0) -> Needed for determining series line reactance for % X C control: M1=Xc/Xline.aM (F3.al (F5. degrees for D.al (F5. C .7) -> Step-down transformer reactance in p. C .r. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|cont ||MVA|al |M1 | FC BUS_126 500 BUS_114 500 .r. C . C . C .t. to SVC MVA C rating and kV1 (optional).0) -> SVC maximum rating in MVAr (capacitive). C for TCSC).kV2 (F4.s (F2.r.MVA (F4.1708 0.kV1 (F4.MVA (F4.0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees.4925 90175 2 200 1.7) -> Per unit TCSC capacitive X w.

capacitive current (Imin>0) in p. C MVA and kV1 base. C .8 0.r. C .u.4) -> Max.0) -> Bus 2 kV base.u.Gc (F6.r.t.Im (F6.9 C C******************************************************************************* C C SOLUTION CONTROL CARD C C Solution control card: C . C C ZZ END .kV2 (F4. C .IM (F6.5) -> DC G in p.0) -> kV base for slack bus C .r.R (F6.t.DC reference voltage for PWM control in p.u.0017 1.0) -> AC voltage control slope in % w.3) -> AC reference voltage in p. MVA and a kVdc base defined by the C secondary side of the STATCOM transformer(s). MVA and kV1 base.4) -> Reference angle for slack bus in degrees C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |Max| |SLACK BUS | C |Itr| |Name |kV| |Angle | SOL 50 BUS_74 13.r.Vrf (F4.r.t.4) -> Max. w. C a kVdc base (defaults to 1 p.u.5) -> Control variable value: C .u.t.u.t. w. 1. w.X (F6.k constant for phase control (defaults to a value C of 0.u. w.145 . C . C MVA and kV1 base.u.r. P 0.0) -> AC R in p.0) -> Rating in MVA (defaults to the system base). P for phase C control. inductive current (Imax>0) in p.2000. C . w.t. 2. w.Angle (F10.r. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|R |X |Gc |Im |IM |s |MVA |Vrf||Con FT BUS_60 230 BUS_60 230 0.9 for a 12 pulse VSI if no value is given). C . MVA and kV1 base.5) -> AC X in p.0 0. C .t. C . kV1 base.s (F3. 1.t.).M (A1) -> Control mode: W for PWM control (default). to MVA and kV1 base.Max Iter (I5) -> Maximum number of Newton-Raphson iteration C .C . C . C .Con (F6.Name (A8) -> Name of the slack bus C .MVA (F5. w.kV (F4.r. C .

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