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Index
Program Description Options Input Formats
1. IEEE Common Format 2. WSCC Format 3. FACTS Format

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INDEX Index K Index + PFLOWWIN:005

Examples:
1. 173 bus ac-dc-FACTS system (173sys.bat) 2. IEEE 300 bus system (ieee300.bat)

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Program Description

UWPFLOW Continuation and Direct Methods to Locate Fold Bifurcations in AC/DC/FACTS Power Systems
By Claudio A. Canizares University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario N2K-2C4 CANADA claudio@iliniza.uwaterloo.ca http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca Fernando L. Alvarado University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin 53706 USA alvarado@ece.wisc.edu November 18, 1999 (First Version: December 20, 1996)

This program is provided without charge for testing purposes only. The program or any of its parts may not be used for any commercial applications. The authors would appreciate any comments and suggestions on how to improve the program. Any reports of problems should be directed to the
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DESCRIPTION Program Description K Program Applications; Program Description; References + PFLOWWIN:07

authors, who reserve their right to modify the program at any time without previous notification. DISCLAIMER: THE AUTHORS DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY OF THE RESULTS OBTAINED WITH THIS PROGRAM, NOR ITS PERFORMANCE.

BRIEF PROGRAM DESCRIPTION:
UWPFLOW is a research tool that has been designed to calculate local bifurcations related to system limits or singularities in the system Jacobian. The program also generates a series of output files that allow further analyses, such as tangent vectors, left and right eigenvectors at a singular bifurcation point, Jacobians, power flow solutions at different loading levels, voltage stability indices, etc. The program reads ac/dc power flow data in WSCC/BPA/EPRI formats [1,3] or IEEE common format [2]; FACTS devices data in a special format described in the on-line help file (WINDOWS) and using the models described in [5]; steadystate load model data in OH format [4] and steady-state generator data in a simple free format as explained in the on-line help. The program also reads ac data in other formats of interest to only some particular users (see on-line help). Additional unformatted data is required for bifurcation analysis, such as the direction of generation change, direction of load change, and maximum generator powers. The program assumes that one parameter, the "loading factor," is allowed to change. All steady state system controls remain operational unless otherwise specified through the program options. The program has been developed in C and C++ and runs under WINDOWS 95 and UNIX environments. It has no limitations on system size, other than those imposed by memory limitations in the corresponding environment, i.e., RAM and swap space in UNIX and WINDOWS. The program has been successfully used to study a real 2158 bus ac/dc system in PC machines, and HP, DEC and SUN SPARC UNIX stations. The program has the following features:

1. Adequate handling of generators limits, with generators being able to recover from a variety of limits, including S limits. 2. Steady state models of generators and their control limits (AVR and Primemover limits) are included. This requires at least one additional input file defining Ra, Xd, and Xq data, as well as Ia and Eq limits. Read the on-line help, examples and corresponding data files carefully to figure out how this works. 3. Voltage dependent load models for voltage stability analysis are also included. To use these models, an additional data file in OH (Ontario Hydro) or ADD (Italian COLAS program) formats is needed. Read the on-line help, examples and corresponding data files carefully to figure out how this works. 4. Either BPA/WSCC ac-dc input data formats (and variations) or IEEE common format may be used. An ac input data format based on an Italian power flow format (.DAT files) and COLAS (.ADD files) can be used also. A fairly complete description of the WSCC and IEEE formats is now provided in the on-line help files. 5. Detailed and reliable steady state models of SVC, TCSC and STATCOM models, and their controls with the corresponding limits are included. The input data format is described on the on-line help files. 6. Secondary voltage control, as defined by ENEL, can be modeled and simulated in the program. 7. The program is able to compute the minimum real eigenvalue and the related right and left eigenvectors at any loading conditions. Several voltage stability indices and tangent vector information can be generated by the program as well. This information allows the user to carry on a variety of sensitivity analyses. 8. The program generates a wide variety of output ASCII and MATLAB (.m) files as well as IEEE common format data files for analysis and plotting of the results.

9. Vol. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] . Nov.8. April 1987. This feature is used to run the tutorials provided with the program. A. 1973. access the WEB server URL: http://www. Italy. 1999. "Small Signal Stability Analysis Program Package.7. Working Group report. 29 pages. 92./Dec." IEEE Trans.11.9. January 1987. pp. Power Apparatus and Systems. i. DOS batch or UNIX script files. pp. For more details about the program capabilities.ca REFERENCES: [1] "Extended Transient-Midterm Stability Package: User's Manual for the Power Flow Program. Power Systems.power. L." Internal Report. A. January 1990. Alvarado.10. "Methodology for the Integration of HVDC Links in Large AC SystemsPhase 2: Advanced Concepts. EPRI user manual EL-6678." Vol. September 9. No. 8. 1-8. Cañizares and F. 1. models and the techniques used refer to [5. "Modeling of TCR and VSI Based FACTS Controllers. Milan.12]. Cañizares.uwaterloo. 6." Version 2. C. "Point of Collapse and Continuation Methods for Large AC/DC Systems. For a PDF copy of most of these documents. 1. EPRI technical report EL-4365. The program has being designed to automatically run script files. 19161925.e. February 1993. "Common Format for Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data.. No.6." IEEE Trans." EPRI computer code manual EL-2002-CCM. Vol. C. ENEL and Politecnico di Milano.

Voltage Collapse and Load Modeling. Z. L. A.[7] C. C. A. pp. A. Switzerland. Cañizares et al. May 1992. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] . 673-683. C. No." Final Draft. "New Techniques to Speed Up Voltage Collapse Computations Using Tangent Vectors. A. W. Cañizares. "Improving Continuation Methods for Tracing Bifurcation Diagrams in Power Systems. de Souza and V. Cañizares. "Voltage Stability Indices. A. Canizares and V. 71 pages. Power Systems. Alvarado. Vol. "Point of Collapse Methods Applied to AC/DC Power Systems. Cañizares and Z." Bulk Power System Voltage Phenomena-III Seminar." IEEE Trans.." IEEE Trans. 7." IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. 3. February 1999. August 1994. Chapter 4 of the IEEE/PES Power Systems Stability Subcommittee Report on Voltage Stability Assessment. 1380-1387. F. Quintana. Faur. H. H. L. A." IEEE Trans. "Analysis of SVC and TCSC Controllers in Voltage Collapse. I. Vol. Power Systems. Quintana. 1995. 1. Dobson. January 1999. "On Bifurcations. A. pp. C. 2. Davos. Cañizares. ECC Inc. Z. No. C. Long. 14. F. 12. DeMarco.. 158-165. A. Vol. August 1997. C. pp. C. No. Procedures and Guides. Paper 94 SM 512-4 PWRS. de Souza. Power Systems.

Jacobians for SMMS or MATLAB studies. such as the bifurcation diagram (nose curve) in column form for plotting with MATLAB or other programs. It can also write the solved case in a file in IEEE common format using the -W or -w option (HVDC links are written in EPRI’s ETMSP format and FACTS devices are written in their own format). The FACTS devices format was specifically designed for this program and is explained in the help file and test systems provided with the program. etc. command-line options (-option) with redirection of output (>) from screen into files: uwpflow [-options] input_file [[>]output_file] Input file: The input_file could be in WSCC/BPA/EPRI format (or Anarede's variation) or IEEE common format (or Electrocon's variation) for the ac system. i. The dc data could be on either WSCC/BPA or multiterminal EPRI format. Solution Technique: # $ OPTIONS Program Options K Command Line. Program Options + PFLOWWIN:010 . Output files: The program writes the solution into the output_file in ASCII.. Additional files can be created for postprocessing analyses (see options below).e. although it just deals with the standard two-terminal HVDC problem. Other AC formats may be used (see options below).#$K+ Program Options on Toolbar Define opitons using menu Execute|Command Line or pressing Usage: Like any other UNIX program.

i.The power flows are solved with simultaneous N-R. and/or active and reactive power flows). Direct method studies. Read load model data from 'file'.. The output (optional 'file') is a list of max. using Ontario Hydro (OH) format. remote voltage control. Turns off interchange area control. Options: -a -A -b Turns off tap and angle limits in regulating transformers. which is based on the load model: Pl=Pn*V^a+Pz*V^2 Ql=Qn*V^b+Qz*V^2 -Bnum -cfile -Cfile -d -Dfile . Must be used with -K and -v options. the program calculates an initial loading of the system before the direct method is applied. The base case loading can be initialized using the -L option. The left evector is written in 'file' (optional). plus 3 additional variables for each dc bus (see -e option). area interchange. PQ bus number 'num' where the voltage is fixed in order to find the loading factor (lambda) for voltage collapse studies. Generates some debug output. find the max. Must be used with the -K option. 8 ac voltages that change the most. however. Solve base case before changing the loading factor lambda. Increases the loading factor lambda using a continuation method for finding voltage profiles. Must be used with the -K option. allowing for asynchronous systems. and local and remote regulating transformers (LTCs and phase shifters controlling voltages. loading factor lambda for a given generation and load direction. angles.e.

If a bus is not defined in the list. For example. Print in 'file' the continuation method direction vector at the maximum loading factor (PoC right e-vector). Stability/sparsity value 'val' for factorization (def. Pn=Qn=0 is assumed. the program allows to recover voltage control after a Q-limit is reached by monitoring the voltage.01). Turns off recovery from some ac device limits in the program. this option eliminates that possibility. The output (optional 'file') is a list of max. Output Sensitivity Factors (SF) and Voltage Sensitivity Factors (VSF and tangent vector) during continuation method computations. Prints this message in standard output. Increases the loading factor lambda using a parameterized continuation method for finding voltage profiles. the program chooses the bus with the maximum initial voltage entry in the tangent vector. since sometimes a value of Qg creates convergence problems. 8 ac -Efile -fnum -Fval -g -G -h -Hfile . a value of 1 means choose a pivot based on stability only. Force Q in generators to zero when reading data in IEEE common format. if this number is not defined. A value of 0 means choose a pivot based on sparsity only. and 3 internal variables for generators in the output list during the continuation process (see the -i option). -e Output 3 dc variables per dc link. The number 'num' defines the bus for which the voltage entry and rank in the tangent vector are printed out (tanget vector index). 0.

the program will print the corresponding total load or generation in MW or Mvar. PG or QG. it generates the Jacobian.jac'.var'. For PoC studies (-C option) it generates the nxn system Jacobian. -ifile List of numbers and names in 'file' for printing variable profiles with the -c and -H options. 'name. respectively. D for angle. Factor 'val' used in the homotopy continuation method for finding the increments in the loading factor lambda -I -jname -Jname -kval . PG for MW generated.jac'. use the -j option. With the -B option. wrap it in double or single quotes. QL for Mvar load. mismatches and variables corresponding to the system without the loading factor as a variable.mis' and 'name.var'. respectively. The corresponding Jacobian. Use zero when either the number or the name are unknown. Must be used with the -K option. QG for Mvar generated. mismatches and variables. The input format is: Number Name [VarType]. or PA for MW area flow. QL. Write the Jacobian of the solved case in I J VALUE format in 'name. If Name has spaces. PL for MW load.mis' and 'name. VarType is optional and can be: V for voltage (default). The equation mismatches and the system variables are also written in 'name. plus 3 additional variables for each dc bus (see -e option). If Name and Number are both equal to 0 and VarType is either PL.voltages that change the most. mismatches and variables are written in I J VALUE format in 'name. for the complete (2n+1)x(2n+1) PoC Jacobian. AC input data in IEEE common format.

The load is represented by: Pl=(Pn+Pnl*lambda)*V^a+(Pz+Pzl*lambda)*V^2 Ql=(Qn+Qnl*lambda)*V^b+(Qz+Qzl*lambda)*V^2 where Pn. -lfile -Lval -m -Mnum -n -N -otol . Loading factor 'val' (def. use the -O option. Pnl. and b are defined with the -D option.. overriding input data (default 50). Write standard error output to 'file' (log file). Qz. If the input variables DPg. Pz=Qz=0. Turns off all ac system limits. Pzl and Qzl are optional. If the -D option is not used. Simulates load changes in conjunction with the load distribution factors (-K option). 1). N-R iterations. 0). a. Output continuation profiles in MATLAB format. All data is assumed p. Smax. Turns off all ac system controls. give them a value of zero. Qn. Qnl or PgMax are unknown. the load model default values are: a=b=0. Must be used with the -c and -H options. -Kfile Read generation and load distribution factors from 'file'. i. The smaller this value.e. Busses not in the list are assumed to have zero distribution factors. The generation factors DPg are normalized for each area. If TEF profiles are needed. If BusName has spaces. ||DPg||=1 per area. Number 'num' of max. The tolerance 'tol' controls the application of limits during the continuation process.(def. wrap it in double or single quotes. Vmin. Vmax. Pz. and must be separated by spaces: BusNumber BusName DPg Pnl Qnl PgMax [Smax Vmax Vmin Pzl Qzl].u. and lambda corresponds to the loading factor.

Turns off P and Q limits in regulating transformers. The local bus voltage will be used for the -p -P -q -qx -qz -Q -QX . If the system has HVDC links.m' files needed for plotting and computation of the ac/dc energy function. 'addtotef. These busses are defined in the Italian ADD input data file.000001). Turns off Q limits in PV busses. Turns off P and Q control by regulating transformers. namely. The integer 'num' corresponds to the number of significant digits in TEF (default and min.m'. Turns off remote voltage generator control. the program defaults the PI controller gains (Kp and Ki) of all HVDC converters for dc computations to 'typical' values of Ki=75 and Kp=1.m' (only if dc lines present) and 'tefprof. max. -Onum This option is used together with -m to output ac/dc TEF information during the continuation method to determine the energy profiles with the help of MATLAB. These values can later be changed in the MATLAB output file. Turns off remote voltage control in reactance-controlled (BX) busses. 10). Generators will control their own terminal voltages at their given values. Turns off V limits in reactance-controlled (BX) busses.the more steps required of the continuation method (default 0. These busses are defined in the ETMSP/EPRI/BPA input data file. Turns off Q limits in reactance-controlled (BZ) busses. 6. The program also generates two MATLAB '.

Turns off V control by regulating transformers. Voltage magnitude 'mag' at the first PQ bus (unless otherwise specified by -B option) to find the -R -s -Sval -ttol -Ttol -uval -Unum -vmag . WARNING: This option might produce cycling. tolerance 'tol' for N-R method (default 1e-4). Value 'val' of the tolerance used to reduce the number of equations in the continuation method (-c and -H options). 2. or singularity problems. Suppress ASCII output_file. i. If the relative error of two consecutive iteration mismatches is larger than 'tol'..U. Number 'num' of steps of the continuation method (-c and -H options) between system reductions. Stop value 'val' for the loading factor lambda in the continuation method (-c and -H options). max. Used with the -u option. 100). backtracking.e. 1. in p. based on the tangent vector technique. max.2). of the maximum lambda.1).control. increase the number of steps in the -U option and/or reduce the value of 'val' in -u. lambda maximum). 0.u. 0 or no reduction. The default is 1e-3 (min. voltage limits and regulating transformer limits are applied (default 0. If this happens. The default number is 10 (min. P. -r Turns off V limits in regulating transformers and PV busses. max. 0. The default is 0 for a complete trace of the bifurcation diagram (min.

use the same EPRI format used to define the control modes in the dc lines (e. Busses not in the list are given a flat start. for dc busses.e. and BusNumber BusName Variables Values. the values must be given in standard units. Amp. MVAR. For defining the dc variable.corresponding lambda for voltage collapse studies. but the solved case is written in 'file' using IEEE TAPE common format. BusNumber BusName V_mag V_ang(deg). MW. Print in 'file' an approximation of the left e-vector of the smallest real |e-value| at the current operating point. Do not enforce maximum active generation limits (PgMax). Write solved case into 'file' using IEEE CARD common format. for ac busses. The data must be separated by spaces. kv. Ignore distribution factors for generations during the initial power flow solution (use only one slack bus). -Vfile Read initial guesses for ac and dc variables from 'file'. If BusName has spaces.g.e.. Print in 'file' an approximation of the right e-vector of the smallest real |e-value| at the current operating point. If the input variables are unknown give them a value of zero. ALGAPA. would represent the dc variables Alpha. i. as the Jacobian may be significantly affected by this option. -wfile -Wfile -x -X -yfile -Yfile . Gamma and Power).. Similar to -w option. wrap it in double or single quotes. i. Must be used with -K option. WARNING: This might create some convergence problems. See -K option. deg..

and defines the load bus at which the test functions are computed. * Test function and reduced determinant for a given bus (-1 option). * Minimum |e-value| and singular value for reduced Q matrix. Together with the -Z option. Define the number 'num' of steps used to determine the change of direction of the loading parameter lambda in the continuation method (-c or -H options) due to -Zfile -0name -1num -2num . it must be used with caution. Print in MATLAB format the Jacobian matrices needed to compute several voltage stability indices.m' is also created with all the MATLAB instructions to compute and plot 6 distinct indices: * Minimum |e-value| and singular value for full matrix. If this option is not used. Used with -0 option.m' file needed for the computation of these indices. WARNING: This option generates a lot of output files that might clutter your system.m'.-znum Stop continuation method after 'num' steps. These matrices are printed in the files 'name#. Print in 'file' the normalized tangent vector to the bifurcation manifold at step 'num' of the continuation method (as defined by -z). where # stands for the step number in the continuation method (c or -H options). It is used with the -c or -H options. or if the bus 'num' does not correspond to a load bus. A file 'name. the program chooses the bus with the maximum voltage entry in the initial tangent vector. it can be used to print a tangent vector for a particular value of the loading parameter lambda. The program generates the MATLAB 'inviter.

Turns off Ia limits in all generators. wrap the word in double or single quotes. and max. Pl=(Pn+Pnl*lambda)*V^a Ql=(Qn+Qnl*lambda)*V^b pilot nodes and generators for secondary voltage control (-# option). If 'file' name is given. give it a 0 value. Xq=<Xd. Do not enforce maximum power generation limits -4 -5 -6file -7 -8 -9 . The program assumes the following default values: Ra=0. min. See -3 option. or define Xq=0. make Xd=Xq. -3file Read generator steady-state data from 'file' using free format: BusNumber BusName Ra Xd Xq Ia_max Eq_max Eq_min. if one of this is not known. bus voltages. i. however. force Vmax and Vmin on system busses during the Enforce Vmax and Vmin on system busses during the continuation process (-c or –H options). For round-rotor machines. which defines: new bus kV levels.. Ia_max=large. This file may be used instead of the -K and -D files. and generator and load directions.voltages increasing after Q-limits are encountered (default 5). load voltage coefficients 'a' and 'b'. Turns off Eq limits in all generators. Eq_max=large. Enforce Imax limits on transmission elements during the continuation process (-c or –H options). a COLAS ADD file is read. The program uses either the BusNumber or the BusName to identify the bus. Eq_min=0. AC input data in ITALIAN format. See -3 option.e. these files take precedence over the ADD file in defining similar variables for collapse studies. For BusNames with spaces.

remote voltage control of pilot busses by generators with participation factors defined as: * over excited -> qi=Qmaxi/Sum Qmax of pilot bus gens. overriding the value given in the input data file. Use secondary voltage control as defined by ENEL.e. See -K option..(Smax). -# . -$val Define the base power value 'val'. * under excited -> qi=Qmini/Sum Qmin of pilot bus gens. i.

Winter) Case identification [A] If no date Bus Data * # $ IEEE IEEE Common Format K Input Format. AC Data + PFLOWWIN:012 . in format DD/MM/YY with leading zeros. No blank items are allowed. No implicit decimal points are used. Vol.Floating point (right justified) * .html The data file has lines of up to 128 characters (TAPE option). 1916-1925. Originator's name [A] MVA Base [F] * Year [I] Season (S . No. W . The partial description presented here is based on a general description available at the following web site: http://www. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems.Alphanumeric (no special characters) I . enter zeros instead.#$K+ IEEE Common Format The complete description of the IEEE Common Data Format can be found in the paper "Common Data Format for the Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data. pp.washington.Mandatory item Title Data * Columns Columns Columns Columns Column Column 2. 6.9 11-30 32-37 39-42 44 46-73 Date.Summer. Floating point items should have explicit decimal point.Integer (right justified) F . November/December 1973. and FACTS controllers can be defined using the FACTS format. Common Format." Working Group on a Common Format for the Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data. use 0b/0b/0b where b is blank. PAS-92.ee.edu/research/pstca/pg_testcase. The lines are grouped into sections with section headers. DC links can be defined using the WSCC format. Data type codes: A . Data items are entered in specific columns. provided.

Hold MVAR generation within voltage limits. p. PQ) 1 .4 -999 Branch Data * Section start card *: Columns 1-16 BRANCH DATA FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than BRANCH is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?. the side of the model .Section start card *: Columns Columns 1-16 BUS DATA FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than BUS in 1-3 is significant) * 40?.) Columns 91-98 Maximum MVAR or voltage limit [F] Columns 99-106 Minimum MVAR or voltage limit [F] Columns 107-114 Shunt conductance G (per unit) [F] * Columns 115-122 Shunt susceptance B (per unit) [F] * Columns 124-127 Remote controlled bus number Section end card: Columns 1. V-Theta.u.9 Tap bus number [I] * For transformers or phase shifters. must always have one) Columns 28-33 Final voltage. degrees [F] * Columns 41-49 Load MW [F] * Columns 50-59 Load MVAR [F] * Columns 60-67 Generation MW [F] * Columns 68-75 Generation MVAR [F] * Columns 77-83 Base kV [F] Columns 85-90 Desired volts (pu) [F] (This is desired remote voltage if this bus is controlling another bus.? Branch data cards *: Columns Columns 1.4 6. Z bus number [I] * For transformers and phase shifters. PQ) 2 .Hold voltage within VAR limits (gen.? NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Bus data cards *: Columns 1.Hold voltage and angle (swing. the side of the model the non-unity tap is on. (gen. [F] * Columns 34-40 Final angle. Don't use zero! * Loss zone number [I] Type [I] * 0 .Unregulated (load.4 Columns 6-17 Columns 19-20 Columns 21-23 Columns 25-26 Bus number [I] * Name [A] (left justify) * Load flow area number [I]. PV) 3 .

Controlled bus is near the tap side 2 .Variable tap for voltage control (TCUL.the device impedance is on.Variable tap (turns ratio) for MVAR control 4 . per unit [F] * Columns 30-40 Branch reactance X.4 -999 Loss Zone Data Section start card: Columns 1-16 LOSS ZONES FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than LOSS is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?. LTC) 3 .? Loss Zone Cards: Columns Columns 1.Variable phase angle for MW control (phase shifter) Columns 20-29 Branch resistance R. MVAR or MW limit [F] Columns 120-126 Maximum voltage.Fixed tap 2 . +B) Columns 51-55 Line MVA rating No 1 [I] Left justify! Columns 57-61 Line MVA rating No 2 [I] Left justify! Columns 63-67 Line MVA rating No 3 [I] Left justify! Columns 69-72 Control bus number Column 74 Side [I] 0 .3 5-16 Loss zone number [I] * Loss zone name [A] Section end card: Columns 1. MVAR or MW limit [F] Columns Columns Column Column 11-12 13-15 17 19 Section end card: Columns 1. Load flow area [I] Loss zone [I] Circuit [I] * (Use 1 for single lines) Type [I] * 0 .Controlled bus is near the impedance side (Z bus) Columns 77-82 Transformer final turns ratio [F] Columns 84-90 Transformer (phase shifter) final angle [F] Columns 91-97 Minimum tap or phase shift [F] Columns 98-104 Maximum tap or phase shift [F] Columns 106-111 Step size [F] Columns 113-119 Minimum voltage.Transmission line 1 .Controlled bus is one of the terminals 1 .3 -99 Interchange Data . per unit [F] * No zero impedance lines Columns 41-50 Line charging B. per unit [F] * (total line charging.

Section start card: Columns 1-16 INTERCHANGE DATA FOLLOWS (not clear that any more than first word is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.4 7-8 11-14 17-18 21 Metered bus number [I] * Metered area number [I] * Non-metered bus number [I] * Non-metered area number [I] * Circuit number Section end card: Columns 1.7 9-20 21-28 30-35 38-43 46-75 Area number [I]. MW [F] (+ = out) * Area interchange tolerance.3 -999 . no zeros! * Interchange slack bus number [I] * Alternate swing bus name [A] Area interchange export.2 4.? Interchange Data Cards: Columns Columns Columns Columns Columns Columns Columns 1. MW [F] * Area code (abbreviated name) [A] * Area name [A] Section end card: Columns 1.2 -9 Tie Line Data Section start card: Columns 1-16 TIE LINES FOLLOW (not clear that any more than TIE is significant) * NNNNN ITEMS (column not clear) Columns 40?.? Tie Line Cards: Columns Columns Columns Columns Column 1.

C C Format of input data: C A -> Alphanumeric (no special characters) C I -> Integer (right justified) C F -> Floating point (right justified) C C******************************************************************************* C C Title cards start with the HDG card HDG THREE TITLE CARDS (A80) ARE PLACED BETWEEN THE HDG AND BAS CARDS BAS C C System data starts with the BAS card C The order of the data cards does not matter.#$K+ WSCC and EPRI's ETMSP Formats The complete description of these Formats can be found in EPRI’s ETMSP manual "Extended Transient-Midterm Stability Package: User's Manual for the Power Flow Program." EPRI computer code manual EL-2002-CCM. The dc data cards described below can be used to define dc links in the IEEE format and should be placed before the END OF DATA card. The following format is presented here in terms of the "input data" cards needed (see the 173-bus ac/dc/FACTS example). C C******************************************************************************* C C AC BUSSES C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C | SHUNT | |REMOTE BUS C |Ow|Name |kV |Z|PL |QL |MW |Mva|PM |P |QM |Qm |Vpu|Vm |Name |kV |%Q Bx BUS DATA CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C # $ WSCC WSCC and EPRI’s Format K Input Format. WSCC and EPRI’s ETMPS Format. C C Comment cards start with "C". January 1987. AC/DC Data + PFLOWWIN:013 .

0) -> Q load in MVars C . voltage for "BV" or "BX" busses. C .u. C .SHUNT (2F4.0) -> Remote controlled bus kV for "BG" busses.Qm (F5.0) -> kV base for remote bus C – S1 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 1 C – MVAr (F5.Type (A2) -> "B " -> PQ load bus C "BQ" -> PV generator bus with Q limits C "BE" -> PV generator bus with no Q limits C "BV" -> PQ generator bus with V limits C "BX" -> PQ generator bus with local or remote V limits.Z (2A) -> Zone C .3)-> PV desired voltage magnitude in p.Type (A2) -> "X " C .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of controlled bus. or indc.kV2 (F4.0) -> Min. (max.C Bus Input Data: C .0) -> Max.Vm (F4.kV (F4. new capac.0) -> Bus kV base C .0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 1 increment: .3) -> Min. generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .Remote kV (F4. voltage for C "BV" or "BX" busses) C .0) -> Max.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . C . as defined on the C the "X" cards (see below) C "BG" -> PQ generator bus with Q limits controlling voltage on C a remote PV load bus C "BC" -> PV load bus with remote voltage control C "BT" -> PQ load bus with voltage controlled by LTC transformer C "BS" -> Swing bus C .Remote %Q (I3) -> Percentage of Q of remote bus control for "BG" busses. generator P power in MW C .PM (F4.Name (A8) -> Bus Name C .QM (F5.0) -> MW and MVars shunts (+ for Capacitors) C .Vpu (F4.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of controlling bus. C As these limits are reached. generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .PL (F5. C .0) -> P load in MW C . C C******************************************************************************* C C X CARDS C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1 |Name_2 |kV2||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr||MVAr X DATA CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C X Input Data for BX Busses: C .P (F5. not needed if it is the same as the C controlling bus C .QL (F5.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .0) -> generator P power in MW C .0) -> kV base for controlling bus C .kV1 (F4. shunt C reactances are added to the bus.Remote Name (A8) -> Remote controlled bus name for "BG" busses.

0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 4 increment C – S5 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 5 C – MVAr (F5.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .1) -> Length in miles C C******************************************************************************* C C TRANSFORMERS C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||Sn | R | X | G | B |Tap1|Tap2| T CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C . series R of PI equivalent C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 6 increment C – S7 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 7 C – MVAr (F5. series X of PI equivalent C . shunt B/2 of PI equivalent C .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .B/2 (F6.u.u.Mil (F4.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 8 increment C C******************************************************************************* C C AC LINES C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS N C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||In || R | X | G/2 | B/2 |Mil| L LINE DATA CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C Line Input Data: C .S (I1) -> Section number C .kV1 (F4.X (F6.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 2 increment C – S3 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 3 C – MVAr (F5.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 3 increment C – S4 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 4 C – MVAr (F5.5) -> p.C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .0) -> kV base for sending bus C .G/2 (F6.5) -> p.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 7 increment C – S8 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 8 C – MVAr (F5.N (I1) -> Circuit number C .0) -> Rated Amps.In (F4.R (F6.kV2 (F4. shunt G/2 of PI equivalent C .M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C . -MVAr for inductors C – S2 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 2 C – MVAr (F5.0) -> Value in MVAr of each step 5 increment C – S6 (I1) -> Number of MVAr (reactance) increments in step 6 C – MVAr (F5.5) -> p.C +MVAr for capacitors. C .u.5) -> p.u.Type (A2) -> "L " C .

Type (A2) -> "R " -> LTC controlling voltage on "BT" load bus with C tap limits C "RQ" -> LTC controlling Q out of sending bus C "RN" -> LTC keeping Q out of sending bus within C Max/Min Mvar limits C "RP" -> Phase Shifter controlling P out of sending bus C "RM" -> Phase Shifter keeping P out of sending bus within C Max/Min MW limits C .Sn (F4. tap in kV with respect to kV1 for LTCs. series X of equivalent circuit C .2) -> Min.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .0) -> kV base for sending bus C .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .2) -> kV tap for receiving bus C C******************************************************************************* C C REGULATING TRANSFORMERS C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |REMOTE BUS |Sch/|Min C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2| |Name |kV |Tmax|Tmin|#|Max |P/Q | RT CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C Regulating Transformer Input Data: A corresponding "T" card must be used to C define the impedance and ratings C .S (I1) -> Section number C .5) -> p.Name (A8) -> Name of controlled bus C – kV (F4.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C . or C Max.G (F6.Tap1 (F5.M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .0) -> Rated MVA C .B (F6. or C Min.0) -> kV base for controlled bus C – Tmax (F5. shunt G of equivalent circuit C .X (F6. series R of equivalent circuit C . tap in kV with respect to kV1 for LTCs. MVar or MW for "RN" and "RM" types .5) -> p.0) -> Scheduled MVar or MW for "RQ" and "RP" types.N (I1) -> Circuit number C .M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .2) -> kV tap for sending bus C .kV1 (F4.R (F6.C Transformer Input Data: C .0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .u.Type (A2) -> "T " C . shunt B of equivalent circuit C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .Tap2 (F5. phase angle in degrees for Phase Shifters C – # (2I) -> Number of tap steps.C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .kV1 (F4. C – Sch/Max (F5.kV2 (F4.u.5) -> p. or C Max.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C . phase angle in degrees for Phase Shifters C – Tmin (F5.5) -> p.Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .0) -> kV base for sending bus C .u.2) -> Max.kV2 (F4.u.

3) -> Tap steps in % C . current in amps. voltage of the area for printed reports C .1) -> Min.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .Vm (F4.Amx (F4.Tstp (F5.3) -> p. C .Z (A2) -> Zone C .MW Exp.u.Amn (F4.N (I2) -> Number of converter bridges C .0) -> kV base for slack bus C . C . alpha C .Xc (F5.1) -> Max.4) -> Nominal voltage ratio of transformer C . (F8.Rat (F5.3) -> p.Type (2A) -> "A " C .Slack Name (A8) -> Area slack bus name C . MVar or MW for "RN" and "RM" types C C******************************************************************************* C C AREA DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |Slack bus | | ZONES | C |Name |Name |kV ||MW Exp. tap in p.0) -> MW scheduled export for the area C .ZONES (10A2) -> Zone names that belong to the area (up to 10) C . max.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .VM (F4.AC bus kV (F4.3) -> Max.1) -> Min.u. tap in p. voltage of the area for printed reports C C******************************************************************************* C C DC BUS DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |AC bus C C |Name_1 |Name_2 |Name |kV ||Gr|Z|N|Xc |Rat |Tstp|Tmin|Tmax|Amn|Amx|Gmn|Imx BD CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C DC Bus Input Data: C .u. min. alpha C .1) -> Max.Gr (A3) -> Group C .Tmax (F5.3) -> Commutation reactance in Ohms C .Imx (F4. |1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9||0| |VM |Vm A CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C Area Input Data: C .AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C . C C******************************************************************************* C .Gmn (F4.C (I1) -> Circuit number C .Name (A10) -> Area Name C .C – Min P/Q (F5. gamma C .Type (A2) -> "BD" C .3) -> Min.Tmin (F5.u.0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C .0) -> Min.Slack kV (F4.

Imax (F6.2) -> Resistance in Ohms C . (optional) C C******************************************************************************* C C SOLUTION CONTROL CARD C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |Max| |SLACK BUS | C |Itr| |Name |kV| |Angle | SOL CARD FOLLOWS THIS FORMAT C C Solution control card: .Z (A2) -> Zone C .C DC BUS CONTROL DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C|Mod|Set Points T C |Name_1 |Name_2 |AC bus |kV ||1|2| 1 | 2 | BZ CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C DC Bus Control Input Data: C .Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C . C VD=Voltage.Gr (A3) -> Group C .Type (A2) -> "BZ" C .Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C . I=inverter C C******************************************************************************* C C DC LINE DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C C |Name_1 |Name_2 ||Gr|Z|Ow|R ohm|L mH|C uF|Imax | LD CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C DC Line Input Data: C .2)-> Control mode values: A.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .Type (A2) -> "BD" C . Mvar.2) -> Capacitance in uF (optional) C . QA=Q_power C .1) -> Max.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . GA=gamma.C (I1) -> Circuit number C .Mod 1 & 2 (2A2) -> Converter control modes: ID=current.R (F6.2) -> Inductance in mH (optional) C .C (I1) -> Circuit number C . AL=alpha.C (F6. C . current in amps. PA=P_power.L (F6. kV.T (A1) -> Type: R=rectifier. MW.AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C . or deg.AC bus kV (F4.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C .Set Points (2F5.

C .kV (F4.4) -> Reference angle for slack bus in degrees C C******************************************************************************* C C Finish system data with ZZ card ZZ C C******************************************************************************* C C Finish data file with END card END .0) -> kV base for slack bus C .Max Itr (I5) -> Maximum number of Newton-Raphson iteration C .Name (A8) -> Name of the slack bus C .Angle (F10.

0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees. 1999.Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that SVC controls. For the WSCC format.0) -> Bus 2 kV base. C C Comment cards start with "C". Milan.kV2 (F4.r.aM (F3. to MVA and kV1 base.0) -> SVC control slope in % w.am (F3. C . FACTS Format. Cañizares. FACTS Data + PFLOWWIN:014 . September. C .r.0) -> Bus 1 kV base.#$K+ FACTS Formats The input data formats for FACTS controllers were chosen based on the models described in C.t.r. # $ FACTS FACTS Format K Input Format. MVA and kV1 base.t.7) -> Per unit SVC capacitive X w. C . C . The FACTS "input data" cards described below follow the ac input data cards in the IEEE format and should be placed before the END OF DATA card.kV1 (F4. C .Type (A2) -> "FS" (F for FACTS. C .Xc (F8. "Modeling of TCR and VSI Based FACTS Controllers. C . MVA and kV1 base.t. Italy. S for SVC).s (F2. they can be placed anywhere between the BAS and END data cards (see the 173-bus ac/dc/FACTS example).Xl (F8.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees." Internal Report.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where SVC is connected. ENEL and Politecnico di Milano.7) -> Per unit SVC inductive X w.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . C . C C Format of input data: C A -> Alphanumeric (no special characters) C I -> Integer (left justified) C F -> Floating point (right justified) C C******************************************************************************* C C SVC DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|s|MVA|Vrf|kV |Xth |al FS CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C SVC Input Data: C . A. C .

u.Xth (F8.u. C . C .kV2 (F4.C .0) -> Bus 2 kV base. KA for I. C .7) -> Step-down transformer reactance in p.X (F6.kV1 (F4.kV2 (F4. C .t. w. C C******************************************************************************* C C TCSC DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|cont ||MVA|al |M1 | FC CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C TCSC Input Data: C .Bus1 (A8) -> Sending bus where TCSC is connected.1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional). C . C C******************************************************************************* C C STATCOM DATA C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|R |X |Gc |Im |IM |s |MVA |Vrf||Con FT CARDS FOLLOW THIS FORMAT C C STATCOM Input Data: C .t MVA and kV1 base.r. C .Type (A2) -> "FC" (F for FACTS.kV1 (F4. Defaults to MVA system base. MW for P. C . to SVC MVA C rating and kV1 (optional).u. w.Vrf (F4. C .t. C .0) -> TCSC rating in MVA.r.0) -> Bus 1 kV base.5) -> AC X in p.al (F5.0) -> SVC maximum rating in MVAr (capacitive).r. C . reference control voltage.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . C .aM (F3. C .0) -> Low kV side of step-down transformer (optional).kV (F4.MVA (F4. C .Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where STATCOM is connected.t MVA and kV1 base.t.0) -> Bus 1 kV base.0) -> Needed for determining series line reactance for % X C control: M1=Xc/Xline.0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees. C .3) -> p.al (F5. C .7) -> Per unit TCSC capacitive X w.MVA (F4. C .Mode (A1) -> Control mode: X for reactance.r. P for power.u.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees.r. .cont (F8. C . degrees for D. C .Xc (F8.M1 (F4. C for TCSC).Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that STATCOM controls. MVA and kV1 base.0) -> AC R in p. T for STATCOM).Bus2 (A8) -> Receiving bus where TCSC is connected.0) -> Bus 2 kV base.7) -> Per unit TCSC inductive X w.am (F3. w. I for current. C . C D for angle.1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional). C .R (F6. C .Type (A2) -> "FT" (F for FACTS. C . C .Xl (F8.3)-> TCSC control value: % of X. MVA and kV1 base.

a kVdc base (defaults to 1 p.u. w. capacitive current (Imin>0) in p.Vrf (F4.r. w. MVA and kV1 base.4) -> Max.3) -> AC reference voltage in p. .t.u.5) -> DC G in p.5) -> Control variable value: .C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C . w.u. .MVA (F5.DC reference voltage for PWM control in p. MVA and a kVdc base defined by the secondary side of the STATCOM transformer(s). .r.IM (F6. .r. inductive current (Imax>0) in p.9 for a 12 pulse VSI if no value is given). MVA and kV1 base. .r. to MVA and kV1 base.u.u. w.4) -> Max. .0) -> Rating in MVA (defaults to the system base).t.r.t. kV1 base.0) -> AC voltage control slope in % w.M (A1) -> Control mode: W for PWM control (default).t.u.t. P for phase control. .Con (F6.s (F3. w.Gc (F6.t. . .r.Im (F6.k constant for phase control (defaults to a value of 0.).

#$K+ Menu Clear Open Save Save As Edit Exit Alt+F4 F10 F2 F3 Clears the window screen Opens a log (ASCII) file and loads it into the window screen Saves the window screen into a log file Saves the window screen into a new log file Edit input data using Notepad/WordPad Exit UWPflow File Execute Command Line F4 Defines UWPflow's options Executes UWPflow with the options defined above Run a batch/script file and/or define the input data directory Show help window UWPflow program authorship Run UWPflow F5 Batch/Script File F6 Help Help F1 About UWPflow # $ MENU Menu K Menu description + PFLOWWIN:015 .

#$K+ Toolbar Clear Screen Open a log file Saves screen in log file Clear Screen Edit input data using Notepad/WordPad Define command line options and run program Run UWPflow using defined options Run a batch/script file and/or define the input data directory About UWPflow Help # $ TOOLBAR Toolbar K Toolbar description + PFLOWWIN:020 .

# $ MOUSE Mouse K Mouse buttons + PFLOWWIN:025 .#$K+ Mouse Define UWPflow's command line options. Equivalent to pressing the toolbar button . Equivalent to pressing the toolbar button . Left button: Right button: Saves screen into log file.

cf' with the final solution (-W option).bat) K 173 Bus System. Demos. i. 1.m'. respectively: uwpflow 173sys.m The MATLAB data is stored in this case in the output file 'sysjac. Run a standard ac/dc/FACTS power flow and write in ASCII the output file '173sys. For this study one needs the generation and load direction information in the file '173sys. has the HVDC and FACTS data in the same format as the original input file '173sys.wsc 173sys.#$K+ 173 Bus AC-DC-FACTS Test System .bat + PFLOWWIN:030 .cf Observe that the IEEE Common Format file created. including the options and files needed to run different cases for an ac/dc/FACTS system in WSCC (EPRI) format.var'.wsc'. and write the Jacobian (-j option) in '173sys. 2. Also create the IEEE Common Format file '173sys. tomatlab 173sys.mis' and '173sys. To run this case open the batch/script file 173sys..cf'. the generator maximum power information is not available in the IEEE format.pf0 -j173sys -W173sys.jac sysjac.k' (-K option). 173sys.bat using This tutorial briefly illustrates several possible applications of the program 'uwpflow'. '173sys. The Jacobian can be transformed into MATLAB matrix format using the AWK filter 'tomatlab'. Run a power flow with a load increase of 0. Notice that this example illustrates the use of a distributed slack # $ 173 173 ac-dc-FACTS sample system (173sys.pf0'. However.jac' with the corresponding mismatch and solution vectors in '173sys.e.03 (-L option).

8 of the maximum value of the loading factor (-S option). similar to the previous case 3.k -Y173sys. Run a continuation power flow (-c option).k' is needed (-K option).v' and '173sys. The ASCII output is stored in the file '173sys.bus to solve the power flow problem.wsc -K173sys. once again the direction file '173sys. Run a parameterized continuation power flow (-H option). and the tracing of the bifurcation diagram is again stopped after the bifurcation point at 0.w For on-line help on 'maxim' type: maxim -h 3.8 4.lg2' (-l option).8 5.k' is needed (-K option).cf 173sys. The log information is stored in the file '173sys.lg1 -S0.03 -K173sys. To do this the generation and load direction information stored in file '173sys. In this example the final ASCII output is suppressed (-s option). maxim 173sys. The tracing of the bifurcation diagram is stopped after the bifurcation point at 0. respectively.pf1'. uwpflow 173sys.v' (-Y option) and '173sys. but ignoring maximum active power generation limits (-X option)..lg1' (-l option).pf1 -L0.lg2 -S0.cf'. The IEEE Common Format file created in the previous run. in this case the ASCII output is suppressed (-s option).k -c 173sys.k -c -X -s -l173sys.pf2 -l173sys. Run another continuation power flow (-c option).w' (-y option). is used as the input data in this case (-I option).g. Also. '173sys. The last solution point is written in ASCII in the output file '173sys.w' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'. and the log information is stored in the file '173sys.pf2'. Also. e. and the convergence information is stored in the log file '173sys.lg3' (-l option).v -y173sys. The nose curve information is stored . uwpflow -I 173sys.w The maximum normalized entries in '173sys.wsc -K173sys.8 of the maximum value of the loading factor (-S option): uwpflow 173sys. the right and left eigenvectors of the smallest eigenvalue of the system Jacobian are stored in the files '173sys.

lg5 . i. In this case. Once more.wsc -K173sys. The options -i and -e are used to obtain the desired output.vp -e -s -l173sys. a. Pl = Pn*V^a + Pz*V^2 Ql = Qn*V^b + Qz*V^2 The -D option is used in this case to define the values of Pn. together with the voltages and angles of the busses defined in '173sys. Xq. The generator data is read from the file '173sys... uwpflow 173sys. All ac limits are turned off (-n option).k -c -l173sys.8 7.in the file 'sysvp. The computation takes a couple of minutes. and stator and rotor limits (in Ia and Eq).k -3173sys. and the convergence information is stored in the file '173sys.m -m -n -l173sys.oh -i173sys. Pz.e. VSF. uwpflow 173sys..lg5' using the -l option.oh'. be aware that PgMax information must be defined then in the 'K' file).gen -c -i173sys. please wait. and the -S option is used to stop the continuation process after the maximum loading point is reached.gen' using the -3 option.e.wsc -K173sys. and the -e option is used to print out some HVDC variable information. but in this case the system load is modeled as a nonlinear function of the voltage.vp -f -S0. Qz. Qn.5 -e -S0..lg4 -s -D173sys. 4 and 5.m' in MATLAB format (-m option).k -Hsysvp.. Similar to examples 3. This example shows the use of the program to obtain a bifurcation manifold using a detailed generator steady state model.k' are needed (-K option). several voltage stability indices (SF. and b stored in OH (SMMS) format in '173sys.lg3 -s -k0. i. which considers Ra. This example also shows some convergence difficulties due to the lack of adequate initial guesses for the internal generator variables (this problem can be significantly reduced by using an IEEE Common Format input file.9 6. uwpflow 173sys. the generation and load direction defined in '173sys. however. the option -k is used to reduce the step size in the continuation method. TV) are printed out (-f option).vp' (-i option). Xd.wsc -K173sys. obtain more points in the bifurcation diagram. Finally.

The right eigenvector at the bifurcation point is written in the file '173sys. Hence.wsc -K173sys. the -3 option is used again to read the steady state generator data stored in file '173sys. Once more.poc -L0. the generation and load direction defined in '173sys. and the bifurcation point is stored in IEEE Common Format in '173sys.poc' (-W option). For the program to converge to the desired solution.lft -s -W173sys. . thus the -L option is used here to move the system closer to the singularity point detected in case 7.8.k' are needed (-K option). Again. uwpflow 173sys.lft'. observe the convergence difficulties due to the lack of good initial guesses for the internal generator variables.lft' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'. this example depicts how to use the program to find the exact bifurcation point using a direct method (-C option). an initial solution close to the bifurcation point is needed.05 -3173sys. Finally.gen'.k -C173sys.gen The maximum normalized entries in '173sys.

# $ 300 IEEE 300 bus sample system (ieee300.cf -s -Wieee300. and write Jacobian information (-j option) in the files 'ieee300.bat using This tutorial briefly illustrates several possible applications of the program 'uwpflow'. and write the solution in TAPE IEEE Common Format in the file 'ieee300. including the options and files needed to run the different test cases.pf0 file 2. To run this case open the batch/script file ieee300. since the input data is in IEEE Common Format. Run a standard power flow suppressing ASCII output (-s option).jac' (Jacobian). Run a standard power flow suppressing the ASCII output (-s option). Demos.lg0' (-l option): uwpflow -I ieee300. An on-line description of the program and all its options is available by running: uwpflow -h In all cases the -I option (input data in IEEE Common Format) are used.cf >ieee300.#$K+ IEEE 300 Bus Test System . 1. Run a standard power flow suppressing ASCII output (-s option). Run a standard power flow and write ASCII output in the output 'ieee300. and write convergence information in the log file 'ieee300.bat + PFLOWWIN:035 .tap 4.pf0' (output redirection is optional): uwpflow -I ieee300.lg0 3.tap' (-W option): uwpflow -I ieee300.cf -s -lieee300. ieee300.bat) K 300 Bus System.

An approximation of the right eigenvector at the bifurcation point is written in the file 'ieee300.var' (variables. V's. (-L option). etc. and the final output is suppressed using the -s option.rgt -s -lieee300. Run a power flow with a load increase of 0. Run a continuation power flow (-c option).crd -s -Yieee300. In this example the program is forced to use only one slack bus by using the -x option.lg1 . respectively: uwpflow -I ieee300.k' (-K option).). and the option -Y and -y are used to write the right and left e-vectors associated to the smallest Jacobian eigenvalue in the files 'ieee300.crd'.e. The -N option is used to turn off all system controls: uwpflow -I ieee300.pf1': uwpflow -I ieee300.pf1 6. For this study one needs the generation and load direction information in the file 'ieee300.'ieee300.w 7.lg1' (-l option).cf -s -jieee300 The Jacobian can be transformed to MATLAB matrix format using the AWK filter 'tomatlab'.k -wieee300. The solution information is logged into the file 'ieee300. i.mis' (mismatches.. etc.01 p.jac ieeejac. Run a power flow with a distributed slack bus by using the generation direction information defined in the file 'ieee300. deltaQ's. and 'ieee300.): uwpflow -I ieee300.. 5.cf -Kieee300.k -c -N -Eieee300.cf -L0. The results are written in CARD IEEE Common Format in the file 'ieee300.e.m The file 'ieeejac. Q's.v' and 'ieee300.01 -x -Kieee300. i. deltaP's..w'. To do this the generation and load direction information in the file 'ieee300. i.cf -Kieee300.k' (-K option). and write the results in the output file 'ieee300.e.rgt' (-E option).v yieee300.k ieee300. tomatlab ieee300.m' contains the Jacobian matrix in MATLAB format to be used directly by this program.u. P's.k' is needed (-K option).

test functions. 10. Run a continuation power flow similar to case 7. eigenvalues..cf -Kieee300. the generation and load direction information in the file 'ieee300. .cf -Kieee300. The file 'ieee300. Hence. once again the direction file 'ieee300. The final output is suppressed using the -s option.vp' is used to define the desired output busses for the voltage profiles (-i option). 9.tg The maximum entries in 'ieee300. but now the -0 option is used to generate a series of MATLAB files ('sys*. and the convergence information is stored in 'ieee300. singular values.k' is needed (-K option). Run a parameterized continuation power flow (-H option).pf3'.g.rgt For on-line help on 'maxim' type: maxim -h 8. The solution information is logged in the same file 'ieee300. maxim ieee300. which can be used to compute and plot the desired indices together with the generated file 'inviter.lg3' (-l option). However. The -S option stops the program after the maximum loading point is computed.tg' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'.m'. and reduced determinants. e. Run a continuation power flow (-c option) similar to case 7. In this example the final ASCII output is stored in 'ieee300.k -c -s -z5 -Zieee300.The maximum entries in 'ieee300.lg2 -0sys One of the MATLAB files created is 'sys.rgt' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'. uwpflow -I ieee300. namely.m'. at about 80 % of the maximum value.m') that are used to compute several voltage stability indices.k' is needed (-K option).lg2': uwpflow -I ieee300.k -c -N -s -lieee300. in this example the continuation process is stopped after 5 steps (-z option).tg' (-Z option). and the corresponding tangent vector at that point is written in the file 'ieee300.

lg3 -S0. Again. Similar to examples 7 and 8. uwpflow -I ieee300. The option -k is used to reduce the step size in the continuation method. The right eigenvector at the bifurcation point is written in the file 'ieee300.k -cieeevp.TXT).cf -Kieee300.lg4 -s -k0. the generation and load direction defined in 'ieee300.3 -n The maximum entries in 'ieee300. so that more points on the bifurcation diagram can be computed.poc -L0. but in this case the nose curve and Transient Energy Function (TEF) information are stored in the file 'ieeevp...poc' (W option). For the program to converge. . 12.lft'.cf -Kieee300.. however. this example depicts how to use the program to find the exact bifurcation point detected above (case 11) using a direct method (-C option).m' in MATLAB.uwpflow -I ieee300.m' in MATLAB format (-m and -O options). system limits are also turned off using the -n option.lft -s -Wieee300. Finally.m' files needed in this case to run 'ieeevp. uwpflow -I ieee300.pf3 -iieee300. All limits are turned off (-n option). an initial solution close to the bifurcation point is needed.lft' can then be obtained by running 'maxim'.5 The program generates the required MATLAB '*.k -Cieee300.m -m -O -n -lieee300. please wait.k -H -lieee300. The computation takes a couple of minutes.vp 11. observe the slow convergence as the system is not close enough to the desired solution point.cf -Kieee300. thus the -L option is used here to move the system closer to the singularity point. and the bifurcation point is stored in TAPE IEEE Common Format in 'ieee300.k' are needed (K option).8 ieee300. so that the TEF can be correctly processed in MATLAB (read program BUGS in README.

(max. DC Input Data Example.0) -> Max.0) -> P load in MW C .#$K+ 173 Bus AC-DC-FACTS Test System Data C 173 BUS AC/DC/FACTS TEST SYSTEM: C WSCC data file C C Case Title (3 A8 lines) HDG 173 BUS AC/DC/FACTS SYSTEM WSCC/ETMSP DATA FORMAT NOVEMBER 1999 BAS C C C System Data C C AC BUSSES C C Bus Input Data: C .0) -> Max.0) -> Min.0) -> generator P power in MW C . 173sys. FACTS Input Data Example.Type (A2) -> "B " -> PQ load bus C "BQ" -> PV generator bus with Q limits C "BE" -> PV generator bus with no Q limits C "BV" -> PQ generator bus with V limits C "BG" -> PQ generator bus with Q limits controlling voltage on C a remote PV load bus C "BC" -> PV load bus with remote voltage control C "BT" -> PQ load bus with voltage controlled by LTC transformer C "BS" -> Swing bus C . voltage for C "BV" PV bus type) C .QM (F5. WSCC Format Example. generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .Z (2A) -> Zone C . # $ 173WSCC 173 ac-dc-FACTS sample system input data 173 Bus System Data.PL (F5.3)-> PV desired voltage magnitude in p.kV (F4.Ow (A3) -> Owner C .QL (F5.Vm (F4.P (F5. generator P power in MW C .0) -> Bus kV base C .0) -> Q load in MVars C . generator Q power in MVars (not needed for "BE" C PV bus types) C .wsc + PFLOWWIN:040 K .Qm (F5.u.Name (A8) -> Bus Name C .0) -> MW and MVars shunts (+ for Capacitors) C .PM (F4. voltage for "BV" PV bus type.Vpu (F4.SHUNT (2F4.3) -> Min.

-146 B BUS_15 345 840. -56. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C | SHUNT | |REMOTE BUS C |Ow|Name |kV |Z|PL |QL |MW |Mva|PM |P |QM |Qm |Vpu|Vm |Name |kV |%Q B BUS_1 345 1750.1050 B BUS_17 500 617.1300.0 -427 B BUS_19 500 B BUS_20 500 B BUS_21 500 B BUS_22 500 B BUS_23 500 B BUS_24 500 B BUS_25 500 B BUS_26 500 B BUS_28 500 B BUS_29 500 BQ BUS_30 20.0 BQ BUS_16 22.8 BQ BUS_9 20.-400. 0. B BUS_38 500 B BUS_39 230 BQ BUS_40 18.0 1200998..950 B BUS_5 500 -113 B BUS_6 345 239.C .600. 5.5-32.1040 B BUS_3 345 2350.4 207.Remote Name (A8) -> Remote controlled bus name for "BG" type bus.-900.00 .4000.0) -> Remote controlled bus kV for "BG" type bus.1.268.0070. BQ BUS_47 11.0100.723.900.0300.0-900.1000 B BUS_12 500 -391 BQ BUS_13 24.700.5 113.00 B BUS_8 230 139. C .0-300. B BUS_32 500 B BUS_33 230 B BUS_34 230 3600 700.5320.0 79004400.0 1000862.0 -155 BQ BUS_7 22.0-134.160..960 B BUS_14 500 793.0 BQ BUS_2 20.0-440.. BQ BUS_4 22.8-17.0 25402540.0300. C . BQ BUS_45 26.0-500.-40001000 B BUS_31 500 44001000.0-100.0 1000700.110.850.027.0 16001590.1020 B BUS_48 230 121.-56.0 20001680. 25.00 -190 BQ BUS_11 26.1000 B BUS_44 345 52. -69.1009 B BUS_37 500 912.0 50004600.0300. BQ BUS_35 20.0 424.0-220.1020 B BUS_41 230 135.0 2060.-35001020 BQ BUS_36 22 20001590.00 B BUS_42 230 BQ BUS_43 18.0 460.700.980 B BUS_10 500 90.0-300.0-525.0 30002000.1050 B BUS_46 230 -72.0-280.Remote kV (F4.-127.0400. 0.9 430.0-400.Remote %Q (I3) -> Percentage of Q of remote bus control for "BG" type bus.

065.0 500 500 500 500 500 345 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 200 200 500 25.6 205.00 987.0 500 200 -80.0330. 462.0.0-711.2 1700.6 -97.025.5160. 80. . 3500.0 5000.500.1 -91.0-310. 792.B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BQ B B B B BQ B B B BQ B BQ B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BQ B B BUS_49 BUS_50 BUS_51 BUS_52 BUS_53 BUS_54 BUS_55 BUS_56 BUS_57 BUS_58 BUS_59 BUS_60 BUS_61 BUS_62 BUS_63 BUS_64 BUS_65 BUS_66 BUS_67 BUS_68 BUS_69 BUS_70 BUS_71 BUS_72 BUS_73 BUS_74 BUS_75 BUS_76 BUS_77 BUS_78 BUS_79 BUS_80 BUS_81 BUS_82 BUS_83 BUS_84 BUS_85 BUS_86 BUS_87 BUS_88 BUS_89 BUS_90 BUS_91 BUS_92 BUS_93 BUS_94 BUS_95 BUS_96 BUS_97 BUS_98 BUS_99 BUS_100 BUS_101 BUS_102 500 230 138 287 287 230 230 500 230 230 230 230 230 230 287 500 20. 1200 550.00 1180600. 50.3 20.00 -108 3100 28601500.00 121.2 200 401.2649. 320.98 305.0 -66.028.5780.50 -0.1055 3200.-18501000 -43.4 -77. 300. 99999900.-20001000 1200 -220 -674 -110 -220 -870 1085 60004045. -339. -7. 610. -414.8 500 20.-10001000 1000 1035 83.00 237. 15001201.25 -67. 32.1 117.-119.222.7 -6.400.692.8 230 500 500 13.2-63.0025.0 500 115 230 500 13.1100.217.031.024.6 27.0 -44.2 138.8132.0 210. 160.6 -129.00 907.6 1043 0.

7 33.0 20.0 200 500 500 20.02 902.0 882. 41. 12.2500.5 148. 3367.61. 18.3491.1.1. 630.8 255.1.78.464.1010 3118.700.-99991.0 500 20.9 11. 777.6 -189.2-28.3-11.02 -128 -91.1.02 . -196 15801580. 72. -300.B B B B BQ B B B BQ B BQ B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BQ B BQ B B B BQ B B B BQ BQ B B B B B B B B B BQ B B BQ BUS_103 BUS_104 BUS_105 BUS_106 BUS_107 BUS_108 BUS_109 BUS_110 BUS_111 BUS_112 BUS_113 BUS_114 BUS_115 BUS_116 BUS_117 BUS_118 BUS_119 BUS_120 BUS_121 BUS_122 BUS_123 BUS_124 BUS_126 BUS_127 BUS_128 BUS_129 BUS_130 BUS_131 BUS_132 BUS_133 BUS_27 BUS_134 BUS_135 BUS_136 BUS_137 BUS_138 BUS_139 BUS_140 BUS_141 BUS_142 BUS_143 BUS_144 BUS_145 BUS_146 BUS_147 BUS_148 BUS_149 BUS_150 BUS_151 BUS_152 BUS_153 BUS_18 BUS_154 BUS_155 200 500 200 500 20. -600.7300. 400.1 38. -400.05 3098. 454.4 -62.09999.0 230 500 500 500 230 345 345 230 345 20.5 884.6 32.0 200 20.0 1230.-10001000 1500 856.-900.0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 230 20. 100.6 -329.05 -32.010 55.7 81.9999.1. -220 1590.0 345 230 20. -91.00 -190 -60. 300.5 1570.0 500 230 500 22.0 8.2000. 54.0 1066.1189.9 116.7 118. 19.1050 2100. -327 -130 1500957. 400.8 457.600.9 148. 370.6 175.900.0 230 500 230 20. -7. -0.0-400.0-300.-10.2 377.8 406. -300.8 5661.05 -319 3055.-99991. 204.4 3191.

1) -> Length in miles C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS N C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||In || R | X | G/2 | B/2 |Mil| L BUS_3 345 BUS_18 3451 .00811.4 B BUS_159 345 379. B BUS_158 345 141. 78.N (I1) -> Circuit number C .X (F6.5 -18.01804 .00977.01988 1.5) -> p.u.kV1 (F4.B/2 (F6.69921 L BUS_20 500 BUS_12 5001 -00634 L BUS_10 500 BUS_21 5001 -01188 L BUS_21 500 BUS_22 5001 .C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .u.5) -> p. series X of PI equivalent C .13690 1. B BUS_160 345 185.0) -> Rated Amps.0000 L BUS_10 500 BUS_19 5001 -00634 L BUS_19 500 BUS_20 5001 .Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C .11000 1.Type (A2) -> "L " C .00077.04410 L BUS_15 345 BUS_3 3451 .u.00241.B BUS_156 345 B BUS_157 345 31.kV2 (F4. shunt B/2 of PI equivalent C .00179.0) -> kV base for sending bus C .5 B BUS_161 500 B BUS_162 500 B BUS_163 500 B BUS_164 500 B BUS_165 500 B BUS_166 500 B BUS_167 500 B BUS_168 500 B BUS_169 500 B BUS_170 500 B BUS_171 500 B BUS_172 500 B BUS_173 500 -220 C C******************************************************************************* C C AC LINES C C Line Input Data: C .271.S (I1) -> Section number C .5) -> p.5) -> p.0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .u.0005 .Ow (A3) -> Owner C . -43. C . -50.Mil (F4.R (F6.2880 L BUS_6 345 BUS_15 3451 .M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .6 11.G/2 (F6.00530 .05865 243280 . shunt G/2 of PI equivalent C .2174 L BUS_6 345 BUS_1 3451 . series R of PI equivalent C .In (F4.

303 .00177.00040.00602 .01025 .00220.00027.00623 .00586 .00475 .00221.00459 .00393 .00179.04959 -01795 .01116 .00964 .04296 .03669 .00027.00128.01279 .00074.03074 .01583 .01668 .00027.01244 .00281.00290.07905 .01884 .00110.00201.8576 1.03858 .00030.01399 .00040.00393 .04824 .00967 .00029.00393 .03753 .03422 .01070.04244 -00826 -01795 .02000 .01070.59401 .04677 .00229.01235 .01025 .02316 .06001 .00415 .00141.00964 .06001 .6500 .00207.00161.L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L BUS_22 BUS_12 BUS_23 BUS_24 BUS_12 BUS_25 BUS_26 BUS_14 BUS_14 BUS_5 BUS_28 BUS_29 BUS_31 BUS_33 BUS_52 BUS_53 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_57 BUS_57 BUS_57 BUS_57 BUS_62 BUS_64 BUS_41 BUS_37 BUS_37 BUS_37 BUS_37 BUS_42 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_50 BUS_50 BUS_50 BUS_50 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_39 BUS_39 BUS_39 BUS_39 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_48 BUS_75 BUS_75 BUS_77 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 230 287 287 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 500 230 500 500 500 500 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 500 500 500 BUS_17 BUS_23 BUS_24 BUS_17 BUS_25 BUS_26 BUS_27 BUS_17 BUS_17 BUS_28 BUS_29 BUS_12 BUS_32 BUS_34 BUS_63 BUS_63 BUS_41 BUS_58 BUS_58 BUS_42 BUS_54 BUS_54 BUS_58 BUS_55 BUS_49 BUS_58 BUS_38 BUS_56 BUS_64 BUS_64 BUS_58 BUS_62 BUS_62 BUS_42 BUS_42 BUS_57 BUS_58 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_46 BUS_48 BUS_59 BUS_60 BUS_46 BUS_59 BUS_59 BUS_59 BUS_59 BUS_60 BUS_60 BUS_60 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_75 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5002 5001 5001 5001 5001 2301 2871 2871 2301 2301 2302 2301 2301 2302 2301 2301 5001 2301 5001 5001 5001 5002 2301 2301 2302 2301 2302 2301 2301 2301 2302 2301 2301 2301 2301 2301 2301 2302 2303 2304 2301 2302 2303 5001 5002 5001 -01188 -00826 .01244 .07000 .00459 .07905 .01399 .83334 .02000 .00119.0035 .00960 -00408 .00083.00971 .45190 .00971 .00141.00960 .00159 .01279 .04142 .70132 .18335 .00055.45190 167230 2.01583 .05040 .00138.00229.0020 .00970 .00979 .01257 .00073.01235 .03422 .00138.00047.00536 .00459 .04189 -00612 .00082.00366 .800 .00119.00820 169610 197580 .00035.01116 .00970 .00037.00161.00238.04120 .18335 .03669 .00120.4000 .01530 .03443 .00020.00309.01861 .00073.01060 .00812 .01189 .00723 .00967 .00159 .00434 .03800 .03346 .01530 .00226.

01502 .56905 .00001-01120 .5411 .00076. 838.00020.00116 .02482.00140.47988 .00446 .06540 .00074.03430 .10963 .01266 -01263 .06804 . .6500 .01050.54878 .03580 .01266 -01263 .02119 -01000 .00012.03643 .05530 .00074. 747.06033 .09171 .00451 .00095.47988 .71260 .20460 .77771 .00006.77674 .05356 -02667 -01000 . 747.00238 .00737 -01263 .00066.00074.16938 .01105.5411 .L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L BUS_77 BUS_68 BUS_68 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_79 BUS_79 BUS_79 BUS_79 BUS_84 BUS_85 BUS_80 BUS_86 BUS_87 BUS_79 BUS_88 BUS_89 BUS_90 BUS_91 BUS_79 BUS_92 BUS_93 BUS_94 BUS_95 BUS_78 BUS_96 BUS_106 BUS_115 BUS_116 BUS_117 BUS_118 BUS_109 BUS_119 BUS_120 BUS_109 BUS_121 BUS_122 BUS_110 BUS_123 BUS_124 BUS_110 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_98 BUS_97 BUS_98 BUS_102 BUS_98 BUS_103 BUS_114 500 230 230 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 500 BUS_75 BUS_71 BUS_71 BUS_72 BUS_72 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_73 BUS_84 BUS_85 BUS_83 BUS_86 BUS_87 BUS_83 BUS_88 BUS_89 BUS_90 BUS_91 BUS_80 BUS_92 BUS_93 BUS_94 BUS_95 BUS_80 BUS_96 BUS_81 BUS_115 BUS_116 BUS_117 BUS_118 BUS_114 BUS_119 BUS_120 BUS_110 BUS_121 BUS_122 BUS_110 BUS_123 BUS_124 BUS_114 BUS_126 BUS_108 BUS_108 BUS_108 BUS_112 BUS_97 BUS_112 BUS_102 BUS_112 BUS_103 BUS_112 BUS_127 5002 2301 2302 5001 5002 5001 5002 5001 5002 5003 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 2001 2002 2003 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 5001 3020 3020 3450 3450 2175 2175 3450 3020 3020 3450 2000 3450 3600 2000 3600 3020 2400 3020 2400 3020 3020 2000 3020 2000 3020 3600 1732 2667 2894 2667 2894 2667 1800 2396 1800 1800 2396 1800 2667 2450 2667 2450 752.91225 .99210 .00002-00998 .16660 . 747.09268 .00066.00002-00998 .36347 .01382. 838.02408 .00140. 838.00001-00666 . 752.00001.01428 -01263 .00001.00030 .00060.0148 .00041.06642 .53317 264533 .03409 .12236 .00166 .02409 .16106 .00072.00109.00078.01668.00154. 602.50728 .01413 .01113.00023.00001-00755 .73750 115570 .00082.00030 .00001-00666 .27403 .73750 .11381 .00001-01120 .01036 .02102 .02338 .06678 .02235.01428 -01263 .00820 .00922 .10116 . 838.01412 .00131 .03903.01952 -01000 .00189 .03058.00006.00264.00020.00717 .15250 .00108.10101 .02338 .01382 -00858 .15536 .63786 .00063.

00080.02087 .00056.03490 .01280 .650 2.00753 .00960.03720 .06020 .00210.00044.19050 .29120 .00040.29245 .30910 .72855 .00190.06328 .00120.01937 .50500 .05370 .79020 .07034 .08780 .44215 .00138.19225 .03920 83.03644 .10195 .00079.27680 .00240.00457 .02087 .16480 .00103.00930 .00002-00998 .01060 .54395 .00340.69475 .00190.09650 .71325 .03100 .02400 .00028.00750 .31040 .47310 .19960 .02260 .41460 .07400 -00720 .00060.00110.00035.00002-01331 .01415 .00285.00340.41460 207010 233560 .00380.03400 .05626 .00165.00087.34280 .00845.02470 -00720 -01000 .00520.32620 1.52145 .07626 .00905 .00087.00042.00170.03649 .66425 .03320 .02390 70.00320.01080.03740 .03230 -01000 -00935 123870 .02338 -00720 -00864 .72855 .25868 .02779 .00320.01125 .03950 .00160.01270 .05719 .04920 .01600 .33397 .00021.00138.07977 .05399 .76350 139800 .435 .07200 .L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L BUS_127 BUS_128 BUS_114 BUS_129 BUS_101 BUS_130 BUS_101 BUS_99 BUS_99 BUS_136 BUS_136 BUS_136 BUS_27 BUS_141 BUS_131 BUS_136 BUS_139 BUS_145 BUS_136 BUS_136 BUS_144 BUS_144 BUS_132 BUS_132 BUS_135 BUS_148 BUS_140 BUS_150 BUS_149 BUS_150 BUS_149 BUS_149 BUS_152 BUS_149 BUS_149 BUS_149 BUS_152 BUS_152 BUS_18 BUS_18 BUS_151 BUS_152 BUS_31 BUS_75 BUS_80 BUS_161 BUS_162 BUS_80 BUS_163 BUS_164 BUS_80 BUS_165 BUS_166 BUS_104 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 345 230 345 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 BUS_128 BUS_104 BUS_129 BUS_101 BUS_130 BUS_104 BUS_99 BUS_104 BUS_104 BUS_147 BUS_147 BUS_141 BUS_136 BUS_27 BUS_146 BUS_145 BUS_145 BUS_146 BUS_139 BUS_139 BUS_148 BUS_148 BUS_137 BUS_144 BUS_137 BUS_137 BUS_137 BUS_160 BUS_160 BUS_149 BUS_18 BUS_18 BUS_157 BUS_152 BUS_152 BUS_158 BUS_159 BUS_159 BUS_159 BUS_159 BUS_154 BUS_158 BUS_77 BUS_66 BUS_161 BUS_162 BUS_109 BUS_163 BUS_164 BUS_109 BUS_165 BUS_166 BUS_106 BUS_167 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5002 5001 5002 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5002 2301 2302 2301 2301 2301 2301 2301 3451 3451 3451 3451 3452 3451 3451 3452 3451 3451 3452 3451 3452 2301 3451 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 5001 2450 1800 2450 2450 2450 2450 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 2320 2320 2320 1160 2320 2320 2320 1800 3020 1800 1800 3020 1800 2134 .00490.00340.02250 .01125 .00093.02580 .00001-01098 .16168 .00107.00193.00044.01720 .14935 .00103.28610 .03399 .02380 .00072.

Ow (A3) -> Owner C .00112.u.Tap1 (F5.02450 .91793 L BUS_172 500 BUS_147 5001 2100 -00840 L BUS_136 500 BUS_64 5001 .00 T BUS_1 345 BUS_2 20.u.S (I1) -> Section number C .00620. shunt B of equivalent circuit C .00259.99440 L BUS_170 500 BUS_147 5001 2134 -00935 L BUS_104 500 BUS_171 5001 2134 -00935 L BUS_171 500 BUS_172 5001 3600 .00259.50970 L BUS_14 500 BUS_131 5001 1800 .0) -> kV base for receiving bus C .B (F6.00179.00410 .5) -> p.kV2 (F4.01200 3550020.Type (A2) -> "T " C .00123.Tap2 (F5.X (F6.02640 .00480.G (F6.02517 .00280.00140. series R of equivalent circuit C .02336 L BUS_144 230 BUS_61 2302 3070 . series X of equivalent circuit C .00122.55780 L BUS_44 345 BUS_18 3451 .00180.21960 L BUS_44 345 BUS_18 3452 .01187 .00 T BUS_14 500 BUS_13 24.L BUS_167 500 BUS_168 5001 3600 .01 3066 .35390 C C******************************************************************************* C C TRANSFORMERS C C Transformer Input Data: C .5) -> p.0) -> Rated MVA C .02450 .14810 L BUS_27 500 BUS_64 5001 .01 .5) -> p.00539 5300023.02662 .C (I1) -> Circuit ID C .00123.21960 L BUS_156 345 BUS_6 3451 .26773 L BUS_27 500 BUS_64 5002 .02524 .02336 L BUS_132 230 BUS_61 2301 3070 .01500 3450020.N (I1) -> Circuit number C .26773 L BUS_144 230 BUS_61 2301 3070 .00065.Sn (F4.04360 .2) -> kV tap for sending bus C .00020.02110 .Name_1 (A8) -> Name of sending bus C .01 .00180.2) -> kV tap for receiving bus C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M CS C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||Sn | R | X | G | B |Tap1|Tap2| T BUS_3 345 BUS_9 20.02967 107650 L BUS_14 500 BUS_131 5002 1800 .02524 .kV1 (F4.00006.u.00179.02659 .01187 .5) -> p.00065.R (F6.06730 .99351 L BUS_168 500 BUS_147 5001 2134 -00935 L BUS_104 500 BUS_169 5001 2134 -00944 L BUS_169 500 BUS_170 5001 3600 .0) -> kV base for sending bus C .00 .02967 107650 L BUS_78 500 BUS_173 5001 1732 -02667 L BUS_173 500 BUS_83 5001 3600 .02373 110355 L BUS_150 345 BUS_82 3451 .u.Name_2 (A8) -> Name of receiving bus C . shunt G of equivalent circuit C .M (I1) -> Metered bus for flow interchange C .05100 L BUS_10 500 BUS_27 5001 1630 .

00150 .0 218.0 200 200 200 500 500 500 500 20.00 2280022500 20.015 .01071 .00980 .T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T BUS_15 BUS_5 BUS_5 BUS_6 BUS_6 BUS_6 BUS_10 BUS_32 BUS_31 BUS_34 BUS_64 BUS_44 BUS_66 BUS_81 BUS_77 BUS_72 BUS_68 BUS_69 BUS_69 BUS_73 BUS_68 BUS_107 BUS_108 BUS_113 BUS_111 BUS_112 BUS_105 BUS_105 BUS_99 BUS_147 BUS_147 BUS_147 BUS_133 BUS_141 BUS_134 BUS_138 BUS_139 BUS_52 BUS_53 BUS_54 BUS_54 BUS_56 BUS_56 BUS_38 BUS_42 BUS_49 BUS_48 BUS_39 BUS_60 BUS_143 BUS_3 BUS_152 BUS_157 BUS_150 345 500 500 345 345 345 500 500 500 230 500 345 500 500 500 500 230 500 500 500 230 20.00410 .01 2301 5001 2301 1381 1381 1381 1382 2301 2302 2301 18.01 2301 2302 26. 430.00200 . 1120 840.00018. 2350052500 2350052500 2350052500 5250025.00028.00013.00026.0 345 345 345 345 BUS_16 BUS_6 BUS_6 BUS_7 BUS_8 BUS_8 BUS_11 BUS_33 BUS_30 BUS_35 BUS_63 BUS_45 BUS_65 BUS_82 BUS_76 BUS_71 BUS_67 BUS_68 BUS_68 BUS_74 BUS_70 BUS_108 BUS_109 BUS_114 BUS_112 BUS_114 BUS_104 BUS_104 BUS_100 BUS_148 BUS_148 BUS_148 BUS_27 BUS_142 BUS_135 BUS_139 BUS_140 BUS_51 BUS_51 BUS_51 BUS_51 BUS_55 BUS_55 BUS_48 BUS_43 BUS_48 BUS_47 BUS_40 BUS_61 BUS_144 BUS_4 BUS_153 BUS_156 BUS_151 22.00666 .0 508.01 2301 20.02535 .00000.00520 500 .00018.00029.01491 .01491 .01130 .01149 .01950 .00008.0 233.0 502.00580 .00059.01330 .00013.01 3451 20.00020.015 .01386 .0 200 20.01 20.00 5500023000 52500 2000 23000 2000 4902828750 3536226.11473 .00058.01386 .01390 .005 .01380 .00980 .0 20.00600 .00693 .00050.01 20.00 5315034500 5315034500 3450022.20 2300013.01578 .01578 .01149 .01386 .0 235. 5250022.00085.0035 .01 3451 3452 22.004 . 1120 1120 1120 1120 .01079 .00013.0 529.01 3451 2301 3000 430.01810 3600022.01000 .00020. 1008 1300 5000 2000 840.00200 .02330 .00 5250023000 2410011.00 3450034500 3450023000 .00030.20 20.01100 .00499.0 220.0 500 20.00059.00120 .00590 .01 20. 20.010 .00000.0 20.00027.0 500 287 287 230 230 500 500 500 230 500 230 230 230 20.01100 .50 2300018. 5000023000 2875013800 2875013800 2300013800 2300013800 5053023000 5053023000 5250023000 2413018.01 2871 26.00 5315623000 5315623000 5315623000 20. 2350052500 20. 2000 1500 2500 250.00 20.00 3450023000 3450023000 5400026.00018.01238 .01340 .01 2301 11.00030.005 .01134 .81 2001 5001 5001 2001 5001 5001 5002 25.0192 .00 54500 2000 5250034500 53300 2000 5373024150 2328011790 5375024150 5375024150 5250013.01 2301 2302 2303 5001 22.01149 .01 2301 1151 2301 2302 13. 3450022.00009.00 3400020.51 18.00000.00250 . 20.02380 .00720 .02845 .00030.81 13.01 2301 2301 22.00667 .

T BUS_154 230 BUS_155 20.001 . 100.001 .Set Points (2F5.15 5.E3 BD DC1-I-P+GROUND BUS_60 2301 117.843 .18. kV.3) -> Max.Imx (F4.40 5.Gmn (F4.001 .E3 BD GROUND DC1-I-P-BUS_60 2301 117.Amn (F4. 100.AC bus kV (F4. AL=alpha.40 5.16.92 1. PA=P_power.001 .40 90.Tstp (F5.00 C C******************************************************************************* C C DC BUS DATA C C DC Bus Input Data: C .1) -> Max.0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C . 4.N (I2) -> Number of converter bridges C .194 .Tmax (F5.92 1.001 .Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .16.01 . 170. C . tap in p.E3 BD GROUND DC2-R-P-BUS_44 3451 124.7 1. 5.Gr (A3) -> Group C .Amx (F4.4) -> Nominal voltage ratio of transformer C .00000.001 . 100.6 1. 0.3) -> Min. tap in p.92 1. MW. current in amps.Type (A2) -> "BZ" C . C . 100. 170. GA=gamma.Z (A2) -> Zone C . 5. 170.7 1. 4.01410 2435220. 170.00460 3450022. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |AC bus C C |Name_1 |Name_2 |Name |kV ||Gr|Z|N|Xc |Rat |Tstp|Tmin|Tmax|Amn|Amx|Gmn|Imx BD DC1-R-P+GROUND BUS_71 2301 117.80 1.1) -> Min. 0. 5.7 0.80 1. alpha C .u.808 . 0.Rat (F5.AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C .Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .3) -> Tap steps in % C .2)-> Control mode values: A. gamma C .1) -> Min.E3 BD DC2-R-P+GROUND BUS_44 3451 124.194 . 0.00050.001 .80 1.3 1.808 .00 T BUS_82 345 BUS_36 221 2000 . or deg. Mvar.40 90. 5.E3 C C******************************************************************************* C C DC BUS CONTROL DATA C C DC Bus Control Input Data: C . .1) -> Max. C VD=Voltage. 4.E3 BD GROUND DC1-R-P-BUS_71 2301 117.0) -> Converter ac bus kV base C .20 90.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .Xc (F5.92 1.80 1.843 .C (I1) -> Circuit number C .843 .7 0.Type (A2) -> "BD" C .15 5.E3 BD GROUND DC2-I-P-BUS_37 5001 123.3) -> Commutation reactance in Ohms C .6 1.3 1.20 90.18.u.AC bus kV (F4.843 . QA=Q_power C .Mod 1 & 2 (2A2) -> Converter control modes: ID=current.Tmin (F5. alpha C .E3 BD DC2-I-P+GROUND BUS_37 5001 123.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C .001 .AC bus Name (A8) -> Converter ac bus name C .C (I1) -> Circuit number C . 4.

kV2 (F4. 15.0) -> Bus 2 kV base. 15.t.r.2) -> Capacitance in uF (optional) C .Type (A2) -> "BD" C .Gr (A3) -> Group C . C . LD DC2-R-P+DC2-I-P+1 7.82 693. C .Ow (A3) -> Owner C .Xc (F8.Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that SVC controls. I=inverter C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C|Mod|Set Points T C |Name_1 |Name_2 |AC bus |kV ||1|2| 1 | 2 | BZ DC1-R-P+GROUND BUS_71 2301IDAL 3100.1) -> Max. C .L (F6. R BZ DC1-I-P+GROUND BUS_60 2301VDGA 447. 18. current in amps.Xl (F8. 1300. . 1300.C .C (I1) -> Circuit number C . 16. LD DC2-R-P-DC2-I-P-1 7.2) -> Resistance in Ohms C .0) -> Bus 1 kV base.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . MVA and kV1 base.Imax (F6.2) -> Inductance in mH (optional) C . 18.r. C .C (F6. R BZ GROUND DC2-R-P-BUS_44 3451IDAL 1920. I BZ DC2-R-P+GROUND BUS_44 3451IDAL 1920.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where SVC is connected. 16. 15.7) -> Per unit SVC inductive X w.Name_2 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 2 name C . C . I BZ GROUND DC2-I-P-BUS_37 5001VDGA 485. 15.kV1 (F4. I C C******************************************************************************* C C DC LINE DATA C C DC Line Input Data: C .T (A1) -> Type: R=rectifier.R (F6.7) -> Per unit SVC capacitive X w. C C******************************************************************************* C C SVC DATA C C SVC Input Data: C .Type (A2) -> "FS" (F for FACTS. I BZ GROUND DC1-I-P-BUS_60 2301VDGA 447. (optional) C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C C |Name_1 |Name_2 ||Gr|Z|Ow|R ohm|L mH|C uF|Imax | LD DC1-R-P+DC1-I-P+1 19.t.Name_1 (A8) -> Converter dc bus 1 name C .82 693. MVA and kV1 base. C . R BZ GROUND DC1-R-P-BUS_71 2301IDAL 3100.Z (A2) -> Zone C . R BZ DC2-I-P+GROUND BUS_37 5001VDGA 485. S for SVC). LD DC1-R-P-DC1-I-P-1 19.

C . C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|s|MVA|Vrf|kV |Xth |al FS BUS_114 500 BUS_114 500 1. 26. C .Bus2 (A8) -> Receiving bus where TCSC is connected. w.kV2 (F4. C for TCSC).0) -> Low kV side of step-down transformer (optional). C . Defaults to MVA system base.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees.t MVA and kV1 base.al (F5. C .r.Ow (A3) -> Owner C . C .0) -> Bus 2 kV base.MVA (F4.M1 (F4.Bus1 (A8) -> Sending bus where TCSC is connected.am (F3. C . C .7) -> Step-down transformer reactance in p. C .s (F2. .0) -> Bus 1 kV base.t. C .1708 0. to SVC MVA C rating and kV1 (optional). C .t MVA and kV1 base.1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional).3) -> p. I for current.kV (F4. P for power. C . C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|Xc |Xl |am|aM|cont ||MVA|al |M1 | FC BUS_126 500 BUS_114 500 . C .Mode (A1) -> Control mode: X for reactance.r. C .0) -> Needed for determining series line reactance for % X C control: M1=Xc/Xline.Xth (F8.1 C C******************************************************************************* C C TCSC DATA C C TCSC Input Data: C .Bus2 (A8) -> System bus that STATCOM controls. C .00526 .1) -> Initial value of firing angle in degrees (optional).3)-> TCSC control value: % of X. degrees for D.am (F3. reference control voltage.Type (A2) -> "FT" (F for FACTS.0) -> SVC maximum rating in MVAr (capacitive).u. MW for P. C .0) -> TCSC rating in MVA.kV1 (F4.cont (F8.7) -> Per unit TCSC inductive X w.0) -> Bus 1 kV base.0) -> Minimum firing angle alpha in degrees.4925 90175 2 200 1.0) -> SVC control slope in % w. T for STATCOM).t.Vrf (F4.al (F5.Xc (F8.r.0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees.aM (F3. C . KA for I. C .r.0) -> Maximum firing angle alpha in degrees.Xl (F8.000526 144175 90.C . C .Type (A2) -> "FC" (F for FACTS. C D for angle.Bus1 (A8) -> System bus where STATCOM is connected. C . 0. C .aM (F3. C .0 X 4. C .7) -> Per unit TCSC capacitive X w. C C******************************************************************************* C C STATCOM DATA C C STATCOM Input Data: C .kV1 (F4. to MVA and kV1 base. C .MVA (F4.u.

X (F6.kV (F4.145 .r.u. w.r.Gc (F6.r. to MVA and kV1 base.t.4) -> Max.M (A1) -> Control mode: W for PWM control (default).5) -> AC X in p. C .Max Iter (I5) -> Maximum number of Newton-Raphson iteration C . C . 2.9 C C******************************************************************************* C C SOLUTION CONTROL CARD C C Solution control card: C . MVA and kV1 base. w.s (F3. MVA and a kVdc base defined by the C secondary side of the STATCOM transformer(s). P for phase C control.0) -> Bus 2 kV base.u.u.4) -> Reference angle for slack bus in degrees C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C |Max| |SLACK BUS | C |Itr| |Name |kV| |Angle | SOL 50 BUS_74 13.t.t.0) -> AC voltage control slope in % w. capacitive current (Imin>0) in p.u. w.kV2 (F4.R (F6. w.k constant for phase control (defaults to a value C of 0. C C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 C M C |Ow|Bus1 |kV1 |Bus2 |kV2|R |X |Gc |Im |IM |s |MVA |Vrf||Con FT BUS_60 230 BUS_60 230 0. C a kVdc base (defaults to 1 p.r.9 for a 12 pulse VSI if no value is given).r. P 0.DC reference voltage for PWM control in p.4) -> Max. inductive current (Imax>0) in p. C .).Vrf (F4.Angle (F10.Name (A8) -> Name of the slack bus C .8 0. w.t. C . C .C .0) -> Rating in MVA (defaults to the system base). C . C . w.r.0 0.5) -> DC G in p. C MVA and kV1 base.t.0) -> AC R in p.r.t.2000.t.0017 1.0) -> kV base for slack bus C .3) -> AC reference voltage in p.u.u.Con (F6. MVA and kV1 base. C .5) -> Control variable value: C . C C ZZ END . kV1 base. 1.t.Im (F6. w. C .r. C . 1.MVA (F5.u.IM (F6. C MVA and kV1 base. C .u.