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. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloading or redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook. This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do not change or edit the header without written permission. Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You can also find out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved. **Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts** **eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971** *****These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!***** Title: A Complete Grammar of Esperanto Author: Ivy Kellerman Release Date: March, 2005 [EBook #7787] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was first posted on May 25, 2003] [Date last updated: November 13, 2004] Edition: 10 Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII *** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK A COMPLETE GRAMMAR OF ESPERANTO ***

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TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE: The Esperanto alphabet contains 28 characters. These are the characters of English, but with "q", "w", "x", and "y" removed, and six diacritical letters added. The diacritical letters are "c", "g", "h", "j" and "s" with circumflexes (or "hats", as Esperantists fondly call them), and "u" with a breve. Zamenhof himself suggested

that where the diacritical letters caused difficulty, one could instead use "ch", "gh", "hh", "jh", "sh" and "u". A plain ASCII file is one such place; there are no ASCII codes for Esperanto's special letters. However, there are two problems with Zamenhof's "h-method". There is no difference between "u" and "u" with a breve, and there is no way to determine (without prior knowledge of the word(s) involved, and sometimes a bit of context) whether an "h" following one of those other five letters is really the second half of a diacritical pair, or just an "h" that happened to find itself next to one of them. Consequently other, unambiguous, methods have been used over the years. One is the "x-method", which uses the digraphs "cx", "gx", "hx", "jx", "sx" and "ux" to represent the special letters. There is no ambiguity because the letter "x" is not an Esperanto letter, and each diacritical letter has a unique transliteration. This is the method used in this Project Gutenberg e-text.


necessity. Such presentation, including full and accurate grammatical explanations, suitably graded reading lessons, and similarly graded material for translation from English, has not heretofore been accessible within the compass of a single volume, or in fact within the compass of any two or three volumes. The combination of grammar and reader here offered is therefore unique. It is to furnish not merely an introduction to Esperanto, or a superficial acquaintance with it, but a genuine understanding of the language and mastery of its use without recourse to additional textbooks, readers, etc. In other words, this one volume affords as complete a knowledge of Esperanto as several years' study of a grammar and various readers will accomplish for any national language. Inflection, word-formation and syntax are presented clearly and concisely, yet with a degree of completeness and in a systematic order that constitute a new feature. Other points worthy of note are the following: The reasons for syntactical usages are given, instead of mere statements that such usages exist. For example, clauses of purpose and of result are really explained, instead of being dismissed with the unsatisfactory remark that "the imperative follows 'por ke,'" or the "use of 'tiel ... ke' and 'tia ... ke' must be distinguished from that of 'tiel ... kiel' and 'tia ... kia,'" etc., with but little intimation of when and why "por ke", "tiel ... ke" and "tia ... ke" are likely to occur. Affixes are not mentioned until some familiarity with the general character of the language is assured, as well as the possession of a fair vocabulary. They are introduced gradually, with adequate explanation and illustration. Of importance in connection with word-formation is an element distinctly new--the explanation and classification of compound words. Such words, like affixes, are withheld until the use of simple words is familiar. Another new feature is the gradual introduction of correlative words in their logical order, and in their proper grammatical categories, before they are called "correlatives," or tabulated. The tabulation finally presented is a real classification, with regard to the meaning and grammatical character of the words, not merely an arbitrary alphabetical arrangement. The use of primary adverbs precedes the explanation of adverb derivation; prepositions, especially "de", "da", "je", etc., receive careful attention, also the verb system, and the differentiation of words whose English equivalents are ambiguous. A general characteristic of obvious advantage is that almost without exception new forms and constructions are illustrated by means of words or roots already familiar. Likewise, the new words or roots of each lesson recur at least once in the next lesson, and usually in some lesson thereafter as well. Each reading exercise gives not only a thorough application of the grammatical principles of the lesson, but a review of those in the preceding lesson, and no use is made of words or constructions not yet explained. The comparative ease of the language, and the lack of necessity for reciting paradigms, permit the reading exercises to be long enough for the student to feel that he has really mastered something. These exercises are further unique, in that each after the fifth is a coherent narrative, and nearly every one is a story of genuine interest in itself. These stories, if bound separately, would alone constitute a reader equivalent to those used in first and second year work in national languages. (For list of titles, see Table of Contents.)

The second element of the twofold need which this volume meets is the necessity for a presentation of Esperanto, not as a thing apart, but in that form which will make it most serviceable as an introduction to national tongues. A stepping-stone to both ancient and modern languages, Esperanto may render invaluable aid, and pave the way for surmounting the many difficulties confronting both student and teacher. Through Esperanto, the labor in the acquirement of these languages may be reduced in the same proportion in which the pleasure and thoroughness of such acquirement are increased. For this reason, the grammatical constructions of Esperanto are here explained as consistently as possible in accordance with the usage of national languages, especially those in the school curriculum, and precise names are assigned to them. Such matters as "contrary to fact conditions", "indirect quotations", "clauses of purpose" and "of result", "accusatives of time" and "measure", "expressions of separation", "reference", etc., thus become familiar to the student, long before he meets them in the more difficult garb of a national tongue, whose exceptions seem to outnumber its rules, and whose idioms prove more puzzling than its exceptions, unless approached by the smooth and gradual ascent of the International Language, Esperanto. Ivy Kellerman. Washington, D. C., August 3, 1910. * * * * *

TABLE OF CONTENTS. LESSON I. Alphabet.--Vowels.--Consonants.--Names of the Letters.-Diphthongs.--Combinations of Consonants.--Syllables.--Accent. II. Nouns.--The Article.--Adjectives.--Attributive Adjectives.-Present Tense of the Verb III. The Plural Number.--Predicate Adjective and Noun IV. Transitive Verbs.--The Accusative Case.--The Conjunction "Kaj".--The Negative "Ne". V. The Complementary Infinitive.--Interrogation.--The Conjunction "Nek". VI. Personal Pronouns.--Agreement with Pronouns.--Conjugation of the Verb. VII. The Past Tense.--Prepositions.--Accusative Case of Personal Pronouns. VIII. Reflexive Pronouns.--Reflexive Verbs. IX. Limitation of the Third Personal Pronoun.--Possessive Adjectives.--Pronominal Use of Possessive Adjectives.--"La Kato kaj la Pasero". X. The Accusative of Direction.--The Article for the Possessive Adjective.--Apposition.--"La Arabo kaj la Kamelo". XI. Possessive Case of Nouns.--Impersonal Verbs.--Verbs Preceding their Subjects.--Coordinating Conjunctions.--"La Arabo en la Dezerto". XII. Indirect Statements.--The Indefinite Personal Pronoun "Oni".--The Future Tense.--"La Ventoflago". XIII. The Demonstrative "Pronoun Tiu".--Tenses in Indirect Quotations.--Formation of Feminine Nouns.--"En la

Parko". XIV. The Demonstrative Pronoun "Cxi tiu".--Possessive Form of the Demonstrative Pronoun.--The Suffix "-Il-".--The Expression of Means or Instrumentality.--"La Mangxo". XV. The Demonstrative Adjective.--Adverbs Defined and Classified.--Formation of Opposites.--"La Ruza Juna Viro". XVI. The Demonstrative Adverb of Place.--Accompaniment.--The Adverb "For".--The Meaning of "Povi".--"Malamikoj en la Dezerto". XVII. The Demonstrative Temporal Adverb.--Comparison of Adjectives.--Manner and Characteristic.--"Diri", "Paroli" and "Rakonti".--"Frederiko Granda kaj la Juna Servisto". XVIII. The Demonstrative Adverb of Motive or Reason.--Derivation of Adverbs.--Comparison of Words Expressing Quantity.-Comparisons Containing "Ol".--Causal Clauses.--"Pri la Sezonoj". XIX. "Ju" and "Des" in Comparisons.--The Preposition "Inter".-The Preposition "Pro".--Prepositions with Adverbs and Other Prepositions.--"La Auxtuno kaj la Vintro". XX. The Demonstrative Adverb of Manner and Degree.--Prepositions Expressing Time-Relations.--"En Septembro". XXI. The Accusative of Time.--Adverbs and the Accusative of Time.--The Preposition "Por".--"La Sezonoj kaj la Mondo". XXII. Clauses Expressing Duration of Time.--Clauses Expressing Anticipation.--The Infinitive with "Anstataux", "Por", "Antaux ol".--The Expression of a Part of the Whole.-"Diogeno kaj Aleksandro Granda". XXIII. Adverbs Expressing a Part of the Whole.--The Demonstrative Adverb of Quantity.--Result Clauses.--"En la Butiko". XXIV. The Interrogative Pronoun.--The Present Active Participle.--Compound Tenses.--The Progressive Present Tense.--The Suffix "-Ej-".--"En Nia Domo". XXV. The Interrogative Adjective.--The Imperfect Tense.-Salutations and Exclamations.--Word Formation.--"Koni" and "Scii".--"La Nepo Vizitas la Avinon". XXVI. The Interrogative Adverb of Place.--The Past Active Participle.--Adverb Derivation from Prepositions.--Adverbs Expressing Direction of Motion.--The Suffix "-Eg-".--"La Pluvego". XXVII. The Interrogative Temporal Adverb.--The Perfect Tense.--The Preposition "Cxe".--The Suffix "-Ar-".--"Tempo" and "Fojo".-The Orthography of Proper Names.--"Roberto Bruce kaj la Araneo". XXVIII. The Interrogative Adverb of Motive or Reason.-- The Infinitive as Subject.--Present Action with Past Inception.--The Suffix "-Ul-".--"Logxi" and "Vivi".--"Pri la Avo kaj la Avino". XXIX. The Interrogative Adverb of Manner and Degree.--The Pluperfect Tense.--Cardinal Numbers.--The Accusative of Measure.--"Nia Familio". XXX. The Interrogative Adverb of Quantity.--Modifiers of Impersonally Used Verbs.--Formation of Cardinal Numerals.--The Suffix "-An-".--"Leciono Pri Aritmetiko". XXXI. The Relative Pronoun.--The Future Perfect Tense.--Ordinal Numerals.--"Alfredo Granda kaj la Libro". XXXII. "Kia" as a Relative Adjective.--"Kie" as a Relative Adverb.--The Future Active Participle.--The Periphrastic

--The General Meaning of "De".--Correlative Words.--"En la Stacidomo".--The Preposition "Laux".--The Prefix "Dis-".--The Prefix "Ek-".--The Imperfect Passive Tense.--"Pri la Gravitado". The Distributive Temporal Adverb. L.--"Kiel" as a Relative Adverb.--Expression of the Highest Degree Possible.--The Past Passive Participle. XLIV.--The Use of "De" to Express Agency.--"La Invito".--The Suffix "-Igx-". "Neniel".--"La Perdita Infano".-Predicate Nominatives.--"La Krepusko". XLIII. The Negative Adjective.--Reciprocal Expressions.--The Use of "Mem". The Distributive Adjective.--The Suffix "-Obl-".--The Indefinite Adverb of Place. XLVII.--Numeral Nouns and Adverbs.--The Suffix "-Ing-".--"La Hxinoj".--"Arhximedo kaj la Kronoj". XLII. The Negative Adverbs "Nenial".--The Time of Day.--The Passive Periphrastic Future Tenses.-Dependent Compounds. Prepositions as Prefixes.--Compound Tenses of the Conditional Mood.--The Adverbial Participle.--The Suffix "-Ajx-".--"Alfredo Granda kaj la Kukoj". The Indefinite Temporal Adverb.--The Preposition "Po".--Independent Use of the Conditional Mood. The Pronoun "Ambaux". The Future Passive Participle. The Distributive Pronoun.--Formations with "-Ig-" and "-Igx-".--"La Cxevalo kaj la Sonorilo". LI. "Kiom" as a Relative Adverb. .--The Suffix "-Uj-". XLVI.--Fractions.--The Suffix "-Id-".-The Suffix "-Ad-". The Distributive Adverb "Cxiel". The Indefinite Pronoun. The Pronouns ending in "-O".--Emphasis by Means of "Ja".--The Adverb "Jen".--Titles and Terms of Address. The Distributive Adverb of Place. XXXIV.--The Suffix "-Ec-".-Compound Tenses of Impersonal Verbs. "Kiam" as a Relative Adverb.--Descriptive Compounds.--The Indefinite Adverb "Ial". XLI.--The Perfect Passive Tense. LII.--The Pluperfect Passive Tense.--Causative Verbs.--"Sur la Vaporsxipo".--The Distributive Adverb "Cxiom".--The Suffix "-Et-". XL.--The Expression of Material.-Factual Conditions.--"Du Artkonkursoj". XXXIX.--The Negative Temporal Adverb.--Possessive Compounds.--The Negative Adverb of Place.--"La Gordia Ligajxo". The Conditional Mood. The Indefinite Adjective.--"La Nesto sur la Tendo". Future Tenses.--"La Filozofo Arhximedo".--"Vilhelmo Tell kaj la Pomo".--The Use of "Ajn". XLVIII.--Word Derivation from Primary Adverbs.--The Prefix "Re-". XLIX. XXXV.--The Suffix "-Ind-".--The Present Passive Participle. The Present Passive Tense. XXXVII.--The Generic Article.--The Distributive Adverb "Cxial". The Negative Pronoun.--The Future Passive Tense.--Word Derivation from Prepositions.--The Future Perfect Passive Tense. XXXVI.XXXIII.--The Indefinite Adverb "Iom".--"Antikva Respubliko". "Neniom".--Less Vivid Conditions.--The Suffix "-Ebl-". The Indefinite Adverb "Iel".--"La Donaco". XXXVIII.-"Cxe la Malnova Ponto".--The Suffix "-Ist-".--"Cxe la Festo".--"La Monahxoj kaj la Azeno".--Participial Nouns. XLV.--The Suffix "-Em-".--"La Cxapelo sur la Stango".

--The Suffix "-Um-". ux. l. Summary of Conditions.--The Prefix "Eks-". i. Some Transitive Verbs. h.--"La Ostracismo de Aristejdo". The Imperative in Subordinate Clauses. * * * * * LESSON I. s. jx. gx. 2. r.--The International Money System.--Less Peremptory Uses of the Imperative. like "a" in "fate".--Resolve and Exhortation.--The Prefix "Pra-". b. The Imperative Mood. "e" as in "fiance". The Esperanto alphabet contains the following letters: a. LIX.--The Suffix "-Estr-". ESPERANTO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. INDEX.--Clauses of Imaginative Comparison.--Some Intransitive Verbs.--Interjections. cx. [Footnote: This "long a" sound in English frequently ends with a . The vowels of the alphabet are pronounced as follows: "a" as in "far". m.-"Pri La Kamero".--The Suffix "-Op-".--The Suffix "-Er-". LVI.--Correspondence. Clauses Expressing Purpose. ENGLISH-ESPERANTO VOCABULARY. v.--The Preposition "Je". sx. j. 1. o. LX. Conditions Contrary to Fact. d. LVII.--"Kelkaj Leteroj".--Abbreviations. g.--"La Glavo de Damoklo". Permission and Possibility.--Elision.--The Verb "Devi".--Further Uses of the Accusative.--The Prefixes "Bo-" and "Duon-". LVIII.--"Aleksandro Granda". VOWELS. LV. z.--The Suffixes "-Cxj-" and "-Nj-". LIV. The Position of Unemphatic Pronouns.--"La Reirado de la Dekmilo".--"La Filozofo Sokrato". f.--The Use of "Mosxto". ALPHABET. hx.--The Suffix "-Acx-".--Weights and Measures. k. n.--The Prefix "Ge-".--Commands and Prohibitions. p. c.--The Preposition "Sen". * * * * * A COMPLETE GRAMMAR OF ESPERANTO.LIII.--Synopsis of the Conjugation of the Verb.--The Use of "Al" to Express Reference.--"La Marsxado de la Dekmil Grekoj". u. t. e.

"k". "m". as given in (2).] "j" like "y" in "yes". and in spelling words. "p". "beyond". The consonants "b". "co". These are used in speaking of the letters. birdo".--a brief terminal sound of "short i" which makes the vowel slightly diphthongal. "aye". "rural". "ro". with the throat only partially open. "go". "g" like "g" in "go". i. CONSONANTS. "tsetse".] "i" as in "machine". are pronounced as in English. in pronouncing them in abbreviations. "no". "gx" like "g" in "gem". as in "day". DIPHTHONGS. p. The diphthongs in Esperanto contain an . "fo". "basis". "s" like "s" in "see". "jo". "l". "for". "zo". 3. "po". by one breath-impulse. "big". "t". "ho". Classical Greek Greek: "chi" etc. "hxo". "r" is slightly trilled or rolled. 5. Spanish "j". "mo". "sx" like "sh" in "shine". "lo". o. Russian "x". "do". "jx" like "z" in "azure". "rash". "vo". "sxo". "s" in "visual". "ko". "gxo". "v". "n". "j" in "jar". "u" as in "rude". "much". "ch" in machine". "ux" like "w" or consonantal "u". "o" as in "toll".vanish. and the remaining eleven as follows: "c" like "ts" in "hats". ro. See Diphthongs. t.). do. "jxo". "cx" like "ch" in "chin". 5. 4. Irish "gh". as "bo. "uxo". Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single sound. The names of the consonants are "bo"." (= etc. "cxo". "z". "to". as "ko to po" for "k. NAMES OF THE LETTERS. Such a vanish must not be given to any of the Esperanto vowels. "so". "h". "f". There are only a few words containing this consonant. "d". [Footnote: As in pronouncing German and Scotch "ch". The vowels are named by their sounds. "hx" is produced by expelling the breath forcibly.

d. "ej" like "ei" in "vein". The combination "kz". A single consonant goes with the following vowel. d. "uj" like "ui" in "ruin". "eux" like "ayw" in "wayward". producing the sound of "ng" heard in "linger". "be-la". "execute". "mal-akra". as "mis-cias" for "mi scias". Their pronunciation is as follows: "aj" like "ai" in "aisle". but in order to avoid confusion with combinations of vowels not forming diphthongs (as in "naiva". as "dis-meti". The division of syllables within a word is as follows: a. "oj" like "oi" in "coin". "scias". 6. e. COMBINATIONS OF CONSONANTS. "oy" in "boy". is pronounced with its full value. Prefixes are separated from the words to which they are attached. "well-laid". pronounced together rapidly. The "n" and "g" are pronounced separately in the combination "ng". Otherwise. as "sus-pek-ti". Each word contains as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs. or like E(h)oo" pronounced together. as in "escepte". "firST Song". "sviso". c. "a-e-ro". in such words as "knabo". "sank-ta". c. they are written with "j" and "ux" instead.). not that in "singer". if that word ends in a vowel. and compound words are divided into their . the syllable division is made before the last consonant of the group. "deks-tra". as "interrilato". both consonants are clearly sounded in the groups "kn". as in "ekzisti". a. SYLLABLES. "angulo". There are no silent letters. "ey" in "they". in such words as "lingvo". The combination "sc". A consonant followed by "l" or "r" (which are liquids) goes with the "l" or "r". Each consonant. "a-kra". like "inter-relate". like English "naive". "a-gra-bla". must not be modified to the "gs" or "ks" represented by "x" in "exist". is equivalent to the combination "sts" in "laST Said". The "s" in a word beginning with "sc" may be sounded with the end of the preceding word. "ow" in "owl". "u(e)y" in "gluey". "kv". b. Thus. "gvidi".i or u sound as the second element. in a combination of two or more consonants. "aux" like "ou" in "out". "ellasi". whether within a word or at its beginning. "sv". as in "ta-blo". "gv". "kvin". "ekzameno". 7. Each of two similar letters is clearly sounded. as "pa-no". etc. b.

svingi. sklavo. largxa. 11. najbaro. cxevalo = horse. Words of more than one syllable are accented upon the syllable before the last. an" for the singular. the table. as "la knabo". or "a boy". trairi. THE ARTICLE. or final letter. gxojo. Words which are the names of persons or things are called nouns. aero. "a-GRA-bla". edzo. nescio. samideano. palaj. cxiujn. dauxri. atmosfero. ecx. pagi. obeu. "pomo" may mean "apple" or "an apple". A word used with a noun (expressed or understood) to express a quality or characteristic is called an adjective. sxipo. The ending. Euxropo. fresxa. knabo. monahxo. vasta. pomo = apple. sencxesa.component parts. as "cxef-urbo". arbaranoj. but none for the plural. Therefore "knabo" may mean "boy". WORDS FOR PRACTICE. gxuste. treege. (To be pronounced aloud. auxskulti. ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES. cxielo. of nouns in Esperanto is "o": knabo = boy. "la cxevalo". krajono. "la tablo". tablo = table. forrajdi. meze. jxauxdo. hodiaux. as "TA-blo". The definite article is "la". mangxo. NOUNS. ADJECTIVES 12. sxargxi. cxevalejo. forta = strong. geometrio. jugxi. "la pomo". An adjective is said to modify a noun whose quality it expresses. justa. the. In English there is an indefinite article "a. sankteco. obei. kuirejo. sxafajxo. the apple. posxo. lauxdi. centono. Esperanto has no indefinite article for either singular or plural. "sun-ombrelo". sensencajxo. scio. When directly preceding or following its noun. 13. granda = large. lingvo. 10. and correctly accented) Afero. 8. eksplodi. pacienco. flava = yellow. ACCENT. the boy. LESSON II. duobla. 9. kvieteco. The ending of adjectives in Esperanto is "a": bela = beautiful. the horse. gvidi. ekzemplo. "sus-PEK-ti". malluma. it is called an attributive adjective: . fojo. ellerni.

12. is running. 6. marsxas = walks. Bona viro. Blanka floro. suno = sun. forta = strong. 10. Cxevalo blanka marsxas. floro flava = a yellow flower. (To be memorized in this and in all following lessons. 8. Forta knabo kuras. is sleeping. flugas = flies. Words which express action or condition are called verbs. 15. 9. Birdo flugas kaj knabo kuras. they are said to be in the present tense. kuras = runs. dormas = sleeps. 12. La bela birdo kantas. 8. La granda tablo. luno = moon. The beautiful yellow bird is-flying (flies). 4. 6. 5. A good large table. violo = violet. La bona flava pomo. La suno brilas. PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB. 3. 7. knabo = boy. birdo = bird. a boy runs (is running). The ending of all Esperanto verbs in the present tense is "-as": kuras = runs. pomo = apple. READING LESSON. The white bird is-singing (sings). flava = yellow. The moon is-shining (shines). 10. Knabo kuras. subject: suno. forta knabo = a strong boy. is walking. 16. La suno brilas kaj la luno brilas. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. and dealing with the present time. Flava birdo. bona = good. La knabo kantas kaj la viro dormas. brilas = shines. bela birdo = a beautiful bird. La bela luno brilas. 5. is shining. is sleeping. La granda cxevalo dormas. flugas = flies. The person or thing whose action or condition the verb expresses is called the subject of the verb: La suno brilas. is flying. A strong horse runs. The good boy is-walking (walks). 2. the sun shines (is shining). 17. 4. is shining. la = the. 3. 20. Violo flava. 14. The large yellow apple. A yellow violet and a white violet. 14. 18. 13. La bona viro marsxas. blanka = white.) bela = beautiful. When representing an act or condition as a fact. Bela granda pomo. La bona knabo kantas. 1. viro = man. granda = large. The strong man is-sleeping (sleeps). Granda forta tablo. 11. tablo = table. VOCABULARY. and the boy is-singing (sings). dormas = sleeps. is flying. kantas = sings. An apple . is singing. 15. 9. La bela cxevalo kuras. cxevalo = horse. kaj = and. 1. A beautiful flower. is running. and a man walks. 11. brilas = shines. 19. 2. The sun shines. subject: granda cxevalo = the large horse. 7. floro = flower.

LESSON III. good men. as "la viro". La viroj estas fortaj. 19. tables. from "tablo". See 5. . 16. is made by adding "-j" to the noun.. being given the plural form by the addition of the ending -j. the man. the dove is a bird. men. the men are strong. that is. does not change in form when used with plural nouns. [Footnote: "-oj" is pronounced like "oy" in "boy"." "to seem. Predicate nouns and adjectives agree in number with the word or words with which they are in predicate relation: Rozoj estas belaj. the men are walking.] 17. La knabo kaj la viro sxajnas fortaj.large and good. the men walk. as "viroj". 20. PREDICATE ADJECTIVE AND NOUN. the men are. A noun may also be used as part of the predicate. La kolombo estas birdo. the men. viro estas. the form which indicates more than one person or thing. THE PLURAL NUMBER. the sun and the moon are shining. When the adjective is a part of that which is told or predicated of the subject of the verb. the boy and the man seem strong. beautiful bird and (beautiful) flower. violets are flowers. from "viro". "la viroj". roses are beautiful. viroj estas. The plural number of nouns. the man is. and is then called a "predicate noun": Violoj estas floroj. An adjective modifying two or more nouns used together is of course given the plural form: bonaj viroj. the bird is beautiful. The article is invariable. "tabloj". man." etc. The verb is also invariable in form: La La La La viroj marsxas. large horses. An adjective modifying a plural noun agrees with it in number. 21. as when used with the verbs "to be. La knabo sxajnas bona. suno kaj la luno brilas. table. belaj birdo kaj floro (bela birdo kaj bela floro). See 5. the boy seems good. that is. [Footnote: "-aj" is pronounced like "ai" in "aisle". grandaj cxevaloj.] 18. it is called a "predicate adjective": La birdo estas bela.

La knaboj sxajnas fortaj. Red and yellow apples lie on the big table. La bonaj knaboj estas en la domo. 20.--. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 16. 3. 3. gxardeno = garden. is sitting. expressing a state or an action limited to the subject. 22. La knaboj dormas en la granda domo. 9. The house is long and high. rozo = rose. kaj verdaj folioj estas en la gxardeno. . 13. and the rooms in the house are large. arbo = tree. kolombo = dove. 15. fresxa = fresh. The verbs so far given have been "intransitive verbs". 10. 6. Belaj birdoj sidas sur la verda arbo. On the other hand a "transitive verb" expresses an act of the subject upon some person or thing. the boy finds -. seem. THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. The horses in the green fields seem strong. La folioj estas verdaj kaj rugxaj. 11. "la knabo trovas -. is lying. Rugxaj. TRANSITIVE VERBS. 12. tall. Rugxaj pomoj estas sur la tablo en la cxambro. La kolomboj estas belaj birdoj. The boys in the room in the house seem tall. 5. 1.VOCABULARY alta = high. Belaj birdoj flugas kaj kantas en la kampo. 8. 10. the boy runs. and not immediately affecting any other person or thing. 4. 12. Fortaj cxevaloj marsxas kaj kuras en la verdaj kampoj. Longa tablo estas en la domo. verda = green. as "la knabo kuras". The rooms in the house are long. kusxas = lies. Green leaves are on the trees in the large garden. 7. sur = on. domo = house. La cxambroj en la bela domo estas grandaj. 15. The birds in the field are doves. 11. The men are-sitting (sit) on chairs in the garden. La kolomboj sur la arboj kantas. cxambro = room. La alta viro estas en la gxardeno. 18. flavaj. kampo = field. as. en = in. 13. Fresxaj floroj kusxas sur la tablo. yellow and white. The trees in the garden are tall and green. The flowers on the table are red. sit. READING LESSON. sidas = sits. Doves are-singing (sing) in the garden. 21. 1. folio = leaf. segxo = chair. La violoj en la kampo estas belaj. Fresxaj rozoj sxajnas belaj. The men in the large house sleep. 19. 6. La luno kaj la suno sxajnas grandaj. In the garden are yellow roses. The leaves are long and green. longa = long. 2. 14. Blanka cxevalo estas en la kampo. 2. LESSON IV. sxajnas = seems. 5. 7. are. 4. 9.--". 17. rugxa = red. La arboj estas altaj kaj verdaj. estas = is. 14. lie. 8. La fortaj viroj sidas sur segxoj en la longa cxambro. Fresh violets are beautiful flowers.

25. mangxas = eat. the horse is both large and strong.23. The person or thing acted upon is called the "direct object" of a transitive verb. . the boy has both roses and violets.. is "ne". eats.] 24. it usually immediately precedes the verb. largxa = wide. THE NEGATIVE "NE". In the expression "both . Kaj la knabo kaj la viro estas altaj. La viroj ne sidas sur segxoj. the man has beautiful flowers. the boy has a red rose. VOCABULARY apud = near. the man has a large chair. if the word to be put in the accusative case is in the plural number. not green. [Footnote: The ending "-n" follows the ending "-j". brancxo = branch. This prevents any doubt as to which of two or more nouns in a sentence is modified by the adjective. La kolombo kantas. This is called the accusative ending. the conjunction "kaj" is used for both words. An attributive adjective modifying a noun in the accusative case is made to agree in case. "ne" may precede that word: Violoj ne estas rugxaj. the men are-not-sitting on chairs. both the boy and the man are tall. La knabo trovas florojn. Rugxan rozon la knabo havas. 26. the house is white. in the vicinity of. by addition of the same accusative ending "-n". 27. not flying. koloro = color. nor is the accusative ending ever attached to the article. ne flugas. and the word to which it is attached is said to be in the "accusative case": La viro havas segxon. broad.. A predicate adjective or noun (19) is never in the accusative case. the man both walks and runs. which is invariable as stated in 18. La domo estas blanka.". and "no" when used as an answer to a question. the boy finds a beautiful flower. and permits of variation in the order of the words: La knabo trovas belan floron. and is given the ending "-n". benko = bench. violets are not red. the man has a chair. and . the boy finds flowers.. When used as a sentence-negative. La cxevalo estas kaj granda kaj forta. The negative word meaning "not" when forming part of a sentence. ne verda. Florojn belajn la viro havas. For emphatic negation of some other word than the verb.. La knabo havas kaj rozojn kaj violojn. THE CONJUNCTION "KAJ". being merely repeated: La viro kaj marsxas kaj kuras. the dove is-singing. La viro havas grandan segxon.

9. to run. ne = not. 6. 16. 12. is called a "complementary infinitive". La kolomboj sidas sur la arboj. 10. La cxevaloj ne dormas. 13. 14. trovas = find. 1. breaks. as "kuri". "havi". they are flying near the trees. The large red apples are near the yellow roses. 14. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 2. 19. READING LESSON. If the complementary infinitive is from a transitive verb. They find leaves on the tree. La felicxaj knaboj vidas la belan gxardenon. La pomo estas bona frukto. La knaboj rompas brancxon. La knaboj kolektas kaj rugxajn kaj flavajn florojn. havas = have. sed = but. The rooms in the house are both long and wide. The ending of the infinitive is "-i". kaj ili estas felicxaj. 13. 18. but they lie on the soft grass. They see both the birds and the flowers. 15. it may itself have a direct object: . rompas = break. 3. and has some of the characteristics of a noun. The infinitive is a form of the verb which expresses merely the general idea of the action or condition indicated. to have. La fresxa herbo estas verda kaj mola. Beautiful red roses are lying on the table in the house. Ili vidas florojn sur la brancxoj. La knaboj vidas la cxevalojn. 2. nigra = black. 12. 28. ili = they. broad and high. mola = soft. LESSON V. 5. herbo = grass. The men have strong black horses. Ili vidas florojn apud alta arbo. 7. "esti". sees. The horses eat the fresh green grass in the field. kaj kolektas la fruktojn. collect. The men sit on benches in the garden. but they do not see the fruit. serving as a direct object to a transitive verb. Sed ili ne trovas fruktojn en la gxardeno. The doves are not sitting on the tree. La knaboj ne estas en la cxambro en la blanka domo. 21. La knaboj vidas la belajn birdojn. to be. but the grass is green. La knaboj ne sidas sur benkoj en la gxardeno. 20. 4. They are near the tall tree in the garden. kolektas = gather. 29. The boys do not sleep. The flowers have various colors. 11. Felicxaj estas kaj la knaboj kaj la cxevaloj. 5. Fortaj nigraj cxevaloj mangxas la herbon en la kampo. 1.diversa = various. Green leaves are on the trees. 4. frukto = fruit. has. The boys break branches and gather the apples. 3. Ili estas en la granda gxardeno. La floroj havas diversajn kolorojn. La alta arbo havas verdajn foliojn sur la brancxoj. 15. La gxardeno sxajnas kaj longa kaj largxa. An infinitive used to complete the meaning of another verb. 9. 10. Florojn blankajn ili ne vidas. sed la cxevaloj ne vidas la knabojn. vidas = see. no. 7. and they seem happy. sed kusxas sur la mola herbo. 11. ili mangxas. 8. 6. felicxa = happy. sed la florojn ili ne kolektas. The house is long. 17. finds. 8. THE COMPLEMENTARY INFINITIVE.

sed la knaboj preferas kolekti diversajn fruktojn. jes = yes. the conjunction "nek" is used for both words. ili havas nek pomojn nek persikojn. Mario = Mary.. Jes." "when. kaj mangxas la maturan frukton. the sentence is rendered interrogative by use of the word "cxu". Cxu cxerizoj estas brunaj? 4. there is no necessity for a word like English "do" or "does. Nek la rozo nek la violo estas verda. Ili volas trovi maturajn cxerizojn kaj flavajn persikojn. they wish to find flowers. Ne. persiko = peach. gxi = it. 14. preferi = to prefer. nor. 5. the words of which are left in the same order as for a statement. Since there is no inversion of order. 12. gusto = taste. sed flavaj. gxi estas bona frukto. Since an adjective modifier of two or more words connected by "nek" must necessarily modify them separately.". ili estas nek brunaj nek nigraj. matura = ripe." "why. the boy wishes to have a horse. nek = neither. nor . gxi estas kaj rugxa kaj dolcxa. dolcxa = sweet. Ili volas trovi florojn. Ne. the man has neither a house nor a garden. 8. Cxu la viro kaj la knabo havas pomojn? 7. 30. knabino = girl. 13. 10. Cxu Mario havas la maturan frukton? 9. Birdoj sxatas kanti. they neither walk nor run. READING LESSON. voli = to wish. birds like to sing. 31. the boy wishes to run.) is used.. Cxu persiko estas rugxa? 2. Cxu la pomo estas frukto? Jes. La knabinoj volas havi florojn. Mario kaj Gertrudo havas la frukton... neither the rose nor the violet is green. Ili estas en la domo. Unless some directly interrogative word (as "who. La cxerizoj . This interrogative particle is placed at the beginning of a sentence." to introduce the verb: Cxu la knabo estas bona? Is the boy good? Cxu ili havas florojn? Have they flowers? Cxu la kolomboj kantas? Do the doves sing? (Are the doves singing?) THE CONJUNCTION "NEK". La persikoj havas dolcxan guston. 3. 11. cxerizo = cherry. In the expression "neither .La knabo volas kuri. La viro havas nek domon nek gxardenon. An interrogative sentence is one which asks a question. La knabo volas havi cxevalon. sxati = to like. VOCABULARY (Verbs will hereafter be quoted in the infinitive form. cxu = (30).) bruna = brown. INTERROGATION. the adjective remains in the singular number: Ili nek marsxas nek kuras. 1." etc. Gertrude = Gertrude. 6.

10. they see the horses. 6. They prefer to break the branches.havas belan rugxan koloron. ili. like German "du". LESSON VI. ili preferas la dolcxajn cxerizojn. or the person or thing spoken of ("he". as "you. 19. Mary sits on the soft green grass. it. are called "personal pronouns". li. Has the peach a sweet taste? 11. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. kaj mangxas la cxerizojn. Plural. Gertrudo estas alta. Do the girls like to sit in the house and eat fruit? 7. No. and eats ripe fruit. 22. Yes. 1. for the second person singular. he (him). 16. but they prefer to walk in the field. "thou"). The boys do not wish to gather flowers. gxi. [Footnote: There is another pronoun "ci" (thou). Since the meaning of such pronouns indicates the number. etc. no plural ending is ever attached to them. you. First person: Second person: Third person: mi. or adjectives modifying such pronouns. 32. vi. "they"). Gertrude wishes to eat apples. "we"). vi. No. but the horses seem not to see the girls. Nouns in predicate relation with pronouns. 13. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. used in solemn style. 3. 17." "who. are made to agree with them in number: Ni estas bonaj kaj felicxaj. Gertrudo estas felicxa. Yes. Ili ne volas mangxi pomojn. kaj volas havi la belan frukton. you.] AGREEMENT WITH PRONOUNS. Are ripe peaches brown? 9. . 4. French "tu". Do the girls see the beautiful black horses in the fields? 12. La folioj apud la cxerizoj estas nek largxaj nek longaj. 18. we are good and happy. La knaboj kaj knabinoj sidas sur la verda herbo. the person addressed ("you". 33. according to whether they refer to one or more persons." are called "pronouns". ni. Have the girls beautiful flowers? 2. they like to sit in the house. she (her). Mario sxatas cxerizojn. kaj vidas cxerizojn sur la brancxoj. they are red and yellow. The personal pronouns are: Singular. they have fresh fruit." "he. we (us). 8. and also for intimate or familiar address when desired. bela knabino. as in the Bible. Words which stand in the place of nouns. Mario rompas brancxon. and find the sweet cherries. in poetry. 15. sxi. "she". Pronouns referring to the person speaking ("I". I (me). 21." "which. "it". La persikoj sxajnas molaj kaj bonaj. they (them). but Mary has neither apples nor peaches. 20. They are considered singular or plural. 5.

Knaboj. ni vidas = we see. Robert. vi estas = you (plural) are. 8. cxu vi volas sidi en la domo. 9. either . Roberto. kaj volas nek marsxi nek sidi en la gxardeno. I wish to give both the peaches and the apples hodiaux = today. mi vidas = I see. 12. . No. aux = or (aux . cxar ni havas belajn persikojn maturajn kaj bonajn. toward. fali = to fall. Ni preferas sidi hodiaux en la gxardeno. Mi volas doni persikon al Heleno. ni estas = we are. Knabinoj. 11.. 6. Ni estas felicxaj. 1.. Gertrudo. roses are flowers. cxar ili sxatas pomojn. li (sxi. cxar ili vidas la birdojn en la arbo apud la fenestro. Cxu vi havas pomojn. doni = to give. 14. vi estas alta. it) is. ili estas = they are. cxar li sxatas kolekti frukton.Rozoj estas floroj. beneath. VOCABULARY al = to. 4. ill ne estas fruktoj. Ne. are you happy? CONJUGATION OF THE VERB. I do not wish to stand under it. 19. kaj sidas sur la arbo. aux en la gxardeno? 2. They are ripe and sweet. Any pronoun may serve as the subject of a verb. 3. 15. ili vidas = they see. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. sub la granda arbo. and the apples fall. Ili estas felicxaj. 5. Mi staras sub la arbo. 1.. or . is called the "conjugation" of the verb. do you wish to stand beneath the tree? 5. La frukton mi donas al Mario kaj Gertrudo. and of "vidi": mi estas = I am. fenestro = window. Arturo. La birdoj estas kolomboj. 17. knabinoj. 18. Kaj sxi kaj la virino apud sxi volas kudri hodiaux. 34. vi estas = you are. sed mi skuas brancxon. kudri = to sew. kaj la persikoj falas. Roberto = Robert. cxu vi rompas la brancxojn? 7. The combination of the verb with each of the personal pronouns in succession for its subject.. Ni havas nek pomojn nek cxerizojn. kaj ili mangxas la verdan molan herbon. Sub la arboj en la kampo staras cxevaloj. READING LESSON. sed hodiaux sxi estas en la domo. Arturo = Arthur. Arturo donas al vi la maturajn persikojn. ne estas altaj. kaj kolektas la dolcxan frukton. Gertrude. vi vidas = you see.. Sxi sidas apud la fenestro kaj kudras.. 16. gxi) estas = he (she. 13. Sxi preferas kudri. Does Arthur break the branch and gather the apples? 2. skui = to shake. virino = woman. sed vi. aux . sub = under. they are not fruits. vi estas bona. 10. it) sees. 6. cxu vi estas felicxaj? Girls. gxi) vidas : he (she. but near it. Ni donas pomojn al ili. aux cxerizojn? 4. sed ni havas dolcxajn persikojn. 3.) cxar = because. you are good.. Following is the conjugation of the present tense of "esti". li (sxi. vi vidas = you (plural) see. stari = to stand. No. he shakes the branch...

Sub la arbo staris cxevalo. vi vidis = you (plural) saw. 9. ili estis = they were. li (sxi. Mary is sitting in (on) a chair near her. we wish to have it. La knabo estas apud mi. vidis nek lin nek sxin. vi vidis = you the woman. In English. near the window. which is called its "complement". "brilis". 11. and do not wish to walk in the garden to-day. which remains in the nominative case: La arbo estas en la gxardeno. flew. 14. the complement of a preposition seems to be put in the accusative case if it is a pronoun. VOCABULARY . ni estis = we were. Both Mary and the woman are sewing. The ending of this tense is "-is". Mi donis cxerizojn al li. The preposition is said to "govern" the noun or pronoun. ACCUSATIVE CASE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. In Esperanto the preposition does not affect the form of the word governed. 12. 37. li (sxi. THE PAST TENSE. it) saw." "on. They give the fruit to the boys and girls. or see the birds. under the tree stood a horse. vi estis = you were. gxi) estis = he (she. but to remain unchanged in form if it is a noun. ran. A preposition is a word like "in. They prefer to sew. the boy is near me. he saw them and us. any pronoun may be put in the accusative case by addition of the accusative ending "-n" (23): La Li Mi Ni viro vidis vin kaj min. LESSON VII. I gave cherries to him. 10. They have neither apples nor peaches. the tree is in the garden. gxi) vidis : he (she. 7. the man saw you and me. as "kuris". 8. 13. PREPOSITIONS. "flugis". 35. The past tense of the verb expresses an action which took place in past time. The conjugation of "esti" and also of "vidi" in the past tense is as follows: mi estis = I was. I saw neither him nor her. good apples are on it. ni vidis = we saw. but they do not wish to eat. or walk. vi estis = you (plural) were. For use as the object of a verb. Bonaj pomoj estas sur gxi. ili vidis = they saw. They are happy because they like to sew. shone. vidis ilin kaj nin. it) was. They do not wish to gather flowers. volas havi gxin. or a condition which existed in past time. mi vidis = I saw. She is sitting in the house." placed before a noun or pronoun to indicate some relation between this and another word. 36.

La tapisxo havas belajn kolorojn. Sxi volis sidi en granda segxo apud la fenestro. danki = to thank. tapisxo = carpet. kaj donas gxin al Roberto. 8. He looked-at the pictures on the wall." 14. Sxi havis interesajn bildojn. Virino marsxis tra la pordo. sed mi volas sidi apud la pordo aux la fenestro. 12. 4. Sub la tablo kaj segxoj. LESSON VIII. because they have large wide windows. kaj verdan. diri = to say. 6." 13. bluan." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. kaj donis ilin al la knaboj kaj la knabinoj. 15. Do the boys and girls wish to be good? 2. The rooms in the house are light. rugxan. 7. luma = light (not dark). blua = blue. knaboj kaj knabinoj. 15. Ili staras apud la tablo. READING LESSON. Gertrude is-looking-at the various pictures. 11. 6. muro = wall. .agrabla = pleasant. and saw us in the pleasant garden. A pronoun which refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the verb in the sentence. Li donas gxin al Mario. Granda bildo falis de la tablo. 8. ni dankas vin. rigardi = to look (at). 17. 5. 7. 10. mi ne sxatas rigardi bildojn. 16. planko = floor. Ili volis doni gxin al Gertrudo. but they are neither interesting nor beautiful. 1. 2. kaj kudri. 10. 14. Gxi havas altajn largxajn fenestrojn. Arthur did not see the pictures because they were lying on the floor. bildo = picture. 13. kaj sxi donis al ili la bildojn. sed sxi diris "Ne. 12. She looks-at them. The carpets on the floor seem soft. Sxi marsxis de la tablo al la fenestro kaj diris "Mi preferas kudri. They gathered fresh flowers and gave them to the woman. tra = through." cxar ili estas interesaj bildoj. Hodiaux la knaboj kaj knabinoj estas en la granda domo. sed Arturo nun havas gxin. is said to be used "reflexively". nun = now. infano = child. 4. Mi kolektis dolcxajn violojn en la gxardeno. mola tapisxo kusxas sur la planko. 1. kaj nun mi volas rigardi la dolcxajn florojn. interesa = interesting. Gertrudo diris "Vi estas bona al ni. Helen walked near the table and shook it. 3. "Jes. sxi dankas lin." diris la infanoj. She gave a picture to me and I thanked her. flavan. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. pordo = door. 9. La virino rigardis sxin kaj diris "Mi donis la bildojn al vi. and have various beautiful colors. Sxi diris "Cxu vi volas rigardi la bildojn?" 9. but is used in some other relation than subject of that verb. 11. but now they are in the house. 3. and seems to be happy. A large strong table stands near the door. mi dankas vin. 38. The happy children were in the garden. Robert looked through the window. or to be a "reflexive pronoun". kaj staris apud la tablo. 5. The doors in the room are wide and high. de = from. en agrabla luma cxambro. We can sit near the table and look through the windows. agreeable.

" can refer to no one else than the person or persons speaking. There can be no ambiguity. A verb having a reflexive pronoun for its direct object is sometimes called a "reflexive verb". When the verb is in the third person. "her(self)". from the fact that some languages have had or still have a special reflexive or middle form of the verb. Sub si la infanoj trovis molan tapisxon. (Ci trovas domon apud ci.39. he amuses himself. you say to yourself (yourselves). the carpet has various colors in it(self). they amuse themselves. I said to myself. she finds a flower near her(self). the men have chairs near them(selves). La arboj havas cxerizojn sur si. myself. ourselves. Arthur saw a bird near him(self). Mario trovis sin sur blua tapisxo. I amuse myself. The first and second personal pronouns. 40. used otherwise than as the subject. The conjugation of a verb reflexively is therefore as follows: mi amuzas min (mi min amuzas). "them(selves)"." may mean that the subject sees a bird near himself. us. the trees have cherries on them(selves). Esperanto uses a special reflexive pronoun "si" (accusative "sin"). 41. thyself). which means "him(self)". a pronoun of the third person. might or might not refer to the subject of that verb. Ni amuzis nin. If such a pronoun of the third person is intended to refer to the subject of the verb. since words such as "me. I see myself. the bird hides itself under the leaves." can refer to no one else than the person or persons addressed: Mi vidas min. yourself.) Vi diras al vi. "ni". to express an act of the subject on or for itself. or they have certain verbs whose use is chiefly or exclusively reflexive. you amuse yourself (yourselves). La tapisxo havas diversajn kolorojn en si. we have a carpet under us. Ili amuzas sin. La viroj havas segxojn apud si. while words such as "you. Mi diris al mi. under them(selves) the children found a soft carpet. Sxi trovas floron apud si. "He sees a bird near him. it is evident that "si" can never itself be used as subject or part of the subject of the verb.] REFLEXIVE VERBS. Vi amuzas vin. ("ci") are used for the reflexive pronouns of the first and second persons. or near another person. Arturo vidis birdon apud si. according to the gender and number of the verb: Li amuzas sin. "it(self)". we amused ourselves. . and "vi". the women find flowers near them(selves). yourselves (thee. Mary found herself on a blue carpet. For example. "mi". Ni havas tapisxon sub ni. [Footnote: From the very fact that "si" always refers to the subject of the verb. thou findest a house near thee. La birdo kasxas sin sub la folioj. La virinoj trovas florojn apud si.

" 15. 2. 11. iri = to go. ni amuzas nin (ni nin amuzas). they turned themselves. "vescor". Virino antaux pordo komencis rigardi la knabojn. The book in the gray box does not belong to me. because it has ripe cherries on it. mi volas legi la libron. Johano komencis amuzi sin en luma cxambro en la domo. ni perdis gxin. kaj la knaboj trovis la knabinojn. Alfred amused himself on the street. kasxi = to hide. Spanish "me alegro". I beware (I guard myself). antaux = before. 13. The birds sit on the tree. cxar vi donas al mi la skatolon kaj la libron. Li havas molan grizan tapisxon sub si. 12. 6. 3. 3. Latin "exerceor". 10. The book belongs to her. Li diris al Alfredo "Cxar ni trovis gxin. but I do not praise myself. in front of. French "il s'arrete". They hid themselves. 1. La muro havas interesajn bildojn sur si. aparteni = to belong. perdi = to lose. She found herself in a beautiful light room. Tra la fenestro antaux si Johano rigardas la virojn kaj la virinojn sur la strato. libro = book. griza = gray. they amuse themselves. 7. The trees have good fruit on them. Sxi iris al la strato. Johano = John. near the door. kaj la knaboj iris al la domo. but it fell from the box. strato = street. Li kaj Alfredo volis iri al la strato kaj amuzi sin. Johano kaj Alfredo amuzis sin en la gxardeno. 7. Did you see the doves near the flowers in front of (before) you? 14. you amuse yourselves. 10. 12. lauxdi = to praise." 14. The carpet on the floor had various colors in it. li (sxi. 5. komenci = to begin. 4. kaj trovis rugxan skatolon antaux si. Johano kasxis sin. kaj Alfredo trovis Johanon. we amuse ourselves. he halts (he stops himself). I eat (I feed myself). La virino diris "Jes. 11. 6. I found it in front of me. Mario kaj Gertrudo sin kasxis apud la floroj. 9. (40). etc. READING LESSON.] VOCABULARY Alfredo = Alfred." 16. ili amuzas sin (ili sin amuzas). The birds saw . and the high wall had pictures on it. amuzi = to amuse. and I stood near them. or "alegrome". Alfredo sin kasxis en alta arbo. 4. kaj ne volas segxon. The table has red and blue and yellow flowers on it. he (she. gxi) amuzas sin (sin amuzas). it) amuses him (her. You began to praise yourselves. En la skatolo estis libro. Ili marsxis al la pordo. you amuse yourself. kaj Johano diris al si "La libro ne apartenas al mi. 9. vi amuzas vin (vi vin amuzas). I rejoice (I gladden myself)." 13. si = himself. 2. 8. it)self. 8. The pictures had boys and girls in them. amuzas vin (vi vin amuzas). legi = to read. [Footnote: As Greek "etraponto". La knabinoj ne volas perdi sin en la agrabla kampo. I exercise myself. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. kaj mi dankas vin. kaj Johano trovis Alberton. German "ich huete mich". but we like to amuse ourselves in the house. to conceal. kaj ili diris al sxi "Cxu la libro apartenas al vi? Ni trovis gxin en skatolo. skatolo = small box or case. 5.

"ili".] 44. For the first and second persons. "lia". LIMITATION OF THE THIRD PERSONAL PRONOUN. when used otherwise than as subjects. They hid themselves in the leaves and began to sing. he has his (another person's) horse.the fruit on the tree in front of them. La birdo vidis gxin." "his. their. they are the same as the personal possessive adjectives. 43. the boy praises him (another person). PRONOMINAL USE OF POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. 42. I have my books on my table. 17. The reflexive possessive adjective of the third person is "sia". "via". La birdoj flugis al sia arbo. Ili trovis ilin apud si. Mary is in her room. Mario estas en sia cxambro. your ("cia"." "your. "gxia". although really they are not pronouns at all. the third personal pronouns." which indicate ownership or some possessive relation. she gives apples to her (to another person). formed by adding the ending "-a" to the reflexive pronoun "si": Mi havas miajn librojn sur mia tablo. but pronominal adjectives with a possessive meaning. his. like the reflexive pronoun. "sxia". Possessive adjectives are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the adjective ending "-a". the birds flew to their tree. are called "possessive adjectives". John is sitting in your chair. his. "gxi". 15. The limitation in the use of the third personal pronouns ("42") is also true of the adjectives derived from them: Mia domo kaj miaj gxardenoj estas grandaj. Johano perdis siajn librojn. their. Johano sidas sur via segxo. Sxi donas pomojn al sxi. Cxu vi legis sxiajn librojn? Did you read her books? [Footnote: Sometimes these words are called possessive pronouns. as "mia". The child is in a pleasant room. Words like "my. La birdoj flugis al ili. its. the birds flew to them. "li". Since there is a special reflexive pronoun of the third person. the boys hid them (other persons or things). 16. and flew to the branches. Reflexive possessive adjectives. my house and my gardens are large. the bird saw it (something else than the bird). and began to read an interesting book. your (plural). but always to some other person or thing: La knabo lauxdas lin. Li havas lian cxevalon. my. thy). "via". its. her. "sxi". POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. our. I sat on the bench in the garden. La knaboj kasxis ilin. . never refer to the subject of the verb. LESSON IX. "ilia". her. "nia". they found them (other persons or things) near them(selves). refer to the subject of the verb in the sentence. John lost his (John's) books.

1. 2. The room has interesting pictures on . remark. La lia estas bela. "hers". after. Griza kato iris de la domo gxis la strato. kato = cat. gxis = as far as. sed ne la lian. 2 Is the large beautiful house yours? 3." Instead of having special forms. La viro kaptis kaj tenis siajn cxevalojn. La paseroj ne surprizas ilin nun. Cxu la granda kampo apartenas al sxia patro? 5. La kato staris post granda arbo. like English "mine". mangxo = meal. post. VOCABULARY diro = saying. La iliaj sxajnas esti bonaj. surprizi = to surprise. cxar mi komencis lavi min antaux la mangxo!" Nun la katoj ne lavas sin antaux la mangxoj. Ili havas la sian. Gxi vidis paseron antaux si. yours is large. La pasero flugis de la kato gxis la arbo. La kato ne tenis la paseron. behind. Ili havas siajn mangxojn. mine are beautiful. kapti = to catch. juna = young. La knabinoj sxajnas esti koleraj. kaj kaptis la paseron. hieraux = yesterday. La pasero diris "Bona kato lavas sin antaux sia mangxo. Esperanto uses the regular possessive adjectives preceded by the article: La granda libro estas la mia. as "mine are large. 4. The boys are not in their (own) house. kaj post la mangxoj ili lavas la vizagxojn. 3. sed mi preferas la mian. vizagxo = face." or may modify some word or words not expressed.. kolera = angry. theirs seem to be good. but not his. The woman walked through the door of their house. but they are in his. "yours". READING LESSON. La junaj paseroj volas flugi al la nestoj en la arboj. LA KATO KAJ LA PASERO. sed la paseroj ne estas felicxaj. Ilia kato kaptis nian birdon. 4. Sxia libro kusxas sur la planko. lavi = to wash. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. to seize. 6. sed li ne trovis iliajn cxevalojn. etc. Possessive adjectives may be used predicatively. La kolera kato diris "Mi perdis mian mangxon. Li havas nek siajn cxevalojn nek la iliajn. as far as her room. kaj volis mangxi gxin. 7. La katoj estas felicxaj. post sxia segxo. sed komencis lavi sian vizagxon. up to. 9. sed vi ne lavis vian vizagxon. sed ili tenas la paserojn. sed la junaj infanoj trovis la nian. Sxi ne trovis ilian libron. 10. Ne. the large book is mine. 11. nesto = nest. to keep." La interesa diro surprizis la katon. Hieraux mi perdis mian grizan katon. 13. teni = to hold. patro = father. gxi ne estas la lia. Via kolera diro surprizis mian patron. as "the book is mine. down to. La via estas granda. Cxu vi sxatas vian libron aux la ilian? 8. 12. la miaj estas belaj. 1. pasero = sparrow.45. Ili komencis legi siajn librojn. they have theirs.

The sparrow was angry because the cat seized it and held it. through. but ours is not in our garden. I like to look at him. 8. We praised their flowers yesterday. I wash my face. My father is a tall strong man. La viro iros Bostonon. The gray cat was angry because it did not hold the bird. 47. to. it is not on the table. 6. ." "he shakes his head. as far as. he went to the garden ("gardenward"). express motion in the direction of their complements. 5. it fell upon the floor. kaj kuris en la domon. the man will go to Boston ("Bostonward"). person or thing toward which the motion is directed is given the accusative ending." but on the other hand omits it entirely with certain words indicating relationship. In many sentences where the possessor is already sufficiently indicated. but you are not a good cat." 12. 46. but the angry cat lost its meal. English "he went home. and it commenced to wash its face. 11. estas alta. (The prepositions "al". They are on their (the boys') table. 14. The sparrow wished to fly as far as the tall tree. 16. Ili falis sub la tablon gxis la planko. and they gave them to us.] Li estis en la gxardeno. In both cases Esperanto uses the article instead of the possessive adjective. and could not well be used except in a sentence whose verb expresses motion. Mi iris tra la domo en mian cxambron. 7. THE ARTICLE FOR THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE. 18." "he went homeward. Father is tall. The bird did not lose its meal. LESSON X. they fell under the table as far as the floor (direction expressed by whole prepositional phrase). THE ACCUSATIVE OF DIRECTION. la kapon. toward. English nevertheless uses a possessive adjective. he shakes his head.its walls. 10." etc. "gxis". Do you see his cat or hers? 15. I gave it to Father. 13. This is also true if the word is the complement of any preposition which does not itself sufficiently indicate motion in a certain direction. When the verb in a sentence expresses motion. 17. gxin al la patro. The sparrow said "A good cat washes its face. Consequently the accusative is not used after any of these three): Li iris gxardenon. "tra". as in "I wash my face. I went through the house into my room. gxi falis sur la plankon. I see both his and hers. the word indicating the place. he was in the garden and ran into the house. but the cat held it." etc. unless the fact of possession is to be emphasized: Mi Li La Mi lavas skuas patro donis la vizagxon. [Footnote: Cf. Gxi ne estas sur la tablo. as in "Brother gave it to me. The sparrow surprised it. 9. Their books are in their (the books') box. The children saw the young birds in the nest.

Mia amiko Johano estas alta. meti = to put. Li kuris al la kamelo. kaj diris. entire. all. urbo = city. vi volis meti nur la nazon en mian domon. 2. Arabo sidis en sia domo en la urbo. It began to fall under the table. "Frato. and it fell upon the floor. trans = across. because it pushed itself into his house. 11. His remark did not seem to surprise the camel. "Frato. baldaux = soon. my friend John is tall. 8. Bostono = Boston. kaj mi preferas sidi en gxi. It caught the bird. Apud domo trans la strato li vidis kamelon. sed gxi estas varma. sed la juna arabo staris trans la strato kaj ne estis varma. as "the city of Boston. 5. English often uses the preposition "of" between two words where no idea of possession really exists." Since nouns used in apposition refer to the same thing. "Brother. merely. Cxu vi ne volas iri sub la arbon?" Kaj la kamelo pusxis la arabon de lia domo en la straton de la urbo. but I seized it. sed la kamelo metis la nazon tra la pordo en la cxambron. Across the street it found a sparrow. La kamelo iris trans la straton gxis la pordo. kolo = neck. 9." La arabo skuis la kapon. "No. the city (of) Boston is large. 13. tenis lin. tuta = whole. The arab was angry. vian amikon? do you not know me." diris la kamelo. nur = only. My brother pushed the books into their box. "via domo ne estas granda. La arabo estis kolera. to place. We went to the city of Boston yesterday and into a beautiful house. kapo = head. 1. He said." "Via diro estas bona. kaj mi donos al vi mian arbon trans la strato. and are in the same grammatical construction. and put it on the table. kaj mi sxatas stari en gxi. But the camel commenced to go through the door. Post la kapo iris la kolo en gxin. Esperanto does not use a preposition: La urbo Bostono estas granda." 16. pusxi = to push. frato = brother. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. kamelo = camel. But soon after the . 12.APPOSITION. cxar li ne volis havi tutan kamelon en sia domo. and I do not wish to have you in it. Baldaux li havis la kapon gxis la kolo en la domo. kaj baldaux la tuta korpo estis en la domo. 14. I went into the garden as far as the large tree. kaptis lin. varma = warm. LA ARABO KAJ LA KAMELO. The cat ran across the street. 3. 15. mi volas meti nur la nazon en vian varman domon. and the sparrow flew to the nest. I did not hold my book. and soon its whole body into the warm house. nazo = nose. La kamelo komencis pusxi sian tutan vizagxon en la domon. the house is mine. mi ne estas varma. La kamelo nun trovis sin en varma cxambro. kaj diris al la arabo. korpo = body. your friend? VOCABULARY arabo = arab. 7. 6." 10. Mi preferas stari kaj kusxi en gxi. It wished to put merely its nose into it. 4. The camel pushed its head and neck. Cxu vi ne konas min. The arab shook his head and said. La cxambro ne estas granda sed gxi estas la mia. 48. but began to wash its face.

there is a house in the field. Johano. 17." are called impersonal. and the words. in the garden. POSSESSIVE CASE OF NOUNS. No such particle is used with impersonal verbs in Esperanto: Pluvas. . La gxardeno de la viroj. the walls of the house. or sentences connected by them are said to be coordinate: Cxu vi marsxas aux kuras? ("Aux" connects the verbs. it was I. 18. the word "it" serving merely as an introductory particle. La koloroj de la floroj. phrases. the colors of the flowers. "sed"." In Esperanto no such particles are needed: Estas Estis it Estas Estis floroj sur la tablo. the book of the boy (the boy's book). which join words. it rains. La libro de la knabo.) Sxi iris.) Nek vi nek mi vidis gxin. When the verb in a sentence precedes its subject. Negxis hieraux.remark. All the conjunctions given so far connect words. Words like "aux". VERBS PRECEDING THEIR SUBJECTS. because there is no actual subject. it snowed yesterday. LESSON XI. or sentences of similar rank or kind. English often uses an introductory particle. "kaj". was John. ("Kaj" connects the sentences. 50." "it. such as "there. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS. there are flowers on the table. not Alfred. word-groups. en la gxardeno. Brancxo de la arbo. 49. or sentences together are conjunctions. a branch of the tree. "nek". The preposition "de" is used to express possession or connection: La muroj de la domo. mi. as "it rains. He went across the street and stood upon the grass under a tree. 51. the whole camel was in the house. 52. kaj ni estis felicxaj. phrases. ne Alfredo. These are called coordinating conjunctions. IMPERSONAL VERBS. Verbs with an impersonal or indeterminate subject." "it is snowing. domo en la kampo. the garden of the men (the men's garden). He pushed the young arab into the street. it is raining.

or modification of a previous statement. sako = sack. mono = money. kaj komencis rigardi en gxin. wealthy. and expressing separation. Kamelo. sablo = sand. "Kaj" is copulative. "Tamen" is adversative. "Nek" is disjunctive. Li havis monon en sia domo en la urbo. La viro trinkis akvon. bezoni = to need. lia fidela amiko." Li ankaux volis lavi la tutan vizagxon en la akvo. La arabo havis ne nur tapisxojn. way. the first being introductory and adverbial." etc. La suno brilis. expressing union.) Li ne sxatis gxin. Tamen li tenis gxin. Cxu li tamen metis la sakon trans la kolon . expressing separation and also negation. sed ankaux sakojn. ankaux = also. pluvi = to rain. sur la seka sablo. amiko = friend. fidela = faithful. expressing opposition." is argumentative. porti = to carry. La kamelo marsxis kaj marsxis. li bezonis akvon.(The second "nek" connects the pronouns. ricxa = rich." "of the man. vojo = road. as "through the house. the first being introductory and adverbial. affirming something in spite of a previous objection or concession. Post sia diro li kaptis la sakon. cxar la arabo estis ricxa viro. (The second "aux" connects the pronouns. sed ne venis al la domo de la arabo. seka = dry. sed ne sur la plankon.] [Footnote: Coordinating conjunctions may be further classified according to their meaning: "Aux" is disjunctive." "so. portis lin. consequently.) Aux li aux sxi perdis la libron. connecting alternates. La arabo ne trovis la vojon. kaj baldaux li ne havis akvon. kaj baldaux la arabo vidis sakon antaux si. bag. ("Tamen" connects the sentences. cxar en la dezerto nek pluvas nek negxas. Nek li nek lia fidela kamelo havis akvon. La kamelo ankaux portis belajn tapisxojn. LA ARABO EN LA DEZERTO. tamen = nevertheless. contrast. Li estis felicxa kaj diris al si "Cxu estas akvo en gxi? Mi volas trinki. cxar ili perdis la vojon.) [Footnote: A phrase is a word-group forming an expression. kaj volis trovi akvon. kaj ankaux donis akvon al sia kamelo.) Gxi falis sur la segxon. Tamen la kamelo marsxis kaj marsxis. "Sed" is adversative. trinki = to drink. Li metis la nazon en gxin. cxar li estis varma. kaj volas doni akvon al mia fidela kamelo. "Do. ("Sed" connects the phrases. En la sakoj estis akvo. cxar estis nur mono en la sako. expressing a logical inference or result in a somewhat conversational manner. Arabo iris trans grandan sekan dezerton. sed ne trovis akvon en la sako. negxi = to snow." "before me. cxar li ne volis monon. veni = to come. kaj la sablo de la dezerto sxajnis varma. La arabo estis kolera.] VOCABULARY akvo = water. dezerto = desert. then. but not containing a verb.

12.] [Footnote: In English the subordinating conjunction may sometimes be omitted. as in the expressions "one knows. he found only money in the sack. 10." being usually permissible. 2. 17. Today it is raining. Johano diras ke vi venis hieraux. either "I think that he is good." "I hear that he is good." "I am told." "people say." etc. Li ne tenis la sakon." "he is good." or a similar expression. 4. He wished to come from the dry desert to the house of a faithful friend. But in Esperanto there is no variation. kaj kusxis apud li." that." is called an "indirect statement. 6. LESSON XII. 7. which is dependent upon or subordinate to a main verb or sentence." "you can see. 20. 11. La sako nun kusxas sur la sablo de la granda dezerto." etc. cxar li estis kolera. 1. 15. John says that you came yesterday. and wished to drink water. They went to the city of Boston and lost their way. They do not need money. 54. Nevertheless there is only sand in the desert. kaj la mono estas en gxi.: . This pronoun may also be used in translating such expressions as "it is said.") An indirect statement is joined to the main verb or sentence by the subordinating conjunction "ke. 53. 8. Nevertheless. Both he and his friends are rich. SENTENCES FOR sia kamelo? Ne. but yesterday it was snowing. 19. He also wished to give water to the faithful camel. the indefinite personal pronoun "oni" is used. and did not keep the sack." "think. A statement made indirectly by means of a clause dependent upon a verb meaning "say. li ne volis meti gxin sur sian kamelon. He was angry. Is the large sack behind the door theirs? 5." "--when he went." (The "direct" statement is "he came. Did your friend John carry his chair into the house? 3. as in "I know that he came." or "I think he is good. Sxi opinias ke estas mono en la sako. The camel pushed its head into the house of the arab. INDIRECT STATEMENTS. 16. 9. but today he prefers water." "--that he is good. 13. I saw your good friends on the way to the city. [Footnote: A clause is a group of words including a verb." "believe. The body of a camel is large. and the conjunction "ke" is never omitted. and he was angry." "know. The arab was warm. sed gxi falis sur la sablon.] THE INDEFINITE PERSONAL PRONOUN "ONI". When an indefinite personal pronoun is desired." "they say.. Yesterday he wished to find money. 14. 18. In the sack there is money. 21. she thinks that there is money in the bag. and came to theirs today. There are interesting houses across the street. They went to his house yesterday." etc. and its neck is long. Neither she nor her brother saw the whole city. On the sand in the desert there lies a sack. as "--that he came.

Mi preferas orientan venton. vetero = weather. vi estos = you will be. "brilos. corn.). kontraux = against. Oni opinios ke. western. kaj la greno kaj floroj . orienta = east." will run. ili vidos = they will see." will fly. THE FUTURE TENSE. Oni vidas ke ili estas amikoj. opinii = to think. la suno brilis. "Pluvas nun. eastern. ni vidos = we shall see. La nova ventoflago diris. La greno kaj la floroj velkis. sed la greno en la kampoj bezonos sekan veteron. "La sudan venton mi ne sxatas. LA VENTOFLAGO. cxar mi montras orientan venton. it) will be. ventoflago = weathercock. virinoj. kaj junaj infanoj volis trinki. cxar mi montras okcidentan venton. Cxu oni vidis nin en la gxardeno? Were we seen (did people see us) in the garden? Oni sxatas agrablajn infanojn. sed gxi estis seka kaj agrabla vento. it is thought (one thinks) that she is happy. I was told (people said to me) that there is sand in the desert. one sees that they are friends. velki = to wilt. vi estos = you (plural) will be. Estis varma vetero. Tamen la nova ventoflago sur la domo diris al si. to point out. kaj ne portis pluvon.Oni diras ke li estas ricxa. kaj la frukto ankaux falis. gxi) vidos : he (she. li (sxi. cxar ne pluvas. people like agreeable children (agreeable children are liked). Oni diris al mi ke estas sablo en la dezerto. VOCABULARY auxdi = to hear. oni = (see 54)." will shine. la frukto falas. "Oni estos kolera kontraux mi. kaj baldaux venis. ni estos = we shall be. mi vidos = I shall see." La okcidenta vento auxdis la ventoflagon. vento = wind. southern. suda = south. "flugos. The future tense of the verb expresses an act or state as about to take place. ili estos = they will be. Gxi ne estis forta. Gxi diris. northern. or as one that will take place in future time. cxar gxi montras orientan venton. montri = to show. kaj oni estis kolera kontraux la ventoflago. li (sxi. okcidenta = west. kaj suda vento blovis. ke = that (conjunction). The ending of this tense is "-os. Oni estos kolera kontraux mi." La vento orienta auxdis la diron kaj gxi venis kontraux la ventoflagon. La viroj." as "kuros. sed ili ne havis akvon. Oni opinias ke sxi estas felicxa. Mi opinias ke oni sxatas lin. to opine. greno = grain (wheat. Pluvis kaj pluvis. it) will see. they say (one says) that he is rich. pluvo = rain. norda = north. etc. nova = new. vi vidos = you (plural) will see. to wither. blovi = to blow. The conjugation of "esti" and also of "vidi" in the future tense is as follows: mi estos = I shall be. gxi) estos = he (she. vi vidos = you will see. I think that people like him (that he is liked). 55.

The plural is "tiuj". since after an introductory past tense the . but today we shall have good weather also. One can see that it is not beautiful. and a long neck. Li auxdis tiujn. 7. 58. It is thought (people think) that the camel is a faithful friend. that is yours. Do you think (that) he is in the house? 10. and the grain and fruit will need a warm wind. A north wind is not warm. (In English this is true only if the introductory verb is present or future. La ventoflago ne estas fidela amiko al ni. sed hodiaux negxas. It was beautiful weather yesterday. 15. and I wish that one. People will like a south wind. I shall find those books. They say that the west wind will be a dry wind. 16. Nevertheless we shall drink warm water in the city. 6. The demonstrative pronoun "tiu" is also used as a "pronominal adjective". but an east wind will carry rain. 57. 56. he heard those (persons. kaj kusxis sur la vojo antaux la domo. those children are young. Tiuj infanoj estas junaj. Negxis. I see that weathercock. or things). Mi trovos tiujn librojn. 1. TENSES IN INDIRECT QUOTATIONS. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 18. The demonstrative pronoun "tiu". 4. and the young children were not warm. la okcidenta. kaj ni volas rompi gxin!" Oni kuris al la domo. kaptis la novan ventoflagon. those will be angry with you. My friend has a beautiful new house. because the north wind blew. 5. those: Tiu estas la via. THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN "TIU". Mi vidas tiun ventoflagon. I am told (people tell me) that the camel has a large body. 2. in agreement with a noun: Tiu vento estos varma. 3. Tiuj estos koleraj kontraux vi. kaj ankaux rompis gxin. 13. kaj oni estis kolera. People will be angry with (against) the weathercock. LESSON XIII. He is said to be (they say that he is) on the street. because it points-out a north wind. that wind will be warm.velkas. 12. I think that a warm wind will blow soon. 14. is used to indicate a person or a definitely specified thing. antaux la orienta. 17. The weathercock now shows that an agreeable south wind blows. It snowed. Gxi ne montras bonajn ventojn. that. 11. Ni preferas la sudan venton. kaj la virinoj kaj la junaj infanoj ne estis varmaj. Ni havis gxin. kaj la norda ventoj. Mi sxatas montri nek okcidentan nek orientan venton!" Norda vento auxdis kaj venis al la ventoflago. Oni diris "La greno kaj la frukto bezonas varman veteron. 8. kaj mi volas tiun. The verb in an indirect statement (53) or an indirect question remains in the same tense in which it would be if the statement or question were direct. Gxi falis. Can one find money in the desert? 9. La vetero ne estis agrabla. People do not like to drink warm water. One can see that the weathercock points-out the winds.

and "am. Oni miris cxu li venos. diris " " " " . parko = park. timi = to fear." etc. whether. [Footnote: Cf. virino = woman (from viro. Josephine. Miaj junaj amiko kaj amikino. he wonders whether I hear. nubo = cloud. Li diris ke li miris pri tiuj birdoj." "wonder. people ask whether he is rich. I said that he was good. were. opiniis ke gxi estas bona. La infanoj diris al la patrino ke la parko estas agrabla. "Oni demandas cxu li estas ricxa". filo = son. cxapelo = hat. pri = concerning.) Mi " " Li " " Mi diras ke li estas bona. to be afraid (of). I wonder whether he came. he will wonder whether I hear. tiu = that (56). Geraldine. after verbs meaning "ask. iris hieraux al la parko. etc. brother)." "know. will" become "was. tamen li opinias ke . also German "Koenigin". "viro". heaven. I thought that it was good (I thought "it is good")..] VOCABULARY almenaux = at least. cxielo = sky. father). Ernestine. had. I say that he is good. "Loewin". ombrelo = umbrella. "knabo". miros " " " . to speak. English names similarly formed from masculine names. miras cxu mi auxdas. would. about. Sxi diris al li ke la floroj velkas.: "Mi miras cxu li venis". morgaux = tomorrow. man). 59. they wondered whether he would come (they wondered "will he come?"). La knabo diris hodiaux al mi ke hieraux li kaj lia fratino auxdis la birdojn en la arboj super siaj kapoj. Feminine nouns corresponding to distinctly masculine nouns such as "frato". kaj ke la herbo en preskaux la tuta parko bezonas pluvon. kaj ke ili volas promeni en gxi. promeni = to take a walk. lion. miri = to wonder. super = above. EN LA PARKO. preskaux = almost. diros " " " " . are. from "Loewe". patrino = mother (from patro. I shall say that he is good. La knabino parolis al sia frato pri la belaj floroj. king. he wondered whether I heard.tense of the indirect quotation is changed. from "Koenig". as "Pauline. knabino = girl (from knabo.] FORMATION OF FEMININE NOUNS. is. zorga = careful." etc." etc. miris " " " . have. paroli = to talk. [Footnote: An indirect question is introduced by "cxu". queen. konstrui = to build. lioness. kaj ankaux ilia patrino. may be formed from these by inserting the suffix "-in-" just before the noun-ending "-o": fratino = sister (from frato. boy).

61. and my brother will hold it over our heads. montris al sxi la grizajn nubojn. She will be careful of (about) that hat. kaj preskaux kuris. which general idea of nearness or proximity. 8. kaj la knabo miris cxu li kaj liaj patrino kaj fratino amuzas tiujn virojn kaj virinojn. 16. 6. in those branches above our heads. Mi vidis cxi tiun. It (51) will be beautiful weather tomorrow. Baldaux la patro venis al ili. but I do not wish to take-a-walk. Morgaux ili ne promenos en la parko.) The either precede or follow the pronoun: meaning "this" expresses the literal meaning word "cxi" may Cxi tiu estas la mia. this girl is my sister. Cxu vi volas tiujn cxi? Do you wish these? Cxi tiu knabino estas mia fratino. 5. and a west wind is beginning to blow." birdoj baldaux konstruos siajn nestojn en tiuj arboj. Sxi parolis al la patrino pri la nuboj kaj la pluvo. Tamen la patrino diris ke sxi ne timas ke sxi amuzos tiujn. cxar ili havis la ombrelojn. 60. Tra la fenestroj de la domoj oni rigardis ilin. 18. My young sister will be careful about that new umbrella. The birds are building their nests now. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. That park is pleasant and the grass is soft and green. My sister said "Mother and I are-afraid that it will rain. (Consequently the of "cxi tiu" is "that one nearby". La filo diris al sxi ke li ankaux estas zorga. but the grain needed a south wind. 10. 2. 4. 14. kaj diris ke si volas iri al la domo. sed ili estis sekaj. Baldaux pluvis. because there are clouds in (on) the sky. 17. sed ke sxi timas la pluvon. kaj portis ombrelojn. Cxi tiuj amikoj promenos. on that large house near the park. this is mine. 11. Mi vidis cxi tiujn cxapelojn. I saw these hats. cxar ili ne havis ombrelon. I can see that weathercock. Li miris cxu la infanoj kaj ilia patrino havas ombrelojn. The sky above us is blue. kaj mia juna amikino timis ke pluvos. One sees that he is not a strong boy. The demonstrative pronoun (and pronominal adjective) is formed by using with "tiu" (56) the word "cxi". 1. THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN "CXI TIU". At least we shall take an umbrella. 15. The words "tiu" and "cxi tiu" may be used to distinguish between persons or things "previously" mentioned and "just" mentioned: . Sxi kaj la filino volas esti zorgaj pri almenaux la novaj cxapeloj. kaj baldaux ili vidis ke grizaj nuboj venas sur la cxielon. these friends will take a walk. 13. I wonder whether she will take-a-walk tomorrow. sed iros al la urbo. "that one here". The east wind is dry and the south wind will be too warm. My father's friend is very careful of his son. 3 A north wind is blowing and I think that it will soon snow. because a pleasant wind is now blowing. sed ke li opinias ke ne pluvos. Mother says that my sister will have a new hat tomorrow. LESSON XIV. Ili komencis marsxi al la strato. They are talking about that park. The flowers will wither because those children gathered them. La infanoj promenis. cxar li ankaux timis la pluvon. I saw this one. 7. A west wind blew against the weathercock. 12.

to catch). the latter (this one) gathers them. La patro kaj lia amiko parolas pri siaj domoj. 63. trap (from kapti. the noun ending "-o". Thus. to fly). he amuses himself with (by) those pictures. sed cxi ties sxajnas bela. when no suffix intervenes. Gertrude and Mary are in the park. Cxi ties filoj estas junaj. Mi sxatas ties koloron. etc. are attached. needle (from kudri. "-as". The former's is new. To express possession. The use of "ties" and "cxi ties" to mean "the former" and "the latter" is similar to the use of "tiu" and "cxi tiu" shown in 61: Mi iris al ties domo. (clock) hand (from montri. Names of instruments. this one's. La birdoj flugas per flugiloj. kaptilo. "-is". VOCABULARY . I like that one's color. kudrilo. tenilo. this person's (this one's) sons are young. THE SUFFIX "-IL-".. sed preferas cxi tiun floron. to point out. to sew). snare. Tiu rigardas la florojn. Ties estas nova. etc. indicator. but prefer this flower. 62. "-os". cxi tiu kolektas ilin. "vir-" is the root of "viro" and of "virino". the birds fly by (with) wings. wing (from flugi. [Footnote: The root of a word is that part of it which contains the essential meaning. "kur-" is the root of "kuri". I found it by (through) your help. and to which the verb endings "-i". POSSESSIVE FORM OF THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN. the adjective ending "-a". the demonstrative pronouns "tiu" and "cxi tiu" have the special possessive or genitive forms "ties". that one's. and "cxi ties". but the latter's seems beautiful. show). tools or utensils may be formed by adding the suffix "-il-" (followed by the ending "-o") to roots whose meaning permits: flugilo. Father and his friend are talking about their houses. The former (that one) looks at the flowers. The means or instrumentality through which an act is accomplished is expressed by use of the preposition "per": Oni kudras per kudrilo. Mi trovis gxin per via helpo. handle (from teni. to hold). Li amuzas sin per tiuj bildoj.] THE EXPRESSION OF MEANS OR INSTRUMENTALITY. I went to that one's house. montrilo. one sews by means of (with) a needle. 64.Gertrude kaj Mario estas en la parko.

tre = very. Mi havis ne nur viandon. One holds the spoon in the right hand. Mia amiko volis doni almenaux kafon al sia najbaro. sed mi metis ilin en la busxon per forko. 1. Ilia gusto estis ankaux bona. Li tenis tiun en la mano. 6. The sweet fruit above them will fall upon the soft green grass. kaj havis belan koloron. It is said (54) that the grain in that-man's field very [much] needs rain. trancxilo kaj kulero estas mangxiloj. 19. kulero = spoon. cxi (see 60). Tomorrow it will hide (itself) behind a tree. The birds have very strong wings on their bodies. Mi tenis la forkon en la dekstra mano. but they do not have hands. and will catch a young sparrow. mia amiko konstruos grandan domon. and soup with a spoon. Post la supo mi havis viandon. 13. but one does not need a sharp fork. The children will gather peaches in that-person's garden. They will build their nests. A knife is sharp. with the help of their father. kaj mi mangxis tiun per granda kulero. sed ankaux novajn terpomojn. 14. kaj metis la trancxilon trans mian teleron. Cxi tiun mi tenis per forko. One eats meat with a fork. Oni metis tre bonan supon antaux mi. 11. 4. 12. oni donis al mi fresxajn maturajn cxerizojn. helpo = help. and tomorrow the children will pick (gather) them. Those children were talking to me yesterday about their cat. 2. 18. kaj lauxdos gxin. Post la mangxo. La forko. Tamen li volis persikon. viando = meat. forko = fork. We shall have a very good meal. Post la viando kaj la terpomoj. per = by means of (64). Mi trancxis tiujn cxi per la trancxilo. 5. They will shake the whole tree by means of a branch. because he fears the rain. Ili kusxis sur granda telero. sed mi opinias ke mi preferos cxi ties domon. and will put them upon a plate. sed li diris ke li ne volas trinki kafon. ties = that one's (62). exceedingly. 8. kaj trancxis per akra trancxilo. sed oni ne bezonas tre akran forkon. 17. and sing about the young birds. trancxi = to cut. They seem almost ripe. supo = soup. He sees those gray clouds in (on) the sky. He holds the umbrella by its handle. The weathercock is an indicator concerning the weather. Lia najbaro volas konstrui belan sed ne tre grandan domon. Mi parolos morgaux al mia amiko pri lia kafo. People also think that the flowers will wither. Ties nova domo estos bela. 20. terpomo = potato. kafo = coffee. Sed mi opiniis ke mi havos tre bonan mangxon. for (because) it did not rain yesterday or today. telero = plate. dekstra = right (not left). 16. Hieraux mi miris cxu mi havos bonan mangxon en la domo de mia amiko. najbaro de mia amiko venis en cxi ties domon. 7. mano = hand. The children wondered whether the cherries were ripe. 15. and also very good coffee.busxo = mouth. 3. kaj mangxis tiun. cxar mia amiko sxatas doni bonajn mangxojn al siaj amikoj. 10. Per la helpo de sia patro. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Oni bezonas akran trancxilon. kaj ili parolis al mi pri siaj novaj domoj. They said that it likes to catch and eat sparrows. . My careful young friend will carry an umbrella in his hand tomorrow. Mi preskaux ne diris ke mi ankaux havis kafon. 9. LA MANGXO.

but may also follow. hieraux = yesterday. 65. The demonstrative adjective related to the demonstrative pronoun "tiu" (56) is "tia". time. as "now. I wish to hear such birds. (60). that sort of. hodiaux = today. interrogation: cxu. 66. Such questions may be put in the form of a statement. followed by "cxu ne" (instead of having "cxu" introduce the sentence. If the meaning of a word is such that it can have a direct opposite." The Esperanto primary adverbs given in this and in preceding lessons may be classified as follows: (a) Temporal Adverbs (expressing time). . (b) Adverbs of Degree. tre = very. nur = merely. with "ne" in its normal position): Li venos. Mi sxatas tian viandon. that kind of a flower is beautiful." An example of permissible variation in the position of adverbs is shown in questions to which an affirmative answer is expected. It must be so placed as to leave no doubt about which of two words or word-groups it is intended to modify. Mi volas auxdi tiajn birdojn. (30). tuj = immediately. (c) Adverbs Expressing Other Ideas. degree. cxu ne? The weather is beautiful.LESSON XV. proximity: cxi." "sweet-ly. another adverb. that kind of. Tiaj najbaroj estas agrablaj. emphasis: ecx = even. will he not? La vetero estas bela. Adverbs are either primary. the word or words which it modifies. ADVERBS DEFINED AND CLASSIFIED. (27). did you not? FORMATION OF OPPOSITES. adjective. preskaux = almost. An adverb usually precedes." or derived. morgaux = tomorrow. almenaux = at least. nun = now. such: Tia floro estas bela. negation: ne = not." or more probably "I wished almost to have that. as "glad-ly. a. much. It may express manner. I like that sort of meat. cxu ne? He will come. 67. cxu ne? You heard that remark. no. addition: ankaux = also. "mi preskaux volis havi tiun" clearly means "I almost wished to have that". Thus. affirmation: jes = yes. THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE. or phrase." "almost. such (that kind of) neighbors are pleasant. is it not? Vi auxdis tiun diron. negation. baldaux = soon. etc. but "mi volis preskaux havi tiun" might mean either "I almost wished to have that. An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb.

young). preni = to take. Does one eat potatoes and meat with a fork or a spoon? 2. kuragxa = courageous. and puts the fruit upon a plate. right). short (from "alta". new). kaj ecx nun oni povas sxteli gxin. and I was ."] VOCABULARY dum = during. propono = proposal. "Nun. "Vi gardos niajn cxevalojn dum la nokto. tall). (Words to be formed with the prefix "mal-" are quoted. LA RUZA JUNA VIRO. One puts soup into the mouth by means of a spoon. nokto = night. Li ne estis kontenta. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. sed malamikoj povos tuj vidi vian blankan cxevalon." "maladroit". "clumsy. cunning. kontenta = satisfied. old (from "juna"." La malkontenta maljuna viro diris per kolera vocxo "Cxu vi ne hontas pri tia propono?" Tamen la ruza juna viro tuj komencis dormi. mi nun dormos. ruza = sly. cxu ne? Vi povos malhelpi malamikojn per tiu granda akra trancxilo. "discontented. [Footnote: Cf. cxar li estis malricxa. kaj li donis sian nigran cxevalon al tiu. kaj prenis la blankan cxevalon. tia = that kind of (65). not new (from "nova". kaj la maljuna viro gardis la cxevalojn dum la tuta nokto. kaj prenos vian cxevalon. cxar vi estas maljuna kaj malforta." Tia propono ne sxajnis agrabla al la maljuna viro. povi = to be able. Tiu havis nigran cxevalon. to help). Li diris al si ke li donos sian blankan cxevalon al la juna viro. cxar oni ne sxtelos blankan cxevalon. La via estas malbela. sxteli = to steal. maljuna = aged. high. tuj = immediately. Mi povos vidi tian cxevalon dum la nokto. vi donos gxin al mi." La ruza juna viro ne hontis. kaj vi gardos la cxevalojn. tamen li ne volis perdi sian cxevalon." diris la maljuna viro. 4. gardi = to guard. cxi tiu havis blankan cxevalon. cxu ne?" diris la juna viro per dolcxa vocxo al sia amiko. ecx = even. 3." respondis la ruza juna viro. vocxo = voice. kaj prenos ties nigran cxevalon. kaj malhelpi malamikojn. kaj ne povos malhelpi malamikojn.such opposite may be formed from it by use of the prefix "mal-": malalta = low. The coffee was "cold". to aid. Li respondis "Mia kara amiko. "Cxar dum la nokto oni ne povos vidi mian nigran cxevalon. malnova = old. Sed tiu cxevalo via ("that horse of yours") havas la koloron de la nokto. respondi = to answer. One cuts fruit with a knife. maldekstra = left (from "dekstra". cxu ne?" "Jes. Ruza juna viro kaj bona maljuna viro iris trans dezerton.) 1. "Vi estas kuragxa kaj forta. kara = dear. honti = to be ashamed. malamiko = enemy (from "amiko". malhelpi = to hinder (from "helpi". English "malcontent". friend). Tuj li diris al cxi tiu "Sed per via helpo mi ne perdos mian cxevalon: mi donos la mian al vi. helpi = to help. sed gxi estas almenaux nigra. kaj oni ne povos sxteli vian blankan cxevalon. Oni povos sxteli tian cxevalon.

contend with. 14. If the verb in the sentence expresses motion toward the place indicated by "tie" or "cxi tie". Ni estis tie. "widerhalten". He said that one can steal a black horse during the "dark" night. withstand". and I fear that we shall not be able to take a walk. 10. (Cf. although per may often be translated by English "with. [Footnote: "Kun" must not be confused with "per" (64). THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERB OF PLACE. 6. and guarded the horses. we were there and came here (hither). They wished to be careful about their horses. I "dislike" to go-walking upon the "hard" streets. along with: La viro venis kun sia amiko. Mi trovis vin tie kaj lin tie cxi. I found you there and him here. and was very angry at his "faithless" friend. the ending "-n" is added to the adverb (46). 17. LESSON XVI. thither. ACCOMPANIMENT. 7. which expresses instrumentality. He was ashamed. and "cxi tien". he will go there (thither)." expressing . forming "tien". the man came with his friend. The "old" man answered that he would give to him his [own] white horse. here.) Gradually this word "with" usurped the meaning of the original preposition "mid. Accompaniment or association is expressed by the preposition "kun". He said that either (aux) he or the "old" man would guard the horses. to strive with. with. etc. but I think that the handle of that knife was very "short". La libroj kusxas cxi tie. the plate is there (in that place). La knabo kun tiu viro estas lia frato. My knife was "dull". Mi promenos kun vi. there the weather seems very pleasant. even in that "small" park. 69. there. 13. and wished to sleep during the night. The grass is "wet" today. to resist. In the linguistic history of this word." The English preposition "with" may be said to have three rather clearly defined different meanings. 8. in (at) this place: La telero estas tie. and "cxi tie". I was ashamed. nevertheless I almost immediately cut my (the) "left" hand. 70. Mi venis cxi tien. 5. 68. the books lie here (in this place). kaj venis cxi tien. 15. 11. The courageous young man and his "aged" friend talked about their "enemies". German "widerstreiten". The young man was very sly. here: Li iros tien." still shown in "fight with. 12. 9. I shall go walking with you. Tie la vetero sxajnas tre agrabla. The demonstrative adverbs of place related to the pronouns "tiu" and "cxi tiu" are "tie". 16. etc. I came here (hither).much "dissatisfied". the boy with that man is his brother. there. hither. strive with. in (at) that place. He took that one's black horse. But he "stayed-awake". the original meaning was "against.

" to keep away. The verb "povi". and so "mid's" successor "with" came to be interchangeable with "by" in expressing instrumentality. ------.association or accompaniment (cf." to exclude from. which it crowded out of the language except in one unimportant compound). forlasi = to leave alone. "forbid. Thus. peli = to drive. the prefix "for-" in English "forfend. "kun". respectively. English "with" indicates opposition. cxar li estis kun la amikoj. paroli. VOCABULARY el = out of. rajdi = to ride. forkuri = to run away. paroli. horo = hour. voki = to call. to stay. German "mit". to remove. to abandon. to avert. La amikoj estis fortaj. away." to refrain from. etc. kun = with (70). 71. Ecx en la dezerto oni trovas malamikojn. out. as "Li iris for de mi". roundabout. kaj forrajdis kun tiuj amikoj. ------. to depart. rapidi = to hasten. but it is more frequently used as a prefix to give a sense of departure. kun siaj amikoj. The word "by" was also encroaching upon "mid" from another direction. to be able. I can talk. sagxa = wise. with. posxo = pocket. may be used independently. La juna viro estis kontenta. fortrinki = to drink away. for = away (71). I wish to be able to talk. that is. and "per". cxirkaux = around. I was able to talk.] THE MEANING OF "POVI". to escape. which is defective. to command against. for which three senses Esperanto has the three prepositions "kontraux". to chase. frua = early. to eat up.] THE ADVERB "FOR". [Footnote: Cf. or instrumentality. MALAMIKOJ EN LA DEZERTO. I could talk. glavo = sword. is used to translate English "can". tie = there (68). loss or somewhat forcible removal: foriri = to go away. Ili opiniis ke ili povos forpeli la malamikojn. kaj la juna viro estis tre kuragxa. he went away from me. The adverb "for". forpreni = to take away. Ili restis en malgranda urbo dum la nokto. to drink up. Tiaj malamikoj forprenas la monon de bonaj viroj. . La patro kaj la filo opiniis ke la amikoj kun ili povos helpi per siaj akraj glavoj. resti = to remain. accompaniment. Juna viro kaj lia sagxa patro volis iri trans la dezerton. povi paroli. formangxi = to eat away. "forbear. I am able to talk. to desert. does not occur in all of the forms a verb may have: Mi Mi Mi Mi povas povis povos volas paroli. lasi = to leave. I shall be able to talk. 72.

8. most: . most. They did not help them with their swords. kaj ili preskaux ne povis vidi. with ("per") my help?" 17. We cannot ride thither. Baldaux la malamikoj komencis forpreni la monon el la posxoj de la sagxa maljuna viro." LESSON XVII. more. The enemy did not leave (to) these their horses. using the adverbs "pli". They said "We fear and dislike such men. Ni ne estas malsagxaj." Post tiu diro ili tuj forrapidis. and hastened there (69). La filo volis malhelpi ilin. and soon he saw the enemy. such a proposal seems good. 2. But we are now in the desert. The old man heard disagreeable voices behind him. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. but we can walk thither. and drive them away. at that time: Tiam li rajdos al la urbo. but at that time they were foolish. Can you not hasten. Dum la fruaj horoj de la nokto la patro auxdis vocxojn. but took both the horses and the money. sed tiam ili estis malsagxaj. 6. Li povis nur resti kun la patro. Those sly bad men took the money out of the pockets of the courageous young man. "Dear Father. "Yes.La maljuna viro estis kontenta cxar li estis kun sia filo.). 3. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. La malamikoj staris cxirkaux la patro. then he will ride to the city. 4. The foolish friends of the young man and his aged father did not stay with them." and irregular methods as in "good. 11. La ruzaj malbonaj viroj rapidis tien. The enemy called them. "comparative" and "superlative. and the road to the city is long. Soon the enemy rode away. The father said "By the help of our neighbors we can ("povos") find those bad men." etc. then. THE DEMONSTRATIVE TEMPORAL ADVERB. Estis tre malluma tie en la dezerto. The demonstrative temporal adverb related to the demonstrative pronoun "tiu" is "tiam". "positive". kaj preskaux tuj li vidis la malamikojn. La malkuragxaj amikoj de la patro kaj filo nek restis tie. 74. The son replied." 12. They stood around him. and also around his father. kaj forpusxis lin de lia cxevalo. The father and son were angry and dissatisfied." the adverbs "more." English has various ways of forming the comparative and superlative degrees (as by the suffixes "-er. now they are wise. during the late hours of the night. out of the desert. nek helpis forpeli la malamikojn. The wise old man answered. -est. and "plej". with such help I can walk thither. 1. An adjective may have three degrees. 16. kaj prenis kun si la cxevalojn. Ili tuj forkuris. 9. 7. kaj gardi lin tie kontraux la glavoj de la malamikoj. kaj vokis la maljunan viron. 73. better. Nun ili estas sagxaj. La kolera filo diris per maldolcxa ("bitter") vocxo "Cxu vi ne hontas? Cxu vi lasos al ni nek la cxevalojn nek nian monon?" Sed la malamikoj respondis "Ne. 5. but ran away at once ("tuj"). ni lasos al vi nek la cxevalojn nek la monon." 13. best. Baldaux la nokto venis. Esperanto has only one method. 14. and I will help with my long sharp sword. The father and son could not even guard their horses. sed li ne povis. 15. 10. my son. and were not ashamed.

more beautiful pli bona. [Footnote: Sometimes the manner of an action may be expressed by the instrument of it. Mi havas cxevalon kun forta korpo. intereso = interest. most beautiful plej bona. diris gxin al vi. servisto = servant. Sxi estas virino kun bona gusto. tiam = then (73). plumo = pen. Vi estas la plej felicxa el ni. parolis al vi pri gxi. wise COMPARATIVE. or the characteristic which permanently accompanies a person or thing. may be expressed by a substantive with the preposition "kun": Li prenis gxin kun la plej granda zorgo. plej = most (74). 77. expressed by the preposition "per" with a substantive modified by an adjective: "Li kantis per dolcxa vocxo". I said to (told) you that it was raining. best plej malbona. I talked (spoke) to you about it. letero = letter. -------------------------plej bela. I heard him with interest and pleasure. he took it with the greatest care. "PAROLI" AND "RAKONTI". I have a horse with a strong body. The verbs "diri". Mi auxdis lin kun intereso kaj plezuro. better pli malbona. -----------------------pli bela.POSITIVE. ekster = outside (of). she is a woman with (of) good taste. MANNER AND CHARACTERISTIC. he sang with (by means of) a sweet voice.] "DIRI". rakonti = to relate (77). you are the happiest of us. to talk. that one was the craftiest of the men. I said it to you (I told you). Tiu estis la plej ruza el la viroj. you pushed me with a strong hand. good malbona. I related (told) it to you. and "rakonti". worse pli sagxa. wiser SUPERLATIVE. pli = more (74). rakontis gxin al vi. VOCABULARY ami = to love. 76. --------------bela. The preposition "el" is used with words expressing the group or class out of which a superlative is selected and mentioned: Li estas la plej juna el tiuj. The actions or feelings which accompany an act or state. regxo = king. he is the youngest of (out of) those. skribi = to write. beautiful bona. wisest 75. must not be confused in use: Mi Mi Mi Mi diris al vi ke pluvas. to speak. . "Vi pusxis min per forta mano". worst plej sagxa. to say. "paroli". to relate. Frederiko = Frederick. bad sagxa. gratuli = to congratulate. having in common the general idea of speech or expression.

"Jes. and stood around the king. 15. An interesting story is related (54) about Frederick the Great. En cxi tiu letero la patrino diris per la plumo ke sxi amas la filon. and saw a letter in his pocket. tiam restis ekster la pordo. Li sxajnis pli malfelicxa kaj diris kun granda timo "Malamiko metis cxi tiun monon en mian posxon! Oni opinios ke mi sxtelis gxin! Oni malamos min. They walked with great care." respondis la knabo. and talked to the little servant. Tiam li formarsxis al sia cxambro. 7. sed hontis cxar li vokis la infanon. mi timas ke mi preskaux dormis. 4. They loved the little boy. He had written a letter to her. La regxo Frederiko vidis leteron en la posxo de la knabo. la plej juna el la servistoj. li ne opiniis ke la horo estas malfrua. Gxi estis letero al la servisto. kaj trovis la monon. kaj trovis la knabon ekster la pordo. mi donis gxin al vi. 2. Sxi ne estis ricxa virino. Sxi dankis lin cxar li skribis al sxi longan leteron. kaj staris antaux la regxo. The king called him. and the younger servant did not hear them. zorgo = care. kaj vokis la malgrandan serviston. kaj forpelos min!" Frederiko respondis. 12. because she was poor. FREDERIKO GRANDA KAJ LA JUNA SERVISTO. and he was angry. nek venis nek respondis. and he hastened thither and stood before him. 1. La regxo iris tien. cxar sxi havas tian filon. La regxo volis esti tre bona al tia filo. "Cxu vi dormis?" diris Frederiko Granda. LESSON XVIII. He wrote longer letters with pleasure.plezuro = pleasure. Li vidis ke la knabo dormas sur malalta segxo. dum malfruaj horoj de la nokto. 13." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. (The) king Frederick wished to be kinder ("pli bona") to the boy. 3. Kun la plej granda zorgo li metis monon el sia posxo kun la letero kaj tiam lasis la leteron en ties posxo. 17. with his pen. His youngest servant stayed outside of the door. 16. kaj rigardis gxin. kaj rapidis tra la pordo. 8. 6. Sxi ankaux dankis lin cxar li donis al sxi monon. Cxar la regxo legis plej interesan novan libron. cxar mi amas bonajn knabojn. de lia patrino. 5. Tuj li prenis la leteron el lia posxo. The king called him." Tiam li metis la manon en la posxon. Tiam Frederiko Granda ne estis kolera. En gxi oni rakontas ke la regxo kun plezuro legis aux skribis per sia plumo. "Ne. Then the older servants came. Hieraux mi legis interesan libron pri Frederiko Granda ("the Great"). 18. THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERB OF MOTIVE OR REASON. 11. Then he saw that the little boy was sleeping there. because he was a most faithful son. The king thought that the boy had gone away with the older servants. sxi sxajnis esti tre malricxa. concerning such a son. Mi gratulas vian patrinon. sed la knabo. and had given (to) her money. He left his book on the table. Agrabla juna knabo. but he did not answer. La knabo tuj auxdis. 10. and wished to help him. He placed his book upon the table. Li vokis sian malgrandan serviston. The letter was from the boy's mother. near his sword. . "kaj mi tre hontas. and went to the door. Li kuris trans la cxambron. The king congratulated the mother of the boy. 9. 14. He looked at him with greater interest. Yesterday he did not hear the king.

slyly COMPARATIVE. "kolere". "plej". ----------------------plej sagxe. the wind blew less strongly. wisely bone. I fear them less. related to the demonstrative pronoun "tiu". worse pli ruze. I love them more than (I love) her. The opposites (67) of "pli" and "plej" are "malpli". . "malplej". less. and "malplej". Vi malplej bezonos helpon. The demonstrative adverb of motive or reason. must indicate clearly the sense intended: Mi amas ilin pli multe ol sxin. ------------sagxe. is "tial". he wrote least carefully.78. "much". Tial mi gratulis lin. most wisely plej bone. much pli multe. he is less courageous. less " " plej multe. most slyly "MALPLI" AND "MALPLEJ". "malpli". for that reason. I love them more than she (loves them). least plej malmulte. a quantitative meaning is given by "multe". La vento blovis malpli forte. The comparison of adverbs is similar to that of adjectives: POSITIVE. DERIVATION OF ADVERBS. least COMPARISONS CONTAINING "OL". 81. most malplej multe. Tiuj estis malplej akraj. better pli malbone. you will need help least. In a comparison made by the use of "pli" or "malpli". more wisely pli bone. least. in the desired degree of comparison: multe. Li skribis malplej zorge. you helped the man less than the boy (helped him). (These adverbs may also modify verbs): Li estas malpli kuragxa. Mi malpli timas ilin. 79. by addition of the adverb-ending "-e". for that reason I congratulated him. Their use is similar to that of "pli" and "plej". Mi amas ilin pli multe ol sxi. more slyly SUPERLATIVE. the case used after "ol". badly ruze. 82. Adverbs may be derived from roots whose meaning permits. little pli malmulte. less malmulte. Tial oni forpelis lin. therefore the servant went away. as "felicxe". happily. ---------------------pli sagxe. therefore. Vi helpis la viron malpli multe ol la knabo. well malbone. more (in amount) malpli multe. worst plej ruze. angrily. 80. than. best plej malbone. COMPARISON OF WORDS EXPRESSING QUANTITY. Since in their precise sense the words "pli". those were least sharp. express degree. so they drove him away. so: Tial la servisto foriris.

Pluvas pli multe en aprilo. La vintro estas la malplej agrabla sezono el la tuta jaro. Tiam oni havas pli bonajn fruktojn ol dum la printempo. ol = than (82). 83.Vi helpis la viron malpli multe ol la knabon. for this reason that. for I wished to see you. kaj en junio oni vidas tre multajn rozojn. kun suda aux okcidenta ventoj. marto = March. Oni povas promeni sur la mola herbo. La manojn oni metas en la posxojn. that it did not rain. monato = month. for: Mi venis frue. many). gxiaj ventoj blovas malpli forte. I read a most interesting book about Frederick the Great. Cxu vi sxatas gxin pli multe ol mi? Cxu vi sxatas auxguston pli multe ol julion? SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. La bela printempo sxajnas pli agrabla ol la vintro. Negxas tre multe. Anstataux malvarmaj ventoj la somero havas la plej belan veteron. kaj la nuboj baldaux forflugas de la blua cxielo. A clause giving a cause or reason is introduced by "cxar". CAUSAL CLAUSES. aprilo kaj majo. I came early. Oni zorge gardas sin tiam kontraux la malvarmaj nordaj ventoj. you helped the man less than (you helped) the boy. La longaj tagoj estas varmaj. somero = summer. vintro = winter. aprilo = April. julio = July. tago = day. majo = May. or by the combination "tial ke". often). cxar la stratoj estas tro malsekaj. for. Sed la plej agrabla el la sezonoj estas la somero. Mi plej sxatas junion. julio kaj auxgusto. Oni marsxas kun granda zorgo. La monatoj de la somero estas junio. PRI LA SEZONOJ. sed la vizagxon oni ne povas bone gardi. La birdoj konstruas siajn nestojn. It relates that he often stayed-awake and read with great interest during . Gxiaj tagoj estas pli longaj kaj pli varmaj. kaj dolcxe kantas. kaj skribi leterojn per bona plumo. En cxi tiu sezono la kampoj kaj arboj frue komencas montri plej belajn kolorojn. La monatoj de la printempo estas marto. 1. tial ke oni ne volas fali kaj preskaux rompi la kolon. kaj malrapide ("slowly"). 2. ke ne pluvis. Mi multe preferas sidi en varma luma cxambro. VOCABULARY anstataux = instead of. printempo = spring (season). sezono = season. La floroj velkis tial. kaj tial oni nur malofte promenas. jaro = year. because. sed la noktoj estas tute agrablaj. ofta = frequent (ofte. cxar mi volis vidi vin. junio = June. because. tial = therefore (78). the flowers wilted for this reason. anstataux sur malsekaj malagrablaj stratoj. multa = much (multaj. Mi ne sxatas resti ekster la domo dum tia vetero. tamen post la pluvo la herbo sxajnas pli verda. Dum majo oni trovas violojn. auxgusto = August.

but the water does not seem to wash them. 13. the . V. respectively: Ju pli bona li estas. Ju pli bele la luno brilas. July and August are the warmest months of the whole year. Ju malpli pluvas. As You Like It. 8. The king loved this boy more than [he loved] the older servants. acts or states. the more beautifully the moon shines.") is rendered by the adverbs "ju" and "des". by that much . 84. for (the reason that) there are often clouds in the sky and it rains a great deal (very much). the more one likes the night. and goes walking in the parks. The days are longer than the nights. by how much I shall think my brother happy in having what he wishes for. 10. He is less wise than you. 16. 14." (meaning "by how much . Ju malpli multe vi helpas. "By so much the more shall I tomorrow be at the height of heart-heaviness. but the summer is more pleasant than that [season]. 12. One stays outside [of] the house then with greater pleasure. the adverbial use of English "the .. "JU" AND "DES" IN COMPARISONS. 3. I shall praise you the (that much) more. the oftener I look.. the preposition "between" is used in reference to two persons or things."] THE PREPOSITION "INTER". In May one begins to find sweet violets. LESSON XIX.. the month of May is between April and June. des pli oni sxatas la nokton. In June the most beautiful roses are seen (54). During March the east winds blow most strongly. he is sitting between you and me. As the difference in meaning is not essential. mi des pli multe lauxdos vin. Therefore I praise the summer more than you [do].. the more I wish to look.. Ju pli ofte mi rigardas. La monato majo estas inter aprilo kaj junio. In April one needs his umbrella. 7. because you helped. I think that I like the summer better than you [do]. the less I shall praise you. 6.. 11. 85. The streets are very wet. II. and shake the trees very much. Li sidas inter siaj amikoj. Shakespeare. In clauses expressing a comparison between two objects. 49.. instead of those disagreeable north and east winds. des pli felicxa li estos. The winter is a less pleasant season than the spring.. and the weathercock shows west and south winds. and the birds in the trees above our heads sing very sweetly. he is sitting among his friends. His youngest servant was a small boy. the more the flowers wither. the less you help. . I praise you more than [I praise] your younger brother. 5.the later hours of the night. the better he is. In English. the happier he will be. [Footnote: Cf. 4. des malpli multe mi lauxdos vin. 9. des pli la floroj velkas. However. Esperanto has but the one preposition inter to express both "between" and "among": Li sidas inter vi kaj mi. the less it rains. 15. 17. des pli mi volas rigardi. Cxar vi helpis. and "among" in reference to three or more.

februaro = February. kaj en novembro la arboj estas tute nudaj. It directs the thought away from the complement toward the action. nuda = bare. Gxiaj monatoj estas septembro. januaro = January. venos el tie. oktobro kaj novembro. Prepositions may be used with adverbs or with prepositional phrases when the meaning permits: La Li De Li Mi kato kuris el sub la tablo. La glacio ofte kovras la akvon en la riveroj. La auxtuno estas inter la somero kaj la vintro. on account of those clouds I fear that it will rain. glacio = ice. because of. Pro tiuj nuboj mi timas ke pluvos. the flowers wilt because of the dry weather. fall. inter = between. anstataux verdaj. on account of. rikolti = to harvest. VOCABULARY auxtuno = autumn. Mi skribis la leteron pro vi. rivero = river. ju = (see 84). La mola blanka negxo kovras la teron. LA AUXTUNO KAJ LA VINTRO. gxi falas de . des = (see 84). Cause or reason may be expressed not only by an adverb (78) or a clause (83). kaj la auxtuno. staris dekstre de la vojo. oktobro = October. THE PREPOSITION "PRO". novembro = November. for the sake of. he will come out of there. La herbo velkas. naked. tero = ground. La sezonoj de la jaro estas la vintro.Inter tiuj libroj estas tre interesa libro. kaj kusxas sur la brancxoj de la arboj. he stood on the right of the road. decembro = December. Baldaux la folioj falas al la tero. Dum cxi tiu monato kaj dum oktobro la folioj sur la brancxoj komencas esti rugxaj kaj flavaj. Tiam ankaux oni rikoltas la flavan grenon de la kampoj. pro la fortaj ventoj. pro = because of (86). Tiam. 86. I wrote the letter for you (for your sake). people like cherries because of the sweet taste. but also by use of the preposition "pro". kaj bruna tapisxo sxajnas kovri la teron. from now he will be careful. I shall go away from here. la printempo. negxo = snow. feeling or state caused by it. En septembro oni povas kolekti maturajn fruktojn. earth. among those books there is a very interesting book. la somero. Oni sxatas cxerizojn pro la dolcxa gusto. septembro = September. kaj restas sur la stratoj kaj la vojoj. the cat ran out-from under the table. iros for de cxi tie. or done in its interest or behalf: La floroj velkas pro la seka vetero. for. Pli aux malpli frue negxas. PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBS AND OTHER PREPOSITIONS. kovri = to cover. nun li estos zorga. among (85). 87.

The sooner it snows. kaj ju pli forte la norda vento blovas. July and August. 6." "tiel" may modify adjectives and other adverbs. Li prenis tiel multe. 9. so. 2. 11. September. with the brown grass. The relations which prepositions express may be of various kinds. THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERB OF MANNER AND DEGREE. Tiel mallonge li parolis. 7. Gxi estas la plej malvarma sezono. kun siaj junaj amikoj. LESSON XX. Ni preferas resti en la domo. anstataux ekster gxi. 89. It is between the spring and the autumn. in such a way. January and February. The summer is the warmest season of the entire year. April and May. They begin to fall from the branches and lie upon the ground. The snow will completely ("tute") cover the grass during the months of the winter. Therefore we often say that the summer is the pleasantest season. 18. Mi trovis tiel belan floron. kaj ju pli negxas. in that (this) manner. 4. the sooner the ground will seem to have a white carpet. des pli malofte ni volas promeni. 17. pro la malvarmaj tagoj kaj noktoj. We like this season of the year more than March. he took that much (so much). 8. Ju pli ni rigardas la nudajn brancxojn de la arboj. Ili volas kuri sur la negxo. These months are December. The months of the latter (62) are June. Because of its many pleasures. La monatoj de la vintro estas decembro. 13. La birdoj frue lasas tian veteron. cxirkaux la arboj kaj inter ili. 12. In these months. related to the demonstrative pronoun "tiu". They lie under the bare trees. Like English "thus. The more strongly the cold north wind blows through the branches. by indicating degree: Cxu oni tiel helpas amikon? Does one help a friend in that (this) way? Mi gxin skribis tiel. There will often be ice on the water of the river. people harvest the yellow grain and gather various fruits. Ili malsxatas la negxon kaj la glacion pli multe ol ni. Ju pli multe negxas. The leaves on the trees around us begin to have red and yellow colors. 5. Ili povas bone amuzi sin per la negxo. des pli malagrabla sxajnas la vintro. a certain number of prepositions primarily expressing . 15. 16. kaj flugas de cxi tie al pli sudaj kampoj kaj arboj. I found such a beautiful flower. Ili ne povas resti. October and November are the months of autumn. From that time ("de tiam") the ice and snow will cover the roads. thus briefly he spoke. I wrote it thus (in such a way). 14. 88. the summer is dear to me. januaro kaj februaro. the weather is so beautiful. des malpli ili estas kontentaj en la domo. thus. 1." "so. La vetero estas tiel bela. The demonstrative adverb of manner and degree. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. and altogether ("tute") hide them. Tamen la junaj infanoj tre sxatas tian veteron. As in English. the sooner the leaves fall from there. We like it even more than the summer. brancxoj al la tero. PREPOSITIONS EXPRESSING TIME-RELATIONS. is "tiel". 10.

you read that book very long ago. many years ago I found it. too much. Such prepositions are "antaux". it did not snow in (at any time within) the entire month. mateno = morning. ripozi = to rest. dum la tuta auxtuno.. vespero = evening. Antaux tre longe vi legis tiun libron. promenade. EN SEPTEMBRO. before Sunday I shall go away. express place. I saw him before that hour. narrative. je = at. I broke it a long time ago. lundo = Monday. Li skribos gxin antaux la nova jaro. tiel = thus. labori = to work. Post ne longe mi vokos vin. it is to be translated by "ago" following the expression (not by "before" preceding it): Antaux dimancxo mi foriros. "apud". Antaux multaj jaroj mi trovis gxin. "kun" expresses accompaniment. "antaux" means "before. I shall depart about June. at that hour he called me. "dum" expresses time. frosto = frost. etc. I slept until (up to) a late hour. "sub". Mi iros tien je dimancxo. Je malfrua horo li foriris. "gxis". kota = muddy." When used with an expression of an "amount" of time. Inter marto kaj junio mi iros tien. soon (after not long) I shall call you. "en". to labor. a few years ago he escaped. Antaux malmultaj jaroj li forkuris. on (89). "post". and "je" (whose use in other than time-relations will be explained later): Mi foriros cxirkaux junio. until now he did not see you. When a definite date or point in time is expressed. weary. "de". Sxi ne restis tie post julio.] VOCABULARY dimancxo = Sunday. Mi dormis gxis malfrua horo. Mi vidis lin antaux tiu horo. "sur". Sed nun ni restas tie nur gxis oktobro. En la tuta monato ne negxis. Je tiu horo li vokis min. "cxirkaux". "inter". etc. rakonto = story. Mi rompis gxin antaux longa tempo. to repose. tempo = time. from that hour I was your friend. mardo = Tuesday. "kontraux" expresses opposition. laca = tired. 90. between March and June I shall go there. De tiu horo mi estis via amiko. "pro" expresses may also express time-relations. semajno = week. Li venis antaux ne longe. energia = energetic. at a late hour he went away. [Footnote: As already shown. so (88) tro = too. Li ne parolis al mi de tiu semajno. he did not speak to me since from) that week. he came recently (not long ago). "anstataux" expresses substitution. Gxis nun li ne vidis vin. . she did not stay there after July. he will write it before New Year. Antaux multaj jaroj ni preferis resti en nia malgranda domo trans la rivero. promeno = walk. I shall go there on Sunday. "per" expresses instrumentality.

10. or went from there into the large fields. kaj longaj promenoj estas ofte agrablaj. for (83) from that time the frost. Sxajnas ke ju pli ofte ni promenas. In December and after that month they rest. When no preposition is used. La frosto. sed dormas gxis malfrua horo. tial mi ripozis sur granda mola segxo. Only on Sunday do they rest. On Tuesday these streets were almost dry. but we were so tired after that walk! 12. during. 6. Sed la monato septembro sxajnas tre agrabla. 5. The longer the walk is. 16. and harvest the ripe yellow grain. 11. des pli malbelaj ili sxajnas. kaj kolektas la fruktojn. THE ACCUSATIVE OF TIME. sed post tiu monato ni opinias ke la urbo estas pli agrabla ol domo inter kampoj kaj arboj. des malpli lacaj ni estas post la promenoj. and "je". because on that day one does not work. 14. Sxi estis felicxa longan tempon (dum longa tempo). ice and snow cover the ground. so (78) we read stories and wrote letters. 3. Je lundo oni komencas labori tre frue. januaro kaj februaro. trans largxa rivero. kaj la folioj komencas fali. sed ni ne estis tiel lacaj je tiu tago. at. the sun shone. Because of the snow on the ground. . 8. however. Ili rikoltas la flavan grenon. We did not remain there during the entire year. 91. Here the men work energetically. Many years ago we had a small house across the river. sed baldaux post tiu monato la fortaj ventoj blovas. 2. pro siaj multaj plezuroj. Sed hieraux mi estis tre laca post la promeno. Sed je dimancxo oni ne laboras tiel energie. on. Between August and November the men work more than in the winter. 13. A few years ago those roads were very good. Before evening. for a long time). but also (as in English) without the use of any preposition. LESSON XXI. kaj je mardo oni ankaux laboras energie. the sooner one wishes to rest. negxo kaj glacio kovras la teron en decembro. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Antaux ne longe la patro promenis kun mi. La vetero antaux novembro ne estas tro malvarma. long walks are not pleasant in the winter. Recently (90) we went walking in the park across the river. Ju pli nudaj estas la arboj. Duration of time and a date or point in time may be expressed not only by use of the prepositions "dum". she was happy a long time (during a long time. 9. La frosto kovras la teron. En septembro la vojoj ne estas tro kotaj. 4. 7. Post ne longe mi estos pli forta. Ju pli ofte mi promenas kun miaj amikoj. My younger brothers and sisters amused themselves very well there from (the) morning until (the) evening. and the streets were not so muddy. in a pleasant light room in our house. tial ke je tiu tago oni ripozas.De auxgusto gxis oktobro la vetero estas tre agrabla tie. They amused themselves among the flowers and trees. La viroj laboras energie en la kampoj. Often we stayed until September or even until October. but only in the warmer months of the summer. 15. kaj baldaux negxas tre ofte. On Monday it rained. he stayed there the whole week (during the whole week). de la mateno gxis la vespero. the word or words indicating time are put in the accusative case: Li restis tie la tutan semajnon (dum la tuta semajno). 1. des pli multe mi sxatas tiajn promenojn. and soon the roads near the river and between the fields will also be dry.

hodiaux nokte. I have a book for you. or avoided altogether. they did it for your pleasure. Although generally preferable. tonight. An accusative of time. for a day and a night). An adverb from the same root usually gives an idea of frequency or repetition: Li Li Li Li iros al ilia domo dimancxon. It directs the thought toward its complement. 95. iras al ilia domo dimancxe. Mi volas iri al Bostono lundon. hodiaux vespere. li forkuris. 93. laboras tage kaj nokte. mardon nokte. we shall ride a day and a night (during a day and a night. he works day and night (by day and by night). contrasting thus with "pro" (86): Mi havas libron por vi. 94. this morning. An accusative of time does not necessarily imply that the act or state mentioned occurs oftener than the instance cited. laboris tagon kaj nokton.) might result: Mi volas iri Bostonon je lundo. Monday I wish to go to Boston. for. last evening. The object or purpose with reference to which an act is performed or a condition exists is expressed by the preposition "por". Sunday morning. Lundon mi volas iri Bostonon. Tiun horon (je tiu horo).Ni rajdos tagon kaj nokton (dum tago kaj nokto). as well as a temporal adverb. lundon vespere. Monday evening. I came Sunday (on Sunday). direct object. an accusative construction must be carefully placed. Jaron post jaro ili restis tie. 92. may further define or be defined by another expression of time: Li venis longan tempon antaux tiu horo. Ili faris gxin por via plezuro. he will go to their house Sunday. ADVERBS AND THE ACCUSATIVE OF TIME. I wish to go to Boston on Monday. last night. hieraux nokte. that hour (at that hour) he escaped. VOCABULARY . etc. hodiaux matene. he goes to their house Sundays. Mi ne havas la tempon por tiel longa promeno. dimancxon matene. year after year they stayed there. hieraux vespere. I have not the time for so long a (such a long) walk. this evening. he worked a day and a night. I wish to go to Boston Monday. Tuesday night. he came a long time before that hour. THE PREPOSITION "POR". if confusion with other accusatives (expressing direction of motion. Mi venis dimancxon (je dimancxo).

dividi = to divide. 9. country. but these seasons were too diverse. Tial la vetero tie estas plej varma kaj brila. preta = ready. dum la tuta jaro. negxo kaj glacio kovras la tutan landon. The longer they kept the world among them. They laughed for joy. gxojo = joy. paci = to be at peace. Li vidis ke la floroj havas belajn kolorojn. 4. ke la arboj estas altaj kaj verdaj. forgesi = to forget. Mallongan tempon ili sxajnis esti tre felicxaj inter la arboj kaj floroj de la nova mondo. and Wednesday evening after a pleasant walk he related it to me. and also were willing ("volis") to work energetically for-the-sake-of the new young world. The northern and southern lands now belong to the winter. Tie la frosto. La vintro konstruis sian domon en la plej nordaj kaj sudaj landoj. The quiet winter concealed itself beneath the frost and soft white snow. Tial hodiaux matene ni dividos la mondon inter ni. kvieta = quiet. Pli kaj pli multe ili malpacis. kaj ploris pri la malvarma negxo. fari = to make. The brilliant summer wept and reproached the tired autumn. The spring and autumn took for themselves those lands between the winter and summer. La laca auxtuno volis ripozi. por = for (95). kaj post ne longe ili tute ne restis amikoj. LA SEZONOJ KAJ LA MONDO. La malkonstanta printempo ne sxatis la kvietan vintron. and said that they would guard it well. merkredo = Wednesday. La brila energia somero prenis por si la mezon de la mondo. kaj estos tre zorgaj pri gxi?" La sezonoj respondis "Jes. 12. lando = land. La varma brila somero diris ke la auxtuno estas tro malbrila. Tiam la sezonoj rakontis al Dio ke ili tiel dividis la mondon inter si. Ju pli ili malpacis. kaj riprocxis la malkonstantan printempon pri cxi ties kota vetero. La auxtuno kaj la printempo prenis por si la landojn inter la vintro kaj la somero. 13. 8. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. konstanta = constant.brila = brilliant. Ili komencis malpaci ("quarrel") inter si. and could not long remain friends." 11. de la mateno gxis la vespero. They were ready for pleasure. Antaux tre longa tempo Dio faris la mondon. and the middle of the world belongs to the summer. Tiam li vokis la sezonojn kaj diris "Belan mondon mi faris por vi. Tial la vetero estas nek tro varma nek tro malvarma en cxi tiuj landoj. 6. 5. 3. Tiam la auxtuno diris "Mi ne povas pli longan tempon labori kun vi pro la mondo. mezo = middle. 1. plori = to weep. des malpli zorge ili gardis la mondon. ridi = to laugh." La vintro respondis "Bone! Mi estas preta. Cxu vi gardos gxin tage kaj nokte. Soon the autumn made the proposition. and gave it to the seasons. Immediately that morning the seasons divided the world among themselves. Almost a year they were happy. Niaj gustoj estas tro diversaj. the more they quarreled. The story is." kaj ridis pro gxojo. kaj ofte forgesis la arbojn kaj florojn. 10. . and wished to sleep. calm. Dio = God. "We will divide the world. 2. Sed ne multajn semajnojn ili tiel zorge gardis la mondon. riprocxi = to reproach. 7. The autumn preferred to rest." kaj la somero kaj la printempo ridis pro gxojo. Tuesday my brother heard an interesting story. and disliked the muddy weather of the inconstant spring. Tiun tagon ili dividis la mondon inter si. mondo = world. that many years ago God made the beautiful new world.

for words which indicate persons.] . Old English "But what went ye out for to see. we laugh for joy while it is snowing.] [Footnote: The infinitive may be used with "antaux ol" if its subject is the same as the subject of the main verb. 98. we came to help (in order to help) you. Antaux ol vi riprocxis lin. THE INFINITIVE WITH "ANSTATAUX". It is usually translated by the English infinitive in "-ing": Anstataux resti li foriris. Dio faris la mondon antaux ol doni gxin al la sezonoj.LESSON XXII. God made the world before giving it to the seasons. with "por" to express purpose (Cf. 96. before going away. he will have too much to do. Vi malhelpas anstataux helpi min. Mi laboros antaux ol ripozi. he did not weep. and may be used as subject or object of a verb. li dankis min. Ni ridas pro gxojo dum negxas. he thanked me. ili forgesis pri la mondo. etc. instead of staying he went away. you wept before (sooner than) you laughed. A clause expressing an action or condition as preceding or anticipating that of the main verb is introduced by "antaux ol": Mi foriros antaux ol vi venos." Matt. but also by a clause introduced by "dum": Li venis dum vi forestis. that is. 8). Vi ploris antaux ol vi ridis. Li havos tro multe por fari. you hinder instead of helping me. or by use of the preposition "dum".. CLAUSES EXPRESSING DURATION OF TIME. I shall work before resting. I am ready to go (for going) Wednesday. Antaux ol foriri. [Footnote: "Substantive" is the general name for nouns and pronouns. 97. while the seasons quarreled. CLAUSES EXPRESSING ANTICIPATION. they forgot about the world. xi. Mi estas preta por iri merkredon. and with "antaux ol" to express anticipation. before you reproached him. Dum la sezonoj malpacis. he came while (during-the-time-that) you were away. "POR". "ANTAUX OL". li ne ploris. complement of a preposition. Otherwise the construction explained in (97) must be used. An infinitive may be substantively used with "anstataux" to express substitution. The time during which an act takes place or a condition exists may be expressed not only by an adverb or accusative of time (91). Ni venis por helpi vin. I shall depart before you (will) come. etc. things.

he has a plate of meat. I found a large bag of money. Sako de la bona kafo. Por montri al la mondo ke li ne bezonas multe. kaj demandis pri li. Antaux multaj jaroj sagxa greka viro. kvankam = although. Oni multe parolis pri Diogeno en la urbo. nombro = number (quantity). logxi = to dwell. Mi vidas ke kvankam vi estas sagxa vi estas tre malricxa. If the word indicating the whole is limited by "la". a plate of the ripe apples. li logxis en granda malnova barelo. anstataux havi domon. barelo = barrel. pura = clean. The preposition "da" must not be used if a quantity or portion of a "definite" or "limited" whole is expressed. kaj mi volas koni vin. 100. "Cxu tiu viro volas paroli al mi?" demandis Diogeno per lauxta vocxo. of: Estas skatolo da cxerizoj tie. Aleksandro Granda respondis "Mi estas la regxo Aleksandro. mi opinias ke mi volas vidi tian viron. cxifono = rag. li ecx dormis en tiu barelo. sed ankaux pro liaj sagxaj diroj. Li havas teleron da viando. DIOGENO KAJ ALEKSANDRO GRANDA. sed anstataux logxi en domo. a sack of the good coffee. to reside. Li opiniis ke ju pli malmulte oni bezonas. Post kelke da tempo ("some time") la regxo Aleksandro Granda venis tien por viziti la urbon. "Cxu li logxas en la urbo?" Aleksandro diris. greka = Greek. demandi = to inquire. 99. li portas nur malpurajn cxifonojn. clothes. kelkaj = several. viziti = to visit. da = of (99). Post horoj da gxojo ofte venas horoj da malgxojo. lito = bed. Cxu vi venis por fari bruon kaj por veki min?" Aleksandro ridis kaj diris "Mi vidas ke vi havas ." Aleksandro diris "Antaux ol foriri de via lando mi vizitos tiun viron. des pli felicxa li estos.THE EXPRESSION OF A PART OF THE WHOLE. Aleksandro iris kun nombro da amikoj por viziti Diogenon. vesto = garment. kaj ke tial li havas suficxe por esti felicxa. cxi tiu tre varme brilis sur min. bruo = noise. cxar li opinias ke ju pli malmulte li bezonas. logxis en granda urbo. there is a box of cherries there. "Kvankam vi ne konas lin. Anstataux porti ("wearing") purajn vestojn. enough." Antaux ol li foriris de la urbo. VOCABULARY Aleksandro = Alexander. des pli felicxa oni estas. veki = to wake. it is thereby made definite: Telero de la maturaj pomoj. Dum li estis tie li auxdis pri Diogeno. suficxa = sufficient. some. ne nur cxar li tiel logxis. the substantive expressing that indefinite whole is preceded by the preposition "da". Mi trovis grandan sakon da mono. to ask. after hours of joy there often come hours of sorrow. lauxta = loud. Anstataux kusxi nokte sur lito aux almenaux sur mola tapisxo." Oni respondis "Diogeno estas sagxa viro. kaj trovis lin en lia barelo. Diogeno = Diogenes. Diogeno. Cxu vi ne volas kelkajn novajn vestojn anstataux tiuj malpuraj cxifonoj?" Diogeno tuj diris "Antaux ol vi venis kaj staris inter mi kaj la suno. li preferas sidi la tutan tempon en malnova barelo. koni = to be acquainted with. After nouns indicating a quantity or portion of some indefinite whole.

Although several of the men laughed. but the noise of the loud voices waked him. on the other hand. Tial mi estas preta por foriri. people talked to him about Diogenes. as well as after nouns of such meaning (99). or portion of the whole." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 4. the more snow lies on the roads. Oni havas multajn plezurojn tie. He preferred to wear old rags. much (a quantity of) noise. Tie oni havas multe da plezuro. there is much sand in the desert. [Footnote: A prepositional phrase containing "da". instead of residing in a house. After adverbs used to indicate a quantity or portion of some indefinite whole. LESSON XXIII. 1. They asked "Are you acquainted-with that wise man?" 8. 5. While Alexander the Great was visiting that city. 3. He said "The less one needs. 102. 7. so instead of talking and making a noise we shall leave (go away from) you at once. in a city one has much noise. mass. and he said angrily "You are standing between me and the sun! Will you not go away at once?" 10. in the middle of the city. whether following a noun or an adverb. 2. there one has much pleasure. Estas multe da sablo en la dezerto. Tiel malmulte da tempo. Alexander had quietly walked away. It is evident from the above examples that an adverb followed by "da" has a somewhat collective sense. Before Diogenes could answer. Ni auxdis multajn bruojn. indicating a general sum. he drank little (not much) water. Alexander said "We did not come to quarrel with you. so little (such a small quantity of) time. In order to show to the inconstant world that one does not need much in order to be happy. he did not have even a house or a bed. the happier he will be. I see that you have enough to be happy. we heard many (different) noises. Kelke da pomoj. 11. usually indicates consideration of the individuals composing the sum or mass named: En urbo oni havas multe da bruo. Diogenes was a wise man who dwelt in a Greek city. instead of good clean clothes.] 103. des pli multe da negxo kusxas sur la vojoj. Soon the king went with a number of his friends to that-man's big barrel. many years ago." 12. the more it snows. He stayed day and night in a big barrel. ADVERBS EXPRESSING A PART OF THE WHOLE. Ju pli negxas. .suficxe por esti felicxa. Verbs may be modified by an adverb and prepositional phrase containing "da": Li trinkis malmulte da akvo." 6. without distinction of particulars. Diogenes was asleep. 101. is sometimes called a "partitive" construction. An "adjective" of quantitative meaning. 9. the substantive expressing the indefinite whole is preceded by the preposition "da": Multe da bruo. some (an indefinite number of) apples.

etc. Gxi estas tia vilagxo ke mi sxatas logxi tie. En cxi tiuj oni trovas grandan nombron da fresxaj puraj legomoj. lakto = milk. Tial sabate oni kutime acxetas suficxe por la mangxoj de sabato kaj dimancxo. ke la tablo restis preskaux nuda. EN LA BUTIKO. that (this) much. 105. kvankam oni diras ke gxi estas tre bona legomo." In Esperanto a result clause is introduced by "ke". tumbler. ovo = egg. so much. shop. jxauxdo = Thursday. RESULT CLAUSES. asparago = asparagus. Mi acxetis tiom da viando. I gave that much (that amount of) money to you. something indicated in the main sentence. THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERB OF QUANTITY. kaj rigardis la fruktojn en bareloj apud la pordo. vilagxo = village. La patrino acxetis tiel multe da asparago kaj novaj pizoj. Mi vidis brasikon tie. sed tiun legomon mi malsxatas. Tie sxi acxetis tiom da legomoj kaj fruktoj ke ni tute ne povis porti ilin. La patrino ne acxetis tiel multe je vendredo. that quantity. that many of the books I read." "I had so much pleasure that I laughed heartily. vendredo = Friday. it is such (that sort of) a village that I like to live there. I bought that much meat. kaj portis kelke da ili por ni. Ili sxajnis tiel bonaj ke sxi acxetis kelkajn maturajn pomojn . brasiko = cabbage. pizo = pea. kontuzo = bruise. Diogenes was such a wise Greek man that Alexander praised him. Mi havis tiom da plezuro ke mi tre ridis.people have many (different) pleasures there. kremo = cream. tiom = that much (104). I had so much pleasure that I laughed very much. frago = strawberry. Antaux ol foriri de la butiko la patrino acxetis kelke da ovoj. glaso = glass. VOCABULARY acxeti = to buy. funto = pound. Hodiaux matene mi iris kun la patrino al la plej granda butiko en nia vilagxo. as "he is so strong that he can do it. degree. sabato = Saturday. cxar dimancxe oni ne povas iri en la butikojn. butiko = store. Tial juna knabo venis kun ni.:-Mi donis tiom da mono al vi. preceded (directly or in the main sentence) by an adverb or adjective of manner. kaj tiel grandan sakon da terpomoj. Meze de la butiko staras multe da bareloj. Tiom de la libroj mi legis. kaj sxi volis acxeti legomojn por dimancxo. legomo = vegetable. or quantity: Diogeno estis tiel sagxa greka viro ke Aleksandro lauxdis lin. The demonstrative adverb of quantity related to the demonstrative pronoun "tiu" is "tiom". A clause of result (also called a consecutive clause) expresses an action or condition as due to. sed hodiaux estas sabato. that many. 104. or resulting from.

THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. . kaj tre lauxte ploris. Cxar mi bone konas la infanon. 2. Tiam la patrino kaj mi iris al la domo. 5. which. and we shall carry umbrellas with us. It rained on Thursday and Friday. and he did not wish to remain in his bed. We shall also buy enough milk for several glasses of milk. Tiam ni estis pretaj por foriri el la butiko. and crying. and we shall need much cream for the strawberries. mi demandis "Cxu vi volas grandan rugxan pomon? Mi havas tian pomon por vi. Sur la vojo ni auxdis tiel grandan bruon ke mi lasis la patrinon kaj kuris trans la straton. Dum oni donis al sxi la fruktojn. 106. Li diris al mi ke li havas multajn kontuzojn sur la kapo. whose: En kies domo vi logxas? In whose house do you reside? Kies amikojn vi vizitis? Whose friends did you visit? THE PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE. vegetables and fruit for Mother. 15. A child was standing in the street. mi acxetis kelkajn funtojn da sukero. 7. Since the use of this pronoun indicates a question. LESSON XXIV. 10.kaj skatolon da fragoj. Father and Mother are very fond of ("multe sxatas") both cabbage and asparagus. because it is raining. It seems that we shall buy such a number of vegetables that we cannot carry filon de nia najbaro. kaj mi foriris. cxar li falis de la arbo antaux sia domo. Although I do not often eat such vegetables. He wished to go with his mother to visit some friends. The interrogative pronoun "kiu" has a possessive or genitive form "kies". but today it is not raining very much. We shall buy some new peas. Li faris la bruon. who. While we were standing near the door. a box of strawberries and several pounds of sugar. The interrogative pronoun (and pronominal adjective) is "kiu". 1. We wish to buy some eggs. Mother prefers to remain in the house. Mi trovis tie infanon." Li tuj kaptis la pomon. 8. 9. 3. Thus we shall have enough for the meals of Saturday and Sunday. I suppose that a noise on the street waked him. 13. 12. we heard a loud voice. The air is warm and pleasant. 4. I wonder whether we shall see such asparagus and such cabbage on the tables or in the barrels. I shall go to the village today with my younger sister. 6. 14. the sentence containing it does not need the interrogative adverb "cxu" (30): Kiu vokas vin? Who calls you? Kiun vi vokas? Whom do you call? Kiuj el vi vokis nin? Which (ones) of you called us? Kiujn li helpis? Whom (which ones) did he help? Kiun tagon vi venos? What day will you come? Kiujn legomojn vi preferas? What vegetables do you prefer? Mi miras kiun libron vi acxetis? I wonder which book you bought? 107. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 11. ready to go toward the village (46).

ni estas vidantaj. 110. it) is seeing. [Footnote: An aoristic tense consists of but one word (ending in "-as". we are seeing. etc. The crying child wishes to sleep. 111. "do". the verb "esti" is called the "auxiliary verb". "would". etc. are formed by inserting the suffix "-ej-" before the noun-ending: cxevalejo. "iranta". A participle may be used predicatively with a form of "esti". The present active participle. as "La birdoj flugas". Mi vidas la falantajn foliojn.108. dormejo. the birds are flying. to sleep). The participle from a transitive verb (22) may take a direct object. ends in "-anta. still in progress. "will". The compound tense formed by using the present active participle with the present tense of "esti" is called the "progressive present tense". It differs from the aoristic present by expressing an action as definitely in progress. you are seeing.) and expresses an act or state as a whole. Kiu estas la virino acxetanta ovojn? Who is the woman buying eggs? Mi parolis al la viroj irantaj vilagxon. as in "a "crying" child. or where the object indicated by the root may be found. When used to form a compound tense. THE SUFFIX "-EJ-". 24). li (sxi. without specifying whether it is finished. as "Mi estas demandanta". they are seeing. vi estas vidantaj. A participle is a "verbal adjective". "have". I am asking. ili estas vidantaj. dormitory (from "dormi". or a condition as continuously existing. THE PROGRESSIVE PRESENT TENSE. or yet begun. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estas vidanta. stable (from "cxevalo". and a participle expressing motion may be followed by an accusative indicating direction of motion (46). which uses "be".] Compound tenses occur less often in Esperanto than in English. 109." It agrees like other adjectives with the word modified (19. "-os". at the moment of speaking. expressing what the word modified "is doing". horse). No other verb is ever used as an auxiliary (a simpler method than in English. Such combinations are called "compound tenses". vi estas vidanta. the man is buying. gxi) estas vidanta. . "shall". I am seeing. I see the falling leaves. seeing. you (plural) are seeing.). in contrast to the "simple" or "aoristic" tenses. going: La ploranta infano volas dormi." as "vidanta". he (she. I talked to the men (who were) going toward the village. COMPOUND TENSES. and an aoristic Esperanto tense may often be translated by an English compound tense. Words expressing the place where the action indicated by the root occurs. "La viro estas acxetanta".

leciono = lesson. This suffix is equivalent to the "-ei" in German "Baeckerei". SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. kaj en tiu cxambro oni mangxas. kaj ni multe ridas. sed oni estas nun konstruanta novan pli grandan lernejon apud nia domo. kies = whose (107). familio = family. kaj tiel bone amuzas nin ke mi preskaux forgesas pri miaj lecionoj. sed gxi estas nova kaj ni multe sxatas gxin. Now I can see her. Who is the woman sitting on the sofa in the parlor? 2. kaj kiu domo estas la plej agrabla logxejo. kutimo = custom. another. kaj suficxe da kremo kaj lakto. She is a friend of our whole family. 8. kaj da asparago. "grocery". Nia domo ne estas tre granda. kurteno = curtain. to dwell. baki = to bake. 6. 9. "bindery". kanapo = sofa. I wonder whose voice that is. etc. persono = person. "Druckerei". Dum la infanoj estas lernantaj siajn lecionojn tie. 7. kuiri = to cook. Oni ofte miras kies domo en nia vilagxo estas plej bela. printing-shop. kaj longa kanapo. Soon she . Personoj vizitantaj nin kutime sidas en cxi tiu cxambro. I can not easily see her. lodging-place. etc. dwelling (from "logxi". bakery. "imprimerie". kaj ili tute ne estas facilaj. dika = thick. printing-office. Jxauxdon sxi acxetis kelke da novaj pizoj.. lerni = to learn. and learning her lessons. Hodiaux sxi estas acxetanta brasikon kaj sakon da terpomoj. and is visiting a neighbor of ours ("najbaron nian") in this city. malgranda tablo. por la mangxoj de la tago. cxar sxi ne havas servistinon. kun belaj puraj kurtenoj kovrantaj la fenestrojn. but I hear her voice. anstataux skribi aux legi. logxejo. salono = parlor. kiu = who (106).herbejo. kaj demandas pri tiuj rakontoj. I am well acquainted with her. EN NIA DOMO. La lernejo estas malnova kaj malgranda. 5. [Footnote: Similar formations are made in English with the suffix "-y". cxar la patro rakontas interesajn rakontojn al ni. Cxi tie estas kelkaj segxoj. pastry-shop. tamen sxi havas tro multe por fari en la kuirejo. kaj dum ni estas sidantaj tie ni nur parolas. Sxi volas kuiri tre bonan mangxon. Nur sabate kaj dimancxe ni ne iras tien. Alia cxambro en la domo estas tre luma kaj agrabla. skatolon da fragoj. facila = easy. and to the "-ie" in French "patisserie". as "bakery". 1.] VOCABULARY alia = other. Tamen mi havas multe da lecionoj por lerni. Vendredon sxi acxetis kelkajn funtojn da sukero. 4. meadow (from "herbo". kaj mola dika tapisxo kovranta la plankon. pano = bread. Je tre frua horo matene mi iras al la lernejo. la patrino kutime iras al la bakejon. Ofte ni restas tie longan tempon post la mangxo. Gxia salono estas granda. to lodge). although she does not see me. I think that it is the voice of a friend of Mother's. kun miaj fratoj kaj fratinoj. grass). etc. sed malpli granda. My sister is sitting on the sofa in another room. 3. Cxi tie staras tablo suficxe granda por nia tuta familio. por acxeti suficxe da pano. Ofte sxi iras ankaux al aliaj butikoj. However.

I shall be seeing. he (she. LESSON XXV. THE PROGRESSIVE FUTURE TENSE. you were seeing. we shall be seeing. it) will be seeing. She prefers to sit in the sewing-room (111) to read or write (98). and even to cook a whole meal. you will be seeing. The compound tense formed by using the present active participle with the past tense of "esti" represents an act or condition as in progress in past time. and so (78) that room is very light and pleasant. li (sxi. because the curtains in front of the windows are not too thick. Soon they will be able to bake bread. vi estos vidantaj. 19. gxi) estos vidanta. but not perfected. and is called the "imperfect tense". She also likes to look at the falling snow. The men and boys are keeping their hands in their pockets while they walk. . vi estis vidantaj. ili estos vidantaj. and the men and women walking on the muddy streets. what sort of: Kiajn vestojn li portis? What sort of clothes did he wear? Kian panon vi preferas? What kind of bread do you prefer? Mi miras kia persono li estas. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estos vidanta. gxi) estis vidanta. 13. I wonder what sort of a person he is. The girls walking toward the school are friends of my sister's. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estis vidanta. but the other books on the table near her are hers. 10. 14. is "kia". In that school they learn to cook. you will be seeing. vi estos vidanta. you were seeing. we were seeing. 113. On account of the cold weather. ni estos vidantaj. THE INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVE. people are wearing thick clothes. 112. 16. That thick book is mine. The compound tense formed by using the present active participle with the future tense of "esti" represents an act or condition as in progress--or a condition as existing continuously--at a future time. they will be seeing. 114. 18. The interrogative adjective related to the interrogative pronoun "kiu". ni estis vidantaj. and is called the "progressive future" tense. they were seeing. 17. it) was seeing. Many persons can not cook well enough ("suficxe bone"). Whose book is she reading? 11. I was seeing. he (she. ili estis vidantaj. 12. vi estis vidanta. Kia vetero estas? What sort of weather is it? Kia plezuro! What a pleasure! THE IMPERFECT TENSE. what kind of.will go to school. li (sxi. 15. I think such a custom is very good.

or with which it is most frequently used. or any other interrogative word. ADVERB. glad flore florally gxoje gladly gxoji gxojo to rejoice joy. "kiu". etc. languages.] Cxu vi konas tiun personon? Do you know that person? Mi scias ke li estas nia najbaro.") WORD FORMATION. places. It is never followed by "ke". nouns. [Footnote: "Koni" is equivalent to German "kennen". "Koni" always has a direct object. with a hyphen separating it from the ending with which it appears first in the reading lesson. adjectives and adverbs.SALUTATIONS AND EXCLAMATIONS." "to have knowledge. French "savoir".) Following are examples of word formation from roots already familiar: VERB. I am well acquainted with Boston. ADJECTIVE. "Scii" means "to know" in the sense of "to be aware. 116. gladness kontuzi kontuzo to bruise bruise. The majority of roots have such a meaning that at least two kinds of words. contusion tuto whole tuta tute entire. while "scii" is equivalent to German "wissen".") Bonan nokton! Good night! (I wish you a "good night. I know that he is our neighbor. The verb "koni". 117.") Multajn salutojn al via patro! (I send) many greetings to your father! Dankon! Thanks! (I give to you "thanks. Spanish "conocer". which means "to know" in the sense of "to be acquainted with" is used in speaking of persons. I do not know whether he knows them. Mi ne scias cxu li konas ilin. these words are put in the accusative Bonan matenon! Good morning! (I wish you "good morning. exclamation may be regarded as the direct object of a verb which is not expressed.") Cxielon! Heavens! (I invoke the "heavens." It is not used in speaking of persons. French "connaitre". brilo brila brile shine. Mi bone konas Bostonon. may be formed from them by use of the general endings for verbs. brilliant brilliantly floro flower. brili to shine flori to bloom NOUN. blossom flora floral gxoja joyful. "cxu". all entirely "KONI" AND "SCII". brilliance shining. and often three or four. whole. . Spanish "saber". (Each root will hereafter be quoted but once in the vocabularies.

nu! Well! paper-o = paper. We shall go into the writing-room (111). 11." La avino demandis kun intereso "Cxu la demandoj de la ekzamenoj estos malfacilaj?" Mi respondis "Mi ne scias. Mi vidis sxin tra la fenestro. kvankam gxi estas tre malfacila. 12. salut-i = to greet. frap-i = to strike." mi diris. or the German language? 6. kaj skribanta per plumo sur granda papero. Well. sed mi timas ke ni estos tre lacaj post tiom da laboro. Dum mi estis foriranta. and we can not study very well while they are talking. cxar la kurtenoj kovrantaj gxin estas tre maldikaj. 5. because they are baking bread in the . sed diris ke la ekzamenoj estos baldaux komencantaj." Mi rakontis ankaux pri la lecionoj de geometrio. cxar vi portis gxin cxi tien por mi!" Dum sxi estis metanta la florojn en glason da akvo la avino diris "Nu. What sort of noise do I hear outside the door? 2. cxar mi zorge studis ilin. kun siaj plej bonaj salutoj. We were talking yesterday about the examinations in our school. to knock. mi opiniis ke estas la horo por foriri. and gave a beautiful bouquet to my grandmother." mi diris. We can hear their voices here. kaj ankaux al vi. sci-i = to know (117). des pli multe mi gxin sxatas. Which of these is usually more difficult. stud-i = to study. Sxia hejmo estas apud la granda nova bakejo. ferm-i = to close. geometri-o = geometry. Sxi estis sidanta sur la kanapo. kiajn lecionojn vi havis hodiaux en la lernejo?" Mi respondis ke mi bone konis la lecionojn. 10. I shall go to the door to open it and to greet my friends. ekzamen-o = examination. Good morning! Did you come to study geometry. preskaux la tutan semajnon. diris "Bonan tagon!" kaj tiam foriris. lingv-o = language. kara avino!" Tuj sxi demandis "Kiu estas tie? Kies vocxon mi auxdas?" Mi respondis "Estas via nepo. we brought our German books. and have you a good pen? 15. "mi estos skribanta la respondojn al la ekzamenoj. shall we begin to study? Have you enough paper." mi diris. german-a = German. She said "Many thanks for (86) the sweet violets! In whose garden did they bloom?" 13. "La patrino donas cxi tiujn al vi. 1. Antaux ol frapi sur la pordo mi vokis sxin kaj diris "Bonan matenon. "Ni estas lernantaj la germanan lingvon. kaj aliaj lecionoj. Her friend's granddaughter is a friend of my youngest sister. hejm-o = home. Hieraux matene mi vizitis la avinon. la avino diris "Multajn salutojn al la tuta familio!" Mi dankis sxin. for (83) some friends of my grandmother are in the parlor. buked-o = bouquet. and in which will the examination be the longer? 7. nep-o = grandson. 4. 8. Cxu vi ne konas mian vocxon?" Antaux ol sxi povis veni al la pordo mi estis malfermanta gxin. 9. Are some of my friends knocking? 3. kia plezuro! Multan dankon al sxi pro la bela bukedo. "Je tiu tempo. Mi iris en la salonon kaj donis al la avino bukedon da floroj. I shall close this other door. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. and these boys came home to study with me. kia = what kind of (112). La avino respondis "Nu. because we prefer to study these. Well.VOCABULARY av-o = grandfather. "kaj ju pli longe ni studas gxin. LA NEPO VIZITAS LA AVINON. They were carrying many flowers. We wish to know this language thoroughly." Post kelke da aliaj demandoj kaj respondoj. 14.

he walked in front. forming "kien". [Footnote: The adverb may precede the verb and be united with it by . gone. the bouquet fell out and underneath. ADVERBS EXPRESSING DIRECTION OF MOTION. "irinta". I do not know where (whither) he ran. previously he studied geometry. The past active participle. and cooking meat. as "vidinta". having seen. Li marsxis antauxe. Adverbs may be derived from prepositions whose sense permits. related to the interrogative pronoun "kiu" is "kie". He will wonder where his grandson is. Dume la viroj staris cxirkauxe. 119. THE INTERROGATIVE ADVERB OF PLACE. Kiu estas la viro salutinta nin? Who is the man having greeted (who greeted) us? Oni forgesas la foririntajn personojn. 121.): Cxu li rajdis norden aux suden? Did he ride north or south(ward)? Ni kuris antauxen. One forgets the departed persons (the persons who have gone away). Poste li studis la germanan. meanwhile the men stood roundabout. La bukedo falis eksteren kaj suben. ne malantauxe. The interrogative adverb of place. not behind. whither (where): Kie li estis kaj kien oni forpelis lin? Where was he and whither did they drive him (away)? Li miros kie lia nepo estas. we ran where. (for the characteristics of a participle see 108) expressing what the word modified "did" or "has done". they came together and sat near by. ADVERB DERIVATION FROM PREPOSITIONS. We shall be hearing the voices of so many persons that I know that we can not study. An adverb expressing place or direction is given the ending "-n" when used with a verb expressing motion toward that place or direction (69. Mi ne scias kien li kuris. he was walking home (homeward). 16. ends in "-inta". 120. in (at) what place. 118. 118. The fallen leaves are brown. not back. the ending "-n" is added. by use of the adverb ending "-e": Antauxe li studis la geometrion. etc. Li estis marsxanta hejmen. THE PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLE. If the verb in the sentence expresses motion toward the place indicated by "kie". LESSON XXVI. having gone: La falintaj folioj estas brunaj. ne malantauxen. Ili venis kune kaj sidis apude. afterwards he studied German.

sed mi opinias ke ili flugis suden al la arboj en tiu granda kampo trans la rivero. pez-a = heavy. sed kie estis la birdoj! Mi sercxis la junajn birdojn sed tute ne povis trovi ilin. Nu. Velkintaj floroj kusxis sur la tero cxirkaux mi.simple juxtaposition. wretchedly (from "malbone". Tiam komencis subite pluvegi. kaj treege gxin timis. if the resulting word is not too long: "Li hejmeniris". Ni malfermis niajn ombrelojn. mansion (from "domo". polv-o = dust. kun multege da bruo. "Ni antauxeniros". he went home (he "home-went"). "La bukedo subenfalis". kaj estis tute silenta kelkan tempon. okul-o = eye. Falis tiam kelkaj grandaj gutoj da pluvo.] THE SUFFIX "-EG-". the bouquet fell underneath. barrel). house). domego. subit-a = sudden. Mi ne scias kien ili flugis. cxar la grandega forto de la vento forrompis ecx cxi tiujn. tegment-o = roof. kia pluvego okazis hieraux vespere! Post kvieta varmega mateno. to search. to wail (from "plori". gut-o = drop (of water. etc. malbonege. excellent (from "bona". Preskaux tuj la tondro sekvis gxin. badly. Mi opinias ke mi malofte antauxe vidis tian pluvegon. kaj inter ili estis brancxoj falintaj de la arboj. sercx-i = to hunt for. danc-i = to dance. tondr-o = thunder. Apude mi vidis ventoflagon falintan de la tegmento de tiu granda cxevalejo. bonega. por iri hejmen antaux ol falos multe da pluvo. subite multaj nuboj kovris la cxielon. Sur malgranda brancxo restis nesto. silent-a = still. hogshead (from "barelo". silent. thus forming an "augmentative" of the root: barelego. very). kie = where (118). La fulmo tiel ofte brilis ke ni fermis la okulojn pro gxi. pec-o = piece. des pli peze la gutoj da pluvo falis teren. kaj kuris antauxen. sed je tiu tempo ni estis preskaux sub la tegmento de nia domo. kaj ju pli forte gxi blovis. LA PLUVEGO. La sekvintan tagon mi promenis tre frue. . to sob. fulm-o = lightning. Multege da polvo kaj malgrandaj pecoj da papero dancis kaj flugis cxirkauxen en la aero. kaj vidis ke la pordego al la gxardeno de mia avo estas kusxanta sur la tero. Tiam forte blovanta vento frapegis la arbojn. treege. Dume la vento pli kaj pli blovegis. wickedly. Tondris tiom kaj tiel lauxtege ke la bruo sxajnis frapi kontraux niajn kapojn. to occur. ploregi. VOCABULARY aer-o = air. tial mi opinias ke ili forflugis antaux ol la ventoj forrompis de la arbo ilian malgrandan hejmon. poorly). to weep). we shall advance (go forward). 122. sekv-i = to follow. The suffix "-eg-" may be added to a root to augment or intensify its meaning. La aero sxajnis peza. kaj ankaux cxielen. good).). kaj komencis fortege skui la brancxojn. okaz-i = to happen. exceedingly (from "tre". kaj ni sciis ke la pluvego estas venanta.

with. and the storm immediately followed the few drops of rain. among. 13. 8. 1. We rested some time here. Li logxas cxe mia avo. We almost closed our eyes for the lightning. 7. While we were walking home (121) from school yesterday. related to the interrogative pronoun "kiu". li (sxi.: Li staris silente cxe la pordego. 12. What a storm it was! 3. he lives (dwells) at my grandfather's. Many papers fell out of our books. The rain was dropping from the roof. Kiam falis tiuj gutoj da pluvo? When did those drops of rain fall? THE PERFECT TENSE. at the house of. vi estas vidinta. we forgot about examinations and began to wonder where to go. at. LESSON XXVII. and were looking at these books about the German language. 124. before going home. we easily caught and gathered them. However. they wonder when he is coming (will come). and we saw the brilliant lightning in the sky. he (she. 6. and the wind caught them. It differs from the aoristic past tense (35) and from the imperfect (113) by expressing an act or condition as definitely completed or perfected. ni estas vidintaj. they have seen (they are having-seen). 11. The interrogative temporal adverb. 9. THE INTERROGATIVE TEMPORAL ADVERB 123. We were exhausted (122) and our clothes were exceedingly wet before we were in the house. So we did not see the clouds in (on) the sky. 125. and ran faster and faster. The compound tense formed by using the past active participle with the present tense of "esti" is called the "perfect tense". We did not know whether we had enough time to run even to Grandfather's house before it would rain. he stood silently at the gate. The wind chased them away from us. 14. when. The air was heavy and still then. and then we ran forward. and they seemed to dance around in the air. 10. it) has seen (is having-seen). etc. I have seen (I am having-seen). ili estas vidintaj. THE PREPOSITION "CXE". object or action is expressed by the use of the preposition "cxe". but we ran through it. 15. and knocked on the door. We hastened across the street. The general situation of a person. The conjugation of "vidi" in the perfect tense is as follows: mi estas vidinta. it rained very suddenly. vi estas vidintaj. gxi) estas vidinta. is "kiam". 4. 2. Well. you have seen (you are having-seen). 5. Big drops of rain fell heavily and struck the dust violently. 16. We were talking about the lessons in geometry. at what time? Kiam li sercxos min? When will he look for me? Oni miras kiam li venos. we have seen (we are having-seen). you have seen (you are having-seen). . Suddenly it thundered very loudly.SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 17. in the region or land of.

refers to the performance or occurrence of an act or event.. herd of horses (from cxevalo. friend). he came many times. etc. Li vizitos cxe ni morgaux. The general word for "time" in the sense of duration. Words expressing a collection. instance (127). countries. ramp-i = to crawl.Ili estas cxe la lernejo. soldat-o = soldier. library (from libro. pied-o = foot. cxevalaro. I have not much time. Scotland. Words formed with the suffix "-ar-" are called collectives: arbaro. "Johano". field). Kelkajn fojojn lauxte tondris.. group or assemblage of similar persons or things. Multe da fojoj ni fermis la okulojn pro la fulmo. in a group. John. etc. ending. supr-e = above. as "Mt. 126. Mary. they are at the school. kaj la lastan fojon li restis longan tempon. kiam = when (123). rekt-a = direct. or if they are first (Christian) names of persons. several times it thundered loudly. etc. by throngs. book). Skotland-o = Scotland. or suitability (as "the proper time"). "Mario". "Skotlando". pacienc-o = patience. many times we closed our eyes on account of the lightning.. cities. Surnames and names of places which are small or not well known are more often quoted in the national spelling. venk-i = to conquer. Proper nouns. The pronunciation may be indicated in parentheses. etc. plafon-o = ceiling. "Martinique" ("Martinik'"). THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF PROPER NOUNS. tree). send-i = to send. he will visit at-our-house tomorrow. Azi-o = Asia. as "forest" (collection of trees). flock". sukces-i = to succeed. kamparo. nouns which are names of persons. and the last time he remained a long time. as "Azio". libraro. horse). THE SUFFIX "-AR-". may be formed by the use of the suffix "-ar-". Li restos cxe amikoj. Vernon" ("Mauxnt Vernon"). 127. that is. he will stay with (at the house of) friends. foj-o = time. . straight. circle of friends (from amiko. countries. "TEMPO" AND "FOJO". "Bostono". 128. in repetition or series: Mi ne havas multe da tempo. fin-o = end. collection of books. time. This suffix may itself be used as a root to form "aro". Li venis multajn fojojn. The word "fojo". etc. large or very well-known cities. "army" (assemblage of soldiers). rimark-i = to notice. VOCABULARY arane-o = spider. "are". country (from kampo. "Roberto Bruce" ("Brus"). "group. cxe = at (125). is "tempo". amikaro. are given Esperanto spelling if they are names of continents. Boston. occasion. forest (from arbo. Asia.

to hide (himself). de la fenestro de granda cxevalejo. Mi estas ofte malsukcesinta. "What patience it shows! It has crawled up and fallen down a great many times. and also in order to (98) look directly from its roof (at) the soldiery (126) of the enemy. sed baldaux gxi falis en la polvon cxe liaj piedoj. 129. Multajn fojojn gxi supren rampis. and Robert Bruce was much afraid that they would find him. wherefore. cxar oni ne scias kiam li fine sukcesos. The spider fell suddenly into the dust and lay at the king's feet. regxo antaux multaj jaroj en Skotlando. Post mallonga tempo li bone sukcesis. why. 4. 8. gxi sukcese rampis gxis la plafono. "Kia pacienco!" diris la regxo al si. THE INTERROGATIVE ADVERB OF MOTIVE OR REASON. A group of soldiers ran right ("rekte") toward the stable. 6. tamen. Tamen. kaj diris al si "Kiam antauxe mi vidis tiom da pacienco! Mi opinias ke la fina sukceso de tiu malgranda araneo donas al mi bonegan lecionon. Although the enemies of Robert Bruce conquered him many times. mi estos pacienca. he finally conquered them in Scotland. kaj ankaux por sin kasxi. 5. Je la fino de la tago li subite rimarkis araneon sur la muro apud si. sed malpli ofte ol tiu araneo sur la muro. He was sitting in a large stable. kaj li opiniis ke la malamikoj ne sercxos lin tie. because they have a larger number of soldiers. kaj tute venkis la malamikoj en granda venko cxe Bannockburn (Banokb'rn). Oni rakontas la sekvantan interesan rakonton pri Roberto Bruce." 10. I shall finally succeed against them. At the end of the day he noticed a spider crawling up (ward) on the wall. Tuj la falinta araneo komencis alian fojon supren rampi. 11. but soon began to crawl up. li forsendis siajn soldatojn kaj restis la tutan tagon sub tiu tegmento. Soon it happened that the wind blew violently. 2. He said "Although the enemy have conquered many times. sed post ne longe gxi komencis rampi alian fojon. 12. LESSON XXVIII. The interrogative adverb of motive or reason related to the interrogative pronoun "kiu" is "kial". Finally however the spider succeeded. 13. 1. Kvankam la cxevalejo estis granda gxi estis malnova.ROBERTO BRUCE KAJ LA ARANEO. Okazis ke li estis rigardanta la soldataron de siaj malamikoj. kaj la malamikoj estas venkintaj multajn fojojn. Por povi rigardi plej facile. 9. "Where does it wish to go?" said the king to himself. 3. cxar ili havas multe pli grandan nombron da soldatoj. La regxo malfermis la busxon pro surprizo. and rode away." La sekvintan tagon. But they merely stole the horses there. The king said that he had learned a lesson from the patient spider. Fine. and a rainstorm occurred. Kun granda surprizo li rimarkis ke gxi estas komencanta supren rampi. Mi estas perdinta multe da soldatoj. kaj tiom da fojoj gxi falis malsupren. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. for what ." 7. la regxo Roberto Bruce komencis treege labori kontraux siaj malamikoj. Alian fojon gxi falis teren. "Mi ne sciis ke la araneo havas tiel multe da pacienco! Sed kien gxi nun estas falinta?" Li rigardis cxirkauxen kaj fine ("finally") li vidis la falintan araneon. because he was patient and very courageous. and broke away many small branches. and crawled up to the ceiling. The blast shook the foliage (126) on the trees. La araneo estis rampanta supren.

a gatherer. a poor woman (from "malricxa". An indefinite personal object (or pronominal complement of a preposition) after an infinitive used as subject is expressed by the reflexive pronoun "si": Promeni estas granda plezuro. a potter. a sage. to go walking is a great pleasure.] . French "je suis ici depuis deux ans". poor). I have been here two years. character or quality in the root: junulo. Promeni estas agrable. etc. "cred-ul-ous". Ili estas amikoj de tiu tago. Ni logxas tie de antaux kelkaj monatoj. [Footnote: Cf. 130. Paroli al si estas malsagxe. THE INFINITIVE AS SUBJECT. equivalent to the object of a verb. they have been (they are) friends from that day. a servant. "anstataux". a belle (from "bela". belulino. and the use of the infinitive after the prepositions "por". German "er ist schon lange hier". a young man (from "juna". The infinitive may be used as the subject of a verb. he has already been here a long time. wise). 131. an old man (from "maljuna". young). the English adjectives "quer-ul-ous". to talk to oneself is silly. it is well to help oneself. and the Latin nouns "fam-ul-us".reason: Kial la araneo supren rampis? why did the spider crawl up? Mi demandos kial li rimarkis gxin. I have been (I am) here since Monday. beautiful). old). malricxulino. a wise man (from "saga". 132..] Any modifier of the infinitive is necessarily adverbial. PRESENT ACTION WITH PAST INCEPTION. the complementary infinitive (28). sagxulo. De Marto mi studas tiun lingvon. we have been living (we are living) here since some months ago. and "leg-ul-us". "antaux ol" (98). The suffix "-ul-" is used to form nouns indicating a person characterized by or possessing the distinguishing trait. etc. [Footnote: Cf. since March I have been (I am) studying that language. A present act or state which began in the past is expressed by the present tense (instead of by the past as in English): Mi estas cxi tie de lundo. "fig-ul-us".] THE SUFFIX "-UL-". a beauty. I will ask why he noticed it. to go walking is pleasant. Cxu estas facile rigardi la plafonon? Is it easy to look at the ceiling? Estas bone sin helpi. maljunulo. "garr-ul-ous". a youth. [Footnote: Cf.

kaj mi miras cxu aliaj personoj scias pli bone. PRI LA AVO KAJ LA AVINO."LOGXI" AND "VIVI". Li havas bluajn okulojn. kun belaj bukloj da tute blankaj haroj. Li gxojas tial ke mi demandas pri aferoj okazintaj ("things that have happened"). mejl-o = mile. affable. to nod. Ecx nun estas plezure rigardi sxin. har-o = hair. Oni diras ke sxi ne vivos tre longan tempon. and they say that he will not live much longer. to dwell. veranda. kaj tia penso donas malgxojon al ni. "to reside. Li estas maljunulo kun blankaj haroj kaj blanka barbo. Mia avo estas tre afabla persono. matter. Komence. to live happily is better than to live (lodge) richly. must not be confused with "vivi". brov-o = eyebrow. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. to ponder. kial = why (129). affair. batal-o = battle. and can not take ("fari") long . Our grandfather is an old man. okulhar-o = eyelash. Sidi kviete sur la verando kaj rakonti tiajn rakontojn al la nepo sxajne donas al li multe da plezuro. verand-o = porch. cxar ni treege amas la afablan paciencan avinon. Antaux multaj jaroj li estis soldato. pens-i = to think. Li vivis longan tempon. which means "to live" in the sense of "to be alive": Li logxas apude. vang-o = cheek. afer-o = thing. li antauxe logxis en Skotlando. VOCABULARY afabl-a = amiable. Li malofte respondas "Mi ne scias. balanc-i = to balance. Oni diras ke antaux multaj jaroj sxi estis belulino." Kelkajn fojojn li diras "Mi havas tiun opinion. sed mi ne bone scias pri la tuta afero." al miaj demandoj "Kiam. kaj li ofte parolas al mi pri la bataloj kaj venkoj de tiu tempo. Promeno de ecx mejlo estas tro longa nun por la avino. 2. Sxi havas belajn brunajn okulojn. 133. cxar tiaj demandoj montras ke mi ankaux pensas pri ili. kaj sxi bezonas ripozon post malmulte da laboro." kaj "Kial. Kvankam li logxas en nia vilagxo de antaux kelkaj jaroj. bukl-o = curl (of hair). to lodge". kaj parolas pri tiaj aferoj gxis malfrua horo de la vespero. mi kutime demandas "Cxu oni sukcesis en tiu batalo?" Tuj li balancas la kapon kaj komencas pacience rakonti pri la venkoj kaj malvenkoj ("defeats"). viv-i = to live (133). He is not very strong. barb-o = beard. okulvitr-oj = spectacles. Multajn fojojn je la fino de la tago li sidas tie. 1. De antaux kelkaj jaroj sxi portas okulvitrojn por legi aux skribi aux kudri. Sidi cxe liaj piedoj kaj auxdi liajn rakontojn estas tre interese al mi. The verb "logxi". liaj opinioj estas treege interesaj. he lived a long time. kun longaj nigraj okulharoj. Vivi felicxe estas pli bone ol logxi ricxe. Mia avino estas malgranda. kaj vidi sxiajn rugxajn vangojn. kaj la brovoj super ili estas ecx pli blankaj ol liaj haroj." Cxar li estas multe studinta kaj pensinta. dum mi estas cxe li. he lives near by.

related to the interrogative pronoun "kiu". Cardinals are numeral adjectives which answer the question "How many?" The cardinals from one to twelve are as follows: unu = one. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense past active participle or condition as having called the "pluperfect is as follows: mi estis vidinta. they had seen (they were having-seen). ili estis vidintaj. 11. The mile between his house and ours now seems long to him. with a sweet voice. CARDINAL NUMERALS. ni estis vidintaj. he (she. . and can tell exceedingly interesting stories. it) had seen (was having-seen). 134. 7. and think. Will you look-for them for me?" I nodded (the head) and soon found the spectacles. 8. in what way. vi estis vidinta. 3. red cheeks. 9. Grandmother has blue eyes. 5. I have lost my spectacles. or of the other persons living (133) near. and is tense". I had seen (I was having-seen). to what degree: Kiel oni vivas en tia aero? How do people live in such air? Kiel afabla sxi estas! How amiable she is! Mi miras kiel la batalo okazis. 10. dek unu = eleven. naux = nine. 13. we had seen (we were having-seen). li (sxi. dek du = twelve. 4. he does not know (117) a great many of the neighbors. 136. sep = seven. kvar = four. my dear (132).walks. gxi) estis vidinta. The interrogative adverb of manner or degree. The compound tense formed by combining the with the past tense of "esti" represents an act been completed at some time in the past. Grandfather has a long white beard and much white hair. about the victories and defeats which happened (119) many years ago. He is very amiable. and is very patient. tri = three. 12. Such things are wicked I think. He prefers to sit quietly in the house or on the veranda. and I am very glad that (83) such battles do not happen now. Although he has lived with (125) us since February (131). and soft white curls. LESSON XXIX. you had seen (you were having-seen). ok = eight. It is very interesting to hear his stories. Kiel longe li pensis pri gxi? How long did he think about it? THE PLUPERFECT TENSE. you had seen (you were having-seen). Today she said to me "Good morning. is "kiel". nearly all day long (the whole day). dek = ten. He tells such stories with great pleasure. 6. vi estis vidintaj. how. THE INTERROGATIVE ADVERB OF MANNER AND DEGREE. ses = six. 135. She speaks slowly. du = two. and also to look directly at him while he is telling them. kvin = five. I wonder how the battle happened.

of those hats I like only one. Li sxatas marsxi. I took some and left the others. That is. he is seven years old (he has seven years). 138. none of the cardinals may receive the plural ending "-j" or the accusative ending "-n". the table weighs (is heavy) twelve pounds. which should be translated "Mi sercxas libron. Antaux ol veni cxi tien al la urbo. "Unuj" may be used to mean "some" in contrast to "aliaj". La parko estas largxa tri mejlojn. they are invariable in form. instead of a prepositional phrase or an adverb. kaj tiam mi estis tre multe marsxanta. [Footnote: The cardinal "unu" must not be used in the sense of the English pronominal "one. NIA FAMILIO. etc. rajdi. kaj sxiaj vangoj estas rugxaj. but not the one on the table". kaj longa kvar mejlojn. kaj fari aliajn interesajn aferojn. price. in expressing age: Li havas sep jarojn. he walked eleven miles. La fratino havas dek unu jarojn. some walked. Sxi havas dolcxan vocxon.: Li marsxis dek unu mejlojn. Mi havas du fratojn kaj unu fratinon. Mi rakontos al vi kian familion ni havas. Kvankam li ne estas ricxulo. kaj estas plezuro auxdi sxiajn kantojn. ni estis logxintaj tri jarojn en kvieta vilagxo en la kamparo. [Footnote: Like French and some other languages. aliaj kuris. not only to express measure (duration) of time (91). A substantive in the accusative case may be used.] Unu el la fratoj havas ok jarojn. Mi havis dek jarojn tiam. With the exception of "unu". kaj kiel bluajn okulojn sxi havas. Unu fojon mi demandis "Kiel vi povas marsxi tiel multe?" Li respondis "Dum mi estis junulo mi estis soldato. six of the boys came. Ni estas ses personoj kaj ni logxas en cxi tiu domo de antaux preskaux kvar jaroj." La patrino estas malpli alta ol mi. length. but also to express measure of weight. sub nigraj okulharoj kaj nigraj brovoj! Sxiaj haroj estas nigraj kaj buklaj. Mia patro estas alta. El tiuj cxapeloj mi sxatas nur unu. Ok el tiuj libroj estas la miaj. kaj ofte li estas marsxinta kvin aux ses mejlojn por unu promeno. 139. kun grizaj haroj kaj griza barbo. eight of those books are mine. sed ne tiun sur la tablo. I was ten years old (I had ten years) then.137. Esperanto commonly uses the verb "to have" rather than the verb "to be"." as in "I am searching for a book. others: Unuj marsxis. others ran. the park is three miles wide and four miles long. la alia havas dek du jarojn. li tamen havas suficxe da mono por vivi kontente kaj felicxe."] THE ACCUSATIVE OF MEASURE. Ili lernis . The preposition "el" is used after numeral adjectives expressing a number "out of" some larger number or quantity: Ses el la knaboj venis. Tial mi ne forgesas la plezurojn de longaj promenoj. Por legi aux skribi sxi kutime portas okulvitrojn. Ili povas bonege kuri. Mi prenis unujn kaj lasis la aliajn. La tablo pezas dek du funtojn.

cxar sxi ne estas suficxe forta por marsxi ecx unu mejlon. how much. it is well that he came. THE INTERROGATIVE ADVERB OF QUANTITY. 6. 13. The interrogative adverb of quantity related to the interrogative pronoun "kiu" is "kiom". and yellow hair. but merely nod their heads when we talk to them. that is. 2. To learn how to speak such a language is a difficult matter. I had not seen them before they came to school. They can not talk with us very well. 8. mia nepo. 3. They had resided four years in a large city. bone ke li venis. Three and four make seven. Two and six make eight. .siajn lecionojn en la lernejo tiel bone ke ses fojojn en unu monato oni lauxdis ilin. 11. Mi ofte miras kial sxi preferas sidi sur la verando. red cheeks. but I shall not be able to talk in this language until after August. 141. it is amusing that we forgot him. 15. or without any definitely expressed or personal subject (as in "it is cold. LESSON XXX. where there is but little ("nur malmulte da") dust. mi estas tro laca. La fratino estas malpli forta. that you came was very wise. They usually ride in a park three miles wide and four miles long. how many: Kiom da tempo vi ripozis? How much time did you rest? Kiom da sukero kaj kiom da fragoj vi acxetis? How much sugar and how many strawberries did you buy? Ni miras kiom da mono li havos. Unu el ni kutime restas cxe la hejmo kun sxi. 1. La avino ankaux logxas cxe ni de antaux sep aux ok jaroj. and German since January. dum la aliaj promenas. it is warm in the house. venis estis tre sagxe. I have been studying geometry since five months ago. Five and six make eleven. Seven and five make twelve. with an infinitive or clause for its subject. They can ride very well. 7. Nine of the children in our school are now studying German with me." "it seems too early"). 12. Any modifier of an impersonal verb (50) or of a verb used impersonally. Some learn it easily. Three of the boys and two of the girls in that school are German. 140. amuze ke ni forgesis lin. must necessarily be adverbial: Estas Estos Estas Estas Ke vi varme en la domo. 14. Ni multe gxojis pri tiom da lauxdo por la fratoj. but I think (that) they live more contentedly in our quiet village. it will be cold tomorrow. 4. we wonder how much money he will have." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. although they are neighbors of ours. and often ride eight or ten miles in one day. malvarme morgaux. I have read three German books. 5. others do not like it. tamen sxi ofte promenas kun ni ecx du aux tri mejlojn. Kiom de la leciono vi lernis? How much of the lesson did you learn? MODIFIERS OF IMPERSONALLY USED VERBS. 10. 9. They are amiable children. kaj mi demandas al sxi "Cxu vi estas tro laca por marsxi?" Sxi kutime balancas la kapon kaj diras "Jes. with blue eyes.

memor-i = to remember. tridek". seventy. --------------------------------------------dudek. three thousand. forming "ano". thousand. The suffix "-an-" is used to form words indicating an inhabitant or resident of the place denoted by the root. one thousand nine hundred and twelve (nineteen hundred and twelve). [Footnote: Cf. kvarmil. forty. ---------------------------ducent. after "dek. "cent". (Cf. "Mohammed-an". denoted by the root. sepdek ok = seventy-eight. THE SUFFIX "-AN-". etc. 143. hundred. vilagxano = villager. "Rom-an". sixty. respectively. it will be pleasanter in the parlor. hundreds and thousands are formed by prefixing "du". twelve. six thousand. etc. kvincent. tri". du. five hundred. eleven. thirty. Tens. "suburb-an". tridek. or a member or adherent of the party. mil naucent dek du. two hundred. 136): dek kvar = fourteen. dudek tri = twenty-three. four hundred and ninety-seven. peasant. Cardinals containing more than two figures begin with the largest number and descend regularly. "dek unu".. mil okdek.. "republic-an". 145. kvindek. "kvar". etc. sepcent. one thousand and eighty. FORMATION OF CARDINAL NUMERALS. etc. . kvardek. "dek du". English "urb-an". dudek. cent = hundred (142). The cardinal numerals for the tens. ------------------------trimil. "tri". ninety. fifty. etc.Estos pli agrable en la salono. 142. one hundred and thirty-five. are formed by placing "unu. sepdek. four thousand. member.. etc. The suffix "-an-" may itself be used as a root. sesmil. to "dek". sescent du. etc. Thousands. domano = inmate of a house. dek naux = nineteen. nauxdek. tridek kvin = thirty-five. etc. The cardinals between ten and twenty. Hundreds. ten. mil = thousand (142). six hundred and two. twenty. etc. etc. twenty and thirty. kamparano = countryman. sesdek. seven hundred.. okdek.] VOCABULARY aritmetik-o = arithmetic. nauxdek ses = ninety-six. kvarcent nauxdek sep. organization. bostonano = Bostonian. 144. as in English: cent tridek kvin. eighty. and "mil".

236. 13. 12. Mi demandis al li "Kiom faras dek tri kaj dek kvar?" Li respondis ke tiuj faras dudek sep. per mallauxta vocxo. In a leap-year there are three hundred and sixty-six days. sekund-o = second. Kvankam tiuj monatoj havas tiom da tagoj. At least one year in ten years is a leap-year. 2. How many weeks are there in ten years? 10. kaj diris "Ili faras kvindek kvin. There are sixty minutes in one hour. 3. La jaro havanta tian februaron estas la "superjaro. to reckon. 11. 9872. 1885. I remember it easily. La urbanoj ne estas promenantaj en la parko." Mi rakontis tiun interesan aferon al la frato. kvankam la aliaj jaroj havas nur tricent sesdek kvin tagojn. June. I have often received good grades in this study. kaj parolis al mia juna frato. Li ne sciis ke la superjaro havas tricent sesdek ses tagojn. tial ke li baldaux havos ekzamenojn. kaj li respondis ke ili faras nauxcent dek unu. kaj fine mi diris al li ke li povas bonege kalkuli. Mi opinias ke li ricevos bonan gradon en la ekzamenoj. (To be written out in full): 14. 687. 4500. Li tute ne faris erarojn al mi. sed en la sekvanta jaro gxi havas dudek naux tagojn. It is well for us that they liked to study arithmetic. 16. kalkul-i = to calculate. Post kelkaj minutoj ni komencis paroli pri aliaj aferoj. grad-o = grade. instead of three hundred and sixty-five.erar-o = error. 79. and in most of the months of the year there are thirty-one days. Dum tri jaroj gxi havas dudek ok tagojn. Mi ankaux restis en la domo. LESSON XXXI. LECIONO PRI ARITMETIKO. 42. 5. Mi demandis "Kiom da tagoj en la monato septembro?" La frato respondis "Septembro. There are seven days in a week. There are only thirty days in the months April. Li kalkulis kvin aux ses sekundojn. 1240. Sed la monato februaro havas nur dudek ok tagojn. mistake. There are four weeks and also two or three days in one month. 8. superjar-o = leap-year. 7. degree. In the year there are fifty-two weeks. many years ago. THE RELATIVE PRONOUN. 86. minut-o = minute. 9. and seldom make mistakes. and twenty-four hours in a day. 18. Mi helpis lin pri la leciono en aritmetiko." Estas interese lerni pri cxi tiu monato februaro. There are twelve months in a year. 1. Wise men calculated about this matter. la aliaj monatoj havas tridek unu tagojn. ricev-i = to receive. 431. Estas malvarme hodiaux. Tiam mi demandis kiom faras dudek unu kaj tridek kvar. 15. and sixty seconds in one minute. 4. and the others make the night. cxar ili preferas resti en la domoj. kiom = how much (140). novembro. 6." Mi demandis kiom faras ducent tri kaj sepcent ok. 788. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. aprilo kaj junio havas tridek tagojn. Twelve of these hours make the day. Li diris ke li ne antauxe sciis pri la superjaro. kaj li volas esti preta por skribi tre bonajn respondojn. kaj ke li rakontos la aferon al la aliaj knaboj. kaj tute ne agrable ekster la domo. 1912. . September and November. Li diris ke li ankaux memoros pri la nombro da tagoj en la superjaro. kaj li diris ke li bone memoros gxin.

as in English. pri kiu vi parolas. the youths who came are amiable." The relative pronoun is never thus omitted in Esperanto. that the adjective ending "-a" is attached: . English sometimes omits the relative pronoun. They are formed by adding the adjectival suffix "-a" to the cardinals. kies libron vi trovis." The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estos vidinta. Whether it is in the accusative case or not depends upon its relation to its own verb or to other words in its own clause (called the relative clause): La junuloj.146. who. I shall have seen (I shall be having-seen). Mi kalkulis la gradon. gxi) estos vidinta. the persons (whom) he will see are friends of mine. [Footnote: Sometimes English uses "that" for a relative pronoun. which. 149. li (sxi. I remember that matter about which you speak. they will have seen (will be having-seen). Likewise. La personoj. Ordinal numerals are adjectives which answer the question "Which in order?" as "first". it) will have seen (will be having-seen)." This must always be translated by "kiu". I calculated the grade (which) he will receive. as "I saw the book that you have. he (she. THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. The various parts of an ordinal must be connected by hyphens. and is called the "future perfect tense. identical in form with the interrogative pronoun (106). kiujn li vidos. you will have seen (will be having-seen). since it is to the entire cardinal. etc. estas amikoj miaj. Mi memoras tiun aferon. referring to a substantive (singular or plural) for its antecedent: Li estas la viro. The person or thing to which it refers is called its "antecedent. Like English "whose" the genitive form "kies" of the interrogative pronoun (107) is also used as a relative. estas afablaj." The relative pronoun. you will have seen (you will be having-seen). as "I saw the book you have. ili estos vidintaj. kies patro estas amiko via. A connecting pronoun referring to something which precedes (or follows) is called a "relative pronoun". ORDINAL NUMERALS. ni estos vidintaj. and not any part of it. kiuj venis. is "kiu". I know the children whose father is a friend of yours. The compound tense formed by combining the past participle with the future tense of the auxiliary verb "esti" represents an act or condition as having been already completed or perfected at a future time. Mi konas la infanojn. vi estos vidinta. we shall have seen (shall be having-seen). 148.] The relative pronoun agrees in number with its antecedent. vi estos vidintaj. kiun li ricevos. 147. "third". he is the man whose book you found.

Tial Alfredo ne ricevis lauxdon pro sia deziro por legi. dezir-i = to desire. "1912an". "2an". cxar tiam oni skribis latine ("in Latin") la librojn. "1st". mi donos cxi tiun libron al tiu el vi. mil-okcent-kvara : one thousand eight hundred and fourth. Si diris "Miaj filoj. pen-i = to strive. neces-a = necessary. kiu tiam lernis la latinan lingvon.] VOCABULARY angl-a = English. dek-nauxa = nineteenth. La regxoj kaj iliaj filoj nur malofte povis legi. mar-o = sea. "5th". "233a". dua = second. dum li estis malgranda knabo kun flavaj buklaj haroj. Tiam oni tre malmulte pensis pri libroj. kaj treege malofte povis skribi. unu el la plej interesaj personoj pri kiuj ni estas auxdintaj. kiujn la libroj rakontas. dolar-o = dollar. kaj ankaux tradukis latinajn librojn en la anglan lingvon. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. tria = third. kaj iris multajn mejlojn. "3rd". to gain. sesmil-sepa : six thousand and seventh. to try. dudek-sepa = twenty-seventh." Nu. "3a". kiu povos legi? Tiu ricevos la libron. gxis post multaj jaroj. "2a". Liaj fratoj ecx ne penis gajni gxin. Sed oni opiniis ke tute ne estis necese scii pri la aferoj. kiu deziris legi librojn. "3an". kaj estis unu el la plej bonaj regxoj. latin-a = Latin. Fine oni trovis personon por helpi Alfredon. "1912th". Sxi diris ke la libro kostis multe da mono en lando trans la maro. the abbreviation is given the accusative ending. Oni sercxis gxis la finoj de la lando. paf-i = to shoot. kvardek-sesa = forty-sixth. kiu ecx estis auxdinta pri tia lingvo. ALFREDO GRANDA KAJ LA LIBRO. etc. cent-okdek-kvina : hundred and eighty-fifth. etc. Antaux pli multe ol mil jaroj vivis Alfredo Granda. Kiu el vi estos la unua. Li estis ankaux la lasta. lia patrino. part-o = part. share. [Footnote: Ordinal numerals may be abbreviated thus: "la". gajn-i = to win. Alfredo komencis studi. "233rd". "2nd". kiujn la angla lando estas havinta. kost-i = to cost. kiu lernos legi gxin. sam-a = same. kiuj bone rajdis kaj batalis per sagoj kaj pafarkoj. last-a = last. Tiu sama Alfredo estis regxo multajn jarojn. . Alfredo volis lerni la latinan lingvon. Unu tagon. oka = eighth. dek-unua = eleventh. tre sagxa regxino. montris al li kaj al liaj fratoj belegan libron. "1912a". Oni lauxdis nur personojn. pafark-o = bow (for shooting). kiu povis legi ilin. kaj post ne longe li gajnis la belegan libron. kiuj estis plej bonaj. If the ordinal number is used in an accusative construction. as "lan".unua = first. kaj ke gxi nun apartenas al sxi. Alfredo skribis librojn en la latina lingvo. Li estis la unua angla regxo. "5a". La sesan aux sepan jaron post sia ricevo de la libro. traduk-i = to translate. sag-o = arrow. sed preskaux ne povis trovi personon.

] "Kien" is used when the verb in the relative clause expresses motion toward the place indicated. 59th. Before coming to visit you. The 1912th year will be a leap-year. 17. There are three hundred and sixty-six days in such a year. he desires that kind of hat which (kind) costs six dollars. Such a book now costs four or five hundred dollars. kien vi iros. 150. kian vi. 2. 73rd. etc. 16. 10. (To be written out in full): 37th. Tiaj amikoj. Alfred the Great was the last king until many years afterward (until after many years) who could read or write. for ("cxar") it seems interesting. The interrogative adjective "kia" (112) is also used as a relative adjective. You do not make mistakes very often in the lessons. I shall go there where you are. thus serving as a subordinating conjunction (cf. kie vi estas. I shall try after a few minutes to translate that Latin book. I have the same desire as you (same kind which you have). referring back to "tia. 1910th. 15. The one thousand nine hundred and fourth year was a leap-year. 8. "kie" may refer to "tie" or to "tien": Mi iros tien. 3. and because he also wrote books in that language. it will have cost twenty thousand dollars. The interrogative adverb "kie". I shall have ridden twelve miles on my horse. People say so ("diras tiel") because he translated Latin books into the language of his land. or "which": Mi havas tian libron. We often talk about this same King Alfred. 14. 4. kia kostas ses dolarojn. and say that he was the father of the English language. Mi estis tie. 92nd. "KIA" AS A RELATIVE ADJECTIVE. 9. kian mi volas. It is necessary to study Latin. 7. The grade which you will have received in arithmetic soon after the first of March will be excellent. "kien" (118) is also used as a relative adverb of place with "tie". 119th. whether or not its antecedent has this ending. The fourth year after that year was also a leap-year. for I desire to read the stories which are in my Latin book. 6. LESSON XXXII. Alfred won the book which his mother had bought. estas afablaj. such friends as (of which kind) you have are amiable. 12. 1274th.1. Before my friend will have finished that mansion (122). In this use it may often be translated "as". [Footnote: Any interrogative adverb may also be used to introduce an indirect question. "tien". . kiajn vi havas. or some other expression of place for its antecedent. 13. such as "sama". "cxu"). Similarly. I have such a (that kind of) book as (which kind) I wish. Mi havas la saman deziron." or to some equivalent phrase or word indicating quality. 14235th. "KIE" AS A RELATIVE ADVERB. Li deziras tian cxapelon. 5. 151. 846th. He was the first king in that land who even wished to be able to read books.

La venontan semajnon mi foriros. 153. . the man going to depart (the about-to-depart man) called his servant. I was about to (going to) see. I shall be about to (going to) see. The future active participle." as "vidonta". I shall go to that place to which you went (I shall go where you went). The compound tenses formed by combining the future active participle with each of the three aoristic tenses of "esti" represent an act or state as about to occur in the present. ni estos vidontaj. Cxu vi venos cxi tien. La venonta monato estas marto. the coming (next) week I shall depart. 154. kie li logxas. I found him in the city where he lives. the coming month is March. I am about to (going to) see. Mi iros tien. mi estos vidonta. the woman about to greet you is very affable. these tenses are not often used. about to see. ni estas vidontaj. 152. past. THE PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE TENSES." Except when great accuracy is desired. mi estis vidonta. respectively. THE SUFFIX "-IND-". or future. Mi trovis lin en la urbo. La virino salutonta vin estas tre afabla. ni estis vidontaj. kien vi iris. we were about to (going to) see. and are called "periphrastic future tenses. ends in "-onta. A synopsis of "vidi" in the first person singular and plural of these tenses is as follows: Present Periphrastic Future. expressing what the word modified will do or is about to do. The suffix "-ind-" is used to form words expressing "worthy of. Past Periphrastic Future. Future Periphrastic Future.I was there (at that place) where you will go. about to go: La forironta viro vokis sian serviston. we are about to (going to) see. kie ni estas? Are you coming here where we are? THE FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE. mi estas vidonta. "ironta". we shall be about to (going to) see.

soldatoj venis de trans la maro por ataki la anglan regxon Alfredon Grandan. suspekt-i = to suspect. "I am still sitting here. ridinde = ridiculously. "indo". kaj estis rigardanta siajn sagojn kaj pafarkon dum li pensis malgxoje pri sia lando. [Footnote: The adverb "ankoraux" expresses the ideas "until and during the present time". Anstataux porti regxajn vestojn li acxetis tiajn cxifonojn kiajn kamparanoj kaj malricxuloj portas." Li ankoraux ne venis. lauxdinda = praiseworthy. to cry. flar-i = to smell. unworthy. Tiam sxi tre hontis. bat-i = to beat. Sed baldaux li forgesis ilin. worthy. cert-a = sure. etc. laughably. "he will be still (yet) more crafty. atak-i = to attack. vi ne pensas pri la kukoj. Unu fojon antaux pli multe ol mil jaroj. It may also be used as a root. tradukinda = worth translating. dum mi kolektos pli multe da ligno?" Alfredo respondis "Certe mi gardos ilin kontraux la fajro. VOCABULARY ankoraux = still. "he will still stay there. kaj sin kasxis en granda arbaro malantaux vilagxo. kaj tute ne suspektis kia persono lia gasto estas. kaj kial li forgesis la kukojn. Cxu vi gardos tiujn kukojn kiuj nun estas super la fajro. "still they come. "in constant or uniform succession". lign-o = wood. La edzino de la arbarano demandis "Cxu vi ankoraux sidos tie dekkvin aux dudek minutojn?" "Jes." Li estos ankoraux pli ruza. "in the future as now and before". SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. "still he has not come (he has not come yet)."] ALFREDO GRANDA KAJ LA KUKOJ. defend-i = to defend. kiu ne konis la regxon." Ankoraux ili venas. kaj anstataux mallauxdi lin sxi volis esti ankoraux pli bona al li. sed ili sciis ke li estas persono kies landon ili deziras gajni. Kiam la virino venis kaj flaris la kukojn sxi kriis "ho. remarkable. . vi riprocxinda viro! Kvankam vi ankoraux sidas tie. edz-o = husband. kaj la fajro estas difektinta ilin!" Sxi estis kruele batonta la regxon. ho! = Oh! kri-i = to exclaim. estos necese fari pli varmegan fajron por tiaj kukoj kiajn mi nun estas bakonta. kaj la regxo penis zorgi pri la kukoj. Sxi diris "Nu." Li ankoraux restos tie. given sometimes by English "yet". Li logxis cxe malricxa sed lauxdinda kamparano. yet. sometimes by "still": Mi estas ankoraux sidanta cxi tie. "in an increasing or additional degree". to form "inda". Cxi tiuj malamikoj estis venintaj tiel subite ke Alfredo ne estis preta por defendi sian landon kontraux ili. Tial li forkuris kelkajn mejlojn de la urbo. merit. Unu memorindan tagon Alfredo estis sidanta apud la fajro. kiam li diris al sxi kiu li estas." La virino sercxonta lignon foriris en alian parton de la arbaro. difekt-i = to spoil. "malinda".: dezirinda = desirable. kie estis multe da ligno. mallauxdinda = blameworthy. Ili nek konis nek malamis lin.deserving of." that which is indicated in the root. certain. rimarkinda = noteworthy. kruel-a = cruel. fajr-o = fire. kuk-o = cake. worth." respondis la regxo. kaj la fajro ilin difektis. gast-o = guest.

Vi ne estas tiel kruela kiel li. when he rode away secretly ("kasxe") into a large forest. But enemies often attacked him. Mi ankoraux sidos tie gxis kiam vi venos. I suspected him at the time when he came (the time that he came). One day he was sitting near the fire and wondering. Kiel mi diris al li. "Will you sit there yet a while and take-care of those cakes? I am about to gather more wood. what a blame-worthy man!" 14. kiel li defendis sin. 156. I shall still sit there until when you come (until you come). . she knew that the fire had spoiled them. he spoke as softly as before. "Will the enemy have conquered my soldiers next week?" 10. you are not so cruel as he (is). The interrogative temporal adverb "kiam" (123) is also used as a relative temporal adverb. Li defendis sin tiam. LESSON XXXIII. Alfred the Great was a praiseworthy king who lived more than a thousand years ago. The interrogative adverb "kiel" (134) is also used as a relative adverb of manner and degree. "KIAM" AS A RELATIVE ADVERB. Ili batis lin same kiel vin. The forester's wife said. 155. Post kiam li tiel lauxte kriis. I am happy (antecedent not expressed).1. he began to cry. He replied. li komencis plori. but he did not defend himself. (It may not be omitted as in English "at the time he came"): Mi suspektis lin je la tempo kiam li venis. "KIEL" AS A RELATIVE ADVERB. He wore such rags as a peasant usually wears." 12. Sxi estas tiel bona kiel sxi estas bela. but also wrote in English. 9. "Certainly. with "tiam" or an equivalent word or phrase for its antecedent. he defended himself then. Li parolis tiel mallauxte kiel antauxe. There he dwelt some time in the house of a poor forester. with "tiel". It may often be translated "as": Mi defendis min tiel. She commenced to beat the king cruelly. and did not tell the forester who he was. He wished to help the peasants still more. But when after a few minutes the woman smelled the cakes. Then they hastened to where (151) Alfred was. People still talk about him because he not only translated many Latin books into the English language. after he shouted so loudly. 13. kiam oni atakis lin. they beat him in the same way as you (did). Ili batis lin same kiel vi. 8. as I told him. they beat him the same as (they did) you. They were about to attack him. She exclaimed "Oh. 2. or an equivalent adverb or phrase for its antecedent. when he was attacked. he told her who he was. 3. mi estas felicxa. 4. or "same". 5. and finally they conquered his soldiers. I defended myself in that way in which (way) he defended himself. 7. 6." 11. Instead (120). 15. I will try to help you.

kontrauxulo = adversary. . may be derived from prepositions by addition of the formative endings (116). kvine = fifthly. to exceed. in the fifth place. in the second place. adjacent. VOCABULARY adiaux = farewell. superege = surpassingly. to encircle. a dozen (of) eggs." After such nouns the preposition "da" or "de" is used: dekduo = a dozen. to entertain. sesdeke = sixtiethly. due = secondly. a quartette. gxentil-a = courteous. invit-i = to invite. 100) or adverbs (101). opposite. elekt-i = to choose. and the pronouns tiu. cardinal numerals (138). trio = a three. deko = a ten. to take the place of. Nouns may be formed from the cardinals by addition of the ending "-o. kunulo = comrade. to receive. kvaro = a four.: "dekduo da ovoj". milo = a thousand. par-o = pair. kuz-o = cousin. superi = to surpass. "la plej fresxa el la ovoj". renkont-i = to meet. jxus = just. Adjectives. goodbye. gant-o = glove. contrary. 159. a trio. contiguous. as well as adverbs (120). "kiu el la ovoj?" which one of the eggs? "tiu el la ovoj". half a score. opponent. at first. pend-i = to hang. Adverbs may be formed from the cardinals by addition of the ending "-e": unue = firstly. "dekduo de la ovoj". NUMERAL NOUNS AND ADVERBS. apuda = near.] 158. kiu (106). deke = tenthly.she is as good as she is fair. that one of the eggs. kontrauxa = adverse. antauxa = previous. dudeko = a score. to select. at the moment. cxirkauxo = a circuit. fest-i = to celebrate. akcept-i = to accept. twelve of those eggs. sxu-o = shoe. 157. while "el" follows adjectives in the superlative degree (75). with sometimes a special suffix also: anstatauxi = to replace. etc. [Footnote: The prepositions "da" and "de" follow nouns (99. unuo = a unit. prez-o = price. cento = a hundred. companion. okdek-kvare = eighty-fourthly. "dek du el tiuj ovoj". the freshest of the eggs. a dozen of the eggs. malgraux = notwithstanding. exceedingly. anstatauxulo = a substitute. uz-i = to use. cxirkauxi = to surround. preceding. to be above. a circumference. verbs and nouns. WORD DERIVATION FROM PREPOSITIONS.

kiam mi vidis alian pli belan paron. and can take ("fari") long walks in the adjacent fields and forest. In the second place. and said that I would gladly be his guest. we just came (we came but a moment ago). mi bezonis paron da novaj sxuoj. His visit will take the place of (159) my letter. The larger a city is. Tiam li festos la lastan tagon de la jaro. Unue. malgraux la tro granda prezo. they are still thick and good. sed mi estas preskaux tiel alta kiel li. kaj ofte promenas kune. is older than he is. Ni parolis pri multaj interesaj aferoj. 10. 2. Jxus kiam li estis elironta el la pordo hieraux. My (girl) cousin. vegetables and cake in the city. sed en alia parto. 17. kaj oni tuj venis por renkonti min. There she can see and smell the flowers. There are often hundreds of persons in a village. My friend likes to live in the city. 12. La kuzo diris "adiaux. 11. Mi tuj acxetis tiun paron. Thirdly. mi uzis la okazon ("opportunity") por proponi mallongan promenon. Tial mi acxetis cxi tiun. although he is younger than I am. Mi estas certa ke mi estas ankaux tiel forta kiel li. I accepted his invitation courteously. The price is low. kaj estis jxus acxetonta ilin.[Footnote: The adverb "jxus" indicates the elapsing of the least possible time since the act or condition indicated. 7. for my cousin has invited me to a small party ("festo") at his house. kie la stratoj estis malplej kotaj. mi volis acxeti paron da novaj gantoj. kaj bonege nin amuzis. "Jxus kiam vi venis li foriris". but there are thousands of persons in a city. cxar estas centoj da sxuoj en tiu butiko. 13. 4. just as you came he went away. 6. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Just as (just when) he was going . 8. and usually buy a pair of new gloves. por anstatauxi la malnovajn gantojn kiujn mi ankoraux estis portanta. kaj demandis "Kiajn vestojn vi volas acxeti?" Oni montris al mi preskaux dudekon da paroj da gantoj. Therefore I make use of the opportunity when I go to the city. Mi elektis tre bonan paron. "Mi havas la saman opinion kian vi jxus diris". 1. 9. 3." kaj iris rekte hejmen. or between the two acts or conditions indicated. Notwithstanding their ugly color. one can buy better bread. one can also find better gloves.] LA INVITO. but his wife prefers to live in their little wooden house in the country. but he is as tall as she. I saw him just when he was about to depart. Lia hejmo estas preskaux du mejlojn de la nia. ni estas bonaj kunuloj. Tamen. 14. Hieraux matene mia kuzo vizitis cxe ni. kvankam mi acxetis ilin antaux tri monatoj. kaj invitis min al malgranda festo kiu okazos morgaux vespere. "Mi vidis lin jxus kiam li estis forironta". and I need a new pair now. the larger and better its stores are. his sister. Due. Li diris ke la gastoj sidos cxirkaux la fajrejo kaj rakontos rakontojn gxis malfrua horo. Mia kuzo logxas en la sama urbo kie nia familio logxas. "Ni jxus venis". I was just about to send a letter to him at the minute that (155) he knocked on our door. malgraux la negxa vetero. Mi trovis rimarkinde bonan paron. 16. 15. Li respondis ke li gxoje promenos kun mi. But soon I shall buy such a pair as (150) is hanging in the window of that store. I have the same opinion as you just gave (said). kaj diris ke mi certe venos. kaj poste mi rigardis la sxuojn. and the price is often less. kiajn mi sxatas. We are good comrades. Mi iris en la butikon kie pendis tiaj gantoj. Tial ni formarsxis tien. La kuzo havas dek ok jarojn. Mi akceptis lian gxentilan inviton. I am still wearing a pair of gloves which the rain spoiled. kaj tiam hejmen iris. hats and shoes there. 5. sed mi iris al granda butiko. gxis kiam estis necese hejmen iri.

only verbs being shown. to use completely. to find out. The adverb "plej". to learn thoroughly. eliri = to go out. demeti = to lay aside. etc. cxeesti = to be present. subteni = to support. adverbs. PREPOSITIONS AS PREFIXES. to form "ebla". to elaborate. 162. The suffix "-ebl-" is used to form adjectives. I said goodbye to him. cxirkauxpreni = to embrace. A few prepositional compounds are given below. "ellabori". It may be used as a root. "ellerni". Any preposition may be used as a prefix to a verb. to depend. expressing the likelihood or possibility of that which is indicated by the root. but these suffixes have other meanings also. to invent. eltrovebla = discoverable. the same as (156) it was two or three months ago. [Footnote: The suffix "-ebl-" is often equivalent to the English suffixes "-able". to discover.] EXPRESSION OF THE HIGHEST DEGREE POSSIBLE. he used the least possible. provided the resulting compound is intelligible.] THE SUFFIX "-EBL-". and said that I would meet him in the park tomorrow. although the weather is still remarkably cold. aldoni = to add. Li uzis kiel eble plej malmulte. 160. kontrauxdiri = to contradict. as in "readable. modified by "kiel eble" (as possible). adjectives and adverbs may be formed from these (116): alveni = to arrive. kunveni = to assemble. surmeti = to put on. "lovable. to work out. etc. "-ible". enhavi = to contain. possible. . kunlabori = to collaborate. priskribi = to describe. "most" (74). although nouns. is used to express the highest degree possible: Gxi estas kiel eble plej bona. "I am tired out"): "eltrovi"." "worth reading" (leginda). to wear out (transitive). LESSON XXXIV. travidi = to see through transiri = to cross. to think out. interparoli = to converse. to master. [Footnote: Like English "out" the preposition "el" often develops in composition a secondary sense of "thoroughly" or "completely" (cf. Ni estos kiel eble plej sagxaj. "elpensi". I think that we shall have a pleasant walk. mangxebla = edible.away." "deserving of love" (aminda). legebla = legible. rompebla = breakable. travidebla = transparent. depreni = to subtract. antauxdiri = to predict. 161. videbla = visible.. traguti = to percolate. it is the best possible. we shall be as wise as possible. 18. etc. "eluzi". dependi = to hang from.

Mi skribis kiel eble plej legeble, I wrote as legibly as possible. TITLES AND TERMS OF ADDRESS. 163. The words "sinjoro," gentleman, "sinjorino," lady, "frauxlino," miss, are used like English "Mr., Mrs., Miss," before proper names, and are also used as terms of address, without being followed by the name: "Adiaux, Sinjoro. Adiaux, Sinjorino," Goodbye (Sir). Goodbye, Madam. Frauxlino B----, cxu vi konas tiun sinjoron kun Sinjorino C----? Miss B----, do you know that gentleman with Mrs. C----? Mi ne konas tiun frauxlinon, I do not know that young lady. Kien vi volas iri, Frauxlino? Where do you wish to go (Miss)? Sinjoro A---- estas tre afabla, Mr. A---- is very amiable. [Footnote: Cf. English "Doctor, Professor, Madam," as terms of address, and also German "Mein Herr, gnaedige Frau, gnaediges Fraeulein," French "Monsieur, Mademoiselle," Spanish, "Senor, Senora," Italian "Signore," etc.] VOCABULARY atent-a = attentive. auxskult-i = to listen. babil-i = to chatter. doktor-o = doctor. frauxl-o = bachelor. gaj-a = merry, gay. grup-o = group. onkl-o = uncle. san-a = in good health. sent-i = to feel. sinjor-o = gentleman. sxtup-o = step (of stairs). tas-o = cup. vojagx-o = voyage, journey. CXE LA FESTO. Hieraux vespere mi iris al la hejmo de mia kuzo, kiu estis invitinta min al malgranda festo cxe li. Cxar mi deziris alveni kiel eble plej frue, mi foriris de mia logxejo kiel eble plej baldaux, malgraux la negxa vetero. Mi estis surmetinta paron da dikaj gantoj, kaj mi portis dikajn sxuojn. Mi ankaux havis mian ombrelon, kvankam pro la vento mi ne povis uzi tiun. Tuj kiam mi supreniris la sxtuparon cxe la hejmo de la kuzo, li auxdis min, kaj venis por malfermi la pordon kaj akcepti min. "Bonan vesperon, kia estas via sano?" li diris. Mi respondis "Mi sanas bonege, dankon," kaj eniris la domon kun li. Ni supren iris per granda sxtuparo al cxambro kie mi lasis la cxapelon, gantojn kaj ombrelon, tiam ni malsupren venis kaj eniris la salonon. Mi salutis la onklinon, kiu afable parolis al mi, kaj ankaux la du kuzinojn. Unu kuzino estis jxus priskribonta interesan libron, kiun sxi antaux ne longe tralegis, kiam la aliaj gastoj komencis alveni. Sinjoro B---- cxeestis, kaj Doktoro C----, kun sia filino Frauxlino Mario, kaj multe da aliaj sinjoroj kaj sinjorinoj. La gastoj sidis aux staris en malgrandaj grupoj, kaj interparolis kun videbla plezuro. Unu rakontis pri vojagxo, kaj tiam oni komencis priparoli la prezojn de aferoj en aliaj landoj. Mi atente auxskultis kelkajn minutojn, kaj tiam foriris al alia grupo, kie oni gaje babilis pri estontaj ("future") promenoj kaj festoj. Post unu aux du horoj, la servistinoj alportis al ni bonan malgrandan mangxon, kune kun tasoj da bonega kafo. Fine, je malfrua horo ni gxentile dankis la familion de mia kuzo, kaj diris adiaux. Tiam ni foriris hejmen, kun sentoj da granda plezuro pro la agrabla festo.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 1. There are dozens of edible fruits, but the fruits of hundreds of trees are not at all ("tute ne estas") edible. 2. The transparent cup and plate upon the table are very breakable. 3. I predict that you will break them as soon as you seize them. 4. That letter is worth reading. 5. But it is difficult to read it, for it is not very legible. 6. It is from my uncle, who wishes to arrive at-our-house as early as possible. 7. He is still in the city, but soon he will be here, and will go up the steps ("sxtuparon") of our porch and knock on the door. 8. There are very few persons who contradict his opinions. 9. His opinions, however, are worthy of attention (154) and usually I listen courteously while he is talking. 10. Now, however, I prefer to listen to the group of ladies in the adjacent room. 11. They are chattering gaily, and listening to the young lady who is about to sing. 12. Madam, do you feel the wind? I notice that it is blowing the curtains which hang before that window. 13. I will close the window, because I am not very well ("sana") today. 14. Is that gentleman across the room a bachelor? 15. Yes. He is describing a voyage and the people whom he met.

LESSON XXXV. "KIOM" AS A RELATIVE ADVERB. 164. The interrogative adverb "kiom" (140) is used as a relative adverb of quantity, with "tiom" or some equivalent word or phrase for its antecedent. In this use it is commonly translated "as": La taso enhavis tiom da the cup contained as Mi havos tiom da tempo, I shall have as much Li sendis tiom, kiom vi kafo, kiom mi povis trinki, much coffee as I could drink. kiom mi bezonos, time as I shall need. volis, he sent as much as you wished.

THE PRESENT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE. 165. The present passive participle (for the present active participle see 108), expressing that which is "undergone by" the person or thing indicated by the word modified, ends in "-ata", as "vidata", being seen: [Footnote: The verb "iri", to go, used to illustrate the active participles (108, 119, 152), cannot be used to illustrate a passive participle, since passive participles can be made from transitive verbs (22) only.] La lauxdata knabo estas felicxa, the boy being praised is happy. Mi sercxos la deziratan libron, I shall look for the desired book. La vestoj farataj por vi estas belaj, the clothes being made for you are beautiful. FRACTIONS.

166. Fractions are formed from the cardinals by the use of the suffix "-on-" followed by the ending "-o". Adjectives and adverbs may be derived from these by use of the endings "-a" or "-e": La duono de ses estas tri, the half of six is three. Li estis nur duone atenta, he was only half attentive. La triona parto de ses estas du, the third part of six is two. Dek unu dekduonoj, eleven twelfths. Mi dudekone finis la laboron, I one-twentieth finished the work. DESCRIPTIVE COMPOUNDS. 167. A compound word whose first element modifies the second in an adjectival or adverbial relation is called a "descriptive compound". The final "-a" or "-e" of the first element may be omitted, unless the resulting combination would be ambiguous or harsh-sounding. a. When the first element is adverbial (an adverb or preposition), the second element may be either an adverb or adjective: multekosta, expensive. duonkolere, half angrily. nevidebla, invisible. nevole, involuntarily. rugxflava (rugxeflava), reddish yellow. survoje, on the way, en route. antauxhieraux, day before yesterday. postmorgaux, day after tomorrow. b. An adjective may be used for the first element, if the second is an adverb or adjective "derived from a noun-root": samtempa, contemporaneous. unufoje, once, one time. trifoje, thrice, three times. unutaga, one day's, of one day. unuataga, the first day's. frutempe, at an early time. c. A noun may be used for the second element, if the resulting word has not merely unity of form, but also unity of meaning with a slightly different sense from that expressed by the noun and adjective uncombined: [Footnote: In national languages a change of accent often accompanies such change in meaning, as "BLACKberry" (not "black BERry"), "BLUEbird" (not "blue BIRD"), "SWEETheart" (not "sweet HEART"), German "JUNGfrau", "virgin" (not "jung FRAU", young woman), etc.] bonveno, a welcome (not "bona veno", a good coming). libertempo, a vacation, leisure (not "libera tempo", free time). superjaro, leap-year (not "super jaro", above a year). bondeziroj, good wishes, felicitations (not "bonaj deziroj", good desires). plimulto, a majority (adverb and noun combined). VOCABULARY

hxin-o = Chinaman. jam = already. kler-a = enlightened, learned. komerc-o = trade, commerce. lanc-o = spear, lance. liber-a = free. metod-o = method, way.

naci-o = nation. pagx-o = page. pres-i = to print. pulv-o = gunpowder. sxangx-i = to change. te-o = tea. ted-a = tiresome, tedious.

[Footnote: The adverb "jam" indicates a change from some preceding action or state to the different one expressed in the sentence, clause or phrase containing "jam". It may often be translated "yet," "now," etc. "Mi jam vidis lin", I already saw (have already seen) him. "Cxu vi jam trovis gxin? Ne, mi ankoraux ne trovis gxin". Have you yet (have you already) found it? No, I have not yet (still not) found it. "Li jam ne vivas", he no longer lives (he already is-not-alive). "Jam ne negxas", it is not snowing now (already not snowing).] LA HXINOJ. Antaux miloj da jaroj la hxinoj estis la plej klera nacio en la mondo. Dum aliaj nacioj ankoraux ne konis metodojn por presi librojn, kaj ankoraux faris ilin skribe, la samtempaj hxinoj jam estis forlasintaj tiun multekostan kaj tedan metodon. Ili jam estis presantaj la pagxojn de miloj da libroj. Aliaj nacioj tiam estis batalantaj kiel eble plej kruele, per sago kaj pafarko, kaj per lanco. Sed ili ankoraux ne havis pafilojn, cxar pulvo estis tute nekonata al ili. Tamen la hxinoj jam bone konis metodojn por fari kaj por uzi pulvon, kaj faris tiajn amuzajn flavrugxajn fajrojn, kiajn ni ankoraux hodiaux acxetas de ili, por uzi je festaj tagoj. Sed la hxinoj ne multe sxatis la komercon, kaj ne deziris acxeti aux lerni de aliaj nacioj. Ili ankoraux nun havas la samajn metodojn por presi librojn kaj por fari pulvon, kiajn ili havis antaux mil jaroj. Ili malofte sxangxas siajn kutimojn. Tial la aliaj nacioj, kiuj antauxe ne estis tiel kleraj, antauxeniras pli rapide ol la hxinoj. La lando de la hxinoj enhavas tiom da personoj, kiom tri aux kvar aliaj nacioj. Granda parto de tiu lando estas ankoraux nekonata al okcidentaj nacioj, kvankam plej multe da nia teo elvenas el la hxina lando. Oni diras ke la parolata lingvo kaj la skribata lingvo de la hxinoj estas du tre malsamaj aferoj. La lingvo estas almenaux treege malfacila, kaj post kiam oni estas longe studinta gxin, oni tamen estas nur duone lerninta gxin. Mi gxojas tial ke la lingvoj studataj en la lernejoj de nia lando ne estas tiel malfacilaj kiel la hxina lingvo. La latina kaj germana lingvoj estas suficxe malfacilaj, kvankam ili estas tre interesaj kaj ankaux konataj de la kleruloj en multaj landoj. La latina lingvo jam ne estas parolata lingvo. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 1. Why are the persons in that merry group laughing and chattering instead of listening to Mr. B----? 2. I think that the doctor is telling stories about a bachelor who was once a good friend of his. 3. The gentleman being talked about (160, 165) will visit us this evening, possibly. 4. My aunt and cousin will come down stairs and converse with him. 5. We shall drink as many cups of tea or of coffee as we wish. 6. He will say "How is your health, Madam?" My aunt will reply half-angrily that she is seldom ill. 7. We shall sit on the veranda, for the sun is still shining, although it is already setting. 8. That young lady who came with Mrs. C---- relates the best possible stories. 9. She says that the Chinese were already an enlightened nation hundreds of years

ago, while other nations were still cruelly fighting. 10. A method for printing the pages of books, instead of writing them, was a discovery of the Chinese. They printed books in their printing-shops, a thousand years ago. 12. They also were-acquainted-with gunpowder, which they made and used for such fires as we use on national days of-celebration, when we have leisure and wish to enjoy (to amuse) ourselves. 13. But the Chinese have not changed these methods. 14. Their ways of commerce, work and pleasure are the same as they were long ago. 15. Such a nation does not progress rapidly, even though its life is very long.

LESSON XXXVI. THE PRESENT PASSIVE TENSE. 168. The compound tense formed by combining the present passive participle with the present tense of the auxiliary verb "esti" expresses an act or condition as "being undergone" by the subject of the verb, and is called the "present passive tense". The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estas vidata, I am (being) seen. vi estas vidata, you are (being) seen. li (sxi, gxi) estas vidata, he (she, it) is (being) seen. ni estas vidataj, we are (being) seen. vi estas vidataj, you are (being) seen. ili estas vidataj, they are (being) seen. THE USE OF "DE" TO EXPRESS AGENCY. 169. The person by whom (or the thing by which) an act, indicated by a passive verb or participle, is performed is called the "agent" of the passive voice, and is expressed by a substantive preceded by "de": La lanco estas portata de mi, the spear is carried by me. La libroj estas jam presataj de li, the books are already being printed by him. La vojoj estas kovrataj de negxo, the roads are being covered by snow. Sxi estas lauxdata de la sinjoro, she is being praised by the gentleman. THE GENERAL MEANING OF "DE". 170. The preposition "de" conveys the general idea of separation from a source or starting point, in space (literal or figurative), or in time (89, 131). This meaning develops into that of the source from which connection or ownership arises (49), and also into that of the agency from which an act is done or a condition caused (169). The prepositional phrase containing "de" must be so placed as to avoid ambiguity in its meaning, or must be reinforced by an adverb or other word: La arbo estas malproksima de la domo, the tree is far from the house. Gxi estas proksima de la gxardeno, it is near to (from) the garden. Mi prenas la libron for de la knabo, I take the book away from the boy.

La hxinoj estis kleraj ecx en la antikva tempo. proksim-a = near. inter la maro kaj la rivero. ital-a = Italian. we made an immediate exchange. the persons of-that-time were his contemporaries. he answered affirmatively. La afero dependas de vi. Adjectives.] ANTIKVA RESPUBLIKO. 159): La nunaj metodoj. servisto = servant. as well as from prepositions (120. kaj gxi estas respubliko de antaux mil . mont-o = mountain. reprezent-i = to represent. "he is an old friend of mine (a friend of long standing)". proksime de la montoj. trade or occupation connected with the idea in the root: floristo = florist. I take the book of the boy. I bade farewell to him by a farewell salute (see also 273). and nouns may be derived from primary adverbs (66). 171. La morgauxa festo estos pli agrabla ol la hierauxa. "the ancient learned (enlightened) men already knew a great deal". Mi adiauxis lin per adiauxa saluto. "I have an old hat (a hat which is not new)". verbs. tiran-o = tyrant. nom-o = name. "malnova". the present methods (methods of-now). okulisto = oculist. [Footnote: The words "antikva". WORD DERIVATION FROM PRIMARY ADVERBS. respublik-o = republic. tomorrow's (the morrow's) celebration will be more pleasant than that of yesterday. "the old gentleman with the old clothes is an antiquary". "he is an old (aged) gentleman". Li estas maljuna sinjoro. The suffix "-ist-" is added to roots to express the profession. the matter depends upon (from) you. Gxia nomo estas San Marino. La tiamaj personoj estis liaj samtempuloj. komercisto = trader. instead of denying. li respondis jese. all of which may at times be translated "old. kvadrat-a = square. presisto = printer. grav-a = important. antikv-a = ancient Euxrop-o = Europe. Cxu li skribis jesan aux nean respondon? Did he write an affirmative or a negative answer? Anstataux nei. merchant. La maljuna sinjoro en la malnovaj vestoj estas antikvisto. La antikvaj kleruloj jam sciis tre multe. THE SUFFIX "-IST-". Li estas malnova amiko mia. "the Chinese were learned even in the olden time (in ancient time)". "maljuna". VOCABULARY administr-i = to manage.Mi prenas la libron de la knabo." must not be confused in use: Mi havas malnovan cxapelon. 172. serious. Ni faris tujan intersxangxon. sxtelisto = thief. La plej antikva respubliko en Euxropo kusxas en la norda parto de la bela itala lando.

a) aferoj kaj ne volas vojagxi malproksimen de la bone amata hejmo. every. Kvardek ses el tiuj personoj reprezentas la anojn. Kvankam la cxirkauxaj landoj kaj nacioj apartenis en antikva tempo al la tiamaj regxoj. La tuta respubliko enhavas nur dudek du kvadratajn mejlojn da tero. La grekaj respublikoj estis bonekonataj. a). 3. and is therefore one of the smallest republics in the world. En la respubliko kaj la tiea (171) urbo kiu havas la saman nomon. San Marino jam estis libera. Persons who have a good king are very happy. Gxiaj aferoj estas ankoraux administrataj tiel. 14. The article is never interposed between "cxiuj" and the noun modified (as in English "all the men"). 2. 7. Oni ne pensas pri komerco aux eksterlandaj (167. kaj enhavis multe da kleruloj inter siaj anoj. every (one). each (one). 173. 16. 15. It is near the mountains. Enlightened persons often prefer to live in a republic. and is used only if "cxiuj" is pronominal and followed by "el": . ne estas tiom da personoj kiom en multaj italaj urboj. kaj laboras kiel eble plej multe. en la libertempo inter la rikoltoj. They do not think about commerce. La rikoltistoj plej ofte havas bonajn rikoltojn. but remain peacefully ("pace") at home. Sed en la nuna tempo la grekoj havas regxon. 11. and have as much to eat as they need. Oni preferas gaje amuzi sin cxehejme (167. kaj la vivo tute ne sxajnas malfacila aux teda. 5. Nowadays ("nuntempe") there are very few tyrants. The inhabitants are energetic and patient. kaj la aferoj estas administrataj kiel eble plej sagxe. kiel la anoj (145) volas. That nation which was most enlightened a thousand years ago was the Chinese nation. The Chinese of-that-time already had good printers among them. kaj unu alia estas regxo tiun duonon da jaro. tamen la laboristoj estas energiaj. 13. Fourteen hundred years ago it was already a republic. in the northern part of the much praised Italian land. 8.kvarcent jaroj. 12. The plural is "cxiuj". Per tia metodo. 17. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. kiuj administros la gravajn aferojn de la respubliko dum la sekvontaj ses monatoj. It is said (54) that the Chinese drink as much tea as two or three contemporary nations. The distributive pronoun (and pronominal adjective) is "cxiu". kaj la plimulto da personoj estas treege kontenta kaj felicxa. Tamen cxi tiu respubliko estas pli granda ol multaj antikvaj grekaj respublikoj. but those who have a bad king are as unhappy as possible. 1. THE DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN. and it is still that same republic. Dufoje en la jaro la anoj elektas personojn. 9. The inhabitants are well represented. They seldom take ("faras") tiresome journeys. Oni ne trovas tre klerajn personojn en San Marino. and as free as possible. la anoj estas bone reprezentataj. 6. or greatly ("multe") change their customs. The oldest republic in Europe is named San Marino. Sometimes it is equivalent to English "any". The majority of the kings of Europe are praiseworthy. 10. all. ne kiel unu aux alia regxo aux tirano deziras. 4. There are bakers and shopkeepers (172) and many laborers among them. The serious affairs of a republic are managed by persons representing the persons who live there. LESSON XXXVII." etc. It contains only twenty-two square miles. as in "Any one who studies can learn.

Ni cxiuj estas reprezentataj. lernos. every one who studies will learn. DEPENDENT COMPOUNDS. The distributive pronoun has a possessive or genitive form "cxies". Mi vidis cxiun el ili. Mi dankas vin cxiujn. self-contradictory. dependent upon the second element in some prepositional relation. Mi acxetis kafon po malalta prezo.] Cxiu. the hatter buys hats wholesale. century (cento da jaroj). he walks at the rate of four miles daily (every-day). self-examination.) The ending "-o" may be omitted from the first element of a dependent compound: [Footnote: A personal pronoun serving as the first element of a dependent compound may keep the accusative ending. Mi acxetis viandon po kvarono da dolaro por funto. Kies vocxojn mi auxdas? Cxies. The preposition "po". A compound word whose first element is a substantive. noon (mezo de la tago). supper (mangxo je la vespero). every-body's opinion was different. vespermangxo. Cxies opinio estis diversa. to indicate its construction: "sinlauxdo". at. which means "all" in the sense of "entire": "Cxiuj viroj laboras la tutan tagon". self-praise. all men work all (the whole) day. La cxapelisto acxetas cxapelojn pogrande. every-body's: Li konas cxies nomon. self-defence. noktomezo. THE PREPOSITION "PO". midnight (mezo de la nokto). Cxiuj el la maristoj alvenis. whose voices do I hear? Everybody's. "sindefendo". he knows every-one's name. but I did not see all the face of each man. kiu studos. (If the two words were not united into one. paperfaristo. and talked to every boy. the first element would be preceded by a preposition. I bought meat at a quarter of a dollar for (per) pound. "sinekzameno". or would be in the accusative case. every-one's. sed mi ne vidis la tutan vizagxon de cxiu viro". "sinkontrauxdira". ventoflago. 175.[Footnote: The use of "cxiu" and "cxiuj" must be distinguished from that of the adjective "tuta". 174. at the rate of. weathercock (flago por la vento). dining-room (cxambro por mangxoj). papermaker (faristo de papero). I thank you all (I thank all of you).] jarcento. sunshine (brilo de la suno). "Mi vidis cxiun vizagxon. all (every one) of the sailors arrived. I saw each of them. is used chiefly before cardinals and has a distributive sense: Li marsxas po kvar mejloj cxiutage. tagmezo. . I saw every face. mangxocxambro. kaj parolis al cxiu knabo. is called a "dependent compound". sunbrilo. we are all (all of us are) represented. 176. I bought coffee at a low price.

A new school is being built. My cousin and I decided last night (93) to buy new hats for ourselves. kies nomo estis Vilhelmo Tell. po = at the rate of (175). I think that all clothes are being sold at a low price at-the-present-time.VOCABULARY cxies = every body's (174). por rimarki cxu la necesaj salutoj estos farataj de cxiuj. It relates that several centuries ago a severe and cruel tyrant was managing affairs in Switzerland. La tirano diris ke li forprenos la domon. sever-a = severe. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. gxiaj aferoj estis administrataj de personoj kiuj reprezentis aliajn naciojn. 6. My cousin goes to school every day. vort-o = word. eniris la vendejon. Ofte tiuj personoj estis kiel eble plej severaj jugxistoj al la svisoj. cxiu = every-body (173). Cxiu. "Mi intencas sendi gardistojn. en malgranda vilagxo apud bela lago inter la altaj montoj. aux genufleksi. Li decidis meti sian cxapelon sur altan stangon en la vendejo ("market-place"). dev-o = duty. kaj portos lian nomon. por vendi legomojn po kiel eble altaj prezoj. and I told him that a rainbow ("cxielarko") is made by the sunshine and the rain. fleks-i = to bend. 5. dum li diris kelkajn vortojn al amiko. 4. 1. LA CXAPELO SUR LA STANGO. 3. During a visit at a friend's. decid-i = to decide. lag-o = lake. kaj por esti malagrabla al la svisoj. de cxiu vilagxano aux kamparano kiu forgesos genufleksi. Estos cxies devo ne nur saluti la cxapelon. This serious affair happened in a village one or two miles square. zorge genufleksis antaux la cxapelo de la malamata tirano. kiom li povos. vend-i = to sell. The day before yesterday my youngest cousin was sitting on my knee. Li elpensis rimarkindan metodon por montri sian povon ("power"). It is my cousin's duty to study those books at the rate of ten pages a day. kaj por acxeti vestojn kaj aliajn aferojn po treege plej malaltaj prezoj. stang-o = pole. Once he put his hat on a pole in the market-place. svis-o = Swiss. 10. 7. kaj staris du aux tri minutojn proksime de la stango. kaj por kapti cxiujn svisojn kiuj ne genufleksis. Baldaux la kamparanoj komencis eniri la vendejon. Li diris ke de nun tiu cxapelo reprezentas lin. genu-o = knee. sed ankaux genufleksi ("kneel") antaux la stango. not far from the home of the judge. Sed anstataux fari tujan saluton." li diris. Saluti la cxapelon estos la grava devo de cxiu persono en la vilagxo. 2. 8. 9. la kampojn kaj tiom da mono. and said that it was the duty of-every-one to kneel before it. kamparano. kiu iris proksimen de la stango. Antaux ol Svislando estis tiel libera kiel la nuna svisa respubliko. pro timo pri la hejmoj kaj la familioj. 11. I read an interesting book about ancient Europe. jugx-i = to judge." Je tagmezo alvenis gardistoj. li tute ne rigardis la stangon. Unufoje plej kruela tirano estis administranta aferojn svisajn. after he has breakfast in the dining-room. "kiuj rimarkos cxu vi cxiuj genufleksos kiam vi estas proksimaj de la stango. Fine. We intend to go to the hatter's early tomorrow morning. on ("cxe") the lake not far from the mountains through which one goes on the way . Vilhelm-o = William. intenc-i = to intend.

etc. it is our duty to help one another. is used: Estas nia devo helpi unu la alian." "reciprocally"). is "cxia". I was (being) seen. 177. every kind of. COMPOUND TENSES OF IMPERSONAL VERBS. The distributive adjective related to the distributive pronoun "cxiu". it) was (being) seen. La viroj reciproke uzis siajn pafilojn. Estis vidate ke cxiu ploras. they fell upon each other. like other modifiers of impersonally used verbs (141): Estis pluvante antaux unu minuto. it was raining a minute ago. To give a reciprocal sense. every sort of: Oni vendas cxiajn fruktojn tie. RECIPROCAL EXPRESSIONS." "one another.. the phrases "unu la alian". are in compound tenses." "mutually. we were (being) seen. ili estis vidataj. li (sxi. Ili falis unu sur la alian. William Tell did not kneel or even look at the hat representing the tyrant. when there are two or more subjects and the action goes from one to the other (expressed in English by "each other. or other verbs used impersonally. giving a comprehensive idea of the quality of some person or thing. When impersonal verbs. "unu al la alia". Ili parolas unu al la alia. or the adverb "reciproke". 178. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estis vidata. they sell every sort of fruit there. he (she. ni estis vidataj. Estas cxiaj personoj en la mondo. The compound tense formed by combining the present passive participle with the past tense of the auxiliary verb "esti" expresses an act or condition as being undergone by the subject of the verb "at some time in the past". a) to the Italian land. it was seen that every one wept. vi estis vidataj. vi estis vidata. the participial element is given the ending "-e". gxi) estis vidata. they were (being) seen. there are all sorts of persons in the world. THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVE.(167. . 179. 180. you were (being) seen. it had snowed a great deal. you were (being) seen. LESSON XXXVIII. the men used each other's guns. Estis multe negxinte. 12. they are talking to each other. It is called the "imperfect passive tense". THE IMPERFECT PASSIVE TENSE.

He could shoot-with-a-bow ("arkpafi") excellently. Ni vidos cxu vi povos forpafi pomon de sur la kapo de via plej juna filo." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. The suffix "-uj-" may be used to form words indicating "that which contains." La tirano diris "Nu. Aldone ("in addition"). dum la patro diris ke li ne tusxos haron de lia kapo. konduk-i = to lead. por esti jugxata. sinjoro. VILHELMO TELL KAJ LA POMO. VOCABULARY ag-i = to act. bears. faris la necesajn preparojn. prepar-i = to prepare. William Tell had a strong flexible (161) bow. Li kondukis la knabon malproksimen de la ceteraj personoj. Tell kaj la filo reciproke rigardis sin. sagujo = quiver. similar. tusx-i = to touch. 3. kaj demandis "Kiun el viaj infanoj vi plej amas?" Vilhelmo Tell ne povis imagi kial la demando estas farata al li. supujo = soup-tureen. leterujo = letter-case. therefore he was a well-known archer. kor-o = heart. Tell respondis fiere ke li ne sciis pri la cxiutagaj genufleksoj de la aliaj personoj. patrujo (patrolando) = fatherland. and instead of "-arbo" to form the names of fruit trees: ujo = a receptacle. kaj kondukis lin al la tirano. 1. ceter-a = remaining. simile al la aliaj vilagxanoj. pet-i = to plead. anstataux tia puno. kaj respondis "Mi amas cxiujn el ili. or is a receptacle for". tial li decidis puni lin per severa puno. and went with his . Tuj kiam la gardistoj rimarkis ke la cxapelo sur la stango ne estis salutata de Vilhelmo Tell. kaj rapide pafis." Tell diris ke li estas preta por ricevi cxian alian punon. sed malgraux cxies petoj la tirano estis jam elektanta pomon de apuda pomarbo. fier-a = proud. estos via devo forpafi la pomon per la unua sago. to request. It may be used instead of "-lando" to form the name of a region containing any one race or tribe.THE SUFFIX "-UJ-". pomujo (pomarbo) = apple-tree. alie ("otherwise") mi punos vin kaj vian filon per tuja morto. La tirano demandis de Tell kial li ne genufleksis antaux la cxapelo. He put six or eight arrows into his quiver. Dum Tell cxirkauxprenis la filon. Ni eltrovos kia arkpafisto vi estas. imag-i = to imagine. Tuj la pomo forfalis de la kapo de la infano. la tirano demandis "Kial vi havas tiun ceteran sagon en la mano. simil-a = like. mutual. 2. mort-i = to die. Sed la tirano malamis la altan fortan svison. ili kaptis lin. kaj cxiu havis felicxan koron. 181." Tell lauxte respondis "Por mortpafi vin. pun-i = to punish. Tiam li elprenis sagon el la sagujo. tuj post la infano. sukerujo = sugar-bowl. estas rakontate inter la vilagxanoj ke vi estas rimarkinda arkpafisto ("archer"). reciprok-a = reciprocal. kaj metis la pomon sur lian kapon. cxar mi treege timis pro la vivo de mia kara filo. cxia = of every kind (177). some number or quantity of that which is expressed by the root. Li diris ke li tute ne intencis agi kontraux la deziroj de la jugxistoj. monujo = purse.

you will be seen. everywhere. li (sxi. vi estos vidata. THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADVERB OF PLACE. THE FUTURE PASSIVE TENSE. LESSON XXXIX. and could not imagine why the hat was on the pole there. ili estos vidataj. at the rate of six miles an hour. 15. But he escaped. kien mi iras. but he did not kneel before it. The tyrant replied with ("per") angry words. we shall be seen. It was being noticed already in the village that Tell hated the tyrant very much. 12." 7. The compound tense formed by combining the present passive participle with the future tense of "esti" indicates that an act or condition "will be undergone" by the subject of the verb. Possibly he saw the hat upon the pole. kie mi estis estinta. A similar second arrow was ready in his hand. they will be seen. or whether you will touch the child's head. Li iris cxien.sons to the village. 8. and the Swiss congratulated each other heartily ("kore"). POSSESSIVE COMPOUNDS. with "-ed" as the final syllable): . 10. related to the distributive pronoun "cxiu". After some time they followed him. 13. Therefore I was wondering whether you could shoot an apple from your son's head. you will be seen. Such adjectives have the meaning "possessed of" that which is indicated in the compound. When the guards seized him for that act. (Similar adjectives are formed in English. He said severely "It is said that you are a praiseworthy archer. Tell said "I did not know about this new duty. The distributive adverb of place. it) will be seen. who was also the judge. he went everywhere where I had been. and prepared to punish Tell by death. Mi vidas lin cxie. Compound adjectives may be formed with an adjectival root for the first element. gxi) estos vidata. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estos vidata. is "cxie". 184. 182. 5. The ending "-n" may be added to "cxie" to show direction of motion (121): Oni trovas tiajn virojn cxie." 11. and led him before the tyrant. 6. I see him everywhere I go. 14. Amid the pleadings of all. 183. 4. Now we shall see whether you can shoot off the apple. vi estos vidataj. he (she. 9. ni estos vidataj. I shall be seen. The tyrant saw the remaining arrow. It is called the "future passive tense". for he hated the proud Swiss whom every one else loved. and a noun-root for the second element. such men are found everywhere. Tell successfully shot off the apple.

double. it is eight forty-five (a quarter of nine)." etc. rugxhara = red-haired. Tial mi telefonis hieraux posttagmeze al la stacidomo. Estas la tria kaj kvin minutoj. cxar en tiu ili petis de mi baldauxan viziton. telefon-i = to telephone. past. multobla. Trioble du estas ses. with "horo" expressed or understood. Ni iris je la sesa kaj duono. manifold. Du bonkoraj (184) amikoj miaj logxas en la urbo B----. In questions the adjective "kioma" (from "kiom". pag-i = to pay. horlogx-o = clock.belbrova = beautiful-browed. duoble. gicxet-o = wicket. how much) is used: Kioma horo estas? What hour (what o'clock.: duoblo. fifty-fold. The suffix "-obl-" is used to form multiples indicating how many fold. kvarobla. VOCABULARY bilet-o = ticket. it is five minutes past three. doubly. dumana = two-handed. cxie = everywhere (182). bonintenca = good-intentioned. [Footnote: The preposition "preter" indicates the movement of something alongside of and passing beyond something else. The minutes are expressed by the cardinals. it cannot be followed by the accusative. we went at half past six. kvarpieda = four-footed. Estas la oka kaj kvardek kvin (or: estas unu kvarono antaux la nauxa). it is two o'clock (it is the second hour). longnaza = long-nosed. cend-o = cent. staci-o = station. kvindekobla. as "two fold. esprim-o = expression. what time) is it? Je kioma horo vi venos? At what time (what o'clock) will you come? Estas la dua horo. Tuj poste mi enmetis kelkajn vestojn en mian jam preskaux eluzitan . 186. Ni reciproke konas nin de antaux ses jaroj. a double. THE TIME OF DAY.] EN LA STACIDOMO. THE SUFFIX "-OBL-". duobla." "double. Oni respondis per la telefono ke la vagonaro foriros je la tria kaj tridek kvin. 185. vagon-o = car. quadruple. Since it does not express motion "toward" its complement. ticket-window. three times two is six. valiz-o = valise. Mi estis duoble gxoja hieraux kiam mi ricevis leteron de ili." "triple. preter = beyond. por demandi je kioma horo foriros la vagonaro ("train") al B----. The ordinals are used in expressing the hour of the day.

is "cxial". Tiam mi iris proksimen de la pordego tra kiu oni estos enlasata al la vagonaro. When I entered the station. and it is better to act as the guards request. and not express impatience. Je la dua horo. Mi estis multe tusxata de cxiaj bonintencaj personoj kurantaj cxien preter mi. 4. for every reason. The trains are much like each other. 11. Because of the request of my friend whose brother died recently. Cxu vi ne vidas tiun horlogxon?" Mi ne estis rimarkinta la horlogxon. Mi kaj la ceteraj personoj rapidis al la vagonaro kaj kiel eble plej baldaux eniris gxin. and received the ticket. you always pay too much." 10. I could not imagine why it was necessary to pay so much. kiun la sinjoro jam havis en la mano. afternoon. The remaining persons of his family were not at home. related to the distributive pronoun "cxiu". I telephoned to find out at what time the train would depart." 8. Kiom estos necese pagi?" La brunokula sinjoro respondis "Tia bileto kostos dolaron dudek cendojn. and carried along ("kunportis") a valise into which I had put some clothes. THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADVERB "CXIAL". is a descriptive compound (167. a) whose second element "tagmezo" is a dependent compound (176). tial mi almetis la montrilojn de mia posxhorlogxo ("watch") por montri la saman horon. 6. The distributive adverb of time. The distributive adverb of motive or reason. 2.valizon. The ticket seller said "Two dollars and forty cents. tuj post la tagmangxo ("midday meal"). always. kaj faris cxiujn preparojn por la mallonga vojagxo. 187. I went last ("la antauxan") week to visit him. "Kiom da tempo antaux la foriro de la vagonaro al B----?" mi demandis al la gardisto. Survoje mi eniris butikon kaj acxetis paron da novaj gantoj. 1. mi marsxis stacidomon. 188.] SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. related to the pronoun "cxiu". 9. but the yellowhaired guard who conducts persons to the trains said "Persons who go through that gate before the train arrives will be severely punished. for all reasons: . THE DISTRIBUTIVE TEMPORAL ADVERB. 5. Li lauxtvocxe respondis "Nur sep minutojn. Kiam mi eniris la stacidomon. 3. [Footnote: "Posttagmezo"." Mi pusxis tiom da mono tra la gicxeto. So all of us stood near the double gate. Mi diris al la sinjoro cxe la gicxeto "Mi deziras bileton al B----. I hurried past the other people to the wicket. I am always ready to help you. I put enough money into my purse. mi kuris preter la aliaj personoj al la gicxeto kie biletoj estas vendataj. but I at once pushed that much money through the window. I was told (54) that it would leave at four twenty-seven. is "cxiam". at all times: Vi cxiam pagas tro multe. Mi estas cxiam preta por helpi vin. kaj tuj ricevis la bileton. Fine oni malfermis la pordegon. Then I looked at my watch and went near the gate. LESSON XL. 7. and asked for ("petis") a ticket to B----. kaj pusxantaj unu la alian.

you have been seen. they have been seen. takes place. ni estas viditaj. black clouds raced along the sky. etc. moves. we have been seen. Laux kia maniero li agis? In what manner did he act? Mi marsxis laux la strato. the price paid by you was too great. for every reason he is happy today. Mi acxetos bonefaritajn gantojn.. The conjugation of the verb "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estas vidita. 189. In expressing that "in accordance with which" something is done. vi estas vidita. he went along the river by that road. Mi faros gxin laux bona metodo. Li sercxis la forgesitan bileton.Cxial li estas felicxa hodiaux. Li iris laux la rivero per tiu vojo. vi estas viditaj. La punita infano ploras. It is called the "perfect passive tense". he looked for the forgotten ticket. 191. he (she. THE PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE. the preposition "laux" is used: Li agis laux sia opinio. it lies lengthwise of the house. The compound tense formed by combining the past passive participle with the present tense of the verb "esti" expresses an act or condition which "has been undergone" by the subject of the verb. ili estas viditaj. I have been seen (I am having-been-seen). This participle ends in "-ita". li (sxi. La mia cxial estas la plej bona. gxi) estas vidita. THE PREPOSITION "LAUX". the (having-been) punished child is crying. THE SUFFIX "-EM-". he acted in accordance with his own opinion. Nuboj nigraj kuris laux la cxielo. I shall buy well-made gloves. mine is for all reasons the best. as "vidita". Gxi kusxas lauxlonge de la domo. I walked down (or up) the street. having been seen: La prezo pagita de vi estis tro granda. it) has been seen. THE PERFECT PASSIVE TENSE. . The past passive participle expresses an act or condition as "having been undergone" by the person or thing indicated by the word modified. you have been seen. I shall do it according to a good method. 190.

manier-o = manner. Lia patrino estis jxus acxetinta sian bileton cxe la gicxeto. Mi diris al li "Mia studema juna amiko. kaj post kiam sxi pagis la nauxdek cendojn por gxi. I said to the blue-garbed policeman "During the next ("sekvontajn") twenty minutes I shall not be busy. kaj proksime de la pordo kie mi estis lasinta mian valizon staris la sinjorino. pacific. Sxi estis cxial gxoja kiam sxi vidis nin. kaj estis videble maltrankvila. I heard the last words. Sxi multe timas pro li. gazet-o = magazine. Sxi sercxis du aux tri minutojn inter la personoj cxirkaux si. laux la vortoj de la patrino: la knabo estas agema brunhara sesjarulo. pensema = pensive. mi subite rimarkis palan sinjorinon kun larmoj en sxiaj okuloj. trankvil-a = calm. oni ne vojagxas laux tiu metodo. kompat-i = to pity. la filo sxajnas ankoraux netrovebla. kaj dankeme cxirkauxprenis la infanon. Sxi rigardis cxien kun esprimo de nekasxebla timo. lost in the station yesterday afternoon was very uneasy about him for every reason. The suffix "-em-" indicates a "tendency" or "inclination" toward that which is expressed in the root: agema = active. 4. and said a few ("kelkajn") words to him. cxial = for every reason (188). Sxi rapide diris kelkajn vortojn al li. Tie antaux nemovebla tablo kovrita de brile koloritaj jxurnaloj staris malgranda rugxevestita knabo. Mi montros al vi kie sxi estas.192. mallaborema = lazy. kaj tuj li ankaux komencis sercxi cie. gazette." 6. jxurnal-o = journal. She was pale and tearful ("plorema") when I saw her. Li respondis ke la filo de tiu virino estas perdita. and looked in every direction in a most impatient manner. kaj fine sxi vidis bluevestitan policanon. 2. kvankam li cxiam estas bona knabo. thoughtful. laux = according to (191). kaj li estas rugxe vestita ("dressed in red"). kaj kiam la policano preteriris. VOCABULARY atend-i = to wait (for). kie estas vendataj tagjxurnaloj ("newspapers"). paper. 5. LA PERDITA INFANO. larm-o = tear. pacema = peaceful." Li venis kun mi. to expect. kaj fine eniris malgrandan cxambron apud la horlogxo cxe la fino de la stacidomo. My train will leave ("foriros") at half-past two. Mi tre kompatis la ploreman sinjorinon. 3. tranquil. mov-i = to move (transitive) okup-i = to occupy. so I have time to help. Do you . There was an expression of fear upon her face and she went as quickly as possible to a nearby policeman. polic-o = police. kaj li donis al mi la sekvantan priskribon de la infano. and at once said to myself "It is now only ten minutes past two. Kvankam sxi jam sercxis cxie. pal-a = pale. way. cxiam = always (187). gazetoj kaj libroj. subite sxi rimarkis ke la infano ne estis kun sxi. Mi diris ke mi ne estos okupata ("busy") gxis la alveno de la vagonaro. Dum mi estis atendanta hieraux posttagmeze en la stacidomo. kun bluaj okuloj. kiu estis parolanta al unu el la gardistoj. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. mi demandis cxu mi ne povas helpi. Via patrino jam de longe atendas vin. Mi tuj komencis marsxi cxien inter la personoj cxirkaux mi.

The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estis vidita. the whole. 193. THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADVERB "CXIEL". and there I saw that-sort-of child. 12. ni estis viditaj. THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADVERB "CXIOM". li (sxi. you had been seen. nevertheless I shall gladly accept your help. related to the distributive pronoun "cxiu". all: Li prenis multe da sukero. who with tears in LESSON XLI. gxi) estis vidita. 8. The child is dressed in white and wears a red hat. 10. it) had been seen. He answered "Yes. is "cxiel". I shall find him as soon as possible. I went along the stationary ("nemoveblaj") tables as-far-as the end of the station. every quantity. you had been seen. he took all of the tea out of the tea caddy. he will be helped in every way. THE FUTURE PERFECT PASSIVE TENSE. but not all of it. The compound tense made by combining the past passive participle with the future tense of the verb "esti" expresses an act or condition which "will have been undergone" by the subject of the verb at some point in future time. The son of that lady has been lost.desire my help?" 7. you are very kind ("gxentila"). he is a yellow-haired blue-eyed five-year-old. vi estis vidita." 11. ili estis viditaj. they had been seen. in every manner: Li povas cxiel prepari gxin. 9. he can prepare it in every manner. The distributive adverb of quantity. he took a great deal of sugar. The distributive adverb of manner. It is called the "future perfect passive tense". 195. sed ne cxiom da gxi. As ("cxar") I am not at all lazy ("mallaborema"). looking at the magazines and newspapers. It is called the "pluperfect passive tense". is "cxiom". According to her description. I led him to the lady. and apparently ("sxajne") too restless ("movema"). THE PLUPERFECT PASSIVE TENSE. related to the distributive pronoun "cxiu". in every way. I had been seen (I was having-been-seen). 196. we had been seen. he (she. Li elprenis cxiom de la teo el la teujo. 194. The compound tense made by combining the past passive participle with the past tense of the verb "esti" expresses an act or condition which "had been undergone" by the subject of the verb at some point in past time. Li estos cxiel helpata. vi estis viditaj. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: .

an adjective may be used instead of the prepositional phrase unless a verb or participle lays stress upon the fact of construction: La tablo estas farita el ligno. The material "out of which" something is made or constructed is expressed by use of the preposition "el". leon-o = lion. Sometimes an affectionate significance is given: beleta = pretty. they make soup out of asparagus. vi estos viditaj. it) will have been seen. small lake. floret. La tablo estas ligna (el ligno). faritaj el ligno. hundetoj. Sed mi estas certa ke la fratineto jam posedas suficxe da pupoj--tial mi ne acxetis tian ludilon. La infanoj konstruis domon el negxo. rideti = to smile. donac-o = gift. monteto = hill. konsist-i = to consist. kaj rigardis la ludilojn tie. floreto = floweret. Oni faras supon el asparago. It is thus in contrast to the augmentative suffix "-eg-" (122). laux la maniero de grandaj vagonaroj. kaj diversaj materialoj. vi estos vidita. li (sxi. they will have been seen. des pli malfacile estas decidi pri la afero. the table is made out of wood. kvankam ili estas cxiam interesaj al knabinetoj. to possess. drap-o = cloth. you will have been seen. vojeto = path. drapo. sed ju pli mi pensas pri gxi. The suffix "-et-" indicates diminution of degree in that which is expressed by the root. lageto = pond. 198. pup-o = doll. VOCABULARY best-o = animal. the children built a house of (out of) snow. ili estos viditaj. we shall have been seen. cxiom = the whole. you will have been seen. Cxiu el sxiaj amikoj gxoje donacas ("make presents") al tiel afabla knabino. kaj belege vestitaj. libreto = booklet. gxi) estos vidita. versx-i = to pour.mi estos vidita. Sur unu tablo kusxis cxiaj malgrandaj bestoj. the table is wooden (of wood). material-o = material. present. Estas duoble malfacile. cxar sxi jam posedas cxiun ludilon ("toy") kiun oni povas imagi. lud-i = to play. Tamen mi iris hieraux matene al ludilobutiko. katetoj. Mi volas doni beletan donacon al mia plej juna fratino morgaux. he (she. THE SUFFIX "-ET-". Estis cxevaletoj. As in English. THE EXPRESSION OF MATERIAL. Proksime de tiuj staris malgrandaj brile koloritaj vagonaroj. I shall have been seen (shall be having-been-seen). Multaj konsistis el diversaj pupoj. dormeti = to doze. kiujn oni povis rapide movi. all (194). ni estos viditaj. rost-i = to roast. posed-i = to own. Etaj policanoj staris . kaj flavaj leonetoj. LA DONACO. grandaj kaj malgrandaj. hund-o = dog. cxiel = in every way (193). 197.

Cxiel sxi tre similis al mia fratino. Her dolls were made out of cloth when she was a very little girl. 14. which are on the table with her dolls. 12. There are small sacks of sand in the cars. I wish to take a walk along that pleasant path toward the hill. 7. by means of a small spoon. and she is very fond of ("ametas") this toy. . For every reason I am doubly glad today that she is busied in this manner ("tiamaniere"). kaj tial mi decidis elekti tian ludilon. 9. The pony is already broken. and since that moment she has been as happy as possible. This new doll is made out of cloth. expressing that which "will be or is about to be undergone" by the person or thing indicated by the word modified. and a little lion. THE FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLE.apude. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. The doll seems in every way more interesting than the little animals made out of cloth or wood. Baldaux mi rimarkis knabineton apud mi. the daughter of our laundress ("lavistino"). She possesses a little dog and a little cat. kia estos elektita plej frue de la nekonata knabineto. My sister decided that she likes it better than her other playthings. and I think that those poor ("kompatindaj") other dolls will soon have been forgotten. because otherwise she could too easily break them. 2. The future passive participle. kiu certe jxus faris la teon. as "vidota". and usually she is happy when she is pouring the sand out of one of these into another. 10. LESSON XLII. Fine la beleta infano estis rigardinta preskaux cxiom de la ludiloj kiuj okupis la tablojn. 11. instead of waiting for my little sister. Mi atendis trankvile. But yesterday my grandmother made a present of a doll (presented a doll) to her. kaj ecx legis unu aux du pagxojn de miaj jxus acxetitaj gazetoj kaj tagjxurnaloj. My pale delicate ("malsanema") little sister is always happy when she has a new toy. ends in "-ota". 13. Tiam la knabineto kriis "Ho. the table about to be moved away is heavy. I have not seen tears in her eyes. I must buy the meat to roast for supper. kiel beleta pupodomo! Estas litoj en la dormocxambroj. kaj baldaux la pupodomo estis acxetita por mia fratineto. and its dress consists of very pretty material. kaj mi vidas tie pupon. My sister possesses a small train of cars which she can move everywhere. the house going to be built by him will be beautiful. the child about to be punished whimpers softly. La formovota tablo estas peza. before I come home from my walk. kusxas sur la tablo en la mangxo-cxambro. and has been given away to a poor ("malricxa") child. and until yesterday she had a wooden pony. or heard a cross ("koleretan") word. 6. 1. 8. 3. kaj estis cxial malfacile elekti la plej interesan el tiom da interesaj ludiloj. kaj estas elversxonta gxin en tiujn tasetojn!" Tuj mi faris decidon laux la plezuro de la knabineto. 4. La domo konstruota de li estos bela. legomoj kaj rostita viando. dum la kompatinda servistino lace sxin sekvis. about to be seen: La punota infano mallauxte ploretas. 199. faritaj el papero. or putting all of the sand into a box. 5.

fleksebleco = flexibility. mi estas vidota. pont-o = bridge. sving-i = to swing. These are called "passive periphrastic future tenses".). sonor-i = to ring (intrans. = to manufacture. but its fruit is sweet". patreco = fatherhood. mi estos vidota. indeco = worthiness.THE PASSIVE PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE TENSES. substance. I shall be about to be (going to be) seen. these tenses. life on earth is merely a part of the life eternal. THE GENERIC ARTICLE. I was about to be (going to be) seen. arm. In English the generic article (as in "the life eternal" above) may often be replaced by omission of both "a" and "the. patience is bitter. kind. Except when great accuracy is desired. La viro estas pli forta ol la virino."] THE SUFFIX "-EC-". patrineco = motherhood. etc. I am about to be (going to be) seen. The article is placed before nouns used in a comprehensive or universal sense. The compound tenses formed by combining the future passive participle with each of the three aoristic tenses of "esti" represent an act or condition as "about to be undergone" in the present. indicating a whole class. [Footnote: Cf. The suffix "-ec-" is used to form words indicating the "abstract quality" of that which is expressed in the root. man is stronger than woman. In such use it is called the "generic article": La pacienco estas lauxdinda. steep. French "La patience est amere. or future. 201. La vivo surtera estas nur parto de la vivo cxiama. ofteco = frequency. Spanish "Las riquezas son bagajes de la fortuna. surtut-o = overcoat. to brandish. respectively. Past Periphrastic Future. mi estis vidota. riches are the baggage of fortune". shore. like those of the active voice (153) are not often used. VOCABULARY bord-o = brak-o = fabrik-i krut-a = bank. 200. 202. hope is the poor man's bread". dankemeco = thankfulness. maltrankvileco = uneasiness. mais son fruit est doux. or abstract quality. Italian "La speranza e il pan de miseri. . A synopsis of "vidi" in the first person singular of these tenses is as follows: Present Periphrastic Future. life is short". or formation. German "Das Leben ist kurtz. to which it is attached: amikeco = friendship. patience is praiseworthy. past. Future Periphrastic Future.

little dogs and little lions and camels. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. sofas and chairs. 5. There were also little cups and tumblers of thin glass.lan-o = wool. In a toy-shop yesterday I examined the dolls made out of woolen cloth and other material.). I walked along a stony picturesque path toward the lake. La pitoreskeco de la belaj montetoj estas difektota. La personoj sxajnis tre koleraj pro sia malfrueco. Tie oni fabrikos tablojn. 7. vapor-o = steam. oni forprenis la ponteton. Kelkaj personoj kiuj estis ankoraux sur la tero kuris kun granda rapideco al la ponteto. Its proximity to the water is necessary. while I thought over ("pripensis") the difficulty. Tial mi acxetis tri biletojn. per kvietaj pitoreskaj vojoj. for a large furniture factory is going to be built between that steep hill and the lake. pitoresk-a = picturesque. but its beauty is about to be spoiled. de la tero al la planko de la sxipeto. yet another") okazon por plezuro en nia vilagxo. segxojn. so I went across the footbridge ("ponteto") on to the pretty little ship. and also looked at the various little animals. kiel li deziris. La sxtonoj por la muroj jam kusxas pretaj apude. kune kun grandaj stangoj kaj aliaj pecoj da ligno. 11. and tried to decide what sort of present to choose. The steamboat to B---. kaj ankoraux pli koleraj pro la trankvila foriro de la sxipeto. kien oni volas iri. La sonoriloj ("bells") estis jam sonorintaj. for water-power ("akvoforto") will be used. cxar ni povas veturi per vaporsxipo sur la bela lago cxe kies bordo kusxas la vilagxo. into which one could pour water or milk. cxar grandaj fabrikejoj estas jam konstruataj cxe la montpiedoj. sed la sxipeto ne atendis ecx unu minuton. 4. 6. kaj kiel eble plej rapide ni suriris la sxipeton. Tiam cxiu komencis sin amuzi tiel. I left the shop. mebl-o = piece of furniture. There were ponies. Mi estis kunportinta dikan lanan surtuton. 3. sed pro la varmeco de la vetero mi ne bezonis gxin. On the tables were small plates containing vegetables. Kiam ni alvenis al la lago. sxton-o = stone. Ni havas ankoraux unu ("still one. pas-i = to pass (intrans. sxip-o = ship. 8. Ili svingis la brakojn kaj la ombrelojn tre energie. 1. SUR LA VAPORSXIPO. . The shore which we passed is very picturesque. kaj aliajn meblojn el zorge elektita ligno. It is difficult in every way to select a present for a child who already possesses enough toys. cxar la koleremo ("irascibility") estas cxiam amuza. and rode an hour in the open ("libera") air. entirely made out of colored paper. vetur-i = to travel (in a vehicle). ni rimarkis ke beleta vaporsxipeto estis jxus forironta. 10. which consisted of tables. kaj tuj post la tagmangxo ni decidis promeni laux tiu pitoreska vojeto al la lago. swinging my overcoat on my arm. Unu el la plezuroj de la kampara vivo konsistas el la multenombraj ("numerous") okazoj por veturi cxien. fruits and roast (189) meat. kaj tuj post kiam ni transmarsxis la ponteton. Hieraux du kuzinoj venis por viziti cxe ni. 9. Ni atendis kun plezuro por vidi la krutajn montetojn kiuj estos videblaj tuj kiam la sxipeto estos pasinta preter malgranda arbaro. 2. while its bells were ringing. There were also little sets of furniture (126). Cxiu sur la sxipeto ridetis. kaj lasis gxin sur apuda segxo. As (cxar) one dollar was all (194) of the money which I had in my purse.was just leaving.

without definitely characterizing it: Mi parolas pri iu. to burst into song. PARTICIPIAL NOUNS. I visited some of your friends. Iuj pontoj estas bone faritaj. but certain ones are not good. some bridges are well made. jockey. by substituting the noun ending "-o" for the adjectival ending "-a".] THE PREFIX "EK-". an envoy. Mi vizitis iujn el viaj amikoj. ekkanti. The indefinite pronoun "iu" has a possessive or genitive form "ies". a rider. 204. sendito. sed iuj ne estas bonaj. laborer. an assistant. I touched someone's arm. legonto. to fall asleep. to start. one (being) seen. a certain one. somebody's. Nouns may be formed from participles. someone's. an inventor. I am talking about a certain one whom you know. one who is helping. "jugxanto". horseman. la jugxoto. a person working. or the beginning of an action or state. 203. a certain one's: Mi tusxis ies brakon. THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN. I have several apples. Cxu ies surtuto kusxas sur la tablo? Is anybody's overcoat lying on the table? Ies ludiloj estas rompitaj. 206. ekridi. one who has thought out something. The indefinite pronoun (and pronominal adjective) "iu". judge (professional). [Footnote: Participial nouns must not be confused with nouns formed by the suffix "-ist-" (172) expressing professional or permanent occupation: "rajdanto". any one. presents the idea of some person or thing. to burst into a laugh ekrigardi. elpensinto. "laboristo". 205. the one about to be judged. kiun vi konas.LESSON XLIII. one who is about to read. to set out. Mi havas kelkajn pomojn. vidato. . Such participial nouns indicate persons temporarily or non-professionally performing or undergoing that which is expressed by the root: helpanto. "rajdisto". ekiri. Sudden or momentary action. is indicated by the prefix "ek-": ekdormi. "jugxisto". a judge (of something). to glance at. "laboranto". someone's playthings are broken. one (having been) sent. the accused.

puppy (from "hundo". inter multe da kugloj. milit-i = to fight. regxidino. iu = some one (203). Unu tagon en la dauxro ("course") de la milito. li diris kun bonhumora rideto. laux la sxtona vojeto laux kiu ili cxiutage marsxis por gardi la tendaron. to overturn. and "homo". Sur la nesto. Kiam la viroj montris al li la birdon. leonido.THE SUFFIX "-ID-". SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Tiam la vento subite renversis gxin. kitten (from "kato". king). humor. Nur la tendon de la regxo oni lasis tie. Unufoje iu regxo estis farinta militon kontraux la homoj de lando cxe la bordo de pitoreska rivero. VOCABULARY amas-o = heap. per kruelega batalo. gxis iu tago somera kiam la hirundidoj povis jam bone flugi. [Footnote: Cf. Cxiuj el la militistoj certe zorgos de nun pri la hirundo kaj la hirundidoj. the child of. woman). kaj kial ili tiel ekkriis kaj ekridis. man (in contrast to "virino". cat). La soldatoj ne venis tien per vaporsxipoj. humor-o = temper. 207. ost-o = bone. Kelkaj kugloj pasis preter gxi. sign-o = sign. Estis necese resti kelkan tempon apud urbo kiun la regxo volis ekataki. tru-o = hole. lion). dog). dauxr-i = to continue. hirund-o = swallow. iuj el la soldatoj pasis preter la tendo de la regxo. Words indicating the "young of. kaj gxi ekfalis. kiu estis bone konstruita el koto. the descendant of. tra kiu la pluvo eniris per multe da truoj. hom-o = human being. por la veturiloj ("vehicles"). a princess (from "regxo".] LA NESTO SUR LA TENDO. amaso da cxifonoj. Sed gxi ankoraux staris. sidis trankvile la hirundo. kugl-o = bullet. Dum la soldatoj svingis la brakojn kaj ekridis unu post la alia. colt (from "cxevalo". mark. Gxi jam estis malnova kaj eluzita. (bird). Unu el cxi tiuj ekrimarkis ke hirundo estas konstruinta sian neston sur la regxa tendo. sed la trankvileco de la birdo dauxris same kiel antauxe. kaj li havis grandan tendaron ("encampment") antaux tiu urbo. homaj ostoj. a lion's whelp (from "leono". Tuj la venkintoj forportis la tendojn. kune kun multaj militkaptitoj ("prisoners of war"). to make war. . including both men and women. kaj la ceteraj malgajaj postsignoj ("traces") de ies venko sur la batalejo. throng. hundido." are formed by use of the suffix "-id-": cxevalido. ies = some one's (204). "Tiu hirundo estos mia gasto. man in the generic sense. kaj kusxis. Li elvenis el sia tendo por eltrovi kial la parolantoj faras tiom da bruo. katido. a king's daughter. sed estis konstruintaj ponton trans la rivero. horse). la regxo auxdis ies vocxon. renvers-i = to upset." Tial la nesto restis netusxata en la dauxro de cxiu batalo. Fine la regxo venkis. cxar la regxo diris ke gxi nun apartenas al la hirundo. the difference between "viro". pri la kuragxa birdo. tend-o = tent.

LESSON XLIV. is "ia". some kind of bones on the ground. piles of human bones. 209." 7.1. The good-humored king put on a thick woolen overcoat. 208. to inquire why his soldiers were conversing so noisily there. . 13. THE INDEFINITE ADVERB OF PLACE. and gestured ("svingis la brakon") toward the bird. anywhere. and said with an amiable smile "Surely such a courageous bird is a worthy (154) guest for a king. Mi iros ien. is "ie". The indefinite adjective. The indefinite adverb of place. is some sort of human being in that tent. as well as ("kaj ankau") a bell which always rang as soon as ("tuj kiam") one touched it. and it fell to the ground. and came out of his tent. somewhere. to point it out to their comrades. the ending "-n" is added (121): Ie en tiu arbaro estas leono. iajn ostojn sur la tero. expressing indefinitely the quality of a person or thing: Estas ia there Mi vidis I saw Estas ia there birdo sur tiu arbo. related to the indefinite pronoun "iu". 6. When the victors departed. somewhere in that forest is a lion. If the verb in the sentence expresses motion toward the place indicated by "ie". in (at) a certain place. There is a pretty story about a swallow which built its nest for its young ("idoj") on the king's tent. Ie malantaux la soldatoj vi trovos amason da kugloj. Why do kings and princes wish to make war upon each other (180)? 14. Perhaps those sons will be prisoners of war. somewhere behind the soldiers you will find a heap of bullets. 5. I am going somewhere. Some of them burst into a laugh. of any kind. 11. The battleground is covered with bullets. The warriors (172) cared for the swallow as much as possible during the course of the war. 10. homo en tiu tendo. 2. 8. The tent was an expensive one. PREDICATE NOMINATIVES. they left that tent there. 15. 9. The young swallows already could fly. War (201) is wicked and shameful (154). When their sons have gone away to (make) war. related to the indefinite pronoun "iu". and caught sight of (206) the bird. by ("je") that time. Finally the wind upset it. but I do not yet know where. The soldiers who were walking along the steep path past the tent glanced at it. 4. 3. the swallow flew somewhere (in some direction). and similar melancholy signs of war. is a bird of some sort on that tree. a certain kind of. The king immediately noticed the swallow's nest. 12. the mothers of the soldiers are very uneasy. some kind of. THE INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE. La hirundo flugis ien. and contained handsome furniture. sed mi ankoraux ne scias kien.

they elected that one representative. I left those who had been well punished.] 211. LA CXEVALO KAJ LA SONORILO. metis grandan sonorilon en la vendejon. clear. ripar-i = to mend. plend-i = to complain. kresk-i = to grow. they elected that representative. she named (mentioned) her daughter Mary. quality or temporary state in which this object is found: Li faris la mondon felicxa. Mi lasis la knabon trankvila. or the condition. oportun-a = convenient. sxnur-o = string. sufer-i = to suffer. I found the already made hole. she named her daughter Mary. proces-o = legal process. God made the happy world. pasxt-i = to feed (flocks. ie = somewhere (209). Mi lasis ilin bone punitajn. Mi trovis la truon jam farita. Tiam la jugxisto faros proceson en la jugxejo pro tiaj plendantoj. Mi vidos lin venkinto. Oni multe uzis la sonorilon. as well as after an intransitive verb (20): Sxi nomis sian filinon Mario. Mi lasis la knabon trankvilan. Mi trovis la jam faritan truon. etc. I shall see him a conqueror. Mi lasis ilin bone punitaj. la regxo. just-a = upright.). privilege. but remaining in the nominative case. he made the world happy (made-happy the world). Li anoncis ke cxiu plendanto pri maljusteco havos la rajton alvoki ("to summon") jugxiston per tiu sonorilo. I found the hole already made. as well as to the subject of an intransitive verb (19). klar-a = distinct. just. [Footnote: Cf. Oni elektis tiun reprezentanton. ia = some kind of (208). A noun may be used similarly in predicate relation after a transitive verb. Unufoje en malgranda urbeto ("town") en Italujo. An adjective may stand in predicate relation to the direct object of a transitive verb. laux la anonco . Mi trovis lin sxtelisto. Such a predicate adjective. I left the boy calm (undisturbed).] VOCABULARY anonc-i = to announce. [Footnote: Cf. the examples given and the following sentences using the same words in apposition (48) or attributive relation (13): Sxi nomis sian filinon Marion. to repair. kiun oni estis nominta Johano. agreeing in number (21) with the object of the verb. I left the calm boy. I left them well punished. indicates the result produced by the verb upon the object. Oni elektis tiun reprezentanto. I found him a thief.210. rajt-o = right. the difference between the examples given and sentences with the same words in an attributive (13) use: Dio faris la mondon felicxan.

212. por sin pasxti laux la vojo. kaj tuj la jugxisto auxdis la sonorilon klare sonoranta. 3. kaj gxia lasta uzinto okaze forrompis gxin. Li rapidis al la vendejo. When a laborer showed himself unkind to his wife and children. they could announce their sufferings by means of the convenient bell. ke la sxnurego ("rope") estis tute eluzita. la cxevalo ekrimarkis la brancxetojn kreskantajn sur la sxnurego de la sonorilo. Sammaniere. por mangxi ilin. and the bell immediately rang loudly and clearly. The horse almost upset the poles which supported (160) the roof over the bell of-justice. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Li pensis en si "Iu plendonto nun trovos gxin preta por esti uzata. sometime. It was some one's duty to give some sort of home to his horse. it seized the rope. kaj fine li forsendis ecx tiun. cxevaloj. la brancxetoj ne velkis. 6. kaj tiun li amegis. En la sama urbo logxis ricxulo kiu estis forvendinta preskaux cxiom de siaj domoj. Li ankoraux posedis nur unu maljunan cxevalon. People called it the bell of justice. 12. granda nombro da maljustuloj estis punata per gxia helpo. cxevaletoj. kaj riparis gxin per kelkaj brancxetoj de apuda arbo. 9. Tuj gxi kaptis la brancxetojn. I will not leave him alone ("trankvila"). cxevalidoj. . According to everyone's opinion. 11. 1. Sed iu preterpasinto vidis la duonon de la sxnurego kusxanta sur la tero. The indefinite temporal adverb. ever. Any one (173) had the right to use this bell. Because it wished to eat the green leaves. kaj por alvoki la jugxiston. 13. 2. but will show myself very severe. and it was grazing ("sin pasxtanta") along the road. la sonorilo tuj sonoris por anonci sxiajn suferojn. En la dauxro de la tago. The judge burst into a laugh as soon as he saw that sort of plaintiff standing there. sometime I will tell you the affair. 10. Regxo iam logxis tie. kaj kreskis kiel antauxe. 8. The man had driven away the horse. "I will find out whose horse that poor beast is. and will put a mark opposite the name of that man. 5. 4. once upon a time: Iam mi rakontos la aferon al vi. oni tiom uzis la sonorilon justecan. More often he saw human beings as plaintiffs. is "iam". The horse caught sight of the twigs with which a passer-by had mended the bellrope. Fine. Kiam okazis ke iu homo montris sin maljusta al alia. cxi tiu anoncis la aferon per la oportuna sonorilo. Li decidis puni la ricxulon cxar tiu cxi ne donis suficxe por mangxi al la maljuna militcxevalo." LESSON XLV. sed restis verdaj. any time. He decided that he would institute proceedings ("faros proceson") against the owner (205) of the horse. kaj lauxte ekridis kiam li vidis ies cxevalon tie. 7." Rimarkinde. cxar en sia maljuneco li amis nur la monon. The judge said. to announce any kind of injustice. THE INDEFINITE TEMPORAL ADVERB. hundoj kaj multekostaj vestoj. it is the duty of a just judge to punish evildoers and unjust persons. kaj multe da plendantoj ricevis justecon. instead of animals. related to the indefinite pronoun "iu". Kiam iu faris la edzinon la regxo.

he made the world glad. to bring together (from kun. moligi. beautiful). to astonish (from miri. The indefinite adverb of motive or reason. as: Li faris la mondon gxoja. mirigi. sweet). to beautify (from "bela". to know). 161). easy). 213. to put to sleep (from dormi. to wonder). to lengthen. mortigi. for certain reasons: Ial li ne riparis la tendon. to die). to make acquainted with (from koni. Li gxojigis la mondon. rendering or bringing about" of that which is expressed in the root or formation to which it is attached. to soften (from "mola". . related to the indefinite pronoun "iu". beligi. to heap up (from amaso. is "ial". prepositions. away). to do away with (from for. with). a. Causative verbs from verbal roots indicate that the action expressed in the root is made to take place: dormigi. EMPHASIS BY MEANS OF "JA". pile). to make longer (from "pli longa". kunigi. Verbs containing the suffix "-ig-" are called "causative verbs" and are always transitive (22). to kill (from morti. to render possible (-ebl-. to assuage (from "dolcxa". Cxu vi iam faris proceson kontraux li? Did you ever go to law against him? THE INDEFINITE ADVERB "IAL". adverbs. plilongigi. for some reason he did not repair the tent. soft).] b. longer). ebligi. to facilitate (from "facila". The suffix "-ig-" is used to form verbs indicating the "causing. 214. to sweeten. Causative verbs from adjectival roots indicate that the quality or condition expressed in the root is produced in the object of the verb: dolcxigi. to sleep). for some reason. forigi. for any reason. prefixes and suffixes whose meaning permits: amasigi. to unite. konigi.a king once (upon a time) dwelt there. to amass. c. faciligi. Causative verbs may be formed from noun-roots. Cxu vi opinias ke ial li maljuste suferas? Do you think that for any reason he is suffering unjustly? CAUSATIVE VERBS. he gladdened the world. [Footnote: The meaning often resembles that of the predicate nominative (210).

Li ne zorgas pri la libro. kaj tute ne estis dangxera. he is indeed an upright judge. dum la fratino atendis la bruegon de rompigita ligno. cxar iam la pezeco de unu persono estos tiom tro multe por veturilo sur malforta ponto!" Sed la timemaj petoj de lia fratino sxajne kolerigis la junulon. La invito gxojigis la knabinon. kaj li respondis malafable. Li gvidis la cxevalojn rekte trans la ponton. kaj tute malatentis sxiajn larmojn. kaj piede transiri la ponton.. "Nu. Sed pro la malafableco de la frato al la fratino. is expressed in Esperanto by placing the adverb "ja". tir-i = to draw. Tuj sxi pretigis sin por iri. kun eksalteto pro timo. both of which may be translated "not to care for": Li estas indiferenta al la libro. and by adverbs such as "certainly". Ne estos necese eksalti de gxi. he does not care about (is indifferent to) the book. VOCABULARY akompan-i = to accompany. he does not care for (take care of) the book. sed tiaj vortoj nur silentigis sxin. dangxer-o = danger. and "ne esti zorga". "indeed". he did have that right. kaj sxi respondis ke sxi kun plezuro akompanos la fraton. indeed. kaj ial la junulino estis treege timigita ("frightened"). 1." sxi ekkriis. ial = for some reason (213). "tiu ponto ja estas dangxera! Mi deziras marsxi trans gxin. "I did find it". kaj fine alvenis al ponto trans la rivero. Ili kredis gxin malnova kaj ne tre forta. to be indifferent. The emphatic form of the verb. kaj ili ekveturis.] CXE LA MALNOVA PONTO. not to be careful. Somewhere in that same town. malgraux la beleco de la vetero kaj de la kamparo. kred-i = to believe. etc. la ponto estis tiel forta kiel la junulo estis klariginta. indiferent-a = indifferent. gvid-i = to guide. Tamen la frato montris sin indiferenta al sxiaj timemaj sentoj. before the verb: Vi ja mirigas min! You do astonish me! Li ja estas justa jugxisto. there lived another youth.215. Iam logxis en nia urbeto junulo kiu havis afablan pli junan fratinon. I do not care whether he is coming or not. vi ja mirigas min! Vi montras vin tre malsagxa. Unu tagon en la dauxro de la bela printempa vetero la junulo invitis la fratinon veturi ien en veturilo tirata de du cxevaloj. who also had . Ili pasis preter pitoreskaj kampoj kaj arbaretoj. as in "I do study". kaj sxi komencis mallauxte ploreti. cxar la konstruintoj de tiu ponto certe faris gxin suficxe forta por tia veturilo kia la nia. aux ne. iam = sometimes (212). ja = indeed (215). salt-i = to leap." Tiamaniere li penis trankviligi la kompatindan knabinon. "Ho. to jump. kaj imagis ke sxi estas tuj mortigota. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. "Do tell me". the difference in meaning and use between "esti indiferenta". ili tute ne agrable pasigis la ceterajn horojn de la posttagmezo. "did". to pull. Estas indiferente al mi cxu li venos. expressed in English by "do". Li ja havis tiun rajton. kara frato. [Cf. Tamen.

rigardadi. and guided the horse across. is "iom".: frapadi. she will heat some water. Tiu metodo estas iomete dangxera. in some (any) manner: Mi penis vin iel gvidi tien. preceded by "keep (on)". related to the indefinite pronoun "iu". any quantity. the same as the girl in the other story. I will not delay ("atendigi") you long. to keep knocking. I will lead the horse across the bridge. two years ago she used to sing very sweetly. I will also pick ("kolektos") some sort of flowers. I tried somehow to guide you thither. 4. to keep visiting. among the flowers growing there. related to the indefinite pronoun "iu". that way is a little dangerous (198). haunt. habitual or repeated. she accompanied him for a ride in a vehicle drawn by a fast amiable sister. The indefinite adverb of manner. Then he said with a pleasant smile. and may often be translated by the root meaning. we shall announce the decision in some way. Antaux du jaroj sxi tre dolcxe kantadis. I am afraid that that bridge is dangerous. for I am not indifferent to your fear. She said "I do not intend to complain. and talked to each other very amiably. THE SUFFIX "-AD-". a. some. frequent. The indefinite adverb of quantity. while you walk across. "used to". Iel ni anoncos la decidon. 3. somehow. THE INDEFINITE ADVERB "IOM". in any way. One convenient day. to keep on looking. but you showed yourself a courteous brother. is "iel". 218. this girl also was frightened for some reason. to gaze." She replied. 217. to knock repeatedly. vizitadi. visit repeatedly. "It was not necessary to cross on foot. "That bridge is entirely safe ("nedangxera") but instead of explaining ("making-clear") to you about it. The suffix "-ad-" is used to form words indicating that the action expressed in the root is continuous. . Verbs formed with the suffix "-ad-" are called "frequentative verbs". "No. LESSON XLVI. 216." Then they rode on ("antauxen"). When they reached ("alvenis al") the bridge. 2. and were very patient." Then he helped his sister get out ("eliri") of the carriage." He replied. so I will jump out and walk. the string is somewhat too long. THE INDEFINITE ADVERB "IEL". but the carriage will certainly be too heavy while we are in it. a certain amount: Cxu vi havas iom da tempo? Have you some time? Sxi varmigos iom da akvo. La sxnuro estas iom tro longa. etc. near where someone's horses are grazing.

La gvidisto mem perdis la vojon. contemplation (from penso. Nouns formed with the suffix "-ad-" are often equivalent to English verbal nouns ending in "-ing". to forge. Hieron-o = Hiero. I myself shall accompany you. 40): Mi mem akompanos vin. kiam li okaze faris interesan eltrovon. pensado. (The combination of "mem" with personal pronouns must not be confused with reflexive pronouns. I shall give credence to the man himself. La promenado donas plezuron. a shot). or which it obviously modifies. motion. selves (219). a word spoken).b. kies nomo estis Arhximedo. . ne uzis cxiom de la oro donita al ili de la regxo. the men themselves defended themselves. shooting. Tamen. mem = self.). kron-o = crown. and lays stress upon the substantive which immediately precedes it. iom = some (217). lev-i = to lift. The invariable pronoun "mem". kompren-i = to understand. THE USE OF "MEM". 201) may replace the infinitive as subject (130) and sometimes as object (29): kriado. address (from parolo. to cast. La viroj mem defendis sin. a thought). ial sxajnis esti iomete pli multe da akvo en la banujo ol antauxe. to raise. pafado. nomita Hierono. kiuj estis tiel indiferentaj al la honesteco. Cxiutage li multe pensadis pri la afero. VOCABULARY Arhximed-o = Archimedes. shout). Tial li venigis grekan klerulon. sed falsadis gxin per la uzado de iu alia materialo. crying. lok-o = place. is intensive. Arhximedo certigis lin ke iel li ja eltrovos pri la falsado. she came herself to see you. or-o = gold. kiu estas sudokcidenta de Italujo. self. Iam bonekonata regxo. the taking of walks gives pleasure. Li estis jxus baninta sin. thought. a movement). gxis iu tago. ban-i = to bathe (trans. shouting (from krio. jxet-i = to throw. kiuj fabrikadis kronojn por li. Mi kredos al la viro mem. sed ju pli longe li pensadis. Hierono ne povis per si mem eltrovi cxu oni falsadas la oron. Mi preferas la legadon de tiaj libroj. ARHXIMEDO KAJ LA KRONOJ. vivadis en granda urbo en Sikelio. Gxi pendas sur la muro mem. honest-a = honest. and (with the generic article. selves. I caught a glimpse of the thief himself. Li suspektis ke iam la kronfaristoj. fusillade (from pafo. kaj rakontis al li sian timon pri la falsita oro. 219. des malpli sukcesaj estis liaj penoj. it hangs on the very wall (the wall itself). iel = somehow (216). the guide himself lost the way. I prefer the reading of (to read) such books. 39. kaj helpos la regxon kontraux la falsintoj. Sxi venis mem por vidi vin. movado. parolado. ide-o = idea. Sikeli-o = Sicily. kaj subite ekrimarkis ke dum li mem restis en la akvo. cry. Mi ekvidis la sxteliston mem. a speech. movement in general (from movo. fals-i = to debase.

nobody. tial li estis certa ke la oro en gxi estas multe falsita. . Archimedes assured the king that he would find out somehow about the matter. so he summoned a wise man from ("el") Greece. He could not of himself ("per si mem") discover whether they were debasing the gold in his crowns. everybody's affair is nobody's affair. 7. but kept some of it for themselves. Li havis neniun honestan serviston. Tia levado de la akvo per lia korpo donis al li sagxan ideon. In this manner ("tiamaniere") he understood how much each had been alloyed by the local ("lokaj") crown-makers. whom Hiero soon threw into prison ("la malliberejon")." Tiun saman vorton oni ankoraux nun uzadas en la angla lingvo. no one. 221. when he was bathing (himself). 12. 10. I found nobody ready to go. Oni diras ke kiam li eltrovis cxi tiun metodon por montri la falsadon de la malhonestaj kronfaristoj. Several centuries ago. nobody's. however. Li lauxdos nenies ideojn. "nenies". kaj zorge rimarkis al kiu alteco cxiu el ili levis la akvon. and noticed how much water each displaced. Li jxetis ilin unu post la alia en la banujon. Sometimes he was suspicious about the crown-makers who wrought ("faris") crowns for him. no one's: Cxies afero estas nenies afero. 8. out of the gold which he himself gave them. LESSON XLVII. he made clear his fears.Tuj li komprenis ke lia korpo estas forpusxinta iom de la akvo el gxia loko. THE NEGATIVE PRONOUN. and tried to discover a satisfactory ("kontentiga") method. he noticed that there seemed to be a little more water in the bathtub when he himself was in it. One day. with a medial "n" inserted for the sake of euphony): Neniu el vi komprenas min. 5. 1. The negative pronoun "neniu" has a possessive or genitive form. 220. whose name was Archimedes. lived in Sicily. The negative pronoun (and pronominal adjective) is "neniu". kiom antauxe estis en tiu loko kie li mem estas. kaj li prenis en la mano du aux tri orajn kronojn. To this well-informed man. no one of you understands me. 9." kiu estas la greka vorto por "mi estas trovinta. but for some reason he did not succeed. 11. He meditated several hours every day. no (formed of "ne" and "iu". 4. He wondered whether these men were honest. Li rimarkis ke cxi tiu ne tiel alten levis la akvon. he will praise no one's ideas. 6. The rising of the water gave him an idea. he had no honest servant. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Tiam li eltiris ilin. He suspected that perhaps ("eble") they did not use all of the gold which was given them. a rich and powerful ("multepova") king. kaj enmetis la kronon pri kiu Hierono estis plej suspektema. 2. He threw the crowns one after another into the water. 3. Mi trovis neniun preta por iri. than before. named Hiero. Li komprenis ke tiom da akvo estas elpusxita. li eksaltetis pro gxojo kaj ekkriis "euxreka.

Tiel helpate de vi. being sly. ni adiauxis lin. Punote. as in "la parolanta viro". li foriris". An adverbial participle is given the ending "-e": Gxojante. Baninte la infaneton. VOCABULARY brul-i = to be in flames. reiri = to go back. . being about to be punished. to burn. Li venis. li foriris. we bade him farewell. rekoni = to recognize. to reject. meaning either "again" or "back. English prefix "re-". cause. situation.THE ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLE. [Footnote: An adverbial clause modifies a verb. sxi dormigis gxin. to return. The prefix "re-" indicates the repetition of an action or state. manner. he came without being (came not-having-been) called. everyone watched him". li ekkriis. renovigi = to renew. because I was happy. they debased the gold. masxin-o = machine. "the work being finished. cxar la junulo estis juna. after bathing (having bathed) the baby. Ne parolinte. 222.] THE PREFIX "RE-". but also to an "adverbial" clause. anew. mi sukcesos. and indicates some relation of time. they did not complain. mi ridis". ili ne plendis. reveni = to come back. I shall succeed.") rekapti = to recapture. (having been) silenced by him. or the "return" of a person or thing to its original place or state. between the action of the participle and that of the main verb in the sentence. In such a sentence a clause must be used: "The youth being young. he left. I laughed. ree = again. I laughed. he went away". she put it to sleep. rebrili = to shine back. (Cf. without speaking (not having spoken). the man who-is-talking. A participle may be equivalent not only to a clause describing or determining the substantive modified. cxiu rigardadis lin. Estante ruzaj. being about to depart. to return. ne vokite. [Footnote: The adverbial participle must not be used in rendering the English "nominative absolute" construction of a participial clause referring to something else than the subject. reteni = to hold back. rejxeti = to throw back. to reflect.. "la sendota knabo". Silentigite de li. etc. gxis la revido = au revoir. he went away.] Such a participle has for its subject the subject of the verb in the sentence (though not in attributive or predicate relation with it). to retain. ili falsis la oron. 223. while you waited. thus helped by you. "cxar mi gxojis. he gave a cry. rejoicing. the boy who-will-be-sent. mi ridis. as in "dum vi atendis. kiam la lahoro estis finita. Forironte. li foriris.

king of Syracuse. Longe studadinte la problemojn de la geometrio kaj de la fiziko. detru-i = to destroy. Eble neniu greka klerulo estis pli fama ol la filozofo Arhximedo. as the latter might be confused with the use of "kiel". li faris multe da eltrovoj. sur la insulo Sikelio. oni povis facile pusxi al la akvo la sxipojn (necese konstruitajn sur la tero). 6. kun multe da laboro. There is another anecdote. the Syracusans were able to set on fire the wooden ships of the enemy. kiujn antauxe la viroj mem enpusxis en la akvon. LA FILOZOFO ARHXIMEDO. nenies = nobody's (221). and heats the wood upon which it shines. insul-o = island.cilindr-o = cylinder. fizik-o = physics. 7.] SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. iel rekoninte la elpensinton de la spegulmasxino. aux tiris tien per cxevaloj. 10. 9. estis multe timigitaj. jxetis lin en la maron aux alimaniere lin mortigis. fam-a = famous. The enemy. but even today his name is well known everywhere. sed eble la malamikoj. however. Having discovered how ("kiamaniere") the sunlight is reflected by a mirror. Li tiel multe komprenis pri la uzado de la levilo ("lever") ke oni rakontas la sekvantan rakonteton pri li: Li diris al la regxo Hierono "Kiam oni donos al mi lokon sur kiu mi povos stari. meaning "as" (156). No one understood better the properties of the cylinder and the screw. The Greek philosopher Archimedes was not only famous long ago. la malamikoj kaptis kaj tute detruis la urbon Sirakuzon. 2. problem-o = problem. Post iom da tempo. li elpensis diversajn masxinojn en kiuj sxrauxboj kaj cilindroj estas iamaniere kunigitaj. 1. b. 3. Vidinte ke la sunlumo rebrilas de spegulo. that with a lever he would move the world. Cxi tiuj. among his contemporaries (167. 5. kaj centoj da personoj estis mortigataj. namely ("nome"). and having meditated a great deal about them. spegul-o = mirror. 132). ne komprenante kiamaniere* la sxipoj ekbrulis. as soon as he had a place on which he himself could stand. and sent them back to attack the city again. having captured the city. Uzante unu el tiuj masxinoj. Uzante alian masxinon elpensitan de tiu greko. Oni ne scias per kia morto Arhximedo mortis. and killed a large number of the inhabitants . that he remarked to Hiero. Having studied these properties a long time. The story about the debasing of the gold crowns has already been told. he invented a machine made out of mirrors. they destroyed it. li faris el speguloj masxinon per kiu li ekbruligis ("set on fire") la sxipojn de la malamikoj. neniu = no one (220). No one's knowledge about the problems of geometry and physics was greater. oni povis levi akvon de unu loko al alia. mi mem ekmovos la mondon per mia levilo!" Zorge ekzameninte la ecojn (202) de la sxrauxbo kaj de la cilindro. Arhximedo elpensis diversajn masxinojn por helpi la Sirakuzanojn. Aided by this machine. were not repulsed from the island. he understood them a little (217) better than any one else ("iu alia"). Sirakuz-o = Syracuse. sxrauxb-o = screw. how) is preferable to that of "kiel" in indirect questions. filozof-o = philosopher. Nenies domo restis netusxita. [Footnote: The use of "kiamaniere" (in what manner. Sed ecx helpite de Arhximedo la Sirakuzanoj ne venkis. Finally. Ankoraux nun oni nomas tian masxinon la "sxrauxbo de Arhximedo. 4. but at once rebuilt and repaired their ships. 8." En la dauxro de granda militado kontraux la urbo Sirakuzo.

("logxantoj"), also Archimedes himself.

LESSON XLVIII. THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE. 224. The negative adjective, related to the negative pronoun "neniu," is "nenia", no kind of, no sort of, expressing a negative idea concerning the quality of a person or thing: Mi havas nenian spegulon, I have no sort of mirror. Nenia problemo estas tro malfacila por li, no sort of problem is too difficult for him. THE NEGATIVE ADVERB OF PLACE. 225. The negative adverb of place is "nenie", nowhere. The ending "-n" may be added, as to other adverbs (121), to indicate direction: Nenie estas pli bona masxino, nowhere is there a better machine. Mi iros nenien morgaux, I shall go nowhere tomorrow. THE NEGATIVE TEMPORAL ADVERB. 226. The negative adverb of time is "neniam", never, at no time: Neniam vivis pli fama filozofo, there never lived a more famous philosopher. Vi neniam trovos tiajn sxrauxbojn aux cilindrojn, you will never find that kind of screws or cylinders. THE SUFFIX "-AJX-". 227. The suffix "-ajx-" is used to form "concrete" words. It is thus in contrast to the abstract-forming suffix "-ec-" (202). a. A word formed from a verbal root by means of the suffix "-ajx-" expresses a concrete example of "a thing which undergoes" (or, in the case of intransitives, "results from") the action indicated in the root: konstruajxo = a building. kreskajxo = a plant, a growth. sendajxo = consignment, thing sent. rebrilajxo = a reflection. mangxajxo = food. restajxo = remainder. b. A word formed from an adjectival root or formation by means of the suffix "-ajx-" indicates "a thing characterized by" or "possessing the quality" expressed in the root or formation to which it is attached: belajxo = a thing of beauty. maljustajxo = an injustice. mirindajxo = a marvel. okazintajxo = an occurrence.

c. A word formed from a noun-root by means of the suffix "-ajx-" indicates "a thing made" or "derived from" that which is expressed in

the root: sukerajxo = a sweet, confection. ovajxo = an omelet. orajxo = a gold object. araneajxo = a spider-web.

THE ADVERB "JEN". 228. The adverb "jen", behold, here, there, is used to point out or call attention to something: Jen estas la problemo! There is the problem! Jen la filozofo! Behold the philosopher! Jen sxi ludas, jen sxi studas, now she plays, now she studies. Mi faris gxin jene, I did it as follows. Mi agis laux la jena metodo, I acted in the following way. Li diris la jenajn vortojn, he spoke the following words. VOCABULARY arangx-i = to arrange. art-o = art. ber-o = berry. jen = there, behold (228). jxaluz-a = jealous. konkurs-o = competition. lert-a = skilled, clever. nenia = no kind of (224). neniam = never (226). nenie = nowhere (225). pentr-i = to paint. postul-i = to demand. precip-a = principal, chief. regul-o = rule. tromp-i = to deceive. vin-o = wine.

DU ARTKONKURSOJ. Vivadis en Grekujo antaux multaj jarcentoj du lertaj famaj pentristoj. Ili estis reciproke jxaluzaj, kaj neniam povis interparoli paceme. Ne povinte decidi la problemon, kaj eltrovi kiu el ili estas la plej lerta, ili fine arangxis konkurson pri la pentrado. Laux gxiaj reguloj, cxiu el ili pentris pentrajxon, por montri sian lertecon. Unu pentris teleron da vinberoj ("grapes"). Gxi estis tiel mirinde kolorigita ke ecx la birdoj venis kaj penis gxin mangxi, pensinte gxin ne nur pentrajxo, sed la vinberoj mem. "Nenia pentrajxo povos superi la mian," gxojege ekkriis la pentristo, "jen, la birdoj mem rekonas mian lertecon!" Tiam li diris al la alia artisto, "Nu, kial vi ne fortiras tiun kurtenon? Mi volas rigardi vian pentrajxon." La dua pentristo respondis kun rideto, "Jen estas mia pentrajxo. Nenie apud vi estas kurteno, sed vi vidas nur pentrajxon de kurteno antaux tiu konstruajxo." Tre mirigite, la pentrinto de la vinberoj diris "Vi ja superas min en la pentrado. Mi trompis la birdojn per mia pentrajxo, sed vi trompas ecx aliajn artistojn! Tia lerteco estas ja mirindajxo!" Oni rakontas similan okazintajxon pri fama artisto kiu pentris multe da pentrajxoj por Aleksandro Granda. Malgajninte en konkurso kontraux iuj aliaj artistoj, li opiniis ke la jugxintoj estas maljustaj al li, precipe pro la jxaluzeco. Li ekkriis "Cxar niaj pentrajxoj estas bildoj de cxevaloj, ili certe postulas cxevalajn jugxantojn!" Tial oni enkondukis du aux tri cxevalojn. La cxevaloj, tute ne rigardinte la pentrajxojn de la aliaj artistoj, kuris rekte al tiu de la plendinta artisto, kaj klare montris sian rekonadon de la tie pentritaj cxevaloj. Surprizite, oni diris "Jen estas justaj jugxantoj!" Tuj oni lauxdis la pentriston kaj severe punis la malhonestajn homajn jugxintojn.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION 1. Syracuse was the largest city on the island of Sicily. 2. The famous philosopher and physicist Archimedes lost his life when that city was destroyed and entirely burned. 3. At least, no sort of trace of him seems to have been found after that occurrence. 4. Never, perhaps, was there a more learned man in Syracuse. 5. Greece was also famous for its skilled painters, and there are many anecdotes about them. 6. A painter who failed in a certain competition believed that none of the judges had been just to him. 7. He exclaimed "Behold this iniquity (injustice)! Nowhere can I find a human being who is not jealous. 8. Since the paintings are chiefly of horses, do they not require horses for judges?" 9. His proposal was accepted (54), and some horses were led in. 10. Without noticing (222) the other paintings, the horses walked at once to the picture of the unsuccessful artist, and showed immediate recognition of the horses painted there. 11. This act showed which competitor ("konkursinto") was the most skilful. 12. The painter, having deceived the horses, as another artist had once deceived birds by a picture of grapes, said "Animals decide not by rules, but by feelings."

LESSON XLIX. THE NEGATIVE ADVERBS "NENIAL", "NENIEL", "NENIOM". 229. The negative adverb of motive or reason, related to the negative pronoun "neniu", is "nenial", for no reason: Li estas nenial jxaluza, he is jealous for no reason. Nenial li trompis vin, for no reason he deceived you. 230. The negative adverb of manner is "neniel", in no way. Mi povos neniel arangxi konkurson, I can in no way arrange a competition. Tiu ago estas neniel lauxregula, That act is in no way regular. 231. The negative adverb of quantity is "neniom", no amount of, not any, none, no: Tiu pentrajxo postulas neniom da lerteco, such a painting requires no skill. Estas neniom da vino en lia glaso, there is no wine in his glass. THE SUFFIX "-IGX-". 232. The suffix "-igx-" is used to form intransitive verbs of an "inchoative" nature. a. Inchoative verbs from the roots of "intransitive verbs" indicate the "beginning" or "coming into existence" of the act or condition expressed in the root:

sidigxi, to become sitting, to sit down, to take a seat. starigxi, to become standing, to stand up. b. Intransitive verbs may be similarly formed from the roots of "transitive" verbs, and indicate an action of the verb not immediately due to the subject's acting upon itself (as in the case of reflexive verbs, 41) and not caused by any direct agency (as in the case of the passive voice, 169): La pordo fermigxas, the door closes (goes shut). La veturilo movigxas, the vehicle moves. La brancxo rompigxas, the branch breaks. Grupo da personoj kolektigxis, a group of persons gathered. [Footnote: Cf. the examples given and the following sentences in which the same verbal roots are used in the simple form and in the passive voice: Ni fermas la pordon, we close the door. La pordo estas fermita, the door is (has been) closed.

Oni movas la veturilon, La veturilo estas movata, they move the vehicle. the vehicle is being moved. Mi rompas la brancxon, I break the branch. Li kolektis florojn, he gathered flowers. La brancxo estas rompita, the branch is (has been) broken. Floroj estas kolektitaj, flowers have been gathered.]

c. Intransitive verbs may similarly be formed from "adjectival" roots, and indicate the acquiring of the characteristic or quality expressed in the root: lacigxi, to become tired, to get tired. varmigxi, to become warm, to get warm. maljunigxi, to become old, to age. d. Verbs may similarly be formed from noun-roots, adverbs, prepositions, prefixes and suffixes whose meaning permits: amikigxi, to become a friend. kunigxi, to become joined. forigxi, to go away, to disappear. ebligxi, to become possible. VOCABULARY apenaux = hardly, scarcely. atmosfer-o = atmosphere. dub-i = to doubt. efektiv-a = effective, real. hel-a = clear, bright. horizont-o = horizon. krepusk-o = twilight. nenial = for no reason (229). neniel = in no way (230). neniom = none, no (231). ombr-o = shadow. pejzagx-o = landscape. radi-o = ray. tropik-a = tropical.

LA KREPUSKO. Estas tre agrable sidigxi sur la herbon, kaj rigardi la plilongigxantajn ombrojn, en la dauxro de bela somera vespero. La suno grade mallevigxas

post la montetoj, la nuboj farigxas ("become") bele kolorigitaj, kaj la tuta pejzagxo pli kaj pli beligxas. Malrapide la krepusko anstatauxas la helan sunlumon, kaj fine cxie noktigxas. La krepusko estas la rebrilado de la sunlumo tra la atmosfero, post la mallevigxo de la suno mem, laux la jena maniero: la radioj suprenbriladas, en la aeron super niaj kapoj, en la okcidenta parto de la cxielo. De tie ili rebriladas tiamaniere ke la cxielo lumigxas. Kiam estas iom da nuboj sur la cxielo okcidenta, la sunradioj briladas rekte kontraux ilin, belege kolorigante tiujn nubojn. En tropikaj landoj la krepuskigxo okazas tre rapide. Gxi ne nur komencigxas subite, sed ankaux dauxras tre mallongan tempon. La noktigxo preskaux tuj sekvas la taglumon, kun rimarkinda subiteco. Apenaux komencigxas la krepusko, kiam la subiranta suno sxajnas fali preter la horizonto. Tute male ("quite on the contrary"), en landoj treege nordaj, krepuskigxas tre frue en la tago, kaj la krepusko dauxras longan tempon antaux ol la nokto venas. Efektive ("really"), en tiuj landoj la krepusko tute anstatauxas la nokton, dum ses monatoj de la jaro. Tie oni havas krepuskon dum la unua duonjaro, kaj la taglumon dum la sekvinta duonjaro. Krepusko dauxranta tiom da tempo estas tiel rimarkinda kiel tago de tia sama longeco. Mi dubas cxu tia dividado de la tempo inter tago kaj malhela nokto estas agrabla, sed oni povas neniel malhelpi gxin. Cxiu tre norda lando havas la saman travivajxon ("experience"), cxiujare, kaj efektive oni apenaux rimarkas gxin. Pri cxiu plendanto oni nur diras "Li estas nenial malkontenta." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. of ("pri") the two painters who, being mutually (180) jealous, arranged a competition. 2. One painted a cluster (126) of grapes, so excellently that the birds flew to it. 3. The other deceived his rival (competitor) himself, by a painting of a curtain. 4. The most famous artists, however, often show their skill by painting (222) pictures of the sunset, chiefly, I think, because of the brilliant colors. 5. In fact ("efektive"), I doubt whether there is a more beautiful sight (227, b) than the sunset. 6. It is made by the bright rays of the sun, which shine back through the atmosphere, long after the sun itself has passed below the horizon. 7. The more moisture ("malsekajxo") there is in the air, the more brilliant the colors are, and the more beautiful the entire landscape becomes. 8. In tropical lands, night falls very suddenly, and there is almost no sort of twilight. 9. In fact, a twilight scarcely occurs there. 10. In the lands far north, on the contrary, the twilight lasts six months, and the remainder of the year is the day. 11. To dwell in such a land is surely a remarkable experience. 12. It can in no way be understood by persons who have never lived there. 13. Such things increase (make greater) my desire to visit those northern lands. 14. For no reason, however, do I

LESSON L. THE PRONOUNS ENDING IN "-O". 233. In contrast to the pronouns ending in "-u" ("tiu", "kiu", "cxiu", "iu", "neniu"), a similar series ending in "-o" refers to an object, fact or action not definitely specified (but never to a person), like English "what, anything, something, nothing," etc. Because of their somewhat vague meaning, these pronouns do not occur in the plural, nor are they ever used as pronominal adjectives:

A pronoun (not personal) in predicate or relative relation to a pronoun ending in "-o" must itself be of the same series: Kio estas cxi tio. estas farita de ili. CORRELATIVE WORDS. something. Indefinite: io = anything. as tiom (104) kiom (164) . are called "correlatives". so Interrogative Distributive Indefinite Negative and Relative kio (233) what. interrogatives. 234. 235. cxi tio = this (thing. kion vi vidas. and may be summarized as follows: Demonstrative tio (233) that (thing) tiu (56) that (one) ties (62) that one's tia (65) that kind of tie (68) there tiam (73) then tial (78) therefore. he has something for you. Li havas ion por vi.Demonstrative: tio = that (thing. fact or action). Pronouns. everything here (all this). relatives. kion vi diras? What is this. she saw that which just occurred. which you say? Sxi vidis tion. each any (one) no (one) cxies (174) ies (204) nenies(221) every one's any one's no one's ia (208) any kind ie (209) anywhere iam (212) any time ial (213) for any reason iel (216) any way iom (217) nenia (224) no kind of nenie (225) nowhere neniam (226) never nenial (229) for no reason neniel (230) in no way neniom (231) kia (150) cxia (177) what kind of every kind kie (151) where kiam (155) when kial (129) wherefore. Interrogative and Relative: kio = what. etc. which are related to each other as corresponding demonstratives. In Esperanto the correlative system is more complete than in any other language. Negative: nenio = nothing. but nothing for me. adjectives and adverbs. kio jxus okazis. Cxio cxi. why cxie (182) everywhere cxiam (187) always cxial (188) for every reason cxiel (193) every way cxiom (194) tiel (88).. so how. was done by them. which you see. sed nenion por mi. fact or action). Distributive: cxio = everything. which kies (147) whose cxio (233) everything io (233) anything nenio (233) nothing cxiu (173) iu (203) neniu (220) every. which kiu (146) who. cxio cxi = all this. kiel (156) (156) thus.

kiu povos iel ajn malligi tiun ligajxon. klin-i = to bend. reg-i = to rule. Ne sciante kion fari. Alveninte tien. jxus post la tagigxo. La dioj respondis. The word "ajn" may be placed after any interrogative-relative or indefinite correlative word. LA GORDIA LIGAJXO. THE SUFFIX "-ING-". Post kelkaj jaroj Aleksandro Granda decidis fari grandan militadon kontraux Azio. kio = what (233). Unufoje en antikva tempo la regatoj de iu regxolando en Azio ne havis regxon. ia ajn = any kind whatever. to bind. Kiam li demandis. kies ajn = whosesoever. Gordio = Gordius. kiam ajn = whenever. La regatoj tuj rekonis la estontan regxon. "ajn" is "never attached" to the correlative which it follows: kio ajn = whatever. tio = that (thing) (233). socket. to give a generalizing sense. holy. li zorge rigardadis la ligajxon. 237. "Kiu ajn venos unue en nian sanktan templon hodiaux. sankt-a = sacred. Post la morto de Gordio oni grade komencis kredi ion tre interesan pri tio. The suffix "-ing-" is used to form words indicating that which holds "one" specimen of what is expressed in the root: glavingo = scabbard. Gordio metis en la templon la veturilon mem sur kiu li tien veturis. kiom ajn = however much. lumingo = torch-holder. ili demandis de la dioj. Salutinte la surprizitan kamparanon. Kompreneble ("of course") Aleksandro deziris fari ion ajn utilan por venki Azion. so much how much. por fari oferojn. kion oni diras pri la sxnurega ligajxo sur la veturilo de Gordio. kaj alproksimigxis al la lando kie estis reginta Gordio. lig-i = to tie. to govern. Decidinte fari dankoferon al la dioj. the whole of some." Okaze kamparano nomita Gordio venis al la templo. oni nomis lin regxo. VOCABULARY cxio = everything (233). kaj ekzamenis la sxnuregon el kiu gxi estis farita.that much. templ-o = temple. tial li tuj venigis gvidiston por konduki lin al la templo. "Kio estas cxi tie la plej interesa vidindajxo?" oni rakontis al li tion. util-a = useful. any amount none. farigxos reganto super cxiuj regxoj de Azio. kvankam li veturis sur peza malbela veturilo. Tiam. estos via regxo. kie ajn = wherever. In order to avoid confusion with the accusative plural ending. . La jugo estis alligita ("tied fast") per granda ligajxo el sxnurego. plumingo = pen-holder. as all. incline (trans). Oni diris ke tiu. io = anything (233). antaux ol li komencis regi kiel la nova regxo. no quantity THE USE OF "AJN". 236. ofer-o = offering. nenio = nothing (233). case. jug-o = yoke. ingo = sheath.

3. but at least the story is interesting. they both came to the temple. "Li trancxis la gordian ligajxon. Perhaps the conquering of Asia did not in any way become possible on account of this. "both . both. Then he chose another method.". both made offerings to the gods." (26).. "Nenio estas pli facila ol tio. Having done this. 7. A tropical twilight is very short.. however. and also with both the . he had become tired. 1. THE PRONOUN "AMBAUX". It was said that whoever would be able to untie that rope would no doubt become ruler over the whole of Asia. he at once had a guide come. having no patience. Some verbs may be used in the simple form. translated "both" in the combination "kaj ." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Having heard the story. approached the city where this temple was. A wagon whose yoke was tied to the pole by a large knot had been put in the middle of the temple.. 8. Ambaux faris oferojn al la dioj. 238." Pro tio. 9. 18. kaj . 11. by whose help Gordius had in olden time become king. 14. kiam iu ajn superas malfacilajxon per kia ajn subita metodo. and the shadows have scarcely become long when the sun seems to sink suddenly below the horizon. 13.. The pronoun (and pronominal adjective) "ambaux". He seized his sword. instead of continuing ("dauxrigi") his efforts to untie the knot. [Footnote: This pronoun must not be confused with the use of "kaj". 17. One often hears the remark "I will cut the Gordian knot. whatever actually ("efektive") happened. Nothing is impossible. he bent over and tried for a few minutes to untie it. Alexander the Great. 16. 4. mi prenis la ambaux. oni ankoraux nuntempe diras. He desired to do everything which was useful to the conquering of Asia.elpreninte sian glavon el la glavingo. subite klinigxante li rekte tratrancxis la tutan ligajxon. such as part of Asia is. In a tropical country. There is an interesting story about this. 5. kion faris Aleksandro Granda." li diris." 2. This he did. 239. the landscapes are beautiful. It was a thank-offering to the sacred gods. "kaj nun mi ne dubas cxu mi certe regos super cxiuj regxoj de Azio. guided by him. Vidante kaj la plumon kaj la plumingon. and went thither.. 12. LESSON LI. having begun a campaign against Asia. 15. seeing both the pen and the penholder. and suddenly cut through the whole knot. and . whenever one tries enough.] FORMATIONS WITH "-IG-" AND "-IGX-". 10... 6. In fact. Having examined the knot carefully. indicates two persons or things considered together. he put the sword back into the scabbard. I took both.. although the last bright rays continue to shine back through the atmosphere for a few minutes. It is invariable in form: Ili ambaux venis al la templo.

li ploras. past or future time: Se li vidas tion. FACTUAL CONDITIONS. azen-o = ass. propr-a = own. mute. he will already have been punished. dors-o = back. esti sidigata = to be caused to sit. if he sees that. li foriros morgaux. being transitive.suffix "-ig-" and the suffix "-igx-". Se li vidis tion. to silence. to go to bed. donkey. A conditional sentence consists of two parts. if he sees that. sidigxi = to become sitting. to become erect. silenti = to be silent. The assumption is a clause (introduced usually by the conjunction "se". ben-i = to bless. may also be used in the passive: sidi = to sit. VOCABULARY ambaux = both (238). petol-a = mischievous. LA MONAHXOJ KAJ LA AZENO. kusxi = to lie. to be standing. esti kusxigita = to be laid. li ploris. se = if. he weeps (is weeping). if he has seen that. to erect. he will weep. se li vidos tion. one's own. an "assumption" and a "conclusion". orel-o = ear. silentigi = to cause to be silent. to be lying. esti silentigita = to be silenced. if he has been captured. "if") which assumes something as true or realized. turment-i = to torment. li nun ploras. if that is going to be seen. esti starigita = to be raised. starigi = to raise. spir-i = to breathe. sidigi = to cause to sit. to cause to stand up. li estos jam punita. Se tio estas vidota. "Factual conditions" (conditions of fact) may deal with the present. silentigxi = to become silent. he will go away tomorrow. halt-i = to stop (intrans. Se li estas vidinta tion. if he came yesterday. monahx-o = monk. The conclusion is a statement whose truth or realization depends upon the truth or realization of the assumption. he is going to be punished.). Li ploros. 240. . to stand up. stari = to stand. li estas punota. Se li estas kaptita. to be sitting. he now is weeping. and the formation with "-ig-". starigxi = to rise. to lay. if he saw that. kusxigxi = to lie down. form-o = form. he wept. to be erected. Se li venis hieraux. Thus from one verb-root three verbs of distinct meaning may be made. mut-a = dumb. kusxigi = to cause to lie. to take a seat. to seat.

The credulous (192) peasant believed everything which was told (54) him. Mi jxus rericevis mian propran formon. "Cxar mi estis tro mangxema. which expresses the verbal idea in a general way. they immediately chose the first comer ("la unuan veninton") king. If you will take-a-seat. had scarcely arrived when he drew (out) his sword from the scabbard. Li ekvidis sian propran azenon. One led the long-eared dumb animal away. la dua monahxo sin ligis per la sama sxnurego kiu antauxe tenis la azenon. they untied it. diris "Ho. vidante homon tie ligita. "If any one soever can untie that knot. 8. ancient times. 11. ili jxetis la sakojn trans la dorson de la utila besto. kaj baldaux lacigxis. mi havos portanton por miaj propraj sakoj. klinigxinte al la besto. se la azeno portos miajn sakojn. li ekhaltis. sed ne sciis kion fari. Ambaux portis pezajn sakojn da terpomoj. Tiam la kamparano iris vendejon. while the other tied himself in its own place. por acxeti alian azenon. 241. bona monahxo. haltinte. 10. sed kasxe ridante pri la afero. 12. All verbs given so far have been in the "indicative mood". 5. That indication of the speaker's frame of mind which is given by the form of the verb is called the "mood" of the verb. . Having noticed a donkey near by. 9. mi vidas ke duan fojon vi jam estis tro mangxema!" La muta besto forte svingis la orelojn kaj skuis la kapon. 4. beninte la kamparanon. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. People soon began to say. dum ambaux viroj lauxte ridis. which consisted of something out of his own possessions (227." Lia kunulo respondis "Nu. Dio faris azenon el mi. Gordius did not offer to the gods merely the yoke of his wagon. 6. Post tio. 3. kaj la sekvintan tagon li foriris. tuj farite ("no sooner said than done")." Tuj la kredema kamparano invitis la petolan monahxon al sia hejmo. and stopped to rest. diris petole al la alia "Se vi anstatauxos la beston. kaj unu monahxo. but the whole wagon. kredante la azenon la sankta monahxo mem. Tio sxajne estis respondo al la jxus diritaj vortoj. 13. kies azeno estis jxus sxtelita. kiun la unua monahxo estis sendinta tien. resembling that of a substantive. tial la malsagxa kamparano ree acxetis sian propran azenon. pro la varma elspirajxo apud sia orelo. A knot of rope was tied between the yoke and the pole. Alexander. they failed. dum grade krepuskigxis. which represents an act or state as a reality or fact. 2." Jxus dirite. and cut the knot. Both were breathing with difficulty. Malliginte la ligajxojn kiuj tenis la azenon. he will become ruler of Asia. Kiam revenis la kamparano. though ("tamen"). or in the "infinitive mood". antaux du jaroj. a). THE CONDITIONAL MOOD. returning to the monastery. La malsagxa kamparano. If the gods informed ("sciigis") them that whatever man would come to the temple first would become their king. post sia reveno al la monahxejo. La monahxo restis tiun nokton cxe la kamparano. If any other men tried to untie that rope. they usually asked the sacred gods about it. Okaze ili ekvidis azenon ligitan al arbo. kaj ankaux por la viaj. LESSON LII. La monahxo anoncis al li." 7. mi mem gxoje restos en gxia loko. I will tell you about the two mischievous monks.Iam du monahxoj reiris tra la arbaro al la monahxejo. multe mirigite. Whoever was chosen king made the blessed gods a thank-offering. Cxiam poste li nek turmentis nek ecx laborigis gxin. Unu monahxo tuj forkondukis la azenon.

the mischievous youth would torment the monk. li (sxi. se mi povus. you would see. 242. if I could. I should have been seen. and the conditional mood is used in both the assumption and the conclusion: Se li vidus tion. he would weep. 244. Mi gxoje helpus vin. gxi portus ilin. serving thus to soften or make vague the statement or question in which it is used: . Past: mi estus vidinta. but merely expresses the speaker's idea of its likelihood or certainty. I should be seeing. COMPOUND TENSES OF THE CONDITIONAL MOOD. li estus punata. li plorus. ili vidus. gxi) vidus. they would see. if he should return. if you should put them on the donkey's back.). LESS VIVID CONDITIONS. Future: mi estus vidonta. I should be about to be seen. we should see. I should see. Past: mi estus vidita. it) would see. The conditional mood may be used in a conclusion whose assumption is merely implied. he (she. A synopsis of "vidi" in these compound tenses is as follows: Active Voice. the conditional mood has three active and three passive compound tenses. if he should be caught. Future: mi estus vidota. Present: mi estus vidanta. you would see. The ending of the conditional mood is "-us". Se vi metus ilin sur la dorson de la azeno. se li revenus. In addition to the aoristic tense. I should have seen. in contrast to factual conditions (240). Present: mi estus vidata. formed by combining the participles with the aoristic tense of "esti" in the conditional mood. not with actual facts. I would gladly help you. I should be about to see. The conjugation of "vidi" in the aoristic tense of the conditional mood is as follows: mi vidus. 243. Se li estus kaptata. if he should see that. vi vidus. vi vidus.The "conditional mood" does not indicate whether or not the act or state mentioned is a fact. which are "vivid". I should be seen. ni vidus. he would be punished. Passive Voice. INDEPENDENT USE OF THE CONDITIONAL MOOD. or is used in an assumption or conclusion dealing with suppositions. it would carry them. A conditional sentence dealing with "suppositions" concerning events in present or future time is called a "less vivid condition" ("Less vivid". because they deal with facts. La petola junulo turmentus la monahxon.

kontrauxe. baldaux disflugus de la rapide turnigxanta mondo. flu-i = to flow. la riveroj ne plu fluus antauxen en siaj fluejoj ("beds"). disigi = to separate (trans. la malsekajxo en la aero ankoraux restus tie. kie ajn gxi okaze estus. [Footnote: The adverb "plu" gives an idea of continuance to the word which it modifies. same kiel la tero." etc. the two together give an idea of cessation concerning a previous continuous act or state: "Ambaux parolos plu morgaux". [Footnote: Cf. per okaza ekrigardo al falantaj pomoj en sia propra pomarbejo.). en la formo de densaj mallumaj cxiamaj nuboj. la akvo disfluus. Cxu vi bonvole dirus al mi? Would you kindly tell me? Kiu volus enspiri tian aeron? Who would wish to inhale such air? Estus bone reteni vian propran. kauxz-i = to cause. La cxielo vin benus pro tio. kiu studadis la kialon ("reason") de la falado de objektoj. nenio restus plu sur la tero. dissendi = to send around. disigxi = to separate (intrans.). Cxiuj vivaj estajxoj ("beings"). Neniom da pluvo falus.] VOCABULARY cxes-i = to cease. aux restus tie. gravit-i = to gravitate. sed gxi ankaux forlasus la mondon. disigxo = separation. Se la gravitado cxesus ekzisti. Ne fluante de altaj gxis malaltaj lokoj. tuj maldensigxinte ("having become rarefied"). cxar ili ambaux. Cxiuj cxi ("all these") nun devas resti sur la tero. laux la rakonto.Mi gxoje helpus vin. "disseminate".). When used with "ne". The prefix "dis-" indicates separation or movement in several different directions at once: disdoni = to distribute. Pro tiu forto ne nur objektoj sur la tero. movigxas laux tiu sama gravitado kiu efektive regas cxiujn el la cxielaj korpoj. objekt-o = object. schism. I shall not stop (any) more. dens-a = dense. legx-o = law. plu = further. the English prefix "dis-" in "disperse". I would gladly help you. 1. 245. both will talk further tomorrow. Tia pezeco estas kauxzata de la forto kiun oni nomas la gravitado. havas konatan pezecon. dispeli = to dispel. ekzist-i = to exist. Antaux tri jarcentoj. kiun la kleruloj jam antaux longe kalkulis. La fama angla filozofo Newton estis la unua. La aero mem ne plu cxirkauxus nin. it would be well to keep your own. THE PREFIX "DIS-". turn-i = to turn (trans. he no longer seemed mute. La suno kaj la luno simile havas pezecon. "Mi ne plu haltos". "Li ne plu sxajnis muta". more. difin-i = to define. Li komencis. li eltrovis ke estas tia forto kia la . sed ankaux la tero mem. Se la gravitado ne plu ekzistus. to leave off.] PRI LA GRAVITADO. Heaven would bless you for that. efektive cxio. tial ke la gravitado restigas ilin cxi tie. cxiuj konstruajxoj. "distribute. natur-o = nature. Ofte oni parolas pri la pezeco de diversaj objektoj.

Nothing on earth would remain here very long. Soon. kaj tial ni ofte deziras halti kaj ripozi. 11. 8. But gradually the moisture and the air itself. without moving at all ("tute ne movante"). 7. it would not have rained. he stood still ("ekhaltis") and began to wonder why they fall. noticing the falling apples.gravitado. or would remain there. the moisture would remain above our heads in eternal clouds. cxar gxi faras nin pezaj. Finally he recognized that force which is called gravitation. 6. gravitado ne ekzistus. If gravitation should not exist any more. LESSON LIII. kiu restigas cxion sur la tero. It expresses the speaker's certainty that an act or state would have been realized. the earth itself would break-into-pieces (245). the moisture had not condensed. CONDITIONS CONTRARY TO FACT. . malsekajxo ne estus densigxinta. The water in the rivers would leave off flowing (cease to flow) on toward the sea. He watched various falling objects. Cxi tiu forto. 2. he had been caught. would fly away from the earth. and. you had turned. 10. also. 246. in fact. 1. and tried to calculate their velocity ("rapideco"). but instead of condensing. he were (if he should be) sitting there. vi estus vidinta tion. He studied the cause of their falling. that rain would not be falling. kiam ni marsxas aux kuras. 9. estus kaptita. he would have been punished. estus sidanta tie. you would have seen that. and leave it entirely bare. if some other act or state were also realized. but its laws were not noticed or clearly defined until Newton studied the matter. One day he was walking in his orchard. tiu pluvo ne estus falanta. ne estus pluvinte. gravitation did not (should not) exist. li estus punita. I should see him. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. wishing to discover whatever laws of nature he could. but everything would fly off the quickly moving world. 3. Estas ankaux la malfacileco en la superado de tiu sama forto. because now the water flows from high to low places only on account of gravitation. no rain would fall. 5. being held no longer by the force of gravitation. mi vidus lin. but only to present or past time. kiu faras tiel malfacila la konstruadon de utilaj aersxipoj. Such conditions cannot refer to the future. Of course ("kompreneble") gravitation had always existed. the water would flow in every direction (245) out of the riverbeds. The conditional mood is used: Se vi if Se la if Se li if Se li if Se la if estus turninta vin. A "condition contrary to fact" indicates that the opposite of what is mentioned has really taken place or is taking place. Instead of gravitating toward the sea. 4. Newton was an Englishman who lived three centuries ago. kaj difinis la naturajn legxojn laux kiuj la gravitado sin montras. THE VERB "DEVI". becoming rarefied. estas tamen la kauxzo de nia lacigxado.

to admit. you should go (you ought to go). one ought to think before speaking. infinitive. the river flows without ceasing. venen-o = poison. nobl-a = noble. nobla kaj sagxa. Otherwise a participle with "ne" should replace the phrase ("222"): "Sen la legado de tio. Ankoraux . Ni devis agi laux la legxoj.] VOCABULARY akuz-i = to accuse. without. Fine. Li estis malbela malalta persono. The preposition "sen". Vi devos iri. Li ne plu estas senmona. we had to act according to the laws. So-krato = Socrates. konfes-i = to confess.). etc. duty) is equivalent to the verb "must" (which in English has no future. absence or exclusion of that which is expressed by its complement." before translating into an Esperanto phrase with "sen". "devo". Tio devus esti farita. la lernanto grade komprenis cxu liaj propraj opinioj pri la afero estas pravaj. carrying the idea of "must" into all tenses and moods. you must (will have to) go. and to "to have to". I should not understand. and carries the idea of "ought": Objektoj en la aero devas fali. I should not understand. kondamn-i = to condemn.247. correct. he is no longer penniless. past. pek-i = to sin. pri kio la auxskultanto respondos. LA FILOZOFO SOKRATO. The verb "devi" (cf.. It may be used as a prefix (160). as "without the reading of. without (the) reading (of) that. prav-a = right. "Ne leginte tion. she does not wish to have to do that. he ought to have come. kulp-o = guilt. La rivero sencxese fluas. instru-i = to teach. without reading (not having read) that. 248. Oni devus pensi antaux ol paroli. he defined the word without an error. Unu el la plej famaj grekaj filozofoj estis nomita Sokrato. merit-i = to deserve. mi ne komprenus". they compelled me to go. pardon-i = to pardon. he fearlessly approached it. sed malgraux tio li estis treege bona. Tio estas ne nur senutila sed ecx malutila. Vi devus iri." must be changed to phrases clearly containing verbal nouns. etc. that ought to have been done. Li sentime alproksimigxis al gxi. giving a sense of deprivation or exclusion (like that given by the English suffix "-less"): Li difinis la vorton sen eraro. indicates the omission. THE PREPOSITION "SEN". "to be obliged to". Li estus devinta veni. [Footnote: English phrases containing "without" as in "without reading. konscienc-o = conscience. In the conditional mood its meaning is softened into a vaguer sense (of "moral" obligation). sen = without (248). Li instruadis per interparolado kun la lernantoj. objects in the air have to fall. Kutime li komencis per demando pri io ajn. mi ne komprenus". kun senhara kapo kaj dika korpo. Ili devigis min iri. that is not only useless but even harmful. Sxi ne volas devi fari tion.

and I do not deserve any sort of punishment. 8. li efektive meritas cxiutagan mangxon senpagan. Therefore he wished to help mankind ("la homaron"). Se li estus konfesinte la kulpon kaj petinte pardonon. kiuj sekve komencis pensi por si mem. unue. parolis mallauxte cxe lia orelo). li trankvile adiauxis siajn plorantajn amikojn. sed ke. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION." So the judges condemned him to death by the drinking of poison. Se li ne estus tiel multe klariginta. Li diris ke oni havas nenian rajton puni lin. Tial oni akuzis Sokraton en la jugxejo. precipe cxar li donis novajn ideojn al la junuloj. kion li pensis. Sed multaj personoj malamis lin." Sokrato diradis tute sen timo cxion. 2. aux ecx neutila. but will not do evil. cxar li enkondukas novajn diojn (cxar li diris ke supernatura vocxo. If Socrates had pleaded guilty. Iom poste. Therefore they accused him. 3. en la malliberejo. without doubt he would have been pardoned and fined ("monpunita"). cxar li malbonigas la junularon de la urbo. due. Tamen. nomante lin pekanto kaj malbonfaranto. 7. la jugxistoj mortkondamnis lin. ecx pri la dioj kaj pri la nekredeblaj rakontoj pri la dioj. tute ne kompreninte kiel prava Sokrato estas. But the fellow-citizens of Socrates were jealous. 4. 9. 5. because they did not understand him. Sed li fiere respondis ke efektive li multe plibonigas la junularon. 10. kaj anstataux esti malutila. they accused him of ("pri") introducing (218. and the one-talking-with [him] would also notice whether his own ideas were right or not. trie. tiam la jugxistoj eble estus punintaj lin per nura ("mere") monpago ("fine"). kauxze de sia bonfarado al la urbo. cxar li ne disdonas oferojn al la dioj. and hated him. and begged for a fine instead of the death-punishment. together with the moods and tenses used in them. eble li estus vivinta pli longan tempon. called him a sinner. 1. He also wished to discover for himself what is right and what is wrong. kaj akceptinte la venenan trinkajxon. Oni devigis lin trinki la venenon. SUMMARY OF CONDITIONS 249. But he said "I have never in my life sinned in any way. Socrates believed that if one knows about good and evil (201) he will do good. 6. b) new gods.nun oni nomas tiun metodon de instruado per la interparolado "la Sokrata metodo. li treege utilas al la urbo. The three kinds of conditional sentences. anstataux fari tion kion faras cxiu alia. teaching them what the good is. LESSON LIV. and sent around (245) false reports ("falsajn sciigojn") about him. may be tabulated as follows: Name: Factual Less Vivid suppositions (usually) future Contrary to Fact opposite of facts present or past conditional Subject Matter: facts Time: Mood: any indicative conditional . Because he said that conscience guided him (in the form of a soft voice at his ear). So he asked every one whom he met (about) his opinions. They also said that he was corrupting the youth of the city. kiu sendube estis lia nomo por la konscienco. sentime gxin trinkis.

French "il me prend la vie". monahxestro = abbot. he burned his hand. the moon is hidden from us (to us) by the clouds. as if.] 252.Tense: any (usually) aoristic (usually) compound CLAUSES OF IMAGINATIVE COMPARISON. 253. malfacileco. 250. Clauses of imaginative comparison are introduced by the conjunction "kvazaux". By an extension of its use in expressing reference. I wash my hands. Hi trancxis al li la barbon. etc. estraro = governing body. it takes timorem eripe". as in French "je me suis brule la langue". Sometimes the verb in the comparison may be left unexpressed or merely implied: Li trinkas la venenon kvazaux gxi he drinks the poison as though La kondamnito marsxis kvazaux kun the condemned man walked as if Li konfesis kvazaux kulpulo. Sxi preparas al ni bonan mangxon. estus vino. approaching that of "por" but less purposeful and definite. THE SUFFIX "-ESTR-". resembles the "dative of reference" and "ethical dative" of other languages. "head". 251. he confessed like a culprit. or "one in control" of that which is expressed in the root: lernejestro = (school) principal. as in German "es stahl mir das me. she is preparing us a good meal. he took his sceptre from him. it has been stolen from me by him. when the use of "de" might seem to indicate agency (169) or possession (49): La luno estas kasxata al ni de la nuboj. urbestro = mayor. "al" may often be used in the place of "de" expressing separation (170). The suffix "-estr-" is used to indicate the "chief". [Footnote: This use resembles the "dative languages. may be used with the preposition "al" to express "concern" or "interest" on the part of the person indicated by the complement of this preposition: Li bruligis al si la manon. they cut his beard (the beard for him). Greek "ti soi mathesomai". it were wine. they threw themselves at the feet of Caesar. . Cxu vi faros servon al mi? Will you do me a service? [Footnote: The use of "al" in this sense. I have burned my tongue. remove this fear from me. it stole the life from my life.] of separation" of other Leben". THE USE OF "AL" TO EXPRESS REFERENCE. German "ich wasche mir die Haende". Personal pronouns. Latin "sese Caesari ad pedes proicerunt". Gxi estas stelita al mi de li. what am I to learn for you? etc. as though. Latin "hunc mihi Greek "dexato oi skaeptron". and less frequently nouns. with difficulty.

kelkaj malamikoj proponis vocxdonadon pri la ostracismo de tre bona kaj nobla viro. La vorto ostracismo havas interesan devenon ("origin"). oni povis ekzili iun ajn estron kies ideoj pri la administrado de la urbo ne sxajnis pravaj. Gxuste tial oni nomas la kutimon ostracismo. Doing him the service requested. sxipestro = ship-captain. enu-i = to be wearied. oni faris strangan legxon en lia urbo. peel. En gxia komenco oni rekonas la grekan vorton kiu signifas "sxelon de la ostro. just. Antaux ol la kunveno disigxis. "gxuste". cxar oni havis la jenan metodon: se cxe popola kunveno ses mil urbanoj vocxdonis ("vote") kontraux iun ajn. signif-i = to signify. exactly. nomita Aristejdo. from "justa". ne sciante ke li parolas al la viro mem. mi ne kasxos al vi ke mi ecx ne konas lin! Sed mi deziras ekzili lin nur cxar min enuigas la sono de lia nomo. [Footnote: Care must be taken to distinguish "gxusta". Ought Aristeides to have written his own name on the oyster-shell or piece of pottery which was going to be used as a vote against him? 4. Aristeides had just arrived at the popular assembly when a peasant approached him. justly. cxar la neinstruita kamparano ne povis skribi. 1.] LA OSTRACISMO DE ARISTEJDO. Por vocxdonoj. oni skribis la nomon de la kondamnoto sur peco da potajxo ("pottery"). deveninte de la greka. gxust-a = exact. bark. Cxi tion oni povis fari. Unufoje. Laux tiu." Skribinte gxin. kamparano alproksimigxis al Aristejdo (kiu mem cxeestis). and also from the adverb "jxus" just. Aristejdo demandis kun trankvila konscienco "Pro gxuste kiaj pekoj vi malamas Aristejdon?" La kamparano respondis. VOCABULARY Aristejd-o = Aristeides. strang-a = strange. devenas de la jena greka kutimo: Sepdek jarojn antaux ol vivadis Sokrato. exact. facile trovebla en anglaj vortaroj ("dictionaries"). tiu estis devigata foriri de la urbo. . the peasant could not have voted. ankoraux estas uzata kiel vortfino en multaj diversaj lingvoj. Aristeides said. kaj forresti dek jarojn. ostracism-o = ostracism. ostr-o = oyster. La nuna senco de la vorto. Without just (exactly) this help. 5. Mi tre enuas cxiam auxdante lin nomata Aristejdo la justa!" SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. "Ho." En gxia fino oni vidas la saman "-ismon " kiu. ekzil-i = to exile. La sagxulo diris "Kion vi volas skribi sur la sxelo?" La kamparano. bored. respondis "Aristejdon. pot-o = pot. sed devis tuj foriri kvazaux konfesinta kulpulo. aux pli ofte sur ostrosxelo. petante lian helpon. sxel-o = shell. doubtless the peasant would not have asked his help. tute sen jugxado aux ecx akuzado.policestro = chief of police. If Aristeides had not had a pleasant countenance and musical ("belsonan") voice. just. senc-o = meaning. popol-o = a people. as if (250). "juste". Li povis neniel havigi ("get") al si pardonon. kiu tute ne meritis tian punadon. kvazaux = as though. sense. 2. son-i = to sound. upright. 3.

Present: Past: Future: mi estu vidanta mi estu vidinta mi estu vidonta Present: Past: Future: Passive. 10. The "first person singular" of the imperative mood is used to express the speaker's resolve concerning his own action. but I am weary [of] always hearing him called the just. there is an "imperative mood". or explanation of the reasons. "Oh. Ought such persons as that ignorant peasant have-the-right to vote about important affairs? 9. For expressions of command. 254. etc. The ending of the imperative mood is "-u". I know nothing about him. The conjugation of "vidi" in the aoristic tense of this mood. and the meaning of the word signifying the custom comes from that. but these tenses are seldom used. "Why do you hate Aristeides? 6. Through ("per") ostracism. The silly-creature ("132") if ("250") he himself were not the man under-discussion ("205"). Could you tell me how he has sinned against the city?" 7. as in English.. mi estu vidata mi estu vidita mi estu vidota RESOLVE AND EXHORTATION. LESSON LV. without trial of any kind. 255. exhortation. justly or unjustly. gxi) vidu! = let him (her. The ancient law about ostracism was a strange [one]. The "first person plural" is used to express resolve or exhortation concerning the joint action of the speaker and the person or persons addressed: Mi Mi Ni Ni Ni pensu pri tio! Let me think about that! ne forgesu tion! I must not (do not let me) forget that! ekzilu lin! Let us exile him! ne sidigxu tie! Let us not sit down there! estu grize vestitaj! Let us be dressed in gray! [Footnote: This force is usually expressed in English by "let" with an accusative and infinitive construction. 11. entreaty.] . or an exhortation to himself concerning such action. together with a synopsis in the compound tenses." 8. it) see! ni vidu! = let us see! (vi) vidu! = (you) see! ili vidu! = let them see! Compound Tenses. any leader could be banished. THE IMPERATIVE MOOD. six compound tenses are formed by combining the participles with the imperative mood "estu" of the auxiliary verb. mi vidu! = let me see! (vi) vidu! = (you) see! li (sxi. is as follows: Aoristic Tense. The name of the person to-be-exiled ("199") was usually written upon an oyster-shell. Beside the aoristic tense. Active.

Lia jugxista mosxto. but I shall not listen! Iru tuj. exhortation. "is to". "are to". parolu. In the third person a circumlocution in English is necessary in translation (as "let". and in "questions of deliberation or perplexity". a. In the second person the pronoun is usually omitted. or after a title. as in English. 256. if you like. if you are not satisfied! Consent: Nu. etc. or "requests for instruction": Request: Cxesu tiun bruon. the imperative mood may be employed for less peremptory expressions. When used after a title. command and prohibition.) Parolu kvazaux vi komprenus! Talk as though you understood! Ne fermu tiun pordon! Do not shut that door! Ne estu vidata tie! Do not be seen there! b. By an extension of its use in resolve. se vi volas. "wish".): Li estu zorga! Let him be careful (he must be careful)! Sxi ne faru tion! Do not let her do that (she is not to do that)! Cxio estu pardonata! Let everything be forgiven! Oni lasu min trankvila! People are to let me alone! Ili neniam revenu! Let them never (do not let them ever) return! La kulpuloj estu punataj! Let the culprits be punished! LESS PEREMPTORY USES OF THE IMPERATIVE.COMMANDS AND PROHIBITIONS. to denote respect. mi petas! Stop that noise. The "second" and "third" persons of the imperative are used to express peremptory commands and prohibitions. "must". such as "request". Go at once. etc. se vi ne estas kontenta! Go away. Question: Cxu mi faru tion aux ne? Am I to do that or not? Cxu ni disdonu la librojn? Shall we distribute the books? Cxu li estu kondamnita? Shall he be condemned? Cxu ili venu cxi tien? Are they to (shall they) come here? THE USE OF "MOSXTO". I beg! Bonvolu fari tion! Please do that! Pardonu al ni niajn pekojn! Forgive us our sins! Wish: Ili estu felicxaj! May they be happy! Dio vin benu! God bless you! Vivu la regxo! (Long) live the king! Advice: Pensu antaux ol agi! Think before acting! Foriru.. talk. "advice".) Estu pretaj por akompani min! Be ready to accompany me! (Two or more persons are addressed. The word "mosxto" may be used alone. unless special emphasis is placed upon it: Estu trankvila! Be calm! (One person is addressed. the title becomes an adjective: Lia regxa mosxto. his majesty. 258. 257. . sed mi ne auxskultos! Well. his honor the judge.

" "Mi venos tre volonte. permes-i = to permit. "kaj poste ni parolos pri la felicxeco. imperi-o = empire. Damokl-o = Damocles. kaj agis laux la permeso tiel afable donita al li. only. The story about Aristeides is interesting. amiko de la tirano.Sxia regxina mosxto." ekkriis Damoklo." konsilis la tirano. "Se mi estus tiel ricxa kaj pova kiel via regxa mosxto. "La dioj min helpu!" li ekkriis. kaj venkis ne nur barbarajn popolojn. sur la insulo Sikelio. Subtenate de unu sola haro. volont-e = willingly. etc. tre kruela tirano. her majesty. ne kasxis al li sian grandan malamon al tia tirano. se tio placxas al vi. Tial li cxiam timis pri sia vivo. placx-i = to please. kaj eltrovu cxu mi devus esti felicxa aux ne. Detruinte cxion sen kompato. forsaltinte de la tablo. Sed la urboj cxie. He thought "Let me make one sole empire out of Africa. 4. LA GLAVO DE DAMOKLO. 3. timante ke iu subite mortigos lin. Lia urbestra mosxto. konsil-i = to advise. Damocles said to him "Your royal highness ought to be very . ecx en Grekujo. estas nenio (="you are welcome")! Nur ne forgesu la deciditan horon!" Je la gxusta horo Damoklo iris al la festo. 1. sed ankaux multajn urbojn en Italujo kaj norda Afriko. sklav-o = slave. His only bidding usually was "Let every inhabitant be sold as a slave!" 6. Mangxante bonegan mangxajxon. Pro la jxus dirita stranga rakonto." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Antaux pli multe ol dumil jaroj vivis en Sirakuzo. li tute ne enuis cxe la festo. diris al li. 5. barbar-o = barbarian. the Syracusan tyrant. It has its present meaning because oyster-shells or pieces of pottery were used for the voting. kie oni donis al li segxon flanke de la tirano mem. to bid. antauxe kasxitan al li de kurteno. el la venkitaj kaj sklavigitaj popoloj. "Venu al festo cxe mi. had permitted all sorts of injustices. Unufoje Damoklo." Damoklo tuj konsentis al tia propono. ordon-i = to order." 2. sol-a = sole. Cxu via mosxto lin auxdis? Did your honor (excellency. Damoklo ekvidis akran glavon. His friend. Italy and Sicily!" 7. Li diris al si "Mi estu cxiopova ("all-powerful")!" Tial li faris multe da militadoj. "kaj mi dankas vian mosxton pro tia afableco!" La tirano gxentile respondis "Ho. his honor the mayor. kaj vidu gxuste kian felicxecon mi havas!" Supren rigardinte. flank-o = side. mi estus treege felicxa!" La tirano respondis. li ordonis "La logxantoj estu vendataj por sklavoj!" Li deziris fari por si. but that about the sword of Damocles is also interesting. kaj trinkante dolcxan vinon. oni ankoraux nun nomas la atendadon por io timeginda. mosxt-o = a title (see 258). against not only barbarians but even Greeks. kio sxajnas cxiam okazonta sed efektive ne okazas. la glavo sxajnis kvazaux tuj falonta sur la kapon de Damoklo. Baldaux la tirano diris "Rigardu supren. The word ostracism comes from the Greek word signifying "oyster-shell. konsent-i = to consent. "Mangxu kaj trinku kiom ajn vi volas. unu grandan imperion. "la glavo de Damoklo.) hear him? VOCABULARY Afrik-o = Africa.

"wish". "consent". The tyrant answered. with a meaning similar to that in its independent use. his proposal is. . we intend that you shall be helped. and went thither. etc. etc. he says that you are to go. 259. Request and Wish. Then let us discuss the problem about happiness. LESSON LVI.. "intention". The tyrant advised "Let us eat and drink until midnight. I wonder whether I am to do that. we shall order that he be punished. Permission. Such clauses are introduced by the conjunction ke: Command and Prohibition. After a few hours Damocles heard a slight sound over his head. deziras ke ili estu sklavigitaj. I forbid you to remain. Li demandas cxu ili foriru. petegas ke vi estu trankvilaj. Mi konsilis al li ke li iru. I consented that he remain. Questions. Oni demandis cxu lia mosxto eniru. "Heaven defend me!" exclaimed Damocles. after a main verb expressing "command". Li diras ke vi iru. we wished him not to forget that. and find out. etc. they will permit the barbarians to escape (that the barbarians escape). they asked whether his honor was to enter. Intention. he inquires whether they are to go away." 9. Expedience. Lia propono estas ke ni ricevu la duonon. he desires that they be enslaved. or after any word or general expression of "command". I advised him to go. Consent. and the tyrant said to him. Ili permesos ke la barbaroj forkuru. "Look up and you will see what kind of happiness mine is. Necessity. I beg that you do not leave me. Lia lasta ordono estis. volis ke li ne forgesu tion. Mi miras cxu mi faru tion." 11.happy!" 8. I will give you a seat (214. Mi malpermesas ke vi restu. "expedience". that we receive the half." 12. The imperative mood is used in a subordinate clause. catching sight of a sharp sword hanging by a single (sole) hair. Ni intencas ke vi estu helpata. "Come to a feast tomorrow. Mi konsentis ke li restu. if that would be-pleasing to you. Damocles willingly consented. Ni ordonos ke li estu punata. Advice. "necessity". "resolve". b) beside me. his last order was that you come. THE IMPERATIVE IN SUBORDINATE CLAUSES. she wrote him to come. Mi Mi Li Ni petas ke vi ne lasu min. 10. Sxi skribis al li ke li venu. ke vi venu. "exhortation". I implore you to be calm.

fidi je (al). 260. the preposition "je" is regarded as of rather indefinite meaning. to be ashamed of. to yearn for. [Footnote: The translation given for a preposition in any dictionary is the general one which serves in the majority of cases. proud of. Estis necese ke cxiu starigxu. The preposition "je" is used to express indefinite connection after the following words (other prepositions sometimes used are given in parentheses): ekkrii je (pro). senigi je. it was necessary for everyone to rise. kontenta je (kun). In order to insure some means of translating correctly into Esperanto any prepositional phrase of the national languages. it is desirable that we have a good emperor. simila je (al). to rely upon." but in Esperanto this must be expressed by the equivalent of "I wish that you go. kapti je. preni je. especially in protestations and exclamations. to be sated with. with (by) a strong rope.Estos bone ke vi ne plu nomu lin. satigxi je. by the arm. expressions of measure (see also 139). je la brako. similar to. kredi je. he is held by the policemen. to believe in. ricxigi je (per). gratuli je (pri)." The infinitive may not be used except when it can itself be the subject of the verb in such general statements as "it is necessary to go. to cry out at. Ili venis je grandaj nombroj. per forta sxnurego. ridi je. Estas dezirinde ke ni havu bonan imperiestron. plena je (de). sopiri je (al). sxargxi je. to provide with. he will be pleased to have you go. gxoji je (pri). they came in great numbers. provizi je (per). as "I wish you to go. to laugh at. teni je. to seize by. to load with. to enrich with. fiera je (pri). take interest in. In addition to its use in dates and allusions to time (89. Placxos al li ke vi iru. to take by. The finer shades of meaning and real or apparent exceptions can merely be touched upon if . and of indefinite connection: Je la nomo de cxielo! In the name of Heaven! Je mia honoro mi ja elfaros tion! On my honor I will accomplish that! Gxi estas longa je du mejloj. congratulate on. Since prepositional uses are not exactly alike in any two languages. to rejoice at. to hold by. content with. [Footnote: In English and some other languages an imperative idea may often be expressed by the infinitive. it may be employed when no other preposition gives the exact sense required. full of. to be bored with. 185). it is not always possible to translate a preposition of one language by what is its equivalent in some senses in another. Li estas tenata de la policano. worthy of. honti je (pri). to deprive of. interesigxi je."] THE PREPOSITION "JE". enui je. it is two miles long (long by two miles). (sin) okupi je. it will be well for you not to (that you do not) mention him any more. busy (oneself) at. inda je.

Fine. kiu sekvis la patron de ambaux fratoj kiel regxo. Grade li kondukis ilin trans tutan Azion. aux pli gxuste imperiestro. kion li intencis fari. gxu-i = to enjoy. He led them farther and farther. je malgranda interspaco. Iam Ciruso. 5. rezult-i = to result. ten thousand of whom were Greeks. but. LA MARSXADO DE LA DEKMIL GREKOJ. cxar la amikoj de la regxo. gathered (232. krom = beside. honor-o = honor. into the middle of Asia. Cyrus did not desire that his brother should remain king. fidi = to rely. jxetante sian pezan lancon al li. in pairs. sopir-i = to yearn. kaj treege kolerigxis. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 261. Estis tute indiferente al ili cxu la kauxzo de la militado estas prava kaj justa aux ne. "Let me myself become ("farigxi") king! I should much enjoy that!" 3. until finally the . b) around him. VOCABULARY cel-i = to aim. 1. 4. Multaj tiamaj grekoj tre volonte sin okupis je la batalado. kaj fine la dekmil grekoj komprenis cxion. kaj cxio estos bona!" Tiam la soldatoj hontis je sia antauxa timo. La sola rezulto estis la morto de Ciruso mem. kvinope kaj sesope atakinte Ciruson. ver-o = truth. kaj krom tio la militistoj sxajnis gxui ecx la militadon mem. Unue Ciruso nur petis ke ili helpu liajn proprajn soldatojn kontraux iuj najbaroj. lin tuj mortigis. Ciruso petis la grekojn ke ili partoprenu ("take part") en kelkaj negravaj militadoj. la frato de Ciruso elvenis havante okcentmil soldatojn. cxar se la grekoj estus suspektintaj tion. kvarope = by fours. La venditaj sklavoj kaj la detruitaj konstruajxoj cxiam provizis ilin je multe da ricxajxo.). spac-o = space. Decidinte forigi de la regxeco ("to dethrone") sian fraton. sopiris je la imperio de sia pli maljunafrato.mentioned at all. Ciruso estis preskaux venkinta en terura batalo. kiam subite li ekvidis sian fraton. save. ili neniam estus akompanintaj lin tiel malproksimen de sia patrolando. mi certigas vin je mia honoro ke cxiu el vi revenos havante sakojn plenajn je ricxajxo! Estas nur necese ke vi fidu je mi. proviz-i = to provide. por batali kontraux la centmil de Ciruso. sesopigi = to form into groups of six. plen-a = full. milope = by thousands. Gradually an army (126) of a hundred thousand men. apud granda urbo. So he asked the Greeks to help him in some battles against nearby enemies. The suffix "-op-" is used to form "collective" numerals: duope = by twos. Ekkriante "Mi vidas la viron!" li rajdis rekte al la regxo. kaj kuragxe antauxen marsxadis. prokrast-i = to delay (trans. He decided. pro la granda pago ricevata. sen plua ("further") prokrasto! Se mi sukcesos kontraux mia frato. Per la helpo de siaj grekoj. 2. Paroladante al ili. nepo de Ciruso Granda.] THE SUFFIX "-OP-". kaj mi petegas ke vi antauxen marsxadu kun mi. Ciruso tuj diris "Mi ne permesas ke vi reiru. Li kasxis al ili sian veran celon. terur-a = terrible. Cirus-o = Cyrus. to sigh.

(the) going thither will be a pleasure. [Footnote: Cf. I do it in order that he may help you. 10. Sxi dancis belan dancon. The accusative of direction of motion is used after nouns from roots expressing motion: Lia eniro en la urbon estis subita. the accusative of direct object (23). I study that I may learn. Cyrus won the battle. So neither he nor the Greeks could enjoy the result of their efforts. its falling earthward terrified me.] 263. she danced a beautiful dance. . Purpose may be expressed by a subordinate imperative clause. he will come that we may be happy. and rely upon me! Do you not wish to return home provided with wealth. Immediately the soldiers were ashamed of their fear. let them stay for us to punish them. I cried out in order that you should hear. full of courage. "He did not at first propose that we fight against the Great King.] FURTHER USES OF THE ACCUSATIVE. Only be worthy of your leader. or when the object of the main verb is the subject of the subordinate verb. and measure (139). Let us return home without delay!" 7. 12. beside the money which I shall pay to you?" 9. time (91). but he himself lost his life. 6. 11. CLAUSES EXPRESSING PURPOSE. Gxia falado teren timigis min. Mi studas por ke mi lernu. 264. Cyrus addressed (218) them as follows: "Must I permit you to go back? I implore you to be courageous. Ili restu por ke ni punu ilin. La irado tien estos plezuro. They said to each other in terror. he lives an agreeable life. and I do advise you not to forget your longing for (260) honor! 8. if the meaning of the noun is related to that of the verb: Li vivas agrablan vivon. direction of motion (46. with ("havante") eight hundred thousand men. a. his entrance into the city was sudden. the expression of purpose by the infinitive with "por" (98). which however cannot be used except when the subject of the main verb is the subject of the subordinate verb. By the aid of the Greeks. and advanced by hundreds. An intransitive verb may be followed by a noun in the accusative case. introduced by "por ke": Mi faras gxin por ke li helpu vin. Soon the brother of Cyrus approached. 121). Mi ekkriis por ke vi auxdu.Greeks suspected his true aim. [Footnote: Cf. 262. LESSON LVII. Li venos por ke ni estu felicxaj.

Konforme la legxon (konforme al la legxo). she ridiculed (laughed at) my fear. I pardon (grant pardon to) him. there preceded (came before) him two slaves. [Footnote: In this use "pri" resembles the English and German inseparable prefix "be-". they wept bitter tears. Mi cxeestis la feston. as in English "bemoan". Sxi ridis mian timon (je mia timo). Kompare la alian (kompare kun la alia). concerning the affair. SYNOPSIS OF THE CONJUGATION OF THE VERB. let us go up the stairs. I attended (was present at) the entertainment. in comparison with the other. "veturi". Li obeis nin (al ni). 267. "veni". he pronounces the words clearly. but must say "pardonu al ni niajn pekojn". "pasi". German "beklagen". "marsxi". Mi helpis lin (al li). . Verbs of motion ("iri". in regard to that. One may say "pardonu nin". may be followed by the accusative. Mi kontrauxstaras vian opinion. he obeyed (was obedient to) us. Ni gxin priparolos. as by the presence of another accusative.Ili ploris maldolcxajn larmojn. c. etc. in conformity to the law. "bethink". The same is true of "el" prefixed to intransitive verbs not expressing motion: Sxi priploris la mortintan birdon. we shall talk it over. Koncerne la aferon (koncerne je la afero). it pleases (is pleasing to) me. The accusative may be used after verbs of such meaning that either a prepositional phrase or an accusative would seem correct: Mi pardonas lin (al li). also compounds of such verbs as "esti" and "stari" with prepositions expressing situation. I helped (gave aid to) him. with the exception of that. etc.) compounded with prepositions or adverbs (121) indicating direction. "besprechen". Escepte tion (escepte de tio). Ni supreniru la sxtuparon. vidi. Gxi placxas min (al mi). this construction may not be employed. she mourned the dead bird.] 266. Li klare elparolas la vortojn. Mi pripensos la aferon. I oppose (withstand) your opinion. The accusative may be used after certain adverbs which are normally followed by a prepositional phrase: Rilate tion (rilate al tio). I shall consider (think over) the matter. b. to see. [Footnote: When ambiguity would be caused. The slight change in meaning given by "pri" used as a prefix may render intransitive verbs transitive. "bewail". instead of by a prepositional phrase in which the preposition is repeated: La viro preterpasis la domon. Lin antauxvenis du sklavoj.] 265. the man passed (by) the house. "bespeak". "sich" .

mi estos vidinta PASSIVE. (Aoristic) mi vidis (Imperfect) mi estis vidanta Future. (Aoristic) mi vidos (Progressive) mi estos vidanta Perfect. Present. mi estus vidinta Future. (Aoristic) mi vidus (Progressive) mi estus vidanta Past. (Aoristic) mi vidas (Progressive) mi estas vidanta Past. Present. (Aoristic) mi vidu (Progressive) mi estu vidanta Past. mi estu vidinta Future.ACTIVE. mi estus vidonta IMPERATIVE. mi estos vidonta CONDITIONAL. mi estis vidinta Future Perfect. Present. mi estas vidonta (Past). mi estas vidata mi estis vidata mi estos vidata mi estas vidita mi estis vidita mi estos vidita Periphrastic Futures. mi estas vidinta Pluperfect. mi estis vidonta (Future). INDICATIVE. mi estu vidonta mi estas vidota mi estis vidota mi estos vidota mi estus vidata mi estus vidita mi estus vidota mi estu vidata mi estu vidita mi estu vidota . (Present).

esti vidinta Future. busxumo = muzzle. (Aoristic) vidi (Progressive) esti vidanta Perfect. kompar-i = to compare. esti vidonta esti vidota THE SUFFIX "-UM-". even. laceco kaj malsateco ("hunger"). histori-o = history. obe-i = to obey. gustumi = to taste. fremd-a = foreign. meze de la vintro. la kompatindaj viroj tute malesperis. Krom tio. la restajxo de la dekmil soldatoj alvenis sur monton. sat-a = satiated. plenumi = to fulfil. sav-i = to save. per trompemaj proponoj kaj falsaj promesoj pri amikaj interrilatoj. The indefinite suffix "-um-" serves the same general purpose in word formation which "je" serves as an indefinite preposition (260): aerumi = to air. la grekoj mortis dekope kaj dudekope cxiutage. cxirkauxitaj de barbaroj kiuj. Kvankam la grekoj estis venkintoj. rilat-o = relation. esti vidita esti vidata LA REIRADO DE LA DEKMILO. La grekaj militistoj sentis grandan teruron kiam Ciruso ne plu vivis. verk-i = to compose (books or music). Lauxta ekkriego "La maro! La maro!" eksonis inter la lacaj viroj. rapide kunveniginte la soldatojn. koncern-i = to concern. konform-i = to conform. obstin-a = obstinate. promes-i = to promise. "Ni mem kondukos vin per kiel eble plej rekta vojo hejmen! Ni faros nian eblon ("utmost") por ke ni cxiuj estu savitaj!" Cxar restis nenio alia por fari. Treege interesa historio koncerne la tutan aferon estas verkita de fama greka verkisto . kaj sen pontoj transiris largxajn riverojn. diris. La celo de la longa marsxado ne povis esti plenumata. la malfacila malgaja reirado de la grekoj komencigxis sen prokrasto. esper-i = to hope. el kiuj multaj ploris larmojn de gxojo. por transiri la maron al la patrujo je kiu ili estis tiel longe sopirintaj. Ili transiris varmegajn ebenajxojn ("plains"). certainly. post nekredeblaj suferoj. tuj okazigis la morton de la grekaj estroj. kaj ekvidis la maron. supreniris kaj malsupreniris krutajn negxkovritajn montojn. kaj post iom da ripozo ili sin provizis je sxipoj. malvarmegeco. ili estis tute solaj en fremda lando. kolumo = collar. kvazaux por ke neniu greko restu viva. escept-o = exception. Sed kelkaj subestroj. nepr-e = inevitably. Fine. Senigite je siaj estroj. Cxie la malfidindaj barbaroj atakis ilin.INFINITIVE. pro la morto de la obstina trokuragxa militestro mem. proksimume = approximately. pro varmegeco. VOCABULARY eben-a = level. Present. 268. De infaneco ili alkutimis al la vojagxado per akvo.

and we shall do our best to save you!" 7. one of the leaders of the enemy sent a messenger (205) with deceitful promises about help. yes. Ne estas permesate eniri tien." 6. Versxajne vi estas prava. let him come. Words formed with the prefix "ge-" indicate the two sexes together: gepatroj = parents. Lasu lin veni. "versxajne". where we know neither the languages nor the roads. you may (yes. After the death of Cyrus. and the peoples are without exception hostile to us. it is not allowed to enter there. kiu estis akompaninta Ciruson por ke li povu gxui kaj studi cxion interesan sur la vojo. The idea of possibility or probability is given by the use of some such adverb as "eble". "lasi". 271. ecx sen escepto de la posta irado tien de Aleksandro Granda. 1. "kredeble". 2. 5. But they never returned.("writer"). in Greek or in a translation. for we are in a foreign land. 270. is related in the history written by a famous Greek historian. Permission is usually expressed by the use of "permesi". made-more-difficult by hunger and by the unceasing attacks of the barbarians. 2. They wept tears of despair. LESSON LVIII. Tiu azia militado de Ciruso nepre estas unu el la plej rimarkindaj okazintajxoj iam priskribitaj. he may (perhaps he will) obey you. they might (possibly they would) save him. and soon the Greeks understood that the barbarians had killed them." 3. He said "Assemble in our leader's tent. etc. In the course of the following day. The Greek leaders went. because they did not know how else to save their men. or the imperative mood: Cxu vi permesas ke mi restu? May I (do you permit me to) stay? Jes. Kredeble li sukcesos. PERMISSION AND POSSIBILITY. you are probably right. geavoj = grandparents. they could not have (surely did not) beat him. 8. gefratoj = brother(s) and sister(s). although they suspected danger.: Eble li obeos al vi. the leaders of the Greek warriors did not know what to do. probably he will succeed. Ili nepre ne batis lin. across hot plains and snow-covered mountains. But the leaders-of-lesser-rank said "Obey us and follow us. Their return. gefiloj = son(s) and daughter(s). One can still read this interesting narrative. Tio estas neebla! That can not be (that is impossible)! THE PREFIX "GE-". 269. Eble oni lin savus. genepoj = grandchildren. geedzoj = husband(s) and wife (wives). restu). in order that you may all discuss the matter. stay). mi permesas (jes. 4. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. and said "The barbarians will inevitably destroy us. .

Forward!. obstinacxa = obstinate. like "-acx-" (272). venkante cxiujn cxie. and Mrs. Interjections are words used to express feeling or call attention. Aristotel-o = Aristotle. Behold!] [Footnote: The interjection "fi" is sometimes used as a disparaging prefix. firm-a = firm. estim-i = to esteem. ni sendube konus multe pli bone la sciadon de la antikvaj grekoj. "ficxevalo". INTERJECTIONS. kiun lia patro estis venkinta. "For!". "Bonvenu!". "Ja!". kvazaux ili estus la plej malkuragxaj popolacxoj en la mondo.gesinjoroj = Mr. THE SUFFIX "-ACX-". popolacxo = rabble. Venkinte Egipton. eduk-i = to bring up. Egipt-o = Egypt. bibliotek-o = library. Amerik-o = America. Good!. [Footnote: Verbs in the imperative. vast-a = vast. fond-i = to found. lady (ladies) and gentleman (gentlemen). kaj la filozofo Aristotelo. spite = in spite of. "Antauxen!". Tie trovigxis* poste la fama Aleksandria biblioteko. kiu ne estis matura viro sed havis nur dudek jarojn kiam li farigxis regxo. estis unu el liaj instruistoj. unue en Azio. Aleksandro reiris en Azion. "Auxskultu!". kiuj versxajne estis la plej klera popolo iam vivinta en Euxropo. Among the more common interjections are: Adiaux! Farewell! (171). Sed spite . mob. krom tio. kontinent-o = continent. Liaj gepatroj estis tre zorge edukintaj lin. as "Atentu!". Away!. ugly bird. milion-o = million. en la dauxro de iuj militadoj. li faris militadojn kontraux diversaj fremdaj landoj. "Bone!". Hark!. Aleksandrio nepre estis belega ricxa urbo. Fi! Fie! Ho! Oh! Ho! Hura! Hurrah! Nu! Well! Ve! Woe! (Ho ve! Alas!). tiam en Afriko. 272. ALEKSANDRO GRANDA. as "fibirdo". pentracxi = to daub. extensive. kiun li tre alte estimis. "Jen!". Aleksandro firme tenadis sian propran regxolandon. hispan-o = Spaniard. educate. kie li fondis urbon. Welcome!. kaj gxin nomis Aleksandrio. Krist-o = Christ. Auxstrali-o = Australia. hundacxo = a cur. and adverbs. are frequently used as interjections. gxis tre orienta kaj suda partoj.] VOCABULARY Aleksandri-o = Alexandria. mutual.. kaj ankaux Grekujon. There!. establish. Se gxi ne estus detruita de fajro. 273. a sorry nag. Permesu ke mi diru kelkajn vortojn pri la vivo de Aleksandro Granda. Indeed!. kapabl-a = capable. ridacxi = to guffaw. komun-a = common. Look out!. The suffix "-acx-" has a disparaging significance: domacxo = a hovel.

should leave-off speaking them. many villages are (situated) there. norda kaj suda Amerikoj. 10. They must have esteemed him very highly! 6.cxies petoj li estis obstinacxe nezorgema pri sia sano. Se li ne estus tiel frue mortinta. "stari" and "sidi". just as English uses "lie". kaj subite. on the mountainside perched a tiny village. and also of "sin trovi". -. kvazaux por fari el la mondo unu grandan familion. or even of England and Northern Europe. kiel multe li estus eble elfarinta! Li esperis venki Hispanujon. kiel malgranda estis tiu mondo kiun li konis! La tiamuloj konis nur malgrandan parton de Afriko. tiom de la okcidenta mondo kiom li jam posedis de la orienta. in Egypt. he knew very little of Asia. La urbo kusxis inter du lagoj. 3." Tamen. "kusxi". He intended that all the different peoples should conform to common laws and that their sons-and-daughters should speak one common language. this extensive library was destroyed by fire! 9. Li sin trovis sola en la dezerto. de Azio. . he found himself (he was) alone in the desert. [Footnote: The use of "trovigxi". Egipto trovigxas en la nordorienta parto de Afriko." did not even know of the existence of North and South America.kredeble la grekan. It was Alexander who founded the city of Alexandria. ecx komunan lingvon.. Australia. in a sense not greatly differing from that of "esti". Li intencis ke la milionoj da enlogxantoj akceptu komunajn legxojn kaj kutimojn. Possibly he might have accomplished his object to some extent (217). Italujon. and in spite of their love for their national languages. mallongavorte. THE POSITION OF UNEMPHATIC PRONOUNS. ho ve. who "sighed for other worlds to conquer. 1. 11. kaj. Egypt is (found) in the northeastern part of Africa. where approximately three hundred years before Christ the famous Alexandrian library was located. li mortis pro febro. Alexander the Great wished to unite the whole world into one vast empire. Tiam li celis kunigi cxion en unu vastan imperion. 4.] SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Ili sciis nenion pri Anglujo. Beside his Asiatic empire. aux pri la vastaj kontinentoj Auxstralio. 5. "perch". It contained an enormous collection-of-books -. "sit". in narration for similar reasons: Multaj vilagxoj trovigxas tie. if he had not died suddenly when he was only thirty-two years old. How small the world was in those days! LESSON LIX. Sur la montflanko sidis vilagxeto. 8. with its millions of inhabitants. even of China. to bid farewell to their dying leader. 2. 7. Alexander. His soldiers marched weeping past his tent. etc. Estas pro tio ke oni ofte auxdas la diron "Aleksandro sopiris je aliaj mondoj por venki.almost seven hundred thousand. avoids the monotonous repetition of forms of "esti". tricent dektri jarojn antaux Kristo. Alas. Eble li ja havis la kapablecon por fari cxion cxi. the city lay between two lakes. ecx de Euxropo.

] SOME INTRANSITIVE VERBS. he would save me. . French "je veux le voir". Intransitive Use. Pulvo eksplodas Gunpowder explodes Halti. . he will be able to do that. . La knabino dronis The girl drowned Eksplodi .274. moi. . in pronunciation (cf. enam. . oi. . her". [Footnote: Cf. son. La tempo pasas ." also "sim". . the Greek enclitic pronouns "mou. vas. That such pronouns "are" unemphatic can be seen from English "let her come" (= "let'er come"). 275. . La bruo dauxras The noise continues Degeli . .. li min savus. . you ought to eat something. . La fajro brulas The fire burns Cxesi.". Some examples are given in the following table: Verb. La bruo cxesas The noise stops Dauxri . . Li povos tion fari. Some intransitive verbs have English meanings which do not differ in form from the transitive English verbs to which they are related. ou. tva. in other languages. "lemme" (= "let me"). . and in the spellings "gimme" (= "give me"). etc. the Sanskrit enclitic forms "ma. "make him stop" (= "make'im stop"). . me defendi". indefinite or demonstrative pronoun very frequently precedes the verb of which it is the object. te. I wish to see him. se. . and the Avestan "i. . . Transitive Use. in which the unemphatic forms "er. me. etc. . me. e. . replace "him. La glacio degelas The ice thaws Droni. . Li haltis timigite He halted in alarm Lumi . soi. Vi devus ion mangxi. . In Esperanto the suffix "-ig-" (214) must be used when the transitive meaning is desired. Latin "se alunt. im"). . Li boligas la akvon He boils the water Li bruligis la paperon He burned the paper Li cxesigas la bruon He stops the noise Li dauxrigas la bruon He continues the noise Li gxin degeligas per fajro He thaws it with fire La viro sxin dronigis The man drowned her Li gxin eksplodigos He will explode it Li haltigis la soldatojn He halted the soldiers Li lumigis la lampon He lighted the lamp Tiel li pasigis la tagon Boli . . enat. as in German "ich moechte ihn sehen". . An unemphatic personal. enam. The same phenomenon is indicated in "prithee" (= "pray thee"). Cxu vi gxin kredis? Did you believe it? Se li min vidus. La akvo bolas The water boils Bruli. in dialect stories. nas. . This is especially true if the verb in question is an infinitive: Mi volas lin vidi. if he should see me. im". La suno lumas The sun shines Pasi . .

Patrino mia. La saluta pafo sonis The salute sounded Sonori . duonpatro = stepfather. 277. Nov-Jorko. La sonorilo sonoris The bell rang Thus he passed the day Li gxin pendigis de brancxo He hung it on a branch Oni sonigis la salutan pafon They sounded the salute Oni sonorigis la sonorilon They rang the bell [Footnote: A transitive use of such intransitive verbs would be like using the English intransitive verb "learn" for the transitive verb "teach. Tre vere. as in English "Mother mine. 24/XII/1912. or step-relationship. (to friends and relatives) "Kara Frauxlino. Estimata Sinjoro. Kun granda estimo. Gxi pendas de brancxo It hangs on a branch Soni . duonfrato = half-brother.. 1912a. VOCABULARY . . c. 276. The prefix "bo-" indicates relationship by marriage. "duon-" (166) is used: bopatro = father-in-law.. 278." etc. Sinjorino. CORRESPONDENCE." etc. THE PREFIXES "BO-" AND "DUON-". monero = coin.Time passes Pendi. . a." etc. . . Kara Mario. je la 24a de decembro. Frate la via. Kara Amiko.. negxero = snowflake. The suffix "-er-" is used to form words expressing units or component parts of that which is indicated in the root: fajrero = spark (of fire)." etc) etc." as in the "I'll learn you" (for "I'll teach you") of illiterate speech. Karaj Sinjoroj. Sirakuzo. la 24an decembro." (placing the possessive adjective after the noun in this way gives an affectionate sense. The usual methods of address are (to strangers and in business letters): "Sinjoro. Among the more usual forms of conclusion are (to strangers and in business letters): "Tre fidele la via. . (to friends): "Kun amika saluto.] THE SUFFIX "-ER-". Tre estimata Frauxlino. To indicate half-blood relationship. (to persons whose opinions on some subject are known to agree with those of the writer) "Estimata (Kara) Samideano" ("follower of the same idea"). . bofratino = sister-in-law. Kun cxiuj bondeziroj. Letters should be dated as indicated in the following: Bostono. Karaj Gefratoj. . . 1912a. Kun plej alta estimo. Kun samideanaj salutoj. sablero = grain of sand. b.

do = so. cxef-a = chief. kie haltas la tramveturiloj ("streetcars"). chief city. kiel vi vidas. donis al mi vian adreson. chief (head) cook. [Footnote: The word "tial" may be omitted from the combination "tial ke" (83). bedaur-i = to regret. apart-a = separate. "cxefangxelo". respekt-o = respect. special-a = special.adres-o = address. pri komercaj aferoj. [Footnote: "Cxef-" is often used in descriptive compounds (167. mi logxas de antaux unu tago. (Pardonu. ke vi iru rekte al mia cxambro. mi estas tiel okupata ke mi ne havis la tempon ecx por telefoni al vi. ne tre malproksime de via propra oficejo! Via bofrato. as "cxefkuiristo". cxe la hotelo kie.] * * * * * . mi opinias. archangel. mi devos forresti de la hotelo la tutan posttagmezon. if the meaning is obvious. "cxefurbo". ofic-o = office. Kara Amiko. hotel-o = hotel. 1911. numero 26. capital. se mi ne estos efektive jam vin atendanta. ink-o = ink. Bedauxrinde ("unfortunately"). then. Gxis nun. kaj nepre venos. Ni esperu ke la cxefkuiristo preparos al ni bonan mangxon! Mi esperas ke vi malatentos la falantajn negxerojn. Estos plej bone. Do gxis la baldauxa revido je la vespermangxo! Kun plej amikaj salutoj. Nov-Jorko = New York. sed mi jxus eltrovis ke restas neniom plu da inko en mia fontanplumo. kovert-o = envelope (for letters) krajon-o = pencil. fontan-o = fountain. Sed nun mi havas du aux tri minutojn da libera tempo. cxar ni ja havos multe da komunaj travivajxoj por priparoli. responde al mia iomete subita invito. petante ke vi vespermangxu kun mi hodiaux vespere.). la 2an de marto. alie mi vin renkontus cxe la tramvojo. posxt-o = post (letters. kiun mi okaze renkontis hieraux en la posxtoficejo. "ke" mi finas cxi tiun leteron per krajono. stat-o = state (political body) tram-o = tram.] * * * KELKAJ LETEROJ. numer-o = number (numeral). * * * * * * * Sirakuzo. mend-i = to order (of stores. Sendube vin surprizos ricevi leteron skribitan de mi cxe hotelo en cxi tiu urbo. konven-a = suitable. employment.) Venu je la sesa. Roberto. se tiu horo estas konvena. kaj mi tuj ekkaptas la okazon por skribi letereton. etc). chef. kie mi senprokraste vin renkontos. mi petas. b). etc.

Kara Sinjoro:-Vian adreson ni dankas al niaj komunaj amikoj Sinjoroj Miller kaj White. cxe Brown kaj Brown. Se viaj prezoj estas konvenaj. Smith. Brown. J. Sinjoro B. tablojn konvenajn por skribmasxinoj ("typewriters"). Nov-Jorka Sxtato. Estimata Sinjoro:-Ni havas la honoron sendi al vi en aparta koverto nian plej novan prezaron. Nov-Jorko. kaj specialajn librujojn. 13/VII/1911. kune kun la tie-presitaj prezoj. Kun alta estimo. Sinjoro J. Nov-Jorko. 17/VII/1911. Smith. Ni certigas al vi ke en cxiu okazo ni penos fari nian eblon por via plej bona intereso. kaj kiajn arangxojn vi volus fari.Boston. Rose. Niaj prezoj estos kiel eble plej malaltaj. Esperante ke la meblaroj priskribitaj en nia prezaro. Sirakuzo. * * * * * Bostono. farotajn laux niaj bezonoj. Wilson kaj Jones. ni sendube volos mendi de vi tian meblaron. ni restas. F. Estimataj Sinjoroj:-Bonvolu sendi al mi per revenanta posxto vian plej novan prezaron ("price-list"). Wilson kaj Jones. F. precipe al pagxoj 15-29. sed kompreneble ni ne pagos la koston de la sendado. en nia butiko. sciigante al ni kiom da procento vi donos. Ni havas bonegajn montrajn fenestrojn ("show-windows"). kaj volonte ricevos viajn ordonojn pri tio. Ni senpage metos cxiujn acxetitajn meblojn sur la vagonaron. Tie vi trovos priskribitaj niajn plej bonajn oficejajn meblarojn. kaj per cxi tio ni permesas al ni proponi al vi niajn servojn por la vendado de tiaj infanludiloj. preskaux meze de la cxefstrato en la urbo. . * * * * * Nov-Jorko. la 27an Majo. Ni multe gxojos se vi respondos kiel eble plej baldaux. kiajn vi fabrikas. Ni plezure fabrikos specialajn librujojn laux viaj bezonoj. kaj certigante al vi ke ni zorge plenumos cxiun mendon. estos plene kontentigaj. precipe skribtablojn. Kun respekto. Tial ni povus tre oportune administri tian aferon. F. Tre respekte la viaj. al kiu ni petas ke vi donu vian atenton. kaj en nia butiko trovigxas suficxe da grandaj vitramebloj ("show-cases"). Ni baldaux bezonos iujn novajn meblojn por niaj oficejoj. D. cxe Brown kaj Brown.

or after a preposition ending in a vowel: L' espero. La montrilo sxanceligxis. sxiri = to tear. sxangxi = to change. turni = to turn. to shut. The final "-o" of a noun may be elided in poetry.). La laboro nun finigxas. Cxiu kutimo sxangxigxos. etc. the sword bent. to finish. Kaj kantas tra l' pura aero. Some transitive verbs have English meanings which do not differ in form from the "intransitive" English verbs to which they are related (conversely to the use explained in 275). fini = to end. 280. l' obstino kaj la pacienco. La vintro jam komencigxas. In Esperanto the suffix "-igx-" (232). to feed. the leaves unroll (develop). Sur la kampo la rozet'. ne batu maltrankvile. La glavo fleksigxis. etendi = to extend. ruli = to roll. rompi = to break. a. ball. to collect. veki = to wake. mia kor'. the winter is already beginning. ELISION. the indicator trembled (vacillated). pasxti = to pasture. The final "-e" of an adverb is very rarely elided (except in the . to commence. sxanceli = to cause to vacillate. The original accent of the noun remains unchanged: Ho. volvi = to roll (around something). or a different root. movi = to move. svingi = to swing. versxi = to pour. hejti = to heat. SOME TRANSITIVE VERBS. Following are the more common verbs of this character. strecxi = to stretch. the work is now coming to an end. must be used when an intransitive meaning is desired. I shall awake at six (o'clock). to expand. to bend. together with examples of the intransitive use of several of them: balanci = to balance. De l' montoj riveretoj fluas. to flex. skui = to shake. It occurs most frequently in poetry. b. fleksi = to bend. to overturn. Elision is not common. mezuri = to measure.LESSON LX. montri = to show. c. renversi = to upset. Mi vekigxos je la sesa. klini = to incline. every custom will change. Vasta ebenajxo etendigxis antaux li. (wheel. and its use in writing as well as in speaking is best avoided. La folioj disvolvigxas. fermi = to close. 279. a vast plain extended before him. The "-a" of the article may be elided before a word beginning with avowel. kolekti = to gather. komenci = to begin.

mile. pratempa = primeval. (Thanks to you. eksregxo. The suffix "-cxj-" is used to form affectionate diminutives. The prefix "pra-" is used to form words expressing precedence in the line of descent.471 acres). . The prefix "eks-" is used to form words expressing a previous incumbent of a position. to resign. ex-king. eksigxi.0394 inch). pranepo = great grandson. 281. ex-president. The suffix "-nj-" forms similar feminine diminutives: Jocxjo = Johnnie.) THE PREFIX "EKS-". Manjo = May. hektometro = hektometer (328 feet 1 inch). ancestors.432 grains avoirdupois). decimetro = decimeter (3. kvadrata metro = square meter (1550 square inches). Consequently the metric system (already used by scientists everywhere and by the general public in many countries) is adopted for the international system of weights and measures: Length and Surface. pound) cannot convey a very definite meaning to one not familiar with the particular system used. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.3937 inch). . mi sukcesis. to discharge.expression "dank' al". gramo = gram (15.37 inches). milimetro = millimeter (. Joe. THE SUFFIXES "-CXJ-" AND "-NJ-". 282. 284. prapatroj = forefathers. kilometro = kilometer (3280 feet 10 inches. from the first syllable or syllables of masculine names or terms of address. or general remoteness in past time: praavo = great grandfather. to withdraw from one's office.62137 mile). or removal from such position: eksprezidanto. "funto". I succeeded.937 inches). Mamie. centimetro = centimeter (. which occurs in prose as well as in poetry): Ke povu mi foj' je eterno ekdormi! Dank' al vi. National systems of weights and measures translated into international form (as "mejlo". eksigi.7 inches). Pacxjo = Papa. THE PREFIX "PRA-". hektaro = hektare (2. Weight. 283. to put out of office. metro = meter (39. Panjo = Mamma. dekametro = dekameter (393.

Pro. hektogramo = hektogram (3. ekzempl-o = example. = N-ro.] Fino.1022 cubic inches.] Sino.dekagramo = dekagram (. [Mrs.] t. cent) cannot convey a very definite meaning to persons not familiar with these coins. sim. but for calculation and price quotations) is based upon a unit called the "speso".2046 pounds avoirdupois). = K-io. in a judicial sense.08 quart. The following abbreviations are often used (for those of the metric system see any English dictionary): Dro. kamer-o = camera.c.s. = postskribajxo. The spesmilo. Sd. fokus-o = focus. [Footnote: Cf. . to try.. moment-o = moment.3527 ounce avoirdupois). twenty-five francs. Names of national coins translated into international form (as "dolaro".] e. Sm. liquid). [etc. and "jugxi". k. 26. litro = liter (.] VOCABULARY.35 pecks.908 quart. = Profesoro. [Mr. decilitro = deciliter (6. reklam-i = to advertise. strecx-i = to stretch (trans. = kaj tiel plu. The multiples of this unit are the "spesdeko" (10 spesoj). plat-o = plate (photographic.] Ko. objective. hektolitro = hektoliter (2 bushels 3. is the unit commonly used. &. = ekzemple. auxtomat-a = automatic. [P. multiply by 2. "peni".417 gallons). THE INTERNATIONAL MONEY SYSTEM. 286. to try.] No. = Frauxlino. in the sense of taking pains or making an effort. [Prof.5274 ounce avoirdupois). "spescento" (100 spesoj). = Doktoro. = Sinjorino. aparat-o = apparatus. Numero.) ABBREVIATIONS. abon-i = to subscribe to. [and so forth]. 285.t. to try. (To reduce dollars to spesmiloj.308 cubic yards. fotograf-i = to photograph.] p. 2. dekalitro = dekaliter (9.] k. [No.845 gill). Capacity. one pound sterling. metal-o = metal. dollar. = kaj simila(j). the difference between "provi". [Dr. = tio estas.051.17 gallons). twenty marks.e. [et.] Sro.sim. equivalent to about $0.etc) prov-i = to try.S.g. = Sinjoro. etc. [e. kilolitro = kiloliter (1.6417 gallons). = spesmilo(j).. led-o = leather. 1.). funkci-i = to function. Ten spesmiloj have approximately the value of a five-dollar gold piece. take. = kaj ceteraj. dry measure. [Co. kilogramo = kilogram (2. "cendo".0567 quart.4875 in the money of the United States and Canada. [i. and "spesmilo" (1000 spesoj).e. Kompanio. work. original-o = original.] .] & = kaj. [Miss]. bov-o = ox. k.p. negativ-o = negative. dimensi-o = dimension. dry measure. in the sense of testing. 264. = spesdeko(j). making an essay or endeavor. Consequently the system devised for international use (not for actual coins. objektiv-o = lens.

* * Bostono. Kara Sinjoro:-Respondante al via estimata letero de la 12a. "La Infaneto" estas konstruita tute el metalo. . Sole la rapideca reguligo de la momenta ("instantaneous") fermilo estas plibonigita.." "La Infaneto" kamero havis neesperitan sukceson. "herewith". cxio") may also be used with certain adverbs. cxar gxis nun gxi estas cxiurilate kontentiga. Precipe cxe promenoj kaj vojagxoj oni tial volonte preferas la malgrandan "Infaneton. kiu estas arangxita por malfermoj dauxraj ("time exposures"). 6 x 9 centimetrojn.* * * PRI LA KAMERO. tio. Cxie oni unuvocxe lauxdas gxian malgrandan kaj tamen bonegan konstruon. 18an novembro. Kun respekto. C. kaj malbrila ("ground") vitro. etc. Sinjoroj:-Vidinte vian reklamon en gazeto al kiu mi abonas. Nov-Jorko. Gxi ne estas pli granda ol monujo. 12/XI/1910. mi skribas por peti ke vi sendu al mi priskribajxon de via kamero nomita "La Infaneto. ties. cxar ni gxin fabrikas kun speciala auxtomata fermilo. Por la pligrandigo ni fabrikas specialajn taglum-pligrandigajn aparatojn. La negativoj estas klaraj gxis la bordo. ni donas cxi sube mallongan priskribajxon de nia bonega fotografilo nomita "La Infaneto. kies prezoj estas malaltaj (vidu en nia prezaro).5 centimetroj.] * * * * * Nov-Jorko. kaj kovrita de bonega bovledo. kaj estas vendita po miloj da ekzempleroj. Sekve: neniaj preparadoj. Smith. Ni ne sxangxis la konstruon de "La Infaneto" de post 1909. "here below". tiamaniere ke la kamero estas preta por uzado post unu sekundo. tri platingoj. cxar la objektivfermilo ("shutter") estas cxiam strecxita. tial gxi ne bezonas pli multe da spaco ol tiu. [Footnote: The particle "cxi" (used with "tiu. "here above". "cxi kune". Bonvolu ankaux sendi dekduonon da platoj. Cetere. kaj tial konvenaj por pligrandigo. kaj povas esti portata kaj uzata treege konvene. 1910. La pezo. oni scias ke bona pligrandigo ofte pli kontentigas ol malgranda originalo. por kiu mi cxi* kune sendas spesmilon kaj duonon. nenia prokrasto je la ekfotografado." kiun eble mi deziros provi. La dimensioj de la fermita kamero estas 8 x 5 x 6. as "cxi sube". "cxi supre". Brown kaj Ko. cxiu. ni restas. je unu sekundo gxis unu centono da sekundo. Kiam oni malfermas la aparaton. estas 365 gramoj." por poste pligrandigi la negativojn. Esperante ke ni baldaux ricevos mendon de vi. kaj momentaj. kun objektivo. la objektivo samtempe enfokusigxas. J. kaj ankaux gxian firman samtempe facilan funkciadon. kaj certigante al vi ke ni tre zorge plenumos iun ajn mendon.

-acx. take (magazine. acxet-i = to buy. afabl-a = affable. 171. and interjection). amiable. abel-o = bee. barrister. and a large number of additional roots (to facilitate original composition). abiturient-o = bachelor of arts (A. . intrans. = intransitive. etc. References are to sections.Tre respekte la viaj. admon-i = to exhort. 116. acid-a = acid. abi-o = fir. See also the references given under each prefix and suffix. = transitive. A. 176. admonish. agac-i = to set on edge (of teeth). afrank-i = to frank (letters). for which an Esperanto-English Dictionary should be consulted. to manage. afisx-o = handbill. No attempt has been made. adore. 120. all primary words of the language. placard. advokat-o = lawyer.) is given. administr-i = to administer. prepay. agent-o = agent.= repetition of the word. matter. 159. * * * * * ESPERANTO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.B.). The following vocabulary includes all roots used in the preceding Lessons. Brown & Ko. poster. thing. 273). perform action. see Word Formation.). For formation of compound words. = adjective. 184. to include all of the roots in the language. adjektiv-o = adjective. abon-i = to subscribe to. cause. agit-i = to agitate. --ite. = adverb. see 160. = conjunction. -ad. abomen-a = abominable. post-paid. unless the page (p. Afrik-o = Africa. adv. 167. sour. = preposition. admir-i = to admire. good-bye (171. ador-i = to worship. adiaux = (adv. trans. agl-o = eagle. farewell. The following abbreviations are used: adj. -. aer-o = air. conj. adres-o = address (on letters. etc. however. For other parts of speech than those indicated under each root or primary word.). ag-i = to act.= suffix indicating duration (218). Per C. abrikot-o = apricot. prep.= derogatory suffix (272). adverb-o = adverb. agoni-o = agony. afer-o = affair. acer-o = maple (tree).

path (of garden. to. akcident-o = accident. akrid-o = grasshopper. axle. at least (66). Amerik-o = America. alkohol-o = alcohol. toward (46. anas-o = duck. akv-o = water. alauxd-o = lark (bird). akcel-i = (trans. beggar. hasten.). alumet-o = match (for fire). akompan-i = to accompany. algebr-o = algebra. anekdot-o = anecdote. alt-a = high. (145). tall. dimension. etc.). mass. altar-o = altar. shrill.agrabl-a = agreeable. akuz-i = to accuse. aktiv-a = active (grammatical).). ambos-o = anvil. al = (prep.= (suffix forming concrete words) (227). amel-o = starch. stress. ambaux = (pronoun). akir-i = to acquire.). ampleks-o = extent. almanak-o = almanac. receive. acute. Aleksandri-o = Alexandria. akcept-i = to accept. ale-o = avenue. ever (236). akvari-o = aquarium. ajn = (adv. --ulo. 160. -ajx. Aleksandr-o = Alexander. both (of two objects naturally in pairs. alkov-o = alcove. welcome.or of persons or things assumed or already known to be thus grouped) (238). park. 252). almoz-o = alms. amfibi-a = amphibious. . amas-o = crowd. akcent-o = accent. recess. make love. etc. walk. Alfred-o = Alfred. 251. amfiteatr-o = amphitheatre. akurat-a = accurate. ananas-o = pineapple. alud-i = to allude to.). amik-o = friend. agx-o = age. exact. am-i = to love. akuzativ-o = accusative. aktor-o = actor (player). akvarel-o = water-color painting. throng. aks-o = axis.= suffix denoting membership. -an. alfabet-o = alphabet. alk-o = elk. pleasant. akt-o = act (of a play). akademi-o = academy. amuz-i = to amuse. amindum-i = to woo. to accelerate. analiz-i = to analyse. ali-a = other. almenaux = (adv. akr-a = sharp.

Aristotel-o = Aristotle. aprob-i = to approve. apartament-o = apartment. aplauxd-i = to applaud. apud = (prep. drugstore. hardly.). Arhximed-o = Archimedes. arbitraci-i = to arbitrate. ari-o = tune. instead of (98. vindication. corner. antaux = (prep. arm-i = to arm. fragrance. aper-i = to appear. close by (120. 90. ans-o = latch. "antaux ol" (conj. aparat-o = apparatus.= suffix forming collectives (126). near to.). 159. antique. ankr-o = anchor. -ar. apotek-o = pharmacy. aplomb-o = assurance. 120. angxel-o = angel. arkad-o = arcade. antipati-o = antipathy. apog-i = to lean. 160). apenaux = (adv. argument-i = to argue.). chemist's shop. antilop-o = antelope. antikv-a = ancient. Aristejd-o = Aristeides. aren-o = arena. arangx-i = to arrange. ardez-o = slate (stone). arom-o = aroma. yet. arogant-a = arrogant. apart-a = separate. . ankaux = (adv. arme-o = army. angul-o = angle. arb-o = tree.). art-o = art. also.Angl-o = Englishman. air (music). arhxitektur-o = architecture. door-handle. suite (of rooms). armoraci-o = horse-radish. artik-o = joint. anser-o = goose. arane-o = spider.). 159).). self-command. ark-o = arc. ankoraux = (adv). argil-o = clay. still. 159). aparten-i = to belong. 97. aritmetik-o = arithmetic. april-o = April. anstataux = (prep. 98. anonc-i = to announce. scarcely. argxent-o = silver (metal). aristokrat-o = aristocrat. arest-i = to arrest. apati-o = apathy. anim-o = soul. Arab-o = Arab. apetit-o = appetite. to rest (upon). before (89. apologi-o = apology.

). Azi-o = Asia. atend-i = to wait. balanc-i = (trans. bat-i = to beat. bariton-o = barytone. etc. Artur-o = Arthur. bank-o = bank (financial). give witness. auxd-i = to hear. avert-i = to warn. barel-o = barrel. aven-o = oats. miserly. babil-i = to chatter. atest-i = to attest. atlet-o = athlete. bant-o = bow (of ribbon). avel-o = hazel-nut. ban-i = (trans. B.). av-o = grandfather. reach. auxtun-o = autumn. atlas-o = satin. aux = (conj. bal-o = ball (dance). poise. asoci-o = association (organization). Auxstrali-o = Australia. babble. atak-i = to attack. asekur-i = to insure (with a company).). avid-a = eager. bagatelle. bak-i = to bake. atribut-o = attribute. auxtomat-a = automatic. bagatel-o = trifle. ating-i = to attain. bala-i = to sweep (a floor. to bar. to bathe.artikol-o = article (grammatical or literary). to balance. auxtor-o = author. to obstruct. bar-i = (trans.). wait for. baldaux = (adv. barb-o = beard. bankrot-i = to become bankrupt. banan-o = banana. donkey. or. appearance.).). barakt-i = to wrestle. astr-o = heavenly body. baston-o = stick. either. . soon. expect. star. --i la kapon. bas-o = bass (voice). auxskult-i = to listen. barbar-o = barbarian. certify. struggle. azen-o = ass. aviz-i = to give notice. azot-o = nitrogen. bandagx-i = to bandage. balen-o = whale. avar-a = avaricious. aspekt-o = aspect. to nod the head. asparag-o = asparagus. caution. fail. auxgust-o = August. atmosfer-o = atmosphere. atent-a = attentive.

to welcome. estate. bank-note. bien-o = land. brun-a = brown. bov-o = ox. bril-i = to shine (116). ber-o = berry. bor-i = to bore (holes). blek-i = to neigh.= prefix expressing relationship by marriage (277). brak-o = arm (of the body). bord-o = shore. image. --viro. edge (of rivers. brancx-o = branch. bet-o = beet. bis = (adv. botel-o = bottle. bedauxr-i = to regret.batal-i = to fight. bier-o = beer.).). once more. bicikl-o = bicycle. bub-o = street arab. gamin. brut-o = cattle. bot-o = boot. bronz-o = bronze. bru-o = noise. cauliflower. bros-i = to brush. blind-a = blind. want. bird-o = bird. etc. bild-o = picture. bull. boj-i = to bark (of dogs). handsome. ben-i = to bless. brov-o = eyebrow. bel-a = beautiful. tile. battle. blov-i = to blow. Boston-o = Boston. batat-o = sweet potato. bol-i = (intrans. beast. property. sweet. belg-o = Belgian. to boil. (florbrasiko). brul-i = (intrans. blank-a = white. boat-o = boat. bret-o = shelf. to burn (275).). brasik-o = cabbage. blu-a = blue (color). bank--. biskvit-o = biscuit. --idajxo. bluz-o = blouse. dumb animal. veal. bon-a = good. bracket. brochure. bill. a second time. bibliotek-o = library. bezon-i = to need. bank. note. bombon-o = bonbon. . brosxur-o = pamphlet. brik-o = brick. encore. bek-o = beak. bill. bilet-o = ticket. bough. brand-o = brandy.). --ajxo. benk-o = bench. bifstek-o = beefsteak. brav-a = brave. --veni. bleat. brod-i = to embroider. bo. best-o = animal. beef. Brit-o = Briton. give its cry (of any animal). brid-o = bridle (of harness).

ringlet (of hair). bulvard-o = boulevard. col-o = inch (measure). butcher. centr-o = center. cirkonstanc-o = circumstance. to grieve. busx-o = mouth. deer. celeri-o = celery. cxe = (prep. cend-o = cent (coin). buton-o = button. cxagren-i = (trans. cerv-o = stag. buk-o = buckle (metal). store. vex. cxar = (conj. because. cilindr-o = cylinder. cert-a = certain. cxarm-a = charming. cifer-o = cipher.). sure. delightful. centigram-o = centigram (284). cel-i = to aim. cigar-o = cigar. centimetr-o = centimeter (284). butik-o = shop. cir-o = blacking (for shoes). ci = (pronoun). cent = hundred (142). buter-o = butter. young shoot. cxas-i = to hunt (game or wild animals). bukl-o = curl. cinam-o = cinnamon. bulb. burgxon-o = bud. cxap-o = cap. civiliz-i = to civilize. 160). thou (40). at. Cirus-o = Cyrus. buked-o = bouquet. cxarnir-o = hinge. cerb-o = brain. in the house or presence of (125.). bulk-o = roll (bread). citron-o = lemon. ceter-a = remaining. cxapitr-o = chapter (of book). cigared-o = cigarette. cit-i = to quote. cign-o = swan. CX. .). bulb-o = onion. head. cxapel-o = hat. cindr-o = ashes. centilitr-o = centiliter (284). C. principal. buf-o = toad. bulgar-o = Bulgarian. since (83). cxambr-o = room. annoy. cxef-a = chief. cidoni-o = quince. have as purpose or goal. cirkuler-o = circular (letter).bucx-i = to slaughter.

ten (136).). to thaw (275). deklam-i = to declaim. dank-i = to thank. every one. the more (used with "pli". 66). dekstr-a = right (not left).cxek-o = cheque. dat-o = date (chronological). to cease. de = (prep. cxemiz-o = shirt.). l00. dan-o = Dane. thick. around.). des = (adv. dekametr-o = dekameter (284).= suffix forming affectionate diminutives (283). dangxer-o = danger. dekagram-o = dekagram (284). decent. dejxor-i = to be on duty (of officer. 159. cxokolad-o = chocolate. dens-a = dense. -cxj.). cxiel-o = heaven. chemise.). each (173). cxiel = (adv. cxiom = (adv.). decimetr-o = decimeter (284). depesx-o = a dispatch. Damokl-o = Damocles. delikat-a = delicate. whether (when translated) (30. leave off (275). from. decid-i = to decide. decembr-o = December.). 160. detal-o = detail.). cxeriz-o = cherry. daktil-o = date (fruit).).) (99. everybody's (174). 89.). all (194). --viro. 160). 170). cxie = (adv. 66). "ne decas ke vi iru". cxeval-o = horse.). defend-i = to defend. inquire. deleg-i = to delegate. D. cxes-i = (intrans. cxies = (pronoun. da = (prep. sky. degel-i = (intrans. 84). last. cxi = (adv. of. cxial = (adv. cxiam = (adv. roundabout (89. of (after quantitative noun or adv. everywhere (182). possessive). cxia = of every kind (177). nice. cxio = (pronoun).). decigram-o = decigram (284). etc.). recite. cxen-o = chain (for watch. close. dainty. cxifon-o = rag. etc. it is not proper for you to go. dek = (adj. cxirkaux = (prep. all (233). by (49. in every way (193). for every reason (188).). dent-o = tooth. 103). always (187). stallion. decilitr-o = deciliter (284). dekalitr-o = dekaliter (284). everything. .). 120. dauxr-i = (intrans.). expresses proximity (60. dec-i = to be proper. 169. 101. danc-i = to dance.). demand-i = to ask. desert-o = dessert. cxu = (adv. cxiu = (pronoun and adj. to continue.). attendant.

different. diverse. dum = (prep and conj. -ec. manage.). Diogen-o = Diogenes. level. ecx = (adv. drog-o = drug. fondle. direkt-i = to direct.). distanc-o = distance. domagx-o = pity. spoil. distr-i = to distract.). divers-a = varied. dimensi-o = dimension. -ebl. regrettable affair. E. disting-i = to distinguish. dorn-o = thorn. diskut-i = to discuss. ache. so.= suffix forming abstracts (202).= suffix expressing possibility (161.). to drown (275). diplom-o = diploma. du = (adj. to divide. corpulent. efekt-o = effect.).). divid-i = (trans. diamant-o = diamond. diplomat-o = diplomat. present. ebri-a = inebriate. take away the attention. eben-a = even. flat. dorm-i = to sleep. dis. even. 120. dev-i = to have to. dors-o = back (of the body). dikt-i = to dictate (letters. dolor-o = pain. dorlot-i = to caress. edz-o = husband. dezir-i = to desire. two (136) dub-i = to doubt. 159).= prefix expressing separation (245). to hire (persons). must (247). dezert-o = desert. don-i = to give. married man. dolar-o = dollar. guide. diven-i = to guess. while (96. then.detru-i = to destroy. diferenc-a = different. dron-i = (intrans. 162). do = consequently. dot-i = to endow. donac-i = to make a gift. during. eduk-i = to bring up. educate. waste. intoxicated. pleasant. doktor-o = doctor. dolcx-a = sweet. difin-i = to define. dung-i = (trans. difekt-i = to damage. to destine. dom-o = house. dik-a = thick. efektiv-a = real. dir-i = to say (77). .) diligent-a = diligent. etc. Di-o = God. dimancx-o = Sunday. pet. actual. drap-o = cloth.

act (on). -er. erar-i = to err. energi-o = energy. outside of (120. c). make a mistake. shun. -estr. -em. elokvent-a = eloquent.efik-i = to be efficacious. to extend.). in (89. banish ekzist-i = to exist. etern-a = eternal. establ-i = to establish. 106. epok-o = epoch. ground floor. estim-i = to esteem. est-i = to be (109). escept-i = to except (266). eks. egal-a = equal. 138. el = (prep. . into (46). second story. F. enu-i = to be wearied. fab-o = bean (leguminous fruit). esplor-i = to investigate. elekt-i = to choose. en = (prep. esprim-i = to express. ek. to explode. evangeli-o = gospel. period. etagx-o = story (of a house).= suffix forming augmentatives (122). out of. ekzil-i = to exile. esper-i = to hope. unua etagxo. of. fabrik-i = to manufacture. ekzerc-i = (trans.). ekzempler-o = copy (of book or magazine). explore.).).= suffix expressing propensity or inclination (192). eksplod-i = (intrans. time. etend-i = (trans. faden-o = thread. widen. ekster = (prep. evoluci-o = evolution. 197. test. -ej.). ehx-o = echo. -eg. entuziasm-o = enthusiasm. fabel-o = story. lengthen. to exercise. ekscit-i = to excite. be bored. Euxrop-o = Europe. eksperiment-i = to experiment. produce a result. elektr-a = electric. 264. -et. out (75.= prefix expressing suddenness or beginning (206). teretagxo. 121). ekzempl-o = example. facil-a = easy.= suffix expressing leadership or authority (253).). ekzamen-i = to examine.= suffix expressing a component part (276). tale.= prefix expressing former incumbency (281).= suffix forming diminutives (198). eminent-a = eminent.160).= suffix forming words indicating place (III). entrepren-i = to undertake. fabl-o = fable. Egipt-o = Egypt. esting-i = to extinguish. evangel. envi-i = to envy. evit-i = to avoid.

flex. fakt-o = fact. flank-o = side. festen-o = banquet. fier-a = proud. --vojo. end. "malgranda fingro". fingr-o = finger. to close.fajf-i = to whistle. fashion. fi = (interjection). banner. forge. felicx-a = happy. fe-o = fairy. fidel-a = faithful. fizik-o = physics. to bend. fervor. fenestr-o = window. "longa fingro". hide (of animals). specialty. fajr-o = fire.). farun-o = flour. familiar-a = familiar. flag-o = flag. scent. thumb. middle finger. ring-finger. debase. flar-i = (trans. fazeol-o = bean (garden bean).).). brag.). --ino.). ferdek-o = deck (of ship). firm-a = firm. loyal. fiancx-o = betrothed man. fam-o = fame. fald-i = to fold. fal-i = to fall. fervor-o = zeal. "montra fingro". shut. favor-a = favorable. fie! (273). predestined. fak-o = department. fin-i = (trans. "ringa fingro". little finger. fiance. rumor. filozof-o = philosopher. to split. vaunt oneself. fason-o = cut. render. faraon-o = pharaoh (Egyptian ruler). femur-o = thigh.). fiakr-o = cab. fanfaron-i = to boast. . to smell. fals-i = to falsify.). fid-i = to rely upon. fauxk-o = jaw (literal and figurative). flik-i = to patch. physical science. flav-a = yellow. do. "dika fingro". februar-o = February. febr-o = fever. fand-i = (trans. fil-o = son. fer-o = iron. mode. fuse (metals. farmaci-o = pharmacy (knowledge of the use of drugs). fatal-a = fatal. railway. bunch. ghost. far-i = to make. renown. fart-i = to be in (good or bad) health. index finger. fay. fisx-o = fish. steady. to finish. fairy. farm-i = to farm (as a tenant). fend-i = (trans. fel-o = skin. accustomed. fask-o = bundle. fest-i = to celebrate. etc. to smelt. haughty. fleks-i = (trans. small standard. ferm-i = (trans. trust. fantom-o = phantom. famili-o = family.

mad. to fry. unmarried man. fraz-o = sentence. frauxl-o = bachelor. fund-o = bottom. gajn-i = to gain. funkci-i = to function. frunt-o = forehead. fresx-a = fresh. forges-i = to forget. forn-o = stove. gaj-a = gay. franc-o = Frenchman. away (71). establish. fos-i = to dig. foli-o = leaf. fort-a = strong. fotograf-i = to photograph frag-o = strawberry. fremd-a = foreign. . font-o = spring (of water). frukt-o = fruit. fut-o = foot (measure). fundament-o = foundation.). raging. strike. liquid. frot-i = to rub. fulm-o = lightning. fount. foj-o = time. frakas-i = to shatter. fung-o = mushroom. knave. frenez-a = crazy. frat-o = brother. fork-o = fork. form. occasion (127). fru-a = early. galeri-o = gallery. phrase. base. Frederik-o = Frederick. be an epicure. flu-i = to flow. furioz-a = furious. frap-i = to knock.flor-o = flower (116). for = (adv. fripon-o = rogue. funt-o = pound. flug-i = to fly. fokus-o = focus. G. break to pieces. funebr-o = mourning. new. rascal. frost-o = frost. frangx-o = fringe. fusx-i = to bungle. merry. frak-o = evening dress (for men). fromagx-o = cheese. fontan-o = fountain (artificial). fum-i = to smoke. framb-o = raspberry. formik-o = ant. fojn-o = hay. frit-i = (trans. frand-i = to be fond of sweets. fluid-a = fluid. form-o = shape. fond-i = to found.). work.

slide. gorgx-o = throat. ge. glu-o = glue. gxi = (pronoun).). gazet-o = gazette. --lando. geometri-o = geometry. 42. glor-o = glory. girland-o = garland. gas-o = gas.galop-i = to gallop. grave. as far as. gicxet-o = wicket. watch over. H. incommode. creep up. turnstile. grimp-i = to climb up. glad-i = to iron (linen. grand-a = great. big. gram-o = gram (284). magazine. gxust-a = exact. grinc-i = to grind. wreath. gravit-i = to gravitate. degree. --fleksi.). gurd-o = hurdy-gurdy. gxis = (prep. etc. GX. gxen-i = to disturb. gut-i = to drip. glut-i = to swallow. german-o = German. just. gast-o = guest. grad-o = grade. grek-o = Greek. gust-o = taste. gxeneral-a = general. graf-o = count. 37. glass. graci-a = graceful. barrel organ. county. 274). gxarden-o = garden. glob-o = globe. --ajxo. gant-o = glove. general-o = general (military). gren-o = grain (wheat. gnash. etc. be glad (116). polished. corn. gxu-i = to enjoy. gard-i = to guard. flat. to kneel. glav-o = sword. glas-o = tumbler. until (46. griz-a = gray. gras-o = fat. an ice (food). gramatik-o = grammar. common. gxem-i = to groan.= prefix indicating both sexes together (271). find pleasure in. Gertrud-o = Gertrude. gratul-i = to congratulate. . glit-i = to glide. gxoj-i = to rejoice. serious. grav-a = important. glat-a = smooth. it (32. large. gxentil-a = courteous. 89). gvid-i = to guide. glaci-o = ice. ticket-window. genu-o = knee. polite. grup-o = group.).

iam = (adv. herb-o = grass.hajl-o = hail (frozen rain). hieraux = (adv. yesterday (93. humil-a = humble. hom-o = human being. hxor-o = choir. hazard-o = chance. oh (273). hipokrit-i = to play the hypocrite. hazard. ide-o = idea. hund-o = dog. hektar-o = hektare (284). hektometr-o = hektometer (284). 171). ia = any kind of (208). hauxt-o = skin (human). ideal-o = ideal.). for any reason (213).). help-i = to help. horizont-o = horizon. honest-a = honest.). hektolitr-o = hektoliter (284). hezit-i = to hesitate. . hirund-o = swallow (bird). 171). hav-i = to have. temper. halt-i = (intrans.). port. today (93. ever. hejt-i = (trans. horlogx-o = clock. ident-a = identical. hejm-o = home. hotel-o = hotel. watch. -id. stop. honor-i = to honor. hxemi-o = chemistry. ho = (interjection). I. idiom-o = idiom. hor-o = hour (185). ho. hektogram-o = hektogram (284). hero-o = hero. to halt. herb. --ilo. hebre-o = Hebrew. Hieron-o = Hiero. horizontal-a = horizontal. once (212). aid. ial = (adv. hodiaux = (adv. assist. hura! = (interjection). histori-o = history. humor-o = humor. hurrah! HX. Holand-o = Holland. posxhorlogxo.).= suffix indicating descendant or young of (207). haven-o = harbor. axe. hont-i = to be ashamed. hispan-o = Spaniard. hxin-o = Chinaman. har-o = a hair. hel-a = bright. to heat (a place). hak-i = to chop. at any time.). hack. clear.

-igx. somewhere (209). iu = (pronoun). fancy.= suffix forming names of instruments (63). impres-i = to impress. a certain amount. ili = (pronoun) they (32. 160). infan-o = child. inter = (prep. indiferent-a = indifferent.). intim-a = intimate. -ist.). intern-a = internal. 275). iluzi-o = illusion. provoke.). -il. 89. some. inside.= suffix indicating profession. little by little (217).= suffix forming inchoative and intransitive verbs (232. ja = (adv.idiot-o = idiot. short coat. influ-i = to influence. ilustr-i = to illustrate. iom = (adv. unconcerned. insul-o = island. imag-i = to imagine. insist-i = to insist. . ink-o = ink. impuls-o = impulse. possessive). invit-i = to invite. iom post iom. unimportant. -ing. ie = (adv. 239. imit-i = to imitate.). somehow (216).= suffix expressing a holder or container (237). contaminate. inspir-i = to inspire. -ig. --e.). teach. business). io = (pronoun). in fact (215). ital-o = Italian.). infekt-i = to infect. -ind. something (233). jak-o = jacket. 239. intend-i = to intend. between. insekt-o = insect. already. ies = (pronoun. incit-i = to incite. iel = (adv. impost-o = tax. jam = (adv. indian-o = Indian (American). among (85. etc. 37. delusion. intermit-i = to be intermittent. interpret-i = to interpret. -in. 279). ignor-i = to ignore. ingxenier-o = engineer. instru-i = to instruct.= suffix forming feminines (59). ir-i = to go. industri-o = industry (trade. implik-i = to implicate. arouse. some one. insult-i = to insult. inteligent-a = intelligent. 42). interes-i = (trans. inform-i = to give information.= suffix forming causative verbs (214. indeed. a certain (one) (203).).= suffix expressing worth or merit (154). to interest. imperi-o = empire. somebody's (204). impost. (172). J.

ju = (adv. kapital-o = capital (money). 84). jxauxd-o = Thursday. kagx-o = cage.. 260). jxus = (adv.. journal.). jup-o = skirt. and. kadavr-o = corpse. kalkan-o = heel (of the foot). Jesu-o = Jesus. both. --umo. kandel-o = candle. kaf-o = coffee.. 185. kamer-o = camera. jugx-i = to judge. heel of a shoe. reckon. hurl. kap-o = head. a moment before.januar-o = January. kajer-o = notebook. je = prep. swear. there. jxurnal-o = newspaper. kanap-o = sofa. kahel-o = tile (for paving). kapel-o = chapel (for prayer). kanajl-o = scoundrel. jxaluz-a = jealous.). kalendar-o = calendar. kalesx-o = carriage. kapt-i = to catch. kamp-o = field. kaduk-a = decaying. jxongl-i = to juggle. jug-o = yoke.. the more (used with "pli". just-a = just. behold (228). cast. . jar-o = year. jen = (adv.). kanot-o = canoe. seize. just. kand-o = candy.. kamel-o = camel. juvel-o = jewel. kapitol-o = capitol. jun-a = young. upright. rascal. jurist-o = jurist. in ruin. jung-i = to harness.). (26). jxet-i = to throw. kaj. K. kant-i = to sing. kalkul-i = to calculate. of indefinite meaning (89. kaldron-o = caldron. kadr-o = frame (of pictures). jes = (adv. jxur-i = to take oath. kapabl-a = capable. juni-o = June.). kamen-o = chimney. kaj = (conj. yes (171). JX. juli-o = July.kaj.and. Johano = John.

cascade. kies = (pronoun. well-in-formed.). 185). klub-o = club (organization) knab-o = boy. hole.). brownie. what (233). distinct. --isto. --aj. 164. kilogram-o = kilogram (284). karakter-o = character. 155). possessive).). kat-o = cat. kio = (pronoun).kar-a = dear. gather. kastel-o = castle. . 146). treasurer. 156). karb-o = coal. karcer-o = jail. kobold-o = sprite. klin-i = (trans. kilolitr-o = kiloliter (284). 150). katen-o = fetter. kelner-o = waiter (in hotel or restaurant). where (118. 105. klav-o = key (of piano. to incline. cashier. koks-o = hip. klas-o = class. kest-o = chest. when (123. kis-i = to kiss. clatter. kolegi-o = college. kiu = (pronoun). 147).).). posxtkarto.). kolbas-o = sausage. karot-o = carrot. kiamanier-e. karton-o = pasteboard.). kia = what kind of (112. whose (107. chain. kasxtan-o = chestnut. kiel = (adv. etc. chest with a lid. visiting card. kart-o = card. 83. in which way. karn-o = flesh.). how. kolekt-i = (trans. kling-o = blade (of knife. klopod-i = to undertake initiative work. karusel-o = merry-go-round. to collect. kial = (adv. drawer. several. 262). 151). kares-i = to caress. kler-a = enlightened. koler-i = to be angry. ke = (conj. 259. how much (140. kaz-o = case (grammatical). kobold. kas-o = money-box. kie = (adv. as (134. kok-o = cock (domestic fowl). postcard. kilometr-o = kilometer (284). kiom = (adv. kel-o = cellar. klimat-o = climate.). klak-i = (trans. prized. kauxz-o = cause. labor for the success or completion of something. conceal (252). kaskad-o = waterfall. take steps toward. why (129). klar-a = clear. kofr-o = trunk.). kav-o = cavity. koket-a = coquettish.). bend. who (106. kasx-i = to hide. lose the temper. how. etc. kiam = (adv. kelk-a = some. treasury. tirkesto. more than one or two. that (53. kol-o = neck. to clap. vizitkarto.

komfort-o = comfort (freedom from pain. konservativ-a = conservative. want. konform-i = to be in conformity with (266). disposition to oblige. komplez-o = kindness. give the agency for. condition. lead.) to compare. etc. kolonel-o = colonel. kompot-o = jam. --isto. compete. komerc-i = to trade. counsel. etc. komedi-o = comedy. compositor. etc. set (type). konstant-a = constant. konscienc-o = conscience. konspir-i = to conspire.). kolon-o = column. kompat-i = to pity. ascertain the truth of. (266). kongres-o = congress (assembly). employee.). conduct oneself. confound. etc. komenc-i = (trans. konduk-i = to conduct. dove. plot. put in charge of. konkurenc-o = competition (in business. know. konstru-i = to build.). pickle (fruits. komunik-i = to communicate. kompani-o = company (commercial organization). kolport-i = to peddle. konstat-i = to verify. engage in commerce.). komplet-o = suit (of clothes). etc. to begin. komisi-i = to entrust with. assistant. --atigxi kun. save. konfuz-i = to confuse.). . komun-a = common. konsul-o = consul. formal competition (for prizes. agree.).). komb-i = to comb. courtesy. kon-i = to be acquainted with. preserve. admit. etc. konstituci-o = constitution. comfort. konsent-i = to consent. konsist-i = to consist. konsonant-o = consonant.kolomb-o = pigeon. komitat-o = committee. komplik-i = to complicate. koncern-i = to concern (266). konserv-i = to keep. pillar. preserve. konkurs-o = prearranged trial of skill. kolor-o = color. konkur-i = to vie. commence. konsci-i = to be conscious. kondut-i = to behave. stipulation. konduktor-o = conductor (of car. mutual. have compassion for. komiz-o = clerk. konsil-i = to advise. to become acquainted with (117). konfit-i = to preserve. konfid-i = to trust. kondicx-o = terms specified. konfes-i = to confess. konsol-i = to console. kompar-i = (trans. certify. train. kompren-i = to understand. kondamn-i = to condemn. komand-i = to command (military and naval). kompost-i = to compose. have confidence in. konk-o = shell (of mollusk. koncert-o = concert (musical).

kost-i = to cost. kred-i = to believe (265). be fitting or convenient. koridor-o = corridor. krad-o = grating. grate. kotlet-o = cutlet. 160). kruc-o = cross. kontralt-o = contralto. kotiz-i = to pay dues.). kont-o = account (book-keeping. half-light of dawn or evening. except. kribr-i = to sift (with a sieve). krak-i = to clack. etc. inspect. kri-i = to cry out.konsult-i = to seek advice of. --a. lattice. tap. passage. korb-o = basket. beside. kontuz-i = to bruise. kontur-o = outline. chop. korekt-i = to correct. kork-o = cork (bark). kravat-o = cravat. commercial). Krist-o = Christ. kritik-i = to criticise. opposed to (159. korp-o = body. kre-i = to create. kret-o = chalk. kostum-o = costume. korpus-o = corps (military). kor-o = heart (of the body). agree. kov-i = to brood (of birds). korv-o = raven. korn-o = horn. to burst. tea-pot. kopi-i = to copy. kripl-a = crippled. koton-o = cotton. krom = (prep. corporeal. krocx-i = to hook. pay one's share of an assessment.). kontinent-o = continent (geographical). but. --umi. crack open (suddenly and with noise). aside from. to crucify. konvink-i = to convince. krev-i = (intrans. consult. correspond. tekrucxo. krestomati-o = chrestomathy.). kontrakt-i = to contract. collection of selected passages. kontent-a = content. satisfied. kring-o = ring-shaped biscuit. crackle. persuade. kort-o = courtyard. opposite. jug. krepusk-o = twilight. krucx-o = pitcher. contour. save.). . kron-o = crown. krab-o = crab. kontraux = (prep. kovert-o = envelope kovr-i = to cover. court. krajon-o = pencil. kran-o = faucet. examine and check. korespond-i = to exchange letters. krim-o = crime. kresk-i = to grow. against. kot-o = mud. kontrol-i = to control. konven-i = to be suitable. kortego = court (royal. krem-o = cream.

kvartal-o = quarter (of a city). although.). kutim-o = custom. L. the (II. a physician. terkulturi. cure. kuragx-o = courage. kunikl-o = rabbit. five (136). as though. kun = (prep. weary. texture. lag-o = lake. kugl-o = bullet. though. 160. kvazaux = (conj. to till the soil. --ajxo. four (136). lan-o = wool. large basin.). farm. kusx-i = to lie. labor. recline (239). 280. kur-i = to run. laktuk-o = lettuce.). kvankam = (conj. krust-o = crust. 120. la = (article). country. lantern-o = lantern. kupr-o = copper (metal). kultur-i = to cultivate. kvin = (adj. 159). lad-o = tin plate (sheet iron covered with tin). kuv-o = tub. kuir-i = to cook. kvar = (adj. spear. kupon-o = coupon. kukurb-o = pumpkin.).). kusen-o = cushion.kruel-a = cruel. lanc-o = lance. lace (of shoe. habit. medical man. kuk-o = cake. kvitanc-o = receipt (for payment). quiet. labor-i = to work. while (concessive).). 76. kuz-o = cousin. etc. with (70. lakt-o = milk. kviet-a = calm. land-o = land. kurac-i = to treat for illness. kurs-o = course (of lessons). kurb-o = curve. lang-o = tongue (of the body). as if (250). kukum-o = cucumber. kurioz-a = uncommon. lamp-o = lamp. kubut-o = elbow. amount. . curious. 201. 47. kudr-i = to sew. lacx-o = string. kulp-a = guilty. --ato. kurten-o = curtain. a). kuler-o = spoon. lac-a = tired. pastry. a patient. krut-a = steep. kvant-o = quantity. krur-o = leg. --isto. kvadrat-o = square (equilateral rectangle). lam-a = lame. kverk-o = oak. kvalit-o = quality.

lit-o = bed (for sleeping). supply. leter-o = letter (epistle). lingv-o = language. bond. furnish. lorn-o = telescope. literal. alliance. literatur-o = literature. legom-o = vegetable. lokomotiv-o = locomotive. . lim-o = limit. libr-o = book. lard-o = bacon. lepor-o = hare. moustache. li = (pronoun). lauxb-o = arbor. lift. league. lig-i = to tie. lini-o = line. spyglass. lav-i = to wash. --ilo. liber-a = free. 42). --haroj. lul-i = to lull to sleep. along. --eto. opera-glasses. local. lup-o = wolf. knot. macx-i = to chew. masticate. logx-i = to dwell. summer-house. latin-a = Latin. lund-o = Monday. liter-o = letter of the alphabet. rent (engage and pay rent for). lauxlitera. --ilo. --o. bind. last-a = last (in a series). lud-i = to play. boundary. broad. let. lu-i = to hire. lert-a = clever. legx-o = law. largx-a = wide. lauxd-i = to praise. --ilo. luks-o = luxury. permit. lok-o = place.). lun-o = moon. lunatik-o = lunatic. limonad-o = lemonade. larm-o = tear (of the eye). him (32. M. in accordance with. lauxt-a = loud. skilful. lern-i = to learn. --ajxo. lev-i = to raise. cradle. las-i = (trans. lign-o = wood. lecion-o = lesson. laux = (prep. leon-o = lion. liver-i = to deliver. reside (133).lanug-o = down (hairs. to leave. led-o = leather. ruler. 37. --a. by (191). fasten. log-i = to allure. feathers). lum-i = to shine (275). lek-i = to lick. that which ties or fastens. lip-o = lip. he.). long-a = long. litr-o = liter (284). lonicer-o = honeysuckle. leg-i = to read.

mank-i = (intrans. tell lies.) masxin-o = machine. majest-a = majestic. makul-o = spot. magistr-o = master of arts (A. maiz-o = maize. mem = (pronoun). mart-o = March. etc. maj-o = May. metal-o = metal. mard-o = Tuesday. Mari-o = Mary. met-i = to put. material-o = material. melk-i = to milk. majones-a = mayonnaise.). makaroni-o = macaroni. mebl-o = piece of furniture. memor-i = to remember. manik-o = sleeve. malgraux = (prep. self. marmelad-o = marmalade. . mal. mend-i = to order (of a store. manuskript-o = manuscript. mark-o = mark. wanting. maten-o = morning (93). meleagr-o = turkey. matur-a = ripe.= prefix forming opposites (67). melon-o = melon. to recall to memory. meti-o = trade. member. maleol-o = ankle. merkred-o = Wednesday. mar-o = sea. handicraft. mangx-i = to eat. jawbone. marcx-o = swamp. man-o = hand. marsx-i = to walk. mejl-o = mile. rememori. martel-o = hammer. --osto. marsh. to be lacking. selves (219). majstr-o = master (of his art or profession).). etc. merit-i = to deserve. mantle. stain. merit. melodi-o = melody.). mehxanik-o = mechanics. place. makzel-o = jaw. way. keep in mind. notwithstanding. malic-a = malicious. Indian corn. menton-o = chin. mensog-i = to lie. menu-o = menu.M. mature.). magi-o = magic. mastr-o = master (of a house. mantel-o = cloak. membr-o = limb. merl-o = blackbird. maksimum-o = maximum. medicin-o = medicine (the science). manier-o = manner. marmor-o = marble (stone). mandat-o = money-order.magazen-o = warehouse.

to mix. mosxt-o = title of respect (258). miop-a = shortsighted.). 37). minimum-o = minimum. mut-a = dumb.metod-o = method. etc. mil = (adj. mute. put in motion. . murmur-i = to murmur. mister-o = mystery. mild-a = mild. mod-o = mode. N. muze-o = museum. mizer-o = misery. mi = (pronoun). mol-a = soft. mineral-o = mineral. mon-o = money. mustard-o = mustard. nagx-i = to swim. monarhxi-o = monarch. mort-i = to die.). milimetr-o = millimeter (284). model-o = model. --a.). --eco. montr-i = (trans. muzik-o = music. I. mir-i = to wonder. morality. minac-i = to threaten. monahx-o = monk. mus-o = mouse. muel-o = mill (for grinding). mond-o = world. metr-o = meter (284). min-o = mine (of coal. mien-o = appearance. --igi. musx-o = fly. mor-o = conduct (in regard to right or wrong).). moral-a = moral. wage war. tomorrow (171). moder-a = moderate. mord-i = to bite. mov-i = (trans. ministr-o = minister (political). monat-o = month. mezur-i = to measure. milion-o = million. way. mugx-i = to roar. milit-i = to fight.). silver. miel-o = honey. momentary. moment-o = moment. mok-i = to mock. fashion. minut-o = minute. to show. morgaux = (adv. modest-a = modest. mont-o = mountain. thousand (142). to move. mur-o = wall. mien. instantaneous. to kill. mult-a = much (81).). --oj. morals. naci-o = nation. me (32. bellow. mez-o = middle. miks-i = (trans.

to name. neniu = (pronoun). never (226). ni = (pronoun). nine (136). nun = (adv. mention. certainly. negativ-o = negative (photographic). no one. objektiv-o = lens.). nur = (adv. nov-a = new.). najbar-o = neighbor. give birth to. nebul-o = fog. hue. nokt-o = night. numer-o = number. obe-i = to obey (265). nobl-a = noble (in character). nom-o = name. denove. nuks-o = nut. nerv-o = nerve. tint. numeral (No. nothing (233). anew. neuxtral-a = neutral. nowhere (225). neniam = (adv. none. not (27.).). . naz-o = nose. 37). recent. thing. nap-o = turnip. a. now (171). nenio = (pronoun). nord-o = north. nutr-i = to nourish. nobody. ingenuous. naked. 66.= suffix forming affectionate diminutives (283).). --i. negx-o = snow.). well! (273). naux = (adj. only. nepr-e = inevitably. novembr-o = November.). objekt-o = object.). no. not-o = note. nude. nenie = (adv. nu = (interjection). nep-o = grandson. nobel-o = nobleman. nivel-o = level. -nj. ne = (adv. nev-o = nephew. natur-o = nature.naiv-a = artless. O. objective. nask-i = to produce. novel. nul-o = zero. nostalgi-o = homesickness. neces-a = necessary.). not any (231). nor (31). 171). nenia = no kind of (224). nigr-a = black. neniom = (adv. non-partisan. norveg-o = Norwegian. bring forth. naught. us (32. we. again. nobody's (221). nuanc-o = shade. mist. najl-o = nail (of metal). nud-a = bare. unfailingly. naive. for no reason (229). nest-o = nest. no (220). neniel = (adv. merely.). possessive). to feed. neither. nub-o = cloud.). in no way (230). nenial = (adv. nenies = (pronoun. nombr-o = number (quantity). nek = (negative conj.

eksterordinara. offer.). organ-o = organ (physical). eight (136). ond-o = wave. P. ofend-i = to offend. oktobr-o = October. padel-i = to paddle. ok = (adj. . ordinar-a = ordinary. extraordinary. etc. ol = (conj. ordon-i = to order. than (82. oblikv-a = oblique. ofic-o = office. orel-o = ear (of the body). ofer-i = to sacrifice. take place. ov-o = egg. original-o = original. ort-a = right-angled. or-o = gold. orf-o = orphan. oportun-a = handy. command. adorn. observ-i = to observe. orkestr-o = orchestra. shade. 98). ord-o = order (methodical or proper arrangement). okcident-o = west. bid. -op. paf-i = to shoot (with gun. they (54). obstin-a = obstinate.). orgen-o = organ. okup-i = to occupy. onkl-o = uncle. --ejo. ombr-o = shadow.). oficial-a = official. pacienc-o = patience. oficir-o = officer (military or naval). ornam-i = to ornament. office (the place). odor-i = to smell (good or bad). (musical instrument). oliv-o = olive.= suffix forming fractions (166). yawn. ostr-o = oyster. slanting. organiz-i = to organize. ostracism-o = ostracism. ocean-o = ocean. opportune. occur. orangx-o = orange (fruit). oper-o = opera.= suffix forming collective numerals (261). take note of. officer (of firm or organization). oni = (pronoun). --isto. pac-o = peace. pag-i = to pay. ost-o = bone. orient-o = east. one. oft-a = frequent. osced-i = to gape. employment. okul-o = eye.-obl. opini-i = to have the opinion. -on.= suffix forming multiples (186). convenient. okaz-i = to happen. ombrel-o = umbrella. 97. think. ole-o = oil.

pasi-o = passion. by heart. pantalon-o = trousers. priest. parenc-o = relative (person). pal-a = pale.). with. part-o = part. perfekt-a = perfect. pasxt-i = (trans.pagx-o = page (of a book. per = (prep. paradiz-o = paradise. pelt-o = coat or wrap of fur. pasiv-a = passive. paper-o = paper (material). etc. pastr-o = pastor. penetr-i = to penetrate. Pask-o = Easter. penik-o = paintbrush. pere-i = to perish. parol-i = to speak (77). twitter. patr-o = father. pek-i = to sin. try.). pas-i = (intrans. pekl-i = to pickle (meat. by (64). parker-e = by rote.).). --a. etc. pec-o = piece. small pie. pak-i = to pack. hair pencil. pend-i = (intrans. pastecx-o = patty. treacherous.). palis-o = stake. pen-i = to strive. pent-i = to repent. perfidious. paragraf-o = paragraph. period-a = periodic. paser-o = sparrow. touch (the sense). parfum-o = perfume. palac-o = palace. to pasture. par-o = pair. pan-o = bread. . park-o = park. perd-i = to lose. papili-o = butterfly. pajl-o = straw. pat-o = pan. pasagxer-o = passenger. --ado. pejzagx-o = landscape. palisade. etc. palp-i = to feel (with the fingers. perfid-i = to betray. to hang. paralel-a = parallel. by means of. pasx-i = to step. pastinak-o = parsnip. pep-i = to chirp. drive off. particip-o = participle.). morsel. to pass. clergyman. from memory. --aro. shepherd. pavim-o = pavement. feed. pauxz-o = pause. share. pantofl-o = slipper. frying-pan. --isto. palpebr-o = eyelid. pardon-i = to forgive.). pentr-i = to paint. pel-i = to chase away. pens-i = to think. pardon (265).

plum-o = pen. peron-o = platform (railway). place (broad. pint-o = point. malplej. pedestrian. plen-a = full. --isto. 81. plu = (adv. pneuxmatik-o = pneumatic tire. pingl-o = pin. summit. pipr-o = pepper. person-o = person. persevere. --ajxo. more. 81). permes-i = to permit. kerosene. mash. further. plet-o = tray. plug-i = to plow. most (74. pi-a = pious. weigh. pionir-o = pioneer. malpli. roguish. pied-o = foot. to splash. scheme. --ilo. pincx-i = to pinch. short street or open space). --iranto. plait. prosecute.). piedestal-o = pedestal. plan-o = plan. placx-i = to please. pes-i = (trans. pist-i = to crush. allow. plumber. to be heavy. pice-o = spruce (tree). plumb-o = lead (metal).perl-o = pearl. planed-o = planet. pitoresk-a = picturesque. let.). pir-o = pear. petrosel-o = parsley. plat-a = flat. to be pleasing (265). pilk-o = ball (to play with). persist-i = to persist. to fulfil. pik-i = to prick. 79. peruk-o = wig.). puree. plafon-o = ceiling. petrol-o = petroleum. pland-o = sole (of the foot). po = (prep. at the rate of (175). beg. dabble (a liquid). persekut-i = to persecute. cry.). least (80). more (74. pli = (adv. sting. pip-o = pipe (for smoking). piz-o = pea. pin-o = pine (tree). 162). saucy. plank-o = floor. petol-i = to be mischievous. plac-o = public square. pinnacle. persik-o = peach. ask. scales. 79. plekt-i = to weave. stoop (entrance porch). braid. plej = (adv. to ascertain the weight of. plant-i = to plant. plend-i = to complain. plane. pez-i = (intrans.). pet-i = to request. balance. plauxd-i = (trans. . plad-o = flat dish. pinakotek-o = picture gallery. less (80). plezur-o = pleasure. pilgrim-i = to go on a pilgrimage.).). poem-o = poem. pluv-o = rain. any more. plor-i = to weep. plenum-i. feather.

pro = (prep. mighty. percentage. postul-i = to require. folk.poet-o = poet. sham. princ-o = prince. premi-o = premium. --anto. prez-o = price. cup. problem-o = problem. bear. because of. concerning. pol-o = Pole. of (160. post = (prep. by. pregx-i = to pray. pont-o = bridge. for (86). almost. princip-o = principle. pres-i = to print.). poezi-o = poetry. prav-a = right. --ejo. polic-o = police (force). prefer-i = to prefer. --marko. port-i = to carry. china. pov-i = to be able. polur-i = to polish. praktik-o = practice.). share. potenc-a = powerful. printemp-o = spring (season). pri = (prep. pokal-o = goblet. in the right. prezid-i = to preside. demand.). postal money order. lay claim to. por = (prep. pomp-o = pomp. chief. porcelan-o = porcelain.). politik-o = politics. porci-o = portion. polv-o = dust. on account of. chairman. pord-o = door. pig. own. make smooth and glossy. prepar-i = to prepare. behind (89. precip-a = principal. procent-o = interest. preskaux = (adv. . 264. pom-o = apple. --mandato. prize.= prefix indicating remoteness in line of descent (282).). poesy. after. prezent-i = to present. pra. prefiks-o = prefix. for (95. preciz-a = precise. pot-o = pot. about. pretekst-i = to make pretext of. president. preter = (prep. pork-o = swine. 262). posed-i = to possess. 120). past. 98. pretend-i = to make pretension to. offer. polm-o = palm (of the hand). postage stamp. posx-o = pocket. hog. polus-o = pole (geographical). prem-i = to press. can (72). popular-a = popular. posxt-o = post (mail). church. --kesto. pret-a = ready. splendor. popol-o = a people. presiding officer. pren-i = to take.). predik-i = to preach. portret-o = portrait. pretend. mailbox. c). beyond.

discount or rebate. put-o = well (for water). spoke (of wheel). etc. rational. progres-i = to progress. to repulse. proklam-i = to proclaim. prujn-o = hoar frost. prov-i = to try. to lend. protokol-o = minutes (of a meeting). to borrow. offer. piece of prose. rajd-i = to ride (horse. plunder. rabat-i = to rebate. profesi-o = profession. --ajxo. prose composition. punt-o = lace (point. pulm-o = lung. give a reduction. radi-o = ray (of light). proporci-o = proportion. malpropra. produkt-i = to produce. to publish. prokrast-i = to delay.). profound. proksim-a = near. rab-i = to pillage. --i. promes-i = to promise. legal process. to appropriate. --isto. pusx-i = to push. prunt-o = loan. promen-i = to go walking. pun-i = to punish.proces-o = lawsuit. radius. rad-o = wheel. rajt-o = right (to something). radik-o = root. purpur-a = purple. --i. calling. R. profil-o = profile. procrastinate. pur-a = clean. puding-o = pudding. etc. test. refinery. --igi al si. repusxi. propr-a = own (one's own). publik-o = public (the). pudr-i = to powder. psalm-o = psalm. --e preni. pump-i = to pump. profund-a = deep. --igi. other people's. pure. rafan-o = radish. sensible. rabarb-o = rhubarb. pupitr-o = desk. robber. profit-o = profit. propon-i = to propose. narrate (77). --ejo. profesor-o = professor. pulv-o = gunpowder. rafin-i = to refine. prosper. protest-i = to protest. proviz-i = to provide. --e doni. give proof of. protekt-i = to protect. rakont-i = to relate. to profit (by). promenade. attempt. projekt-o = project. prosper-i = to have success. pruv-i = to prove. .). prun-o = plum. make one's own. prudent-a = reasonable. pugn-o = fist. occupation. proz-o = prose. pup-o = doll.

ran-o = frog. rapid-a = rapid. real-a = real. rekt-a = straight.). --ano. registr-i = (trans. to upset. register (a letter). give in resume.ramp-i = to creep. direct. region-o = region. governed body. regx-o = king. reap.). ricx-a = rich. grater. rekomend-i = to recommend. speed. restoraci-o = restaurant. rel-o = rail. dream. respekt-i = to respect. citizen. rigard-i = to look. vivrimedoj. respond-i = to answer. rembur-i = to upholster. rigl-i = to bolt (fasten). govern. quick. rem-i = to row. rekompenc-i = to recompense. reg-i = to rule. reklam-i = to advertise. stuff. refut-i = to refute. rat-o = rat. reciprok-a = reciprocal. renvers-i = (trans. review. undeviating. grade. redakci-o = editorial department. enroll. regal-i = (trans. rest-i = to remain. . rimen-o = thong. reprezent-i = to represent. strap. to meet. clamber.). raz-i = to shave. means of livelihood. regn-o = state. stay. dignity. rezult-i = to result. give a report. note. ras-o = race (tribe. way. ricev-i = to receive. --o. redakt-i = to edit. redingot-o = frock coat. rezon-i = to reason (exert the power of reasoning). redaktor-o = editor. rilat-i = to have relation (to) (266). regul-o = rule. raport-i = to report. crawl. rang-o = rank. reign. to register. netting. people. pad. rand-o = edge. resum-i = to summarize. rifuz-i = to refuse. rauxk-a = hoarse. mutual (180). revu-o = journal. --ilo. rasp-i = to rasp. raucous. grate. rimark-i = to notice. treat (to food or drink). rid-i = to laugh (265).). ret-o = net. renkont-i = (trans. rikolt-i = to harvest. nation). haste. magazine. reward. rev-i = to indulge in revery. to regale. subject. religi-o = religion. --emo.= prefix indicating repetition or return (223). fancy. regulation. rav-i = to enchant. rimed-o = means. border. respublik-o = republic. re.

sabl-o = sand.ring-o = ring. river-o = river. repair. sly. ring. Robert-o = Robert. sag-o = arrow. etc. scienc-o = science.). salut-i = to salute. rutin-o = routine. salon-o = parlor. rescue.). hungry. rul-i = (trans. salat-o = salad. rus-o = Russian. sel-o = saddle. gravy. if (240). . sekund-o = second (of time). rob-o = dress. rond-o = circle. roz-o = rose (flower). robe. sam-a = same. sem-o = seed. se = (conj. salajr-o = salary. sarden-o = sardine. malsata.). round. greet. ruin-o = ruin. S. but. sal-o = salt. sat-a = sated. sak-o = sack. rip-o = rib. rust-i = to rust. sankt-a = sacred. ruz-a = crafty. cunning. sekv-i = to follow. --i. sagx-a = wise. ripet-i = to repeat. salt-i = to jump.). sabat-o = Saturday. sang-o = blood. san-a = healthy. riz-o = rice. to roll (ball. sap-o = soap. leap. rugx-a = red. to sow. segx-o = chair. rubus-o = blackberry. bag. riprocx-i = to reproach. rest. sek-a = dry. wages. sav-i = to save. holy. ripar-i = to mend. ruband-o = ribbon. seg-i = to saw. sauxc-o = sauce. sekret-o = secret. sci-i = to know (117). rost-i = to roast. dressing. well. ros-o = dew. romp-i = (trans.). sed = (conj. sekretari-o = secretary. ripoz-i = to repose. to break. drawing-room.

similar.). silent-i = to be silent (239). trace. lot. seven (136). ensorcxi. --isto. . expert. sklav-o = slave. to bewitch. sinjor-o = gentleman. songx-i = to dream (in sleep). sezon-o = season. bell. si = (pronoun. bucket. skrib-i = to write.). 44. sent-i = to feel. savage. skulpt-i = to carve. societ-o = society. skiz-i = to sketch. skatol-o = small box or case. sercx-i = to seek. (163). --ilo. silab-o = syllable. sen = (prep. sibl-i = to hiss. sigel-i = to seal. sound. --ano. serur-o = lock. sep = (adj. six (136). ses = (adj. soif-i = to be thirsty. spert-a = experienced. simpl-a = simple. perceive. sol-a = alone. look for. Scotchman. sample. Sokrat-o = Socrates. sid-i = to sit (239). skot-o = Scot. long. septembr-o = September. sole. Sirakuz-o = Syracuse. send-i = to send. sort-o = destiny. somer-o = summer. spac-o = space. silk-o = silk. without (248).). 274). senator. sovagx-a = wild. sojl-o = threshold. herself. himself. sitel-o = pail. senat-o = senate. meaning. etc. whistle (wind. sorb-i = to absorb.semajn-o = week. (40. hunt.). mean. simil-a = like. specimen-o = specimen. son-i = (intrans. mark. Mr. solen-a = formal. sigh. fate. solemn. to shake. spec-o = kind. only. simi-o = monkey.). blotting-paper.). sign-o = sign. special-a = special. --papero. to sound. sever-a = severe. sonor-i = (intrans. to ring. spegul-o = mirror. soldat-o = soldier. skrap-i = to scrape. sculpture. species. sort. sorcx-o = witchcraft.). sku-i = (trans. sopir-i = to yearn. reflexive). servic-o = course (of a meal). signif-i = to signify. etc. senc-o = sense. serv-i = to serve. stern. sorcerer.

stri-o = streak. band. spend. star-i = to stand (239). sufiks-o = suffix. supoz-i = to suppose. sprit-a = witty. strecx-i = (trans. expend. sur = (prep.). --ajxo. sved-o = Swede.). sufer-i = to suffer. to cross off. 284). standard-o = standard. upon (160). trastreki. surd-a = deaf. above. stenography. condition. --ega. 160). abrupt. surpriz-i = to surprise. spinac-o = spinach. substreki. stomak-o = stomach. sup-o = soup. surstreki. above.). suficx-i = to suffice. stenografi-o = shorthand. spite = (prep. boat. receive (funds). or line. juice (of plants. sulfur-o = sulphur. beneath (121. stan-o = tin (metal). svis-o = Swiss. swoon. above. stil-o = style. staci-o = station (railway. sud-o = south. etc. --a. to stew. swing. surface. stud-i = to study. to suffocate. sun-o = sun. strike out. suspekt-i = to suspect. stamp. sving-i = (trans. suker-o = sugar. superior. to stretch.spes-o = speso (international unit of money. over (159).). etc. spir-i = to breathe. to disburse. peculiar. amount.).). stuf-i = (trans. stripe.). subit-a = sudden. strang-a = strange. elspezi. in spite of. stump-o = stump (of tree. supr-e = (adv. strat-o = street. succulent. to take in. to exhale. flag. stamp-i = to mark officially.). sugesti-i = to suggest. supersticx-o = superstition. stat-o = state (of being). strek-i = to make a streak. on.). sub = (prep. endure.). spez-o = clearing (financial). etc. to underline. sven-i = to faint. suk-o = sap. --a. stang-o = pole.). --a. brandish. upper. stimul-i = to stimulate. sulk-o = furrow. under. strik-o = strike (of labor). abundant. substanc-o = substance. sukces-i = to succeed. student-o = student (college. etc. elspiri.). sum-o = sum. . surtut-o = overcoat. super = (prep. sufok-i = (trans. wrinkle. enspezi.). stel-o = star.

tabulation. index. sxtup-o = step. sxut-o = chute. tabak-o = tobacco. to oscillate. --aro. --ilo. sxvel-i = to swell. round. be indebted. sxrank-o = cupboard. to change. sxovel-i = to shovel. tabul-o = board. value. to pour (as in a chute). --ajxo. --igxo. vacillate. smear. make tremble. push. sxultr-o = shoulder. --i. --viro. luckily. rate. --ido. sxtat-o = state (political). sxelk-o = suspender.SX. froth. sxauxm-o = foam. shield. peeling. sxmir-i = to anoint. sxirm-i = to shelter. sxrauxb-o = screw. --ilo. sxuld-i = to owe. sxajn-i = to seem. bonsxance. spout. chance. sxvit-i = to perspire. be economical of. sxanc-o = luck. sxild-o = shield. sxton-o = stone. supersxuo. tabl-o = table (furniture). sxancel-i = (trans. sxpin-i = to spin. sxal-o = shawl. key. tajlor-o = tailor. --idajxo. sxargx-i = to burden. stuff. sxir-i = to tear. sxpruc-i = to gush. noon. sxu-o = shoe. lamb. taks-i = to estimate. sxtal-o = steel. 42). sxlos-i = to lock. she. sxtrump-o = stocking. stopper. spurt (of liquids). 37.). sxtel-i = to steal (252). sxpar-i = to spare. tag-o = day. sxink-o = ham. stair-case. talent-o = talent. her (32.). sxangx-i = (trans. sxlim-o = slime. sxose-o = broad roadway. sxip-o = ship. tabel-o = table. T. block of wood. load. sxtof-o = cloth. dawn. sxtop-i = to stop up. sxel-o = shell. sxtip-o = log. jest. --ilo. prize. sxaf-o = sheep. alter. cork. sxi = (pronoun). supporter. sxov-i = to shove. lamb (meat). screen. become swollen. bark. overshoe. . ram. plank. mutton. sxerc-i = to joke. appear. --mezo. wardrobe. sxat-i = to like. sxnur-o = string. drive.

tir-i = to pull. tarif-o = tariff. ten-i = to hold. subtaso. enterigi. tiom = (adv. shaft. . tend-o = tent. telefon-i = to telephone. tavol-o = layer. tapisx-o = carpet. tibi-o = shin bone. tinkle. tio = (pronoun). calf (of the leg). tent-i = to tempt. tas-o = cup. tia = that kind of. 83). this (60). teras-o = terrace. to inter.). templ-o = temple (building). --ajxo. 234). tial = (adv. subject. tiam = (adv. toler-i = to tolerate. so much (104. soil. --ilo. so (88. tint-i = to jingle. tem-o = theme. play. --meblo. tie = (adv. be afraid of. timon-o = pole. royalty. tond-i = to shear. that (233. keep. draw. ton-o = tone. that (56). put a covering upon. tili-o = linden. tost-o = toast (sentiment).). teler-o = plate. tongue.). tibia. grave. te-o = tea. scissors. teks-i = to weave. tamen = (conj. shears. tiran-o = tyrant. therefore (78. tern-i = to sneeze. task-o = task. tauxg-i = to be fit for. 156). tol-o = linen. tambur-o = drum. terur-o = terror. sideboard. tikl-i = to tickle. schedule of rates. tempi-o = temple (of the head). ter-o = earth. such (65). this one.tali-o = waist. then. ted-i = to be tedious. telegraf-i = to telegraph. tiu = (pronoun). tenor-o = tenor (voice). beltalia. tegment-o = roof. teg-i = to cover. thus. yet. teritori-o = territory. tomb-o = tomb. good for. there (68). shapely.). however. definition (word). saucer. tomat-o = tomato. teatr-o = theatre.). termin-o = term. nevertheless. --karno.). at that time (73). still. having a good figure. tantiem-o = percentage of profit. teori-o = theory. 164). temp-o = time. tiu cxi. titol-o = title. tim-i = to fear. tiel = (adv. that much. terpom-o = potato. tigr-o = tiger. that one.

= indefinite suffix (268). turn-i = (trans. street-car line. sever. urgx-i = to be urgent or pressing.).). kortusxi. capital. --ajxo. attain (that which was aimed at or sought).). cxefurbo. 160). trancx-i = to cut. trot-i = to trot.).). knot. to miss. calm. the other side of (160). very. train (of a dress). draw. union. tra = (prep. trink-i = to drink. turk-o = Turk. univers-o = universe. impose. tro = (adv. --veturilo. immediately tuk-o = piece of cloth. tritik-o = wheat. very much. unu = (adj. tren-i = to drag. tuj = (adv. --ato.tondr-i = to thunder. to turn. -um.= suffix indicating person characterized by that in the root (132). whole. maltrafi.= suffix indicating receptacle. pavement.). . traf-i = to reach. tus-i = to cough. tuber. turment-i = to torment. -ul. trajt-o = feature. treatise. tron-o = throne. tru-o = hole. tri = (adj. traduk-i = to translate. tropik-o = tropic. tusx-i = to touch. tord-i = to twist.). urb-o = city. tram-o = tram. tur-o = tower. --a. trans = (prep. street-car. triumf-o = triumph. 137. tremp-i = to drench. importunate. to touch (the heart of). dip. tub-o = tube.). ung-o = nail (of finger). across. trotuar-o = sidewalk. trakt-i = to treat of (in essay. trud-i = to force upon. winding. -uj. trik-i = to knit. too much. etc.). one (136. universitat-o = university. too. ulm-o = elm. that which bears or contains (181). urs-o = bear. haul. speech. at once. trankvil-a = serene. uragan-o = hurricane. crooked. --ego. tramway. tromp-i = to deceive. trunk-o = trunk (of tree or body). trov-i = to find. trab-o = beam (wooden). claw. trezor-o = treasure. tut-a = entire. three (136). tre = (adv. U. altrudema. --vojo. talon. 180). unuigxo. all. tualet-o = toilet. through (46. pipe. tranquil. tuber-o = bulb. trem-i = to tremble.

val-o = valley. vicprezidanto. in turn. velur-o = velvet. boat. vic-o = turn. vant-a = vain. awake. . vent-o = wind. wither. --isto. porch. varm-a = warm. their) turn. uz-i = to use. vendred-o = Friday. vek-i = (trans.). grow (as plants). vegetar-a = vegetarian. van-a = vain. vibr-i = to vibrate. 37. velk-i = to fade. vejn-o = vein. vers-o = verse.). dress. V. venk-i = to conquer. vid-i = to see. extensive. siavice.). to wake. veget-i = to vegetate. etc. basin. vet-i = to wager. to enlist. vak-i = to be vacant. vanquish. place in a series. valiz-o = valise. ven-i = to come. varb-i = (trans. to roam. vesxt-o = vest. in his (her. vapor-o = steam. vaz-o = vase. its. ver-o = truth. 274). waistcoat. to abuse. vice-president. vi = (pronoun). vagon-o = car. recruit. go (in vehicle. you (32. vag-i = to wander. venen-o = poison. vel-o = sail. fruitless. vend-i = to sell. util-a = useful. spacious. satchel. vermicxel-o = vermicelli. vesper-o = evening (93). vertikal-a = vertical. vapor. woe! ho ve! alas! (273). vad-i = to wade. railway carriage. lauxvice. vang-o = cheek. vals-i = to waltz. verand-o = veranda. trouzi. ve! = (interjection). viand-o = meat. versx-i = to pour (a liquid). veter-o = weather. vetur-i = to ride. vest-i = to clothe. wilt. conceited. vengx-i = to avenge. verk-i = to compose (music or literature). bet. verm-o = worm. valor-i = to be worth. vaks-o = wax. vafl-o = waffle. vast-a = vast. vagabond.Uson-o = United States of America. verd-a = green. bag.

zink-o = zinc. brisk. all primary words of the language. volumen-o = volume (of a body). vol-i = to be willing. raisin. vual-o = veil. vilagx-o = village. violon-o = violin. vizagx-o = face. vinber-o = grape. and a large number of additional roots (to facilitate original composition). be anxious (about). viol-o = violet. zenit-o = zenith. belt. dictionary. vulgar-a = common. vojagx-i = to journey. vitr-o = glass (material). voj-o = road. vigl-a = alert. sekvinbero. zorg-i = to care (for). volv-i = to roll (something around something). vin-o = wine. zum-i = to hum. wish. Z. zigzag-o = zigzag. . --ino. volum-o = volume (book). zone. voyage. or their various English meanings. vulp-o = fox. way.vidv-o = widower. vost-o = tail. vok-i = to call. vulgar. No attempt has been made. The following vocabulary includes all Esperanto roots used in the preceding lessons. to vote. --aro. travel. visage. vizit-i = to visit. vocx-o = voice. zoologi-o = zoology. to include all of the roots of the language. vund-i = to wound. buzz. vip-i = to whip. vinagr-o = vinegar. visx-i = to wipe. zingibr-o = ginger. * * * * * ENGLISH-ESPERANTO VOCABULARY. vort-o = word. for which an English-Esperanto Dictionary should be consulted. widow. vir-o = man virt-o = virtue. viv-i = to live (133). zon-o = girdle. vokal-o = vowel. will. however. volont-e = willingly. --doni. vintr-o = winter.

= transitive. adorn = ornam-i. accept = akcept-i. (adv. akir-i. (bill) kalkul-o. konatigx-i. laux (191). = conjunction. admonish = admon-i.).References are to sections. administer = (manage). (in) accordance with = (prep. (approximately. intrans. akcel-i. accurate = akurat-a. account = kont-o. 167. unless the page (p. [Since page numbers have no relevance in this etext version. adv. adjacent = apud-a (159). acquire. kutimit-a. accustomed = familiar-a. see Word Formation. acid = acid-o. accuse = akuz-i. (of play) akt-o. (lecture) parolad-o.). 184. super (159). adore = ador-i. trans. = intransitive. abundant = suficxeg-a. The following abbreviations are used: adj.) adres-o. etc. accident = akcident-o.] For other parts of speech than those indicated. advise = konsil-i. ver-a. active = agema. acute = akr-a.).= repetition of the English word. = adverb. For formation of compound words other than those given. A abandon = forlas-i. abrupt = subit-a. (on) account of = (prep. see 160.). admire = admir-i. add = aldon-i (160). become --. administr-i. adverb = adverb-o. (behave) kondut-i. absorb = sorb-i. accusative = akuzativ-o. profit-o. above = (prep. (chance) okaz-o. abominable = abomen-a. 171. advertise = reklam-i. also the references under Prefixes and Suffixes in the Index. prep. (concerning) pri. 176. (be) acquainted with = kon-i (117). kulpig-i. (grammatical).). adequate = suficx-a. 120. cxirkaux.). adjective = adjektiv-o. supr-e. (story) rakont-o. such references were deleted. admit = konfes-i.). abash = hontig-i. (adv. pro (86).).) is given. = adjective. accompany = akompan-i. = preposition. trans. academy = akademi-o. -. cxi supre. ache = dolor-o. proksimum-e. actual = efektiv-a. --on. aktiv-a. efik-i. across = (prep. actor = aktor-o. address = (on letters. (be) able = pov-i (72). (let in) allas-i. about = (prep. accent = akcent-o. act = ag-i. conj. . 116. advantage = util-o. accelerate = (trans. 159.

along = (prep. inter (85). inter (85). almanac = almanak-o. a certain --. alms = almoz-o. alive = viv-a. analyse = analiz-i. alcohol = alkohol-o. kaj (26). Alfred = Alfred-o. agent = agent-o. entire) tut-a. alcove = alkov-o.). amid = meze de. (indefinite pronoun) cxio (233). ancestor = prapatr-o (282).). always = (adv. (be) afraid = tim-i. agree = konsent-i.). Alexandria = Aleksandri-o.affable = afabl-a. although = (conj.). ancient = antikv-a. amphibious = amfibi-a.). alter = (trans. plenagx-a. agitate = agit-i. maljunec-o. of --. jam. -. after = (prep. (music) ari-o. domagx-o. aid = help-i.). cxiuj (173). amind-a. almost = (adv. cxiam (187). (contract) kontrakt-i. . preskaux. laux (191). re-e (223). post (89). Alexander = Aleksandr-o. again = denov-e. iom (217). (whole.). all = (pronoun and adj. air = aer-o. alone = sol-a. alphabet = alfabet-o. already = (adv. algebra = algebr-o. America = Amerik-o. kune kun. (adv. old --. kvant-o. altar = altar-o. sxangx-i. to --. ankaux. age = agx-o. (give an) agency = komisi-i. anchor = ankr-o. of quantity) cxiom (194). against = (prep. allure = log-i. aliig-i. aloud = lauxt-e. agony = agoni-o.). also = (adv.). amiable = afabl-a.). allow = permes-i. alert = vigl-a. afternoon = posttagmez-o. allude = alud-i. affirmative = jes-a (171). amount = sum-o. and = (conj. amphitheatre = amfiteatr-o. alliance = lig-o. alas! = ho ve (273). agreeable = agrabl-a.). affair = afer-o. aim at = cel-i.).with. amuse = amuz-i. aerum-i. regrettable --. Africa = Afrik-o. among = (prep. kvankam. kontraux.

animal = best-o. ant = formik-o. (weapon) armil-o. apology = (defence). dec-a. almet-i. apartment = apartament-o. of quantity) iom (217). approach = alproksimigx-i al. iu (203). applaud = aplauxd-i. vidigx-o.). arrest = arest-i. 235. anoint = sxmir-i. approve = aprob-i. appropriate = proprigi al si. arouse = incit-i. apparatus = aparat-o. apologi-o. arc = ark-o. angel = angxel-o. etc.anecdote = anekdot-o. arcade = arkad-o. plu. mien-o. -. . Arab = arab-o. --kind. (suitable). anxious = maltrankvil-a. antique = antikv-a. see table. around = (prep. apple = pom-o.. apricot = abrikot-o. approximate = proksimum-a. sin turni al. arm = (of the body). arbor = lauxb-o. vek-i. (seem) sxajn-i. announce = anonc-i. street --. any = (pronoun and adj. aper-i. Aristotle = Aristotel-o. anew = denov-e. appearance = (aspect). arrange = arangx-i. appear = (come in sight). archer = pafarkist-o. architecture = (for information.). aquarium = akvari-o. apron = antauxtuk-o. brak-o. antelope = antilop-o. arithmetic = aritmetik-o. angle = angul-o. bub-o. (adv. 160). argue = argument-i. any more = (adv. --time. angry = koler-a. Aristeides = Aristejd-o. aristocrat = aristokrat-o. anvil = ambos-o. cxirkaux (89. --thing. konven-a. arbitrate = arbitraci-i. annoy = cxagren-i. ankle = maleol-o. appetite = apetit-o. Archimedes = Arhximed-o. aroma = arom-o. answer = respond-i. apologise = pardonon pet-i. April = april-o. antipathy = antipati-o. etc. apply = (put on).). apathy = apati-o. arena = aren-o.). army = arme-o. aspekt-o.

.). pet-i. bulvard-o. je (260). bagatelle = bagatel-o. konstat-i. arrogant = arogant-a. atmosphere = atmosfer-o. (156). ass = azen-o. (request). back = (of the body). dors-o.. at = (prep. ascertain = certigx-i. artificial = artefarit-a. autumn = auxtun-o.). krom.. bacon = lard-o. automatic = auxtomat-a.if. kvazaux (250). mien-o. (globe).far as. attain = ating-i.much . 46). baby = infanet-o. aside from = (prep.. axis = (axle).B.). article = (grammatical.of arts (A. avenge = vengx-i.).. author = auxtor-o.. glob-o.) kiel. art = art-o. assist = help-i. kiel . balance = (trans. Australia = Auxstrali-o. balanc-i.the rate of. avaricious = avar-a.. ball = (to play with). gxis (prep. malproksim-e (170).. as . axe = hakil-o. demand-i.).. avenue = ale-o.. attribute = atribut-o.. malantauxen (121). association = (organization). B. literary) artikol-o. pesil-o. artless = naiv-a. -. arrow = sag-o.). . 160). (distant). bachelor = frauxl-o. traf-i. cxe (125. attentive = atent-a.. -. abiturient-o. avoid = evit-i.). certigo. bak-i.. bal-o. bag = sak-o. attempt = prov-i. for (71). -. kunvok-i. assurance = aplomb-o. tiom . babble = babil-i.. ask = (inquire). ashes = cindr-o.. -. athlete = atlet-o. Arthur = Artur-o.arrive = alven-i. (be) ashamed = hont-i. -. -. as .. as = (adv. vek-i. valiz-o. pilk-o.the truth of. awake = (trans. attack = atak-i.though. away = (adv. attest = atest-i. asoci-o. Asia = Azi-o. -. asparagus = asparag-o. as . bake = (trans. banana = banan-o. aspect = aspekt-o. to the rear (adv. verkist-o. (scales). (dance). po (175).). August = auxgust-o. kiom (164). aks-o. tiel . assemble = kunven-i.

komenc-i (see also prefix "ek-". banquet = festen-o. c). 160). 98). fundament-o. betray = perfid-i. . (of dogs). (shore). Belgian = belg-o.). sub-e. 120. apud. base = (foundation). beam = (wooden). betrothed = (man). elport-i. (conj. sub. (produce.). behind = (prep. krom. (be suitable). (group). post. malnobl-a. (ask alms). (light). beggar = almozul-o. (carry). ar-o (126). barytone = bariton-o. banish = ekzil-i. (adv. bee = abel-o. become = igx-i. begin = (trans. bank = (financial). beat = bat-i. -. port-i. bear = (animal). believe = kred-i (265). 159. almozon pet-i. beg = (request).). malsupr-e. (music). behold = rigard-i. berry = ber-o. bandage = bandagx-i. before = (prep. bell = = (stripe).). cxar (83). antaux (89. super-i. flanke de. bar = bar-i. basin = vaz-o. bet = vet-i. baz-o. because = (conj. radi-o. gurd-o.). tial ke (83). bend = (trans. (at the side of). bark = (of trees). below = (prep.of (prep. farigx-i (232). nask-i.organ. beak = bek-o. fazeol-o. (become) bankrupt = bankrot-i banner = flag-o. venk-i. beefsteak = bifstek-o. orkestr-o. fab-o. (near). trab-o.). beard = barb-o. kuv-o. boj-i. (garden bean). beef = bovajx-o (227. stri-o. beside = (prep. barrister = advokat-o. beautiful = bel-a. belong = aparten-i. pro (86). 206). bank-o.).). fiancx-o. (surpass). pet-i.). bathe = (trans. antaux ol (97. beet = bet-o. battle = batal-i. fleks-i. bas-o. antauxe. basket = korb-o. (endure).). urs-o. benevolence = bonfar-o.). give birth to). standard-o.). vid-i. 90. jxus antauxe. behave = kondut-i. bench = benk-o. klin-i. beast = best-o. barrel = barel-o. -. ban-i. barren = senfrukt-a. jen (228). bed = lit-o. bass = (voice). be = est-i (109). sxel-o. (adv. bare = nud-a. (ignoble). (adv. dec-i. bord-o. bean = (leguminous fruit). barbarian = barbar-o. sufer-i.). belt = zon-o. konven-i.

kring-o. malsupr-o. iom (217). ligil-o. bret-o. etc. bor-i. enuig-i. inter (85. boundary = lim-o. braid = plekt-i. bloom = flor-i (116). bow = (bend). klinigx-i. boulevard = bulvard-o. boy = knab-o. hand--. adiaux-i.). pec-o. sorbpaper-o.). blush = rugxigx-i. bid = (order). bite = mord-i. rand-o. (for shooting). kitel-o. blow = blov-i. (food). book = libr-o. --ish. cir-i. blouse = bluz-o. bicycle = bicikl-o. bow = (of ribbon). (wounds). blackbird = merl-o.(shoes. bough = brancx-o. bottle = botel-o. to -. (stroke).). blue = blu-a. pafark-o.farewell. bat-o. beyond = (prep. bind = (fasten). box = kest-o. stip-o. makul-o. boast = fanfaron-i. copy--. (reckoning). bant-o. bond = (fastening).). small --. bird = bird-o.). big = grand-a. body = korp-o. afisx-o. border = (edge). board = (plank). blood = sang-o.).between = (prep. bit = (piece). (ring-shaped). bonbon = bombon-o. blotter = sorbil-o. preter. bill = (of bird). 89). etc. bolt = (fasten). kajer-o. bore = (holes). salut-i. nutrad-o. block = (of wood). skatol-o. kalkul-o. blackberry = rubus-o. bank --. boot = bot-o. boil = (intrans. (adv. rigl-i. brag = fanfaron-i. bracket = (shelf). . bol-i (275).). bandagx-i. blot = (spot). blade = (of knife. tabul-o. bankbilet-o. kling-o. Boston = Boston-o.). kaj (26). (be) born = naskigx-i. ambaux (238). bek-o. borrow = pruntepren-i. sxipet-o. boat = boat-o. bottom = fund-o. bewitch = ensorcx-i. (weary). (adv. blacking = cir-o. both = (pronoun and adj. ordon-i. lig-i. dubeblu-a. bone = ost-o. note--. blind = blind-a. -. bleat = blek-i. bless = ben-i. bouquet = buked-o. biscuit = biskvit-o. black = nigr-a.

cake = kuk-o. brood = (birds). butterfly = papili-o. brown = brun-a. per (64).. brancx-o. Briton = Brit-o. brandish = sving-i. breakfast = matenmangx-o. buy = acxet-i. bud = burgxon-o. cabbage = brasik-o. bulb-o. buckle = buk-o. cage = kagx-o. butter = buter-o. bungle = fusx-i. fak-o. brother = frat-o. hel-a. frakas-i. by = (prep. (of work or study). caldron = kaldron-o. bridle = brid-o. broad = largx-a. krom. breathe = spir-i. bronze = bronz-o. buzz = zum-i. eduk-i. bulb = tuber-o. brave = brav-o.). 170). -. pakajx-o. kov-i. bucket = sitel-o. -. romp-i. bunch = fask-o. build = konstru-i. to --. brush = bros-i. (past). de (169. burn = (intrans. brute = brut-o. brisk = vigl-a. nask-i.up (educate). . krev-i. Bulgarian = Bulgar-o. break = (trans). burden = sxargx-i. button = buton-o.brain = cerb-o. bread = pan-o. bright = (clear). butcher = bucx-i. bruise = kontuz-i. brick = brik-o.). but = (conj. brandy = brand-o. (according to).). bull = bovvir-o. laux (191).to pieces. brul-i (275). bridge = pont-o. branch = (of tree). (prep. sed. bullet = kugl-o. cab = fiakr-o. bundle = fask-o. brownie = kobold-o.). bring = alport-i. bury = enterig-i. calculate = kalkul-i.forth (produce). burst = (intrans. calendar = kalendar-o. C.). brochure = brosxur-o. -. butonum-i. preter.

cease = (intrans. konstat-i. centigram = centigram-o (284). cashier = kasist-o. zorg-i (pri). kares-i. iu (pronoun and adj. montar-o. proces-o. certify = atest-i. carriage = kalesx-o. profesi-o. change = (trans.(one). capitol = kapitol-o. castle = kastel-o. tibikarn-o. cxefurb-o. case = (small box). carrot = karot-o. skatol-o. okazo. candle = kandel-o. solenig-i. call = vok-i. pov-i (72). card = kart-o.). (legal). calm = kviet-a. carpet = tapisx-o. carve = skulpt-i. hazard-o. cauliflower = florbrasik-o. brutar-o. cap = cxap-o. cxes-i. (grammatical). okaz-o. camera = kamer-o. (chest). catch = kapt-i. 203). (coins). kauxz-i. cause = ig-i (214). moner-oj. etc. car = vagon-o. (legal).calf = bovid-o. kaz-o. (occasion). etc. vizitkart-o. 235. chalk = kret-o. (preserve fruit. (produce a result). visiting --. certainly = nepr-e. cellar = kel-o.). afer-o. cast = jxet-i. calling = (profession).. cat = kat-o. veturil-o. tial-o. katen-o. capable = kapabl-a. celebrate = fest-i. (of the leg). (motive). konfit-i. cavity = kav-o. a -. capital = (money). chapter = cxapitr-o. (holder). certain = cert-a. --ed. cert-e. cascade = kaskad-o. center = centr-o. ceiling = plafon-o. caress = dorlot-i. (opportunity). (city). chance = sxanc-o. trankvil-a. caution = avert-i. kial-o. celery = celeri-o. (fetter).amount. chapel = kapel-o. . centimeter = centimetr-o (284). kest-o. (visit). (of mountains). cent = cend-o. (excellent). ja (215). sxangx-i. vizit-i. (espoused or advocated). chair = segx-o. carry = port-i. (be) chairman = prezid-i. kapital-o. certig-i. chain = cxen-o. can = (be able). cattle = brut-o. centiliter = centilitr-o (284).). boneg-a. see table. (hazard). uj-o (181). proces-o. ing-o (237). camel = kamel-o. canoe = kanot-o. care = (for). fama. candy = kand-o.. -.

spez-o. chrestomathy = krestomati-o. kotlet-o. cost). civilise = civiliz-i. kofr-o. chin = menton-o. (leader). cherry = cxeriz-o. chemist's shop = apotek-o. cigarette = cigared-o. chemistry = hxemi-o. chew = macx-i. (with a lid). rond-o. cxas-i. kost-o. circumstance = okaz-o. detal-o. church = (building). chest = (box). clock = horlogx-o. climate = klimat-o. chestnut = kasxtan-o. cheque = cxek-o. cigar = cigar-o. charm = cxarm-i. clay = argil-o. chief = cxef-a. (country). precip-a. supren ramp-i. kest-o. clearing = (financial). cloak = mantel-o. claim = pretend-i. urban-o. clamber = ramp-i. clergyman = pastr-o. cirkuler-o. clear = (bright). sxargx-o.). . chocolate = cxokolad-o. chop = hak-i. (distinct). komisi-o. etc. chute = sxut-o. pregxej-o. estr-o (253). check = (on bank). circular = (letter. prez-o. (cutlet).). charge = (commission). clerk = komiz-o. cheek = vang-o. choose = elekt-i. circle = cirkl-o. clack = krak-i.). clap = (trans. china = (porcelain). clever = lert-a. cinnamon = cinam-o. climb up = grimp-i. forpel-i. city = urb-o. (drive off). citizen = regnan-o. clatter = (trans. klar-a. Chinaman = hxin-o. claw = ungeg-o. chimney = kamen-o. cheese = fromagx-o. cirkonstanc-o. Hxinuj-o. chase = (game. Christ = Krist-o. hela. (burden). child = infan-o. klak-i. klak-i. etc.). chirp = pep-i. cipher = cifer-o. (price. chatter = babil-i. chemise = cxemiz-o. id-o (207). choir = hxor-o. cxek-o.character = karakter-o. class = klas-o. porcelan-o. clean = pur-a.

proksim-e de (170). etc. congress = kongres-o. konfuz-i. komfort-o. conform = konform-i (266). confound = (confuse). conceal = kasx-i (252). conscience = konscienc-o. koncert-o. tantiem-o. etc. komisipag-o. mor-o. common = (general). (anxiety). commerce = komerc-o. colonel = kolonel-o. coffee = kaf-o. clothe = vest-i. (mutual). (state). comedy = komedi-o. club = (organization). compete = konkur-i. company = (commercial). tuk-o. ferm-i. collect = (trans. vulgar-a. (presence). (military and naval).oneself (behave). compare = (trans. komand-i. concert = (musical). sxtof-o.close = (trans. (frock). cxeest-o. -. redingot-o. kok-o. (in regard to right or wrong). -. kondut-o. gastar-o. confide = konfid-i. c). complicate = komplik-i. committee = komitat-o. competition = konkurad-o. (short). konsol-i. maltrankvilec-o. consist = konsist-i. (woollen.). . klub-o. drap-o. congratulate = gratul-i. (stipulation). komisi-o. complain = plend-i. cloud = nub-o. compassion = kompat-o. compose = (music or literature). (264. konkurs-o. come = ven-i. cock = (fowl). condition = cirkonstanc-o. coal = karb-o. kompar-i (266). color = kolor-o.). compositor = (of type). communicate = komunik-i. consequently = sekv-e. gxeneral-a.). (vulgar). (be) conscious = konsci-i. konkurenc-o. conquer = venk-i. kompanio. dens-a. condemn = kondamn-i. konduktor-o. pri. (percentage of profit). concern = koncern-i (266). comfort = (console). jak-o. (dense). stat-o. coat = vest-o. (prep. college = kolegi-o. (in business). (piece of). bastoneg-o. kondut-i.). column = kolon-o. (freedom from pain.). conduct = (lead). consent = konsent-i.). over--. do. conduct = (behavior). kompostist-o. cloth = (in general). (for prizes). commission = (entrusted). surtut-o. kondicx-o. (be) conservative = konservativ-a. comb = komb-i. verk-i. komun-a. (guests). kolekt-i. command = ordon-i.). concerning = (prep. table--. tial (78). (weapon).). conductor = (of car. tablotuk-o. konduk-i. etc. confess = konfes-i.

counsel = konsil-i. coupon = kupon-o. convince = konvink-i. cousin = kuz-o.). korteg-o. courteous = gxentil-a. ekzempler-o. kontrauxstarem-a. convenient = konven-a. constitution = konstituci-o. servic-o. courtesy = gxentilec-o.). cradle = lulil-o. county = grafland-o. content = kontent-a. conspire = konspir-i. cork = sxtop-i. kurs-o. korpus-o. corporal = corporeal. contour = kontur-o. contract = (commercial and legal). (bark of cork tree). etc. crafty = ruz-a. (govern). consult = konsult-i. konsonant-o. contaminate = infekt-i. (person). create = kre-i. consul = konsul-o. teg-i. count = kalkul-i. crippled = kripl-a. consonant = (letter). crime = krim-o. crab = krab-o. (of a book. kampar-o. krev-i. constant = konstant-a. (kindness). contrary = mal-o (67). komplez-o. cook = kuir-i. continent = (land). kork-o. coquettish = koket-a. copper = kupr-o. (crackle).of. crack = (split) (trans. corner = angul-o. oportun-a. control = kontrol-i. country = land-o. cough = tus-i. cost = kost-i. jugxej-o. (right). (burst open) (intrans. crawl = ramp-i. cream = krem-o. correct = korekt-i. course = (of lessons). corpse = kadavr-o. grimp-i. in the -. of --. dauxrig-i. creep = ramp-i. corps = (military). krak-i.up. corridor = koridor-o.). . correspond = korespond-i. copy = kopi-i. continue = dauxr-i. contralto = kontralt-o. nombr-i. cravat = kravat-o. fend-i. cotton = koton-o. pet-i konsilon de. graf-o. korp-a. (as opposed to city). (put covering upon). cover = kovr-i. (of a meal). sum-i. prav-a. en la dauxro de. crazy = frenez-a. kontinent-o. kontrakt-i. costume = kostum-o. reg-i.console = konsol-i. -. kompreneble. (be) courageous = kuragx-i. court = kort-o.

trastrek-i. sxim-o. malrekt-a. kurb-a. Damocles = Damokl-o. dat-o. 126). curve = kurb-o. dear = (prized). premeg-i. (goblet). kurioz-a. cruel = kruel-a. cultivate = kultur-i. decimeter = decimetr-o (284). impost-o. dekaliter = dekalitr-o (284). (inquisitive). (in health). crown = kron-o.the soil. koler-a. pokal-o. cupboard = sxrank-o. -. curl = (of hair). dekameter = dekametr-o (284). crucify = krucum-i. blek-i. crust = krust-o.criticise = kritik-i. dabble = (a liquid). decide = decid-i. cutlet = kotlet-o. curtain = kurten-o. fason-o. deep = profund-a. (tax). damage = difekt-i. crowd = amas-o. Dane = dan-o. (adorn). anar-o (145. dawn = tagigx-o. deaf = surd-a. (make bad). cup = tas-o. crush = pist-i. (of a garment). delay = prokrast-i. dance = danc-i. fals-i. danger = cylinder = cilindr-o. dainty = delikat-a. deceive = tromp-i. cushion = kusen-o. cunning = ruz-a. cut = trancx-i. -. multekost-a. daktil-o. deciliter = decilitr-o (284). crooked = tord-a. cross = kruc-o. scivol-a. priskrib-i. December = decembr-o. defend = defend-i. Cyrus = Cirus-o. decigram = decigram-o (284). (of animals). (time). bukl-o. degree = grad-o. custom = kutim-o. (angry). cucumber = kukum-o. terkultur-i. declaim = deklam-i. D. define = defin-i. decay = (mould). kri-i. cry = (weep). debase = (adulterate). kaduk-i. deer = cerv-o. deck (of ship) = ferdek-o. (expensive). malbonig-i. plauxd-i. kar-a. dekagram = dekagram-o (284). ornam-i. . day = tag-o. plor-i. (shout). curious = (odd). delegate = deleg-i. date = (fruit).

etc. dignity (rank) = rang-o. disturb = gxen-i. malsam-a. dictionary = vortar-o. draw (pull) = tir-i. dispatch (letter) = depesx-o. dessert = desert-o. die = mort-i. deny = ne-i (171). konfuz-i. down (hair or feathers) = lanug-o. diplomit-o. neniig-i. delusion = iluzi-o. (confuse). destine = destin-i. skiz-i. disdain = malsxat-i.delicate = delikat-a. deserve = merit-i. ans-o. dove = kolomb-o. merit-o. dictate (letters) = dikt-i. dog = hund-o.). desk = pupitr-o. (set free). Diogenes = Diogen-o. divide = (trans.). doll = pup-o. rekt-a. (sketch). dense = dens-a. divid-i. dip (in liquid) = tremp-i. desert = dezert-o. department (of work. maltrankvilig-i. drag = (trans. dollar = dolar-o. ampleks-o. elpag-i. do = far-i. diplomat = diplomat-o. delightful = cxarm-a. dimension = dimensio. difin-i. desire = dezir-i. differentiate = diferencig-i. discount = rabat-i. malestim-i. drawing-room = salon-o. donkey = azen-o. deliver (supply) = liver-i. dig = fos-i. suficx-i. distinct = klar-a. diferenc-a. (suffice). drawer = tirkest-o. sort-o. (just reward). doctor = doktor-o. liberig-i. (medical). distinguish = disting-i. . tren-i. holder of --. (downward) (adv. distance = distanc-o. diploma = diplom-o. detail = detal-o. (undeviating). diligent = diligent-a. disburse = elspez-i. (size). doubt = dub-i. different = divers-a. discuss = diskut-i. door = pord-o. kuracist-o.) = fak-o. destroy = detru-i. priparol-i. malsupren. diverse = divers-a. dish (flat) = plad-o. distract (the attention) = distr-i. --handle.). diamond = diamant-o. destiny = destin-o. skribtabl-o. placxeg-a. (lot). demand = postul-i. direct (guide) = direkt-i. dew = ros-o.

instru-i. --suit. sin okupi. drive (off) = pel-i. eat = mangx-i. oficist-o. easy = facil-a. effective = efektiv-a. (teach). etc. either = (pronoun and adj. sxose-o.dream (in sleep) = songx-i. E. dumb = mut-a. dungit-o.oneself.). --store. dron-i. drench = tremp-i. rav-i. (adv. economical = sxparem-a. embroider = brod-i. employment = ofic-o. senpolvig-i. bord-o. edge = rand-o. dry = sek-a.).side (adv. eduk-i. en la dauxro de-. terglob-o. Easter = Pask-o. (vehicle). rob-o. (be) efficacious = efik-i. -. echo = ehx-o. okupad-o. iu (203). (use).). (fancy). employee = komiz-o. east = orient-o. dressing (sauce) = sauxc-o. enchant = ensorcx-i. ambauxflanke (238). ok (136). dejxor-i. dusk = krepusk-o. edit = redakt-i. remove the --. dung-i. drug = drog-o. pay --. eloquent = elokvent-a. elm = ulm-o. drink = trink-i.). dum (96). elk = alk-o. earth = ter-o. dues = kotizajx-o. be on --. (the planet). on -. eagle = agl-o. early = fru-a. unu aux la alia. each = (adj. elbow = kubut-o. employ = (hire). encore = (adv.). kotiz-i. duck = anas-o.).). Egypt = Egipt-o. drip = gut-i. editorial body = redakci-o. . effect = efekt-o.). eight = (adj. bis. (frock). drown = (intrans.animal. cxiu (173). drum = tambur-o. aux. -. (of rivers. rev-i. egg = ov-o. (roadway). empire = imperi-o. and pronoun). eminent = eminent-a. educate = (rear). duty = dev-o. apotek-o. eager = avid-a. frak-o. editor = redaktor-o. dress = vest-i (sin). ear (of the body) = orel-o. brut-o. dust = polv-o. electric = elektr-a. veturig-i. dwell = logx-i. during = (prep. cxiu (173). uz-i.

entrust = komisii. -. exist = ekzist-i. envelope = (of letter).oneself. enthusiasm = entuziasm-o. experiment = eksperiment-i. lert-a. --lid. exhort = admon-i. registr-i. ajn (236). sin amuz-i. (pronoun and adv. (actually) (adv. parnombro. enlightened = kler-a. enroll = (trans. extent = (size). eben-a. exile = ekzil-i.). ampleks-o. elport-i. envy = envi-i. engineer = ingxenier-o. evolution = evoluci-o. iam (212). fond-i. examine = ekzamen-i. even = (level). cxiu (173).). explode = (intrans. except = escept-i (266).number. fin-i. expend = (money). eluz-i. (indefinite adv. etc. -. -. etend-i. experienced = spert-a. example = ekzempl-o. alkonfid-i. extensive = vast-a. eye = okul-o. cxiam-a. expert = spert-a. krom. plilongig-i. (energy.). frak-o. -. entire = tut-a. err = erar-i. (always). kovert-o.). uz-i. ever = (adv. express = esprim-i. exercise = (trans. etc.. --thing. Europe = Euxrop-o. Excellency = (title).way. extinguish = esting-i.).). endow = dot-i.end = (trans. equal = egal-a.). see table. every = (one). (demand). evangel = evangeli-o. brov-o. exhale = elspir-i. rapida vagonaro. esteem = estim-i. establish = establ-i. kontrol-i. eternal = etern-a. (model). epoch = epok-o. palpebr-o.). etc. enjoy = gxu-i.). evening = vesper-o (93).and check. ekzerc-i. vastampleks-a. exact = akurat-a. 235. postul-i. ecx. eksplod-i (275). mosxt-o (258).). (prep.). estimate = taks-i. pligrandig-i. expect = atend-i. (be an) epicure = frand-i. extraordinary = eksterordinar-a. F. estate = bien-o. extend = (trans. . elspez-i. (train). konstat-i. varb-i.dress (of man). Englishman = angl-o. gxust-a. cxiam (187). excite = ekscit-i. enlist = (trans. explore = esplor-i. model-o. endure = sufer-i. (prove.). varb-i. --brow.). -.

fervor = fervor-o. (be) --. fairy = fe-o. ja (215). kutim-a. bel-a. as -.). (be) fitting = konven-i. ringa fingro. rev-i. firm = firm-a. plat-a. far = malproksim-e. find = trov-i. fisxkapt-i. montra fingro. fie = (interjection). fatal = fatal-a.). (of money).). (decent). fear = tim-i. fasten = lig-i. (with fingers. and interjection). flat = glat-a. feed = nutr-i. fin-i. feel = sent-i. little --. fetter = (chain. efektiv-e. terkultur-i. palp-i. malgranda fingro. face = vizagx-o. favorable = favor-a. fakt-e. fein-o. fight = batal-i. fiance = fiancx-o. (till the soil). female = in-o (59). (treacherous). fill = plenig-i. just-a. kvin (136). etc. fit = almezur-i. gxis (46). fade = velk-i. fat = gras-o.). feather = plum-o. fi (273). fancy = imag-i. family = famili-o.). fein-o. faint = sven-i. field = kamp-o. farm-i. dik-a. fever = febr-o.fable = fabel-o. fashion = a --. index --. (beautiful). adiaux (171. standard-o. tauxg-i. auxtun-o. fine = bel-a. milit-i. komplezo. fay = fe-o. katen-o. fame = fam-o. flex = (trans. ring --. false = fals-a. perfid-a. floor = plank-o. favor = favor-i. father = patr-o. familiar = familiar-a. farewell = (adv.flocks. destin-o. fall = fal-i. fir = abi-o. set -. mod-o. ekbrulig-i. fleks-i. (autumn). pasxt-i. delikat-a. 273). fist = pugn-o. middle --. -. fish = fisx-o. (corpulent). five = (adj. faithful = fidel-a. eben-a. dec-i. finger = fingr-o. flesh = karn-o. fair = (just). flag = flag-o. fate = sort-o. fact = fakt-o. etc. farm = (as a tenant). . fire = fajr-o. (catch fish). monpun-o. faucet = kran-o.). fatal-o. flour = farun-o. finish = (trans. feature = trajt-o. in (prep. longa fingro.

devig-i. funkci-i. frost = frost-o. (provide). (a house). foam = sxauxm-o. bonodor-o. fruit = frukt-o. flower = flor-o (116). musx-o. fulfil = plenum-i. folk = popol-o. fur = fel-o. pelt-o. (visit often).= pra. proviz-i. furious = furioz-a. forehead = frunt-o. fog = nebul-o. frivolous = malserioz-a. fly = flug-i. (hoar). form = form-i. (measure). cxar (83).). el. focus = fokus-o. -. frequent = oft-a. foundation = fundament-o. pro (86). function = (of machinery. mebl-o. altrud-i (al). force = fort-o. frock coat = redingot-o. 98. fore. pro (86). follow = sekv-i.flow = flu-i. de (89. fox = vulp-o.). 262). furrow = sulk-o. frog = ran-o. liver-i. free = liber-a. por (95. van-a. found = fond-i. further = (adv. Friday = vendred-o. postir-i. fluid = fluid-a. (be) fond of sweets = frand-i. forgive = pardon-i. fry = (trans.). fresh = fresx-a. (conj. fragrance = arom-o. furniture = (piece of). formal = solen-a. fork = fork-o. kvar (136). nov-a. friend = amik-o. vizitad-i. (coat or wrap). forge = (falsify). fut-o. frame = (of picture).(282). plu.). (cause). frank = afrank-i. mebl-i. furnish = (supply). pied-o. fringe = frangx-o. fold = fald-i. (insect). frit-i. kadr-o. foreign = fremd-a. prujn-o. model-i.). fals-i.). Frenchman = franc-o. froth = sxauxm-o. from = (prep. fruitless = (vain). alform-i. fountain = fontan-o. 170).). four = (adj. etc. .(upon). (compel). funereal = funebr-a. foot = (of the body). for = (prep. fondle = dorlot-i. fount = font-o. full = plen-a. forget = forges-i. postven-i. Frederick = Frederik-o.

aviz-i.notice. gift = donac-o. German = german-o. Gertrude = Gertrud-o. (adj. garland = girland-o. grandson = nep-o. ginger = zingibr-o. raspil-o. krad-o. vetur-i. pinakotek-o. adiaux (171. give = don-i. and interjection). gentleman = sinjor-o. gallop = galop-i. gather = (trans. goblet = pokal-o. osced-i. glove = gant-o. good = bon-a.). (grammatical).fuse = (trans. pilgrim-i.for. obten-i. estont-o. (military). inform-i. grate = rasp-i. glory = glor-o. etc. globe = glob-o.information. -.). (unit) er-o (276). govern = reg-i. glas-o. etc. grass = herb-o. gazette = gazet-o. grain = (wheat. grammar = gramatik-o. be -. gren-o. estont-a. grape = vinber-o. tauxg-i por. garden = gxarden-o. general = gxeneral-a. futile = van-a. (be) glad = gxoj-i (116). geometry = geometri-o. donac-i. go = ir-i. gas = gas-o. gospel = evangeli-o. atest-i. goose = anser-o. gaze = fikse rigard-i. gamin = bub-o. vitr-o. 273). nask-i. future = estontec-o. G. gnash = grinc-i. girdle = zon-o. -.). grasshopper = akrid-o. glossy = (polished). -. (in vehicle.birth to. graceful = graci-a. komun-a.on a pilgrimage. rang-o. (as a gift). (rank).). glide = glit-i.). goal = cel-o.witness. fand-i. polurit-a. kolekt-i. grandfather = av-o. gay = gaj-a. gape = (yawn). God = Di-o. . -. (tumbler). general-o. boat. grater. gain = gajn-i. gram = gram-o (284). ghost = fantom-o. gallery = galeri-o. grating = (bar or lattice). (for pictures). grade = grad-o. -. glue = glu-i. glass = (material). good-bye = (adv.

pra. teretagx-o. grieve = (trans. direkt-i. hammer = martel-o. habit = kutim-o. haul = tren-i. hare = lepor-o. (by rote). (intrans. health = san-o. Greek = grek-o.). cxef-a.). green = verd-a. hejt-i. 42).pencil. ground = ter-o. hardly = (adv. happen = okaz-i.). half = duon-o (166. dubeverd-a. gush = (of liquids). hay = fojn-o. hack = hak-i. great = grand-a. -. groan = gxem-i. 277). harbor = haven-o. greet = salut-i. fart-o. . head = kap-o. akcel-i. li (32. ham = sxink-o. apenaux. (adj.floor.) rapid-i. -. group = grup-o. hazel-nut = avel-o. fazeol-o. dev-i. handbill = afisx-o.grave = tomb-o. hasten = (trans. state of (good or bad) --. haricot = (bean). handsome = bel-a. parker-e. pend-i.). veget-i. he = (pronoun). hear = auxd-i. guilty = kulp-a. happy = felicx-a. gunpowder = pulv-o. H. malgxojig-i. (remote in ancestry). -. harvest = (of clock). (serious). guard = gard-i. by --. gravitate = gravit-i. (a) hair = har-o. halt-i. hazard = hazard-o. harness = jung-i.). fiakr-o.). gray = griz-a.(282). grind = grinc-i. heart = kor-o. 37. heat = (trans. gravy = sauxc-o. handy = oportun-a. hat = cxapel-o. hajl-o. hail = (frozen rain). hand = man-o. ar-o (126). sxpruc-i. grow = kresk-i. penik-o. (carriage). guess = diven-i. grav-a. --ish. hang = (intrans.) malgxoj-i. cxagren-i.). montril-o. have = hav-i. (intrans. halt = (intrans. guide = gvid-i. guest = gast-o. varmig-i. handicraft = meti-o. haughty = fier-a.

horse = cxeval-o. horn = korn-o. etc. cxe (125. ing-o (237). sxelk-o. (cavity). hose = sxtrump-oj. at --. cxas-i. humble = humil-a. . hungry = malsat-a. 160). -. (receptacle). herb = herb-o. ans-o. hektometer = hektometr-o (284). uj-o (181).). hue = nuanc-o. cxehejme. high = alt-a. (game or wild animals). hog = pork-o. heavy = pez-a. dung-i. tenil-o. hoarse = rauxk-a. at the -. hurdy-gurdy = gurd-o. homesickness = nostalgi-o. horizon = horizont-o. hour = hor-o (185). how = (adv. hektogram = hektogram-o (284). 185). hotel = hotel-o.heaven = cxiel-o. hide = kasx-i (252). history = histori-o. lu-i. (skin of animals). Hebrew = hebre-o. hero = hero-o. hum = zum-i. kalkanum-o. Hiero = Hieron-o. honor = honor-i. mosxt-o (258).). cent (142). holder = (handle). astr-o.). hoar = (frost). kiamanier-e. house = dom-o.of (prep. hole = tru-o.). kiel (134). home = hejm-o.).). hesitate = hezit-i. holy = sankt-a. ajn (236).much. heavenly body. heel = (of foot). honeysuckle = lonicer-o. hunt = sercx-i. human being = hom-o. fel-o. kalkan-o. Holland = Holand-o. hiss = sibl-i. ho = (interjection). hundred = (adj. hen = kokin-o. humor = humor-o. horizontal = horizontal-a. hurl = jxet-i. (of shoe). kav-o. however = (conj. hip = koks-o.supporter. hektoliter = hektolitr-o (284). hire = (persons). (adv. (as term of address). hektare = hektar-o (284). (houses. prujn-o. tamen. hook = krocx-i. help = help-i (265). hinge = cxarnir-o. horse-radish = armoraci-o. hope = esper-i. -. kiom (140. hold = ten-i. honest = honest-a. ho (273). honey = miel-o.

idiot = idiot-o.hurrah = (interjection). as --. en. index = tabel-o. I = (pronoun). Indian = (American). cxu.).). 89. hurricane = uragan-o. illustrate = ilustr-i. (whether). impost = impost-o. impulse = impuls-o. insect = insekt-o. if = (conj. imagine = imag-i. do. ja (215). hypocrite = hipokrit-o.the presence of.). industry = (trade). indeed = (adv. insult = insult-i. incite = incit-i. glaciajx-o. 274). (food). kontrol-i. -. (prep. imitate = imit-i. ideal = ideal-o. cxe (125.). husband = edz-o. rigard-i. mi (32. klin-i. industri-o. image = bild-o. intern-e. instantaneous = moment-a. idea = ide-o. infect = infekt-i. hura (273). idiom = idiom-o. inquire = demand-i. se (240). inevitable = nepr-a. . neevitebl-a.corn. 160). sciig-i. indifferent = indiferent-a. immediate = tuj-a (171). ingenuous = naiv-a. an-o (145). important = grav-a. 160). serioz-a. (order). indian-o. (be) indebted = sxuld-i. inform = inform-i. anstataux (98. importunate = altrudem-a. inhale = enspir-i. inside = (adv. ice = glaci-o. implicate = implik-i. identical = ident-a. incommode = gxen-i. impress = impres-i. inebriate = ebri-a. instead of = (prep. influence = influ-i.). instruct = instru-i. impose = trud-i. hurry = rapid-i. inch = col-o.). 159). in = (prep.). ignore = ignor-i. 37. inspect = inspekt-i. illusion = iluzi-o. inhabitant = logxant-o. incline = (trans. ordon-i. -. ink = ink-o. inspire = inspir-i. I. ekzamen-i. en (46. insist = insist-i. kvazaux (250). maiz-o. rugxhauxtul-o. efektiv-e.

it = (pronoun). king = regx-o. jurist = jurist-o. (of the skull). intoxicated = ebri-a. what --. juggle = jxongl-i. (adv. regxolando. jam = kompot-o. island = insul-o. see table. invite = invit-i. investigate = esplor-i. (of money). glad-i. iron = (metal). bon-a. Jesus = Jesu-o. kill = mortig-i. July = juli-o. bonkor-a. (be) intermittent = intermit-i. spec-o. etc. gxi (32. gard-i. fer-o. (make certain).). 42. J. gxust-a. just-a. intelligent = inteligent-a. jxus. tint-i. makzel-o. kiss = kis-i. journal = jxurnal-o. judge = jugx-i. = (with a company). K. --bone. jail = karcer-o. jingle = (intrans. ekzamen-i.). joint = artik-o.. 235. jest = sxerc-i. June = juni-o. -. Italian = ital-o. intend = intenc-i. (good). interest = interes-i. kiloliter = kilolitr-o (284). knee = genu-o. Jew = hebre-o. kind = (species). (linen). joke = sxerc-i. that --. just = (upright). kilometer = kilometr-o (284). (of piano. jump = salt-i. jealous = jxaluz-a. keep = ten-i. jaw = (orifice. key = mind. interpret = interpret-i. January = januar-o. procent-o. intimate = intim-a. memor-i. 37. jug = krucx-o. (preserve). jacket = jak-o. John = Johan-o. certig-i. 274). see also 50. kilogram = kilogram-o (284). journey = vojagx-i. revu-o. --dom. knave = fripon-o. fauxk-o. etc. elsercx-i. gxust-e. klav-o. kerosene = petrol-o. . kindness = komplez-o. opening). asekur-i. (exact). internal = intern-a. 51.). jewel = juvel-o. fruktajx-o. konserv-i. makzelost-o.

(meat). las-i. landscape = pejzagx-o. (flat). lamb = sxafid-o. lark = (bird). regul-o. (be acquainted with). malpli multe (81). -. plilongig-i. lamp = lamp-o. knit = trik-i. legxist-o. lemonade = citronajx-o. -. language = lingv-o. cxes-i. least = (adv. (not fat). malpli (80). know = sci-i. apog-i. (be) lacking = (intrans. lens = objektiv-o. latter = cxi-tiu (61. bien-o.kneel = genufleks-i. Latin = latin-a.). less = (adv. (previous) pasint-a. lend = prunt-i.). -. klin-i. last-a. malpli multe (81). learned = kler-a. layer = tavol-o. malgras-a. lattice = krad-o. malplej (80). lean = (trans. liter-o. etc. (permit). (tied). legal = legx-a. almenaux. knock = frap-i. las-i.). lead = (metal). leg = krur-o. (of ribbon). dauxr-i. leave = (trans. permes-i. let = (trans. proces-o. 62). --suit.).). (rent). demet-i. bant-o. (of a shoe). antaux-a.claim. at --.). late = malfru-a. --year. leter-o. kon-i (117). lantern = (intrans. lengthen = (trans.) mank-i. lig-o. etend-i. proces-o. (in a series). kobold = kobold-o. lettuce = laktuk-o. labor = labor-i.).process. lead = konduk-i.aside. luig-i. (rule). -. (news. large = grand-a. ter-o. lace = punt-o. leaf = foli-o. leap = salt-i. land = land-o. kusxig-i. law = legx-o. league = (alliance). lesson = lecion-o. . L. lemon = citron-o. letter = (epistle). pruntedon-i. lawyer = advokat-o. limonad-o. sciigx-i. alauxd-o. -. laugh = rid-i (265). lame = lam-a.). leather = led-o. lance = lanc-o.for the success or completion of something. level = nivel-o. klopod-i. lay = meti. eben-a. (of the alphabet). learn = lern-i. lake = lag-o. last = (intrans. superjar-o. (soil). (estate). pretend-i. lacx-o.). latch = ans-o. ligajx-o. sxafidajx-o. plumb-o. knot = tuber-o.

see table. logx-i (133). iom (217). (adv. mastrum-i. erar-i. kusx-i (239). -. man = vir-o. see also 250. live = viv-i. like = sxat-i. (to sleep).for. malicious = malic-a. love = am-i. direkt-i. lightning = fulm-o. lose = perd-i. amindum-i. loyal = fidel-a. literal = lauxliter-a. lodge = logx-i. 235. little = malgrand-a. in that --. local = lok-a. lull = kvietig-i. (with slightly affectionate sense). loud = lauxt-a. lock = sxlos-i. -. amindum-i. lucky. light = lum-a. sopir-i je. mantle = mantel-o. hel-a. (of a tree). maize = maiz-o. strek-o. magazine = gazet-o. mor-o. -. lojal-a.mistakes. in every --. librar-o. machine = masxin-o. serur-o. pruntedon-i. sercx-i. macaroni = makaroni-o. long = --. majestic = majest-a. brancx-o. lot = (fate). (similar). malmulte. malgajn-i. -. lunatic = lunatik-o. majesty = (term of address). lift = lev-i. mail = posxt-o. posxtkest-o. limb = membro.library = bibliotek-o. etc. mosxt-o (258). look = rigard-i. et-a (198). loan = prunt-i.). enposxtig-i. (fail to profit). lip = lip-o. . malfru-i. lie = (recline). magic = magi-o. luxury = luks-o. sort-o. make = far-i (see also 214).love. linen = tol-o. malpez-a.. (a household). mensog-i. (right or wrong). line = lini-o. -. jxurnal-o. lung = pulm-o. log = sxtip-o. vic-o. (dwell). M. iom post iom. manage = administr-i. make --. limit = lim-i.time. luck = sxanc-o. locomotive = lokomotiv-o. literature = literatur-o. liquid = fluid-a. liter = litr-o (284). manner = manier-o. (collection of books). mad = frenez-a. bonsxanc-a. (tell falsehoods). lion = leon-o. listen = auxskult-i. linden = tili-o. -. lul-i.for. revu-o. simil-a. lick = lek-i. (fastening). (not heavy). load = sxargx-i.

minimum = minimum-o. method = metod-o. traf-i. ministr-o. menu = menu-o. middle = mez-o. meter = metr-o (284). mank-i. mineral = mineral-o. (patch). festen-i. minutes = (of a meeting). medicine = (drug. mien = mien-o. melk-i. meat = viand-o.). May = maj-o. medical = medicin-a. min-o.). fluidigx-i. master = mastr-o. 270. degel-i. member = membr-o. miserly = avar-a.). mention = nom-i. manuscript = manuskript-o. maltraf-i. marry = (become married). merry = gaj-a. (official). mi-a (43). meet = (trans. nur. mature = matur-a. mark = mark-o. metal = metal-o. (be missing). marmor-o. match = (for fire). stamp-o.). parker-e. (science). -. minute = (time). (of his profession or art). misery = mizer-o. mend = ripar-i. (possessive adj. marble = (stone). march = marsxad-i.of (prep. measure = (trans. millimeter = milimetr-o (284).). (assemble). million = milion-o. milk = lakt-o. etc). flik-i. cit-i. (adj. merit = merit-i. minut-o. merely = (adv. medicin-o. magistr-o. maximum = maksimum-o. March = mart-o.). melon = melon-o. an-o (145).). memor-e. (cloth).manufacture = fabrik-i. mezur-i. . mirror = spegul-o. intenc-i. see 269. (auxiliary verb). (draw the milk of). detal-a. maple = acer-o. mill = muel-o. marmalade = marmelad-o. melt = fluidig-i. sign-o. matter = afer-o. (clergyman).). material = material-o. kunven-i. melody = melodi-o. by -. edzigx-i. pastr-o. means = rimed-o. miss = (fail to reach). kuracist-a. by --. malnobl-a. kuracart-o. meaning = senc-o. minister = (political). centr-o. mayonnaise = majones-a. mild = mild-a. majstr-o. memory = memor-o. mean = signif-i.of Arts (A. merry-go-round = karusel-o. make --. mechanics = mehxanik-o.M. etc. mine = (coal. kuracil-o. per (64). malgrand-a. mile = mejl-o. sxtof-o. renkont-i. protokol-o. alumet-o.

most = (adv. myopic = miop-a.). naked = nud-a. plej (74. neniom (231). narrate = rakont-i. mod-o. moustache = lipharoj. mix = (trans.). naught = nul-o. moroj. mutton = sxafajx-o. the --. move = (trans. nation = naci-o. tre.(notice the absence of). plu. moderate = moder-a. name = nom-o. kas-o. moon = lun-o. komun-a. (change residence) translogx-i. more = (adv.ago. mushroom = fung-o. mandat-o. moment = moment-o. (adv. ung-o. ju pli. mock = mok-i. morning = maten-o (93). monarch = monarhx-o. month = monat-o. miks-i. needle = kudril-o. mystery = mister-o. 159).). must = dev-i (247). bonmor-a. pli multe (81). model = model-o. a -. nail = (metal).). des pli (84). apud (120. nature = natur-o. Mister = Sinjor-o (163. (none). (further).). mould = sxim-o. N. 79). monkey = simi-o. mouth = busx-o. plej multe (81). naive = naiv-a. museum = muze-o. mouse = mus-o. mode = fason-o.). 79). morsel = pec-o.order. need = bezon-i. moral = moral-a. near = proksim-a (170). (of the finger or toe). mud = kot-o. money = mon-o. elflu-o. much = mult-a (81). modest = modest-a. mountain = mont-o. mourning = funebr-o. . -. (prep. (quantity). najl-o. (of river).box. mist = nebul-o. Monday = lund-o. murmur = murmur-i. (very). pli (74. neck = kol-o. (young lady). monk = monahx-o. -. mute = mut-a. (quantity). jxus. morals. senti la foreston de. enflu-o. mov-i. mutual = reciprok-a (180). music = muzik-o. frauxlin-o (163). 286). mistake = erar-o. necessary = neces-a.

. kajer-o. notwithstanding = (prep. neniig-i. naux (136). number = (quantity). nevertheless = (conj. neutral = neuxtral-a. devig-i.). not-i. negativ-o. O. tamen. neniu (220). 66.negative = ne-a (171). novajx-o. newspaper = jxurnal-o. rimark-i. new = nov-a. nek (31). noon = tagmez-o. cel-o.). aviz-i. --where. oblique = oblikv-a. 235. now = (adv. nek (31). obey = obe-i (265). (adv. neighbor = najbar-o. object = objekt-o. notice = rimark-i.). --book. 66. nourish = nutr-i. news. night = nokt-o. roman-o. nullify = nulig-i. noble = nobl-a. (conj. nitrogen = azot-o. neniom (231). okup-o. ne (27. nice = delikat-a. obstruct = bar-i. kontrauxparol-i. serv-i. ne (27. no = (adv. nor = (conj. okaz-o. sxuld-o. a).). nest = nest-o. balanc-i (la kapon). objective = objektiv-o. and pronoun). give --.).). neniam (226). nerve = nerv-o.). not = (adv. numer-o. not-i. (make) oath = jxur-i. north = nord-o. neniu (220). protest-i. noise = bru-o. nombr-o. not-i. neither = (conj. malgraux. (render service). nut = nuks-o. tagjxurnal-o. rimark-i. oak = kverk-o. oats = aven-o. note = not-o. novel = nov-a. (numeral). oblige = (compel).). nothing = nenio (233). meti-o. a). fresx-a. neniu (220). (aim). (photographic). non-partisan = neuxtral-a. (book). -.). occupation = profesi-o. obligation = (financial).). none = (adj. nephew = nev-o. . nobleman = nobel-o. etc. nod = (the head). tamen. see table. occasion = foj-o (127).). nude = nud-a. (pronoun and adj. nun.).one. dev-o. kontrauxstar-i. bilet-o. (oppose). Norwegian = norveg-o. nobody = (pronoun). net = ret-o. (notice). obstinate = obstin-a. nine = (adj. (moral). far-i komplezon. November = novembr-o. observe = observ-i. (adj.). never = (adv. neniu (220).

opera = oper-o. orphan = orf-o. outside = (prep. lornet-o. etc. orangx-o. occur = okaz-i. sur. oficist-o.).). other = ali-a. 121).on a time. orange = (fruit). or = (conj. tuj.). propr-a. --coat. ocean = ocean-o. (musical). (too). ho (273). mandat-o. paddle = padel-i. -. 180). oil = ole-o.more. 160. 137. oficej-o. skiz-o.occupy = okup-i. P. aux. bis. . out of = el.). orgen-o. official = oficial-a. often = (adv. oyster = ostr-o. oh = (interjection). c). mal-o (67). pro (86). at --. kontraux. de (49. -.). order = ordon-i. ceter-a.). once = (adv. (concerning). mend-i. opportune = oportun-a. owe = sxuld-i.). unufoj-e. (military or naval). nur-a. (pronoun). ekster (120. (prep. outline = kontur-o. el. pri. opposite = (converse). (mere). prezent-i. money --. (across). oft-e.). pail = sitel-o. pack = pak-i. ostracism = ostracism-o. orchestra = orkestr-o. ox = bov-o. multfoj-e.glasses.).). only = sol-a. iam (212). office = ofic-o. (place). ordinary = ordinar-a. oni (54). ord-o. (profile). officer = (of organization or firm). tro. pagx-o. offend = ofend-i. original = original-o. ali-e. super. own = posed-i. -. pad = rembur-i. oficir-o. unu (136.). (remaining). pri (160. kontraux. 100. profil-o. etc. 170). (concerning). organ = (physical). (of store. balancigx-i. --wise. (methodical or proper arrangement). organ-o. (adv. offer = propon-i.). October = oktobr-o.people's. malpropr-a. olive = oliv-o. -. on = (prep. opposed to = (prep. trans. 103). organize = organiz-i. ofer-i. page = (of book. 264. opinion = opini-o. 101. odor = odor-o. one = (adj. (sketch). surtut-o. da (99. oscillate = (intrans. supersxu-o. --shoe. of = (prep. See 235. over = (prep. onion = bulb-o.).account of.). -. ornament = ornam-i.

). (effort). (grammatical). kolorigil-o. perfect = perfekt-a. apartig-i. disir-i. pastry = kukajx-o. pencil = krajon-o. estint-a. kajer-o. parsley = petrosel-o. (time). park = park-o. (enclosure). past = (prep. patient = (ill person). paste = (glue). part = part-o. peddle = kolport-i. parsnip = pastinak-o. pedestrian = piedirant-o. percentage = procent-o. hair--. peace = pac-o. pen = plum-o. penik-o. news--. pale = pal-a. peeling = sxel-o. parallel = paralel-a. pedestal = piedestal-o. palm = (of the hand). (sidewalk). polm-o. paint = pentr-i. pas-i. passage = koridor-o. perfidious = perfid-a. passion = pasi-o. pepper = pipr-o. pavement = pavim-o. oni (54).). penetrate = penetr-i. peculiar = strang-a. pause = pauxz-i. parlor = salon-o. ej-o (III). kuracat-o. passenger = pasagxer-o. pearl = perl-o. separate (trans. penik-o. -. --brush. pasture = (trans. pen-o. of a work or book. (material). kotiz-i. patty = pastecx-o.pain = dolor-o. take pains. pen-i. (indefinite pronoun). path = vojet-o. pear = pir-o. pay = pag-i. pasxt-i. patch = flik-i. patience = pacienc-o.dues. paper-o. preter. passive = pasiv-a.). kurioz-a. pan = pat-o. . (of profit). pasteboard = karton-o. jxurnal-o. people = popol-o. pass = (intrans. estint-o. trotuar-o. vid-i. paper = (material). palisade = palisar-o. paradise = paradiz-o. peach = persik-o. tantiem-o. pastor = pastr-o. palace = palac-o. pair = par-o. disdivid-i. participle = particip-o. (see). (bygone). estintec-o. pamphlet = brosxur-o. pea = piz-o. perceive = sent-i. glu-i. paragraph = paragraf-o. pardon = pardon-i (265).).

plan = plan-o. (theatrical). pickle = pekl-i. persevere = persist-i. Pharaoh = faraon-o. (fulfil). (for smoking). bonvolu. pillar = kolon-o. ag-i. far-i. plane = plat-a. vegetajx-o. (for something). dolcx-a. punkt-o. (worry). physician = kuracist-o. pine = (tree). (put). domagx-o. place = lok-o. player = (theatrical). -. pie = kukajx-o. person = person-o. photograph = fotograf-i. (shop). . pitcher = krucx-o. projekt-o. (portrait). muzik-i. (broad. placard = afisx-o. please = placx-i (265). pity = kompat-i. pioneer = pionir-o.for. sopir-i je. mi petas. apotek-o. pick = (choose). (regrettable affair). pinakotek-o. plot = konspir-i. teatrajx-o. aktor-o. (in requests). plate = plat-o. platform = (railway). (music). kontentig-i. (dish) teler-o. perfume = parfum-o. far-i plezuron al. phantom = fantom-o. plait = plekt-i. (of time). pleasant = agrabl-a. (do). perspire = sxvit-i. short street or open space). pigeon = kolomb-o. kreskajx-o. pentrind-a. -ej-o (111). pin = pingl-o. afabl-a. pillage = rab-i. portret-o. (vegetable growth). picture = bild-o. pleasure = plezur-o. met-i. persecute = persekut-i. pious = pi-a. physics = fizik-o. elekt-i. petroleum = petrol-o. pip-o. pig = pork-o. plac-o. phrase = fraz-o. gxen-i. pinnacle = pint-o. picturesque = pitoresk-a. take -. pinch = pincx-i. pipe = tub-o. plant = plant-i. (be a) pilgrim = pilgrim-i. plow = plug-i. plank = tabul-o. -. skiz-o. (gather). bonodor-o. pet = dorlot-i. pharmacy = farmaci-o. gxu-i. philosopher = filozof-o. perish = pere-i. turment-i. planet = planed-o. kolekt-i. (patty). pastecx-o. piece = pec-o. persuade = konvink-i.perform = (act). plenum-i. peron-o. play = lud-i. permit = permes-i. (punctuation). period = period-o. (odor). pineapple = ananas-o.

possible = ebl-a (161. pretekst-i. prefer = prefer-i. powder = pudr-o. pour = (liquids). popol-a. funt-o. pint-o. don-i. konfitajx-o. pole = stang-o. stang-o. sxut-i. pneumatic = pneumatik-a. (keep safe). (be urgent). sweet --. antaux.of (prep. portion = porci-o. . precise = preciz-a. poster = afisx-o. batat-o. balkon-o. present = (gift). (balcony). practice = praktik-i. polite = gxentil-a. ten-i. poison = venen-o. urgx-i. popular = popular-o. president = prezidant-o. police = polic-o. timon-o. --paid. -. present = prezent-i. konserv-i. cxeestant-a. praise = lauxd-i. (stoop). versx-i. donac-i.stamp. postage = (cost). poetry = poezi-o. porcelain = porcelan-o. poise = (trans. kredebl-a (270). prepare = prepar-i. post = (pole). possess = posed-i.). balanc-i. potenc-o. glat-a. port = haven-o. polus-o. donac-o. (time). polurit-a. -.out. pound = pist-i. cxe (125). pork = porkajx-o. posxtelspezo. premium = premi-o. presence = cxeest-o. afrankit-e. porch = verand-o. apudest-o. power = pov-o. prepay = afrank-i. sxajnig-i. (shaft of vehicle). posxtkart-o. part-o. (sharp). (feign). plunder = rab-i. plural = multenombr-o. (of manner). preside = prezid-i. pocket = posx-o. posxtmark-o. politics = politik-o. 162). pray = pregx-i. point = punkt-o. estantec-o. polished. plumber = plumbist-o. (measure). preach = predik-i. preserve = (keep).plum = prun-o. kompot-o. press = prem-i. (food). (in attendance). (as in a chute). aplomb-o. sxrank-o. peron-o. predestined = fatal-a. pot = pot-o. prefix = prefiks-o. Pole = pol-o. estant-a. (print). montr-i. (geographical). (wardrobe).). --card. (mail). posxt-o. poet = poet-o. gxust-a. pretend = (make pretext of). pomp = pomp-o. poem = poem-o. potato = terpom-o. in the -. polish = polur-i. nun-a (171). portrait = portret-o. pres-i.

any --. proces-o. ec-o (202). pudding = puding-o. (characteristic).off. quantity = kvant-o. (give birth to). prosper = prosper-i. (percentage). pretend-i. -. (shove). purple = purpur-a. . trimonat-a. problem = problem-o. public = publik-o. kvaron-o. professor = profesor-o. process = metod-o. tantiem-o. see table. -. kolerig-i. quick = rapid-a. eldon-i. profit = profit-i. publish = publikig-i. kvalito. property = proprajx-o. (premium). (doubt). push = pusx-i.(lay claim). (problem). quiet = kviet-a. prince = princ-o. prozajxo.). trankvil-a. provoke = incit-i. puree = pistajx-o. punish = pun-i. (test). profound = profund-a. premi-o. (lively). Q. ekscit-i. (legal). gard-i. profession = profesi-o. progress = progres-i. (texture. print = pres-i. prov-i. produce = produkt-i. kvartal-o. prize = sxat-i. procrastinate = prokrast-i. proclaim = proklam-i. promenade = promen-i. problem-o. iom (217). prokrast-i. principal = precip-a. proud = fier-a prove = pruv-i. kost-o. profile = profil-o. sxatat-a. em-o (192). propensity = inklin-o. nask-i.a result. a certain --. cxef-a. project = projekt-o. pump = pump-i. intenc-i. pure = pur-a. prose = prozo. priest = pastr-o. piece of --. quarter = (of a city). psalm = psalm-o. regxid-o. sugesti-i. (land). efik-i. sxov-i. dub-o. 235. silent-a. prosecute = persekut-i. bien-o. protest = protest-i. posedajx-o. propose = propon-i. quality = ec-o (202). protect = protekt-i. (be) proper = dec-i. question = demand-o. viv-a. prick = pik-i. pumpkin = kukurb-o. pull = tir-i. (fourth). altetaksat-a. nask-i. put = met-i. proportional = proporci-a. purpose = cel-i. price = prez-o. etc. promise = promes-i. kauxz-i. --ly. prized = kar-a.

cxielark-o. rank = rang-o. rezon-i. 235. R. rabat-o. fervoj-o. (vacation). recover = (find). --way. (get well). quote = cit-i. recite = deklam-i. reason = (exert the power of reasoning). ing-o (181). enspez-i. resanigx-i. rasp = rasp-i. kvitanc-o. for any --. reckon = kalkul-i. (motive). raucous = rauxk-a. prezar-o. (grade).. recommend = rekomend-i. retrov-i. procent-o. rap = frapet-i. raw = nekuirit-a. ready = pret-a. radi-o. raisin = sekvinber-o. kanajl-o. (a goal). (accept). rain = pluv-o. rational = prudent-a. (to another's memory). rate = taks-i. po (175). rat = rat-o. see table. at the -. ver-a. kial-o. alkov-o. ravishing = rav-a. recompense = rekompensx-i. libertemp-o. read = leg-i. (money). rememorig-i. red = rugx-a. rapid = rapid-a. rascal = fripon-o. for what --. rabbit = kunikl-o. raging = furioz-a. racional-a. . rebate = rabat-i. refuse = rifuz-i. ras-o. refine = rafin-i. --way station. raspberry = framb-o. (schedule of prices). --way carriage. real-a.of (prep. refute = refut-i.quince = cidoni-o. --bow. (for one object). quite = (adv.). radish = rafan-o. reach = ating-i. rag = cxifon-o.). recent = nov-a. race = (people). rememor-i. stacidom-o. recall = revok-i. recess = (alcove). raise = lev-i. rail = rel-o. grad-o. reddish. recline = kusx-i (239). receptacle = uj-o (237). malpermes-i. kauxz-o. reduction = (of price). ray = (of light). (percentage). tut-e. etc. akcept-i. raven = korv-o. horse--. (to memory). reasonable = prudent-a. real = efektiv-a. armoraci-o. receipt = (for payment). reap = rikolt-i. radius = radi-o. receive = ricev-i. tarif-o. (cause). reciprocal = reciprok-a (180). vagon-o. traf-i. antauxnelong-a (90). duberugx-a.

regale = regal-i. region = region-o. register = (trans.), registr-i; (letters), rekomend-i. regret = bedauxr-i; (be penitent for), pent-i. regrettable = bedauxrind-a; -- affair (pity), domagx-o. regulation = regul-o, legx-o. reign = reg-i. rejoice = gxoj-i (116). relate = rilat-i (266); (tell), rakont-i. relative = (person), parenc-o. religion = religi-o. rely = konfid-i; fid-i. remain = rest-i; remaining (other), ceter-a. remember = memor-i; (recall to memory), rememor-i. render = far-i, ig-i (214); (an account), don-i, prezent-i, liver-i. renown = fam-o, glor-o. rent = lu-i; (let), luig-i; (farm out), farm-i; (price), luprez-o. repair = ripar-i; (patch), flik-i. repeat = ripet-i. repent = pent-i. report = raport-i. repose = ripoz-i. represent = reprezent-i. reproach = riprocx-i. republic = respublik-o. repulse = repusx-i, repel-i. request = pet-i. require = postul-i; (need), bezon-i. rescue = sav-i. reside = logx-i. respect = respekt-i. rest = (repose), ripoz-i; (remain), rest-i; (-- upon), apog-i sur. restaurant = restoraci-o. result = rezult-i. resume = resum-o. return = (go back), reir-i; (come back), reven-i; (give back), redon-i. revery = rev-o. review = (magazine), revu-o. reward = rekompenc-i. rhubarb = rabarb-o. rib = rip-o. ribbon = ruband-o. rice = riz-o. rich = ricx-a. ride = rajd-i; (in vehicle, boat, etc.), vetur-i. ridicule = mok-i; worthy of -- (ridiculous), ridind-a. right = prav-a; (to something), rajt-o; (not left), dekstr-a. right-angled = ort-a. ring = (intrans.), sonor-i; (circlet), ring-o. ringlet = (of hair), bukl-o. ripe = matur-a. river = river-o. road = voj-o; (broad roadway), sxose-o. roam = vag-i. roar = mugx-i. roast = rost-i. rob = rab-i, sxtel-i. robber = rabist-o. robe = rob-o. Robert = Robert-o.

roguish = petol-a; (rascally), fripon-a. roll = (trans.), rul-i; (something around something else), volv-i; (bread), bulk-o; (list), list-o, registr-o. roof = tegment-o. room = cxambr-o; (space), spac-o. root = radik-o. rose = roz-o. (by) rote = parker-e. round = rond-o; (of ladder), sxtupet-o; (roundabout) (prep.) cxirkaux (89, 120, 159, 160). routine = rutin-o. row = (boats), rem-i. royalty = regxec-o; (share of profit) tantiem-o. rub = frot-i. ruin = ruin-o. rule = reg-i; (draw lines), lini-i; (regulation), regul-o. rumor = fam-o; rumored, lauxdir-a. run = kur-i; (of fluids), flu-i. Russian = rus-o. rust = rust-i. S. sack = sak-o; (plunder), rab-i. sacred = sankt-a. sacrifice = ofer-i, oferdon-i. saddle = sel-o. safe = sendangxer-a, senrisk-a; (chest), monkest-o. sail = vel-o. salad = salat-o. salary = salajr-o. salt = sal-o. salute = salut-i. same = sam-a. sample = specimen-o. sand = sabl-o. sap = suk-o. sardine = sarden-o. satchel = valiz-o. sated = sat-a. satin = atlas-o. satisfied = kontent-a; (of hunger), sat-a. Saturday = sabat-o. sausage = kolbas-o. sauce = sauxc-o. saucer = subtas-o, teleret-o. saucy = petol-a, malgxentil-a, insultem-a. savage = sovagx-a. save = sav-i; (keep), konserv-i; (economize), sxpar-i; (prep.), krom, escepte de. saw = seg-i. say = dir-i (77). scales = (for weighing), pesil-o. scarcely = (adv.), apenaux. scent = (trans.), flar-i. schedule = (of rates), tarif-o. science = scienc-o. scissors = tondil-o. Scot = (Scotchman), skot-o. scoundrel = kanajl-o, fripon-o.

scrape = skrap-i. screen = sxirm-i. screw = sxrauxb-o; --driver, sxrauxbturnil-o. sculpture = skulpt-i. sea = mar-o. seal = sigel-i. season = (of the year), sezon-o. second = (of time), sekund-o; (in order), dua; a -- time (adv.), duafoje, bis. secret = sekret-o. secretary = sekretari-o. section = sekci-o, part-o, er-o (276). see = vid-i; -- to, zorg-i pri. seed = sem-o. seek = sercx-i; -- advice of, konsult-i. seem = sxajn-i; --ing, sxajn-a, kvazaux-a. seize = kapt-i. select = elekt-i. self = (reflexive), see 39, 40, 44; (intensive), mem (219). self-command = aplomb-o. sell = vend-i. senate = senat-o. send = send-i. sense = prudent-o, sagx-o; (meaning), senc-o; (feeling), sent-o. sentence = fraz-o; (legal), jugx-o, kondamn-o. separate = (intrans.), disigx-i, disir-i; (distinct), apart-a. September = septembr-o. serene = trankvil-a. series = seri-o, vic-o. serious = serioz-a, grav-a. serve = serv-i; (be good for), tauxg-i por. set = met-i; (of the sun), subir-i; (type), kompost-i; -- free, liberig-i; -- out (start), forir-i, ekir-i. seven = (adj.), sep (136). several = kelk-aj, kelk-e. severe = sever-a. sew = kudr-i. shade = (shadow), ombr-o; (tint) nuanc-o; (screen), sxirmil-o. shaft = (of vehicle), timon-o. shake = (trans.), sku-i; (oscillate), sxancel-i; -- hands, manprem-i. sham = pretekst-i. shape = form-o; --ly, beltali-a. share = partopren-i, divid-i, part-o, porci-o. sharp = akr-a; (pointed), pint-a. shatter = frakas-i. shave = raz-i. shawl = sxal-o. she = (pronoun), sxi (32, 37, 42). shear = tond-i. sheep = sxaf-o. shelf = bret-o. shell = sxel-o; (of mollusk), konk-o; to remove the --, sensxelig-i. shelter = sxirm-i. shepherd = pasxtist-o. shield = sxild-o; (protect), sxirm-i. shin-bone = tibi-o. shine = bril-i, lum-i. ship = sxip-o. shirt = cxemiz-o. shoe = sxu-o.

shoot = (with gun, etc.), paf-i. shop = butik-o. shore = bord-o, marbord-o. short = mallong-a; --sighted, miop-a; --hand, stenografi-o. shoulder = sxultr-o. shove = sxov-i. shovel = sxovel-i. show = (trans.), montr-i. shrill = akr-a, akrason-a. shun = evit-i. shut = (trans.), ferm-i. side = flank-o; --board, telermebl-o; --walk, trotuar-o; --wise, oblikv-a. sift = kribr-i. sigh = sopir-i. sign = sign-o; -- the name, subskrib-i. signify = signif-i. silent = silent-a (239). silk = silk-o. silver = argxent-o. similar = simil-a. simple = simpl-a. sin = pek-i. since = (conj.), cxar, tial ke (83); (prep.), de, depost (89); (adv.), de tiam. sing = kant-i. single = sol-a, unuop-a; -- man (unmarried man), frauxl-o. sit = sid-i (239). six = (adj.), ses (136). sketch = skiz-i. skill = lertec-o; trial of --, konkurs-o. skin = (human), hauxt-o; (of animals), fel-o. skirt = jup-o. sky = cxiel-o. slanting = oblikv-a, klin-a. slate = (stone), ardez-o. slaughter = bucx-i. slave = sklav-o. sleep = dorm-i; lull to --, lul-i. sleeve = manik-o. slide = glit-i. slime = sxlim-o. slipper = pantofl-o. sly = ruz-a. smear = sxmir-i. smell = (trans.), flar-i; (intrans.), odor-i. smile = ridet-i. smoke = fum-i. smooth = glat-a; (polished), polurit-a. sneeze = tern-i. snow = negx-i. so = (conj.), do; (adv.), (thus), tiel (88, 156); (therefore), tial (78); -- much, tiom (104, 164). society = societ-o. Socrates = Sokrat-o. sofa = kanap-o. soft = mol-a. soil = ter-o; soiled, malpur-a. soldier = soldat-o; (professional), militist-o. sole = sol-a; (of foot), pland-o; (of shoe), ledpland-o.

solemn = solen-a. some = kelk-a, kelk-e, iom (217); --one, --how, etc., see table, 235. son = fil-o. soon = (adv.), baldaux. sorcerer = sorcxist-o. sort = spec-o, klas-o; (put in order), ordig-i, enfakig-i. soul = anim-o. sound = (intrans.), son-i; (of bells), sonor-i; (in good condition), bonstat-a. soup = sup-o. sour = acid-a, maldolcx-a. south = sud-o. sow = sem-i. space = spac-o. spacious = vast-a, grandspac-a, grandampleks-a. Spaniard = hispan-o. spare = (save), sxpar-i; (pardon), pardon-i. sparrow = paser-o. speak = parol-i (77). spear = lanc-o. special = special-a, apart-a. specialty = fak-o. species = spec-o. specimen = specimen-o, model-o. spectre = fantom-o. speed = rapid-o, rapidec-o. spell = silab-i; (witchcraft), sorcxajx-o. spend = (money), elspez-i; (time), pasig-i. speso = spes-o (285). spider = arane-o. spin = sxpin-i. spinach = spinac-o. spite = malic-o; in -- of, (prep.), malgraux, spite. splash = (trans.), plauxd-i. splendor = pomp-o, bril-o, belegec-o. split = (trans.), fend-i. spoil = (trans.), difekt-i. spoke = (of wheel), radi-o. spoon = kuler-o. spot = makul-i. spout = (liquids), sxpruc-i. spring = (season), printemp-o; (of water), font-o. sprite = kobold-o, fe-o. spruce = (tree), pice-o. spurt = (of liquids), sxpruc-i. spy = spion-o; (catch sight of), ekvid-i; --glass, lorn-o. square = kvadrat-o; (public), plac-o. stain = makul-i. stair = (staircase), sxtupar-o. stag = cerv-o. stake = (of palisade), palis-o. stamp = (officially), stamp-i; (with foot), piedfrap-i; postage --, posxtmark-o. stand = star-i (239); (endure), sufer-i, elport-i. standard = (model), model-o; (flag), standard-o. star = stel-o; (any heavenly body), astr-o. starch = amel-o. state = (condition), stat-o; (political), sxtat-o; (governed body), regn-o. station = (state), stat-o; (railway, etc.), staci-o, stacidom-o.

halt-i.out. sekv-i. etend-i. tiel (88). dec-a. subjekt-o. tramvoj-o. still = (silent). sxtop-i. succulent = suk-a. fremd-a. stopper = sxtopil-o. ankoraux. strawberry = frag-o.). cloth. propon-i. strike = frap-i.up. stuf-i. abon-i. story = (tale). fabel-o. (force). steam = vapor-o. (follow). rembur-i. regat-o.). suffix = sufiks-o. steady = firm-a.). such = tia (65). konstant-a. etc. vest-oj. -. . store = (shop). suffocate = (trans. street-car = tramveturil-o. stocking = sxtrump-o. jam. (grammatical). (foreign). bub-o. sufok-i. stew = (trans. permes-i.). peron-o. steel = sxtal-o. tenej-o. -. strive = pen-i. silent-a. student = student-o. bat-i. (adv. struggle = barakt-i. senig-i. stump = stump-o. etagx-o.). (adhere). straight = rekt-a. sudden = subit-a. sxtup-o.). stick = baston-o. stripe = stri-o. suffice = suficx-i. straw = pajl-o. lacx-o. steep = krut-a. (furniture. sugar = suker-o. fort-o. fazeol-o. prosper-i. tauxg-a. strap = rimen-o. neatendit-a. tem-o. (person studying). incit-i. tamen. (permit). string = sxnur-o. rab-i (252). study = stud-i. konform-a. (fare well). rakont-o. proces-o. strip = (of paper. -.). stretch = (trans. -. -. (of house). komplet-o. cxes-i. (of stairs). (adv. (of laborers).stay = rest-i.bean. stomach = stomak-o.). (leave off). (conj. stipulate = kondicx-o. sting = pik-i. kurioz-a. stimulate = stimul-i. subscribe = subskrib-i. subject = (theme). (entrance porch). streak = stri-o. algluigx-i.line. nemovebl-a. postven-i. (forcibly). sukplen-a. stoop = klinigx-i. succeed = sukces-i. trastrek-i.). (ruled). studant-o. etc. suggest = sugesti-i. strik-o. strange = strang-a. stone = sxton-o. strong = fort-a. make a --. suitable = konven-a. toler-i. style = stil-o. street = strat-o. stove = forn-o. step = pasx-i. etc. konservej-o. butik-o. (to magazine. substance = substanc-o. suffer = sufer-i. stress = akcent-o. (at law). strecx-i. (warehouse).). suit = (of clothes). strek-i. stuff = sxtof-o. magazen-o. banderol-o. stop = (intrans. stern = sever-a. steal = sxtel-i. (shoelace). -.

suite = (of rooms), apartament-o. sulphur = sulfur-o. sum = sum-o; (total), tut-o. summarize = resum-i. summer = somer-o; --house, lauxb-o. summit = pint-o, supr-o. sun = sun-o. Sunday = dimancx-o. superior = super-a; (person), superul-o. superstition = supersticx-o. supply = liver-i, proviz-i. suppose = supoz-i; opini-i. sure = cert-a. surface = suprajx-o. surprise = surpriz-i. suspect = suspekt-i. suspend = pendig-i. suspenders = sxelk-o. swallow = glut-i; (bird), hirund-o. swamp = marcx-o. swan = cign-o. swear = jxur-i. Swede = sved-o. sweep = (floors, etc.), bala-i. sweet = dolcx-a; --potato, batat-o. sweetmeat = bombon-o, sukerajx-o, konfitajx-o; be fond of --, frand-i. swim = nagx-i. swine = pork-o. swing = (trans.), sving-i; (balance), balanc-i (279). Swiss = svis-o. swoon = sven-i. sword = glav-o. syllable = silab-o. Syracuse = Sirakuz-o. T. table = (furniture), tabl-o; (tabulation), tabel-o. tail = vost-o. tailor = tajlor-o. take = pren-i; (magazines, etc.), abon-i; -- in (money), enspez-i; -- place, okaz-i; -- note of, observ-i, rimark-i; -- oath, jxur-i; -- steps toward accomplishing, klopod-i; -- pleasure in, gxu-i; -- the attention of, distr-i. tale = fabel-o. talent = talent-o. tall = alt-a, altkresk-a, grand-a. talon = ungeg-o. tap = (rap), frapet-i; (faucet), kran-o. tariff = tarif-o. task = task-o. taste = gust-o, gustum-i. tax = impost-o. tea = te-o; -- caddy, teuj-o (181); --pot, tekrucx-o. teach = instru-i. tear = sxir-i; (of the eye), larm-o. tease = turmentet-i, cxagren-i. tedious = ted-a, enuig-a, lacig-a. telegraph = telegraf-i. telephone = telefon-i.

telescope = teleskop-o. tell = dir-i, rakont-i (77); -- lies, mensog-i. temper = humor-o; lose the --, koler-i. temple = (of the head), tempi-o; (building), templ-o. tempt = tent-i. ten = (adj.), dek (136). tender = delikat-a, mol-a, kares-a. tenor = (voice), tenor-o; (course), dauxr-o. tent = tend-o. term = (word), termin-o; (condition), kondicx-o; (time), templim-o. terrace = teras-o. territory = teritori-o. terror = terur-o. test = prov-i, ekzamen-i. texture = kvalit-o; (thing woven), teksajx-o. than = (conj.), ol (82, 97, 98). thank = dank-i (265). that = (conj.), ke (53, 83, 105, 259, 262); (pronoun), tiu (56); tio (233, 234); -- kind, tia (65); (adv.), tiel (88, 156); -- way, tiamanier-e, tiel (88); -- much, tiel mult-e, tiom (104, 164); (when) (adv.), kiam (155). thaw = (intrans.), degel-i. the = (article), la (11, 47, 201, 280, a); (adv.), ju, des (84). theatre = teatr-o. theme = tem-o. then = (conj.), do; (adv.), tiam (73); (afterwards), post-e. theory = teori-o. there = (adv.), tie (68); (adv. calling attention), jen (228); see also 51. therefore = (adv.), tial (78); pro tio, sekv-e. they = (pronoun), ili (32, 37, 42); (indefinite), oni (54). thick = dik-a, dens-a. thigh = femur-o. thing = afer-o, objekt-o, ajx-o (227); any--, what --, etc., see table, 235. think = pens-i; (have the opinion), opini-i. (be) thirsty = soif-i. this = (pronoun), tio cxi (233, 234); (pronoun and adj.), tiu cxi (60); all --, cxio cxi. See table, 235. thong = rimen-o. thorn = dorn-o. thou = (pronoun), ci (40). though = (conj.), kvankam; as --, kvazaux (250). thousand = (adj.), mil (142). thread = faden-o; -- a needle, enkudrilig-i fadenon. threaten = minac-i. three = (adj.), tri (136). threshold = sojl-o. thrifty = sxparem-a. throat = gorgx-o. throne = tron-o. throng = amas-o, ar-o (126). through = (prep.), tra (46, 160); (by means of), per (64); (because of), pro (86), de (170). throw = jxet-i. thumb = dika fingr-o. thunder = tondr-i. Thursday = jxauxd-o. thus = (adv.), tiel (88, 156), tiamanier-e. ticket = bilet-o; -- window, gicxet-o.

tickle = tikl-i. tie = lig-i; (shoes, etc.), lacx-i. tiger = tigr-o. tile = kahel-o; (brick), brik-o. till = (money box), kas-o; (prep.), gxis (46, 89); -- the soil, terkultur-i. time = (in general), temp-o; (occasion), foj-o (127); (epoch), epok-o; (of day), hor-o. tin = (metal), stan-o; -- plate (sheet iron covered with tin), lad-o. tinkle = tint-i. tint = nuanc-o, kolor-o. tire = (trans.), lacig-i, enuig-i; (pneumatic), pneuxmatik-o. to = (prep.), al (46, 160, 251, 252); gxis (46, 89). toad = buf-o. toast = (bread), panrostajx-o; (sentiment), tost-o. tobacco = tabak-o. today = (adv.), hodiaux (93, 171). toe = piedfingr-o. toilet = tualet-o. tolerate = toler-i, sufer-i. tomato = tomat-o. tomb = tomb-o. tomorrow = (adv.), morgaux (93, 171). tone = ton-o. tongue = (of the body), lang-o; (of vehicle), timon-o; (language), lingv-o. too = (adv.), tro; (too much), tro multe, tro. tool = il-o (63). tooth = dent-o. top = supr-o. torment = turment-i. total = tut-o. touch = tusx-i; (feel with the fingers, etc.), palp-i; sense of --, palpad-o; -- the heart of, kortusx-i. toward = (prep.), al (46, 160, 251, 252). tower = tur-o; -- above, superstar-i. trace = sign-o, postsign-o. trade = (occupation), meti-o; (commerce), komerc-o; (exchange), intersxangx-i. train = (of cars), vagonar-o; (of dress), trenajx-o. tram = tram-o; --way, tramvoj-o; -- car, tramveturil-o. tranquil = trankvil-a; kviet-a. translate = traduk-i. travel = vojagx-i; (by vehicle), vetur-i. tray = plet-o. treacherous = perfid-a. treasure = trezor-o. treasurer = kasist-o. treasury = kas-o. treat = (in speech or writing), trakt-i; (for illness), kurac-i; (act towards), kondut-i kontraux; (regale), regal-i. treatise = traktat-o. tree = arb-o. tremble = trem-i; (vacillate), sxanceligx-i. trial = jugxa auxskultado, esplorad-o; (of skill), konkurs-o; (affliction), malgxoj-o, sufer-o; (test), prov-o, ekzamen-o; (attempt), prov-o. trifle = bagatel-o. triumph = triumf-o. tropic = tropik-o.

trot = trot-i. trousers = pantalon-o. trunk = (chest with lid), kofr-o; (of tree), trunk-o. trust = fid-i, konfid-i; (financial), trust-o. truth = ver-o. try = (legally), jugx-i; (strive), pen-i; (attempt, test), prov-i. tub = kuv-o. tube = tub-o. tuber = tuber-o. Tuesday = mard-o. tumbler = (for drinking), glas-o; (juggler), jxonglist-o. tune = ari-o, melodi-o. Turk = turk-o. turkey = meleagr-o. turn = (trans.), turn-i; (in a series), vic-o. turnip = nap-o. turnstile = gicxet-o. twilight = krepusk-o. twist = (trans.), tord-i. twitter = pep-i. two = (adj.), du (136). tyrant = tiran-o. U. umbrella = ombrel-o. uncle = onkl-o. unanimous = unuvocx-a, unuanim-a. uncommon = kurioz-a, nekomun-a. unconcerned = indiferent-a; nezorgem-a. under = (prep.), sub (121, 160). underline = substrek-i. understand = kompren-i. undertake = entrepren-i; -- initiative work, klopod-i. undeviating = rekt-a. unfailing = (adv.), nepr-e, cert-e. unimportant = indiferent-a, negrav-a. union = unuig-o, unuigx-o, kunig-o, kunigx-o. universe = univers-o. university = universitat-o. until = (prep.), gxis (89) up = (adv.), supre, supren (121); -- to, gxis (46). upholster = rembur-i. upper = supr-a. upon = (prep.), sur (160). upright = just-a; (vertical), vertikal-a. urge = urgx-i, insiste pet-i. upset = (trans.), renvers-i. utmost = ekstrem-a, ebl-o (161, see also 162). V. (be) vacant = vak-i, esti neokupata. vacillate = sxanceligx-i. vagabond = vagist-o. vain = (futile), van-a; senutil-a, senfrukt-a; (proud), vant-a, fier-a; in --, vane. valise = valiz-o. valley = val-o. value = (appraise), taks-i; (like), sxat-i; have the -- of, valor-i.

vanquish = venk-i. vapor = vapor-o. varied = divers-a, malsimil-a. vase = vaz-o. vast = vast-a, grand-a. vaunt = fanfaron-i, vantparol-i. veal = bovidajx-o (207, c). vegetable = (edible), legom-o; (plant growth), vegetajx-o, kreskajx-o (227, a). vegetarian = vegetar-a. vegetate = veget-i. veil = vual-o. vein = vejn-o. velvet = velur-o. veranda = verand-o. verify = konstat-i, kontrol-i. vermicelli = vermicxel-o. verse = vers-o; (poesy), poezi-o. vertical = vertikal-a. very (very much) = (adv.), tre, tre multe; (adj.), sam-a, ident-a, (intensive) mem (219). vex = cxagren-i. vibrate = (intrans.), vibr-i. vice = (wickedness), malvirt-o; (prefix), vic-. vie = konkur-i. village = vilagx-o. vindication = apologi-o. vinegar = vinagr-o. violet = viol-o. violin = violon-o. virtue = virt-o. visage = vizagx-o. visit = vizit-i. vivid = hel-a. voice = vocx-o. volume = (book), volum-o; (of a body), volumen-o. vote = vocxdon-i, balot-i. vowel = vokal-o. voyage = vojagx-i. W. wade = vad-i. waffle = vafl-o. wager = vet-i. wages = salajr-o. wait = (wait for), atend-i; -- on, serv-i. waiter = (in restaurant, etc.), kelner-o. waist = tali-o; --coat, vesxt-o wake = (trans.), vek-i. walk = marsx-i; (for pleasure), promen-i; (of park, etc.), ale-o; side--, trotuar-o. wall = mur-o. waltz = vals-i. wander = vag-i. want = (need), bezon-i; (desire), dezir-i, vol-i; (be lacking), mank-i; (extremity), mizereg-o. war = milit-i. wardrobe = (garments), vestar-o; (furniture), sxrank-o, vestosxrank-o. warehouse = magazen-o.

--fall. (flutter. aviz-i. dum (96). -. west = okcident-o. flirt-i.). . way = (manner). week = semajn-o.). (a watch). whose. kiu (106.way. kiam (125. (interjection). voj-o. where = (adv.time. pez-i. pes-i. whale = balen-o. make --. Wednesday = merkred-o. manier-o. 146). wig = peruk-o. kies (107. when = (adv. (be) willing = vol-i. volonte farite. this --. why = (adv.over. kaskad-o. wind = vent-o.). whole = (entire). -. welcome = bonven-i. kiu (106. bon-e. metod-o.. widow = vidvin-o.nigh (adv. 37). etc.way. weigh = (trans. --cock. 159). well = (healthy). 235. (road). (give notice). 235. kial (129). etend-i. 143). water = akv-o. kvankam. san-a. dum (96). plekt-i. (means).out.). while = (prep. kio (233. (intrans. waste = (prodigality). a). -.). estas nenio. ni (32. kler-a. forjxetajx-o.). window = fenestr-o. put-o. (for water). we = (pronoun). white = blank-a. strecx-i. 234). (custom). (be) wearied = enu-i. wheel = rad-o. whitish.warm = varm-a. whistle = fajf-i. -. kial (129). iom da tempo. preskaux. dum (120. dubeblank-a. pripens-i (264. 155). akvarel-o.).). dezert-o.informed. widower. rigardad-i. rimed-o. -. (concessive). winding = tord-a. wash = lav-i. c). any--. kio (233. brandish). -. nu (273). see table. survolv-i. who = (pronoun).color. wax = vaks-o. bon-e. wide = largx-a. pro kio. plilargxig-i. 66. (pronoun and adj. tial (78). antauxsciig-i. -. what = (pronoun). weep = plor-i. -. see table. willingly = volont-e. make etc. 146). enirejo. whip = vip-i. (conj. tord-i. (while). which = (pronoun). wicket = gicxet-o. see table. (be heavy). a --. (hiss). (refuse). warn = avert-i. weather = veter-o. -. 151). whether = (conj. wilt = velk-i. gard-i. (desert). weave = teks-i. wheat = tritik-o. kiu (106. bone akcept-i. tut-a. wild = sovagx-a. kutim-o. tremp-i. wine = vin-o. (timepiece). (twist).). wear = port-i. malsxpar-o. (adv. wet = malsekig-i. (plait). (meditate upon). 234). vidv-o. ventoflag-o. --fore.). watch = (look at). eluz-i. gicxet-o. kie (118. -.kind. varmig-i. (pronominal adj. sibl-i. ("no thanks needed"). (method).. ticket --.kind. wave = ond-o. 235. etc. hejt-i. -. cxu (30. you are --. posxhorlogx-o. sving-i. 147).).

Z. 160). worm = verm-o. work = labor-i. year = jar-o. vi (32. kanajl-o. write = skrib-i. wood = lign-o. yoke = jug-o. acx-a (272). (literary composition). ve (273). woo = amindum-i. 120. de (169). rilate (266). dubeflav-a. zone = zon-o. world = mond-o. (books. wolf = lup-o. antaux-hieraux. young = jun-a. erar-a. wither = velk-i. worship = ador-i. yet = (adv.).). with = (prep. yearn = sopir-i. (spoken). without = (prep. zoology = zoologi-o. mizer-a. hieraux (93. funkci-i.regard to. woe = malgxoj-o. witty = sprit-a. verk-i. (be) worth = valor-i. --ed. parol-o. (agent of the passive). Y. (give) witness = atest-i. articles.). zigzag = zigzag-o. 37. (divine service). (conj. (= having). (open). witch = sorcxistin-o. --craft. worthy = ind-a (154). (interjection). you = (pronoun). wrinkle = sulket-o. tamen. 159. wreath = girland-o. zero = nul-o. verk-o. see also oni (54). sen (248). yellow = flav-a. wrestle = barakt-i.). forir-i. ankoraux. havante (222). jam. id-o (207). fendigx-i. dezir-i. wrong = malprav-a. zeal = fervor-o. . Diserv-o. yesterday = (adv. kun (70. 76. --ish. wound = vund-i.). word = vort-o. per (64). yes = (adv. wise = sagx-a. zenith = zenit-o. 39). maljust-a. -.winter = vintr-o. wonder = mir-i. wretch = fripon-o. je (260). 171). wipe = visx-i. jes (171).). zinc = zink-o. (of machinery). (offspring). wish = vol-i. music). faldet-o. (by means of). --draw. yawn = osced-i. dezireg-i. elir-i. wool = lan-o. day before --. sorcx-o.

177. of time. (with pronouns) 33. of adj. in composition. A. ("kiel") 134. of adv. ("kie") 118. Suffixes. verbs from roots of.. p.) 171. with intrans. ftn. ftn. 264. 171. verb. = accusative. 66. as interjections. 44. 66. Adverbs. demonstrative. verbs) 210. 66. synopsis of. 214. p. 108. ("cxiam") iS7. (after trans.. 259. 280. ("iom") 217. = intransitive. Abstract nouns. 74.) 159. d.. Affirmation. ftn. c. 193. Affectionate diminutives. 152. 103. p. relative.. ("ne") 27. 107. with expressions of time. with acc. 222. = transitive. p. p. references are given in the Vocabulary. a. ftn. 36. 221). 266. ("preter") p. with nouns expressing motion.INDEX. predicate. 24. Affixes. 70. ("cxiom") 194... p. (translating "without") p. expr. not used with predicates. The following abbreviations are used: ace. 136. 202. ("tiam") 73.. of ordinals. 66. 23. not used after prep. see Prefixes. = adjective. Accent. of time. 168. (from prep. ftn. ("jen") 228. ("neniam") 226. generalizing. gxis.. 8. ("kial") 129. a. position of. 210. The references are to sections. 91. p. 24.. "cognate. ftn. 132. Adversative conjunctions. ("ial") 213. ftn. distinguished from temporal adv. ("tiom") 104. Abbreviations. instead of prepositional phrase. distributive. 149. with prep. ftn. = footnote. 232. possessive. 170. tenses of. . 79. 65. ftn. distinguishing from acc. distinguished from adv. 191. 46. ("tie") 68. ("neniel") 230. after adv. 139. ("kiel") 156. 94. calling attention.. ftn. numeral. intrans. expressing direction of motion. derived. ("kiom") 164. with temporal adv. agreement. a. 214. = preposition. of. of direction. 49. 69. and ftn. acc. with "da". of measure. ("cxu") 30. ending. 266. ("tiel") 88. trans. verbs from. p. ("cxie") 182. 17. derivation of words from primary. 25. 264. intrans. expression of. not used with article. 121. ordinal.) is given. demonstrative. 216. Accordance. c. (with words connected by "nek") 31. interrogative. 265.. 108. 257. 263. adv. distributive. 66. Accompaniment. Adverbial clauses. 93. ("iel") 216. (from prep. 87. 158. 116. ("tial") 78. cardinal. negative. indefinite. see Tenses. 119. ("iam") 212. Advice. a.. 69. ("neniom") 231. ("ajn") 236. attributive. 19. 208. defined. ("kiam") 123. 43. ("kie") 151. 92.. use of. ("kiom") 140. ("cxial") 188. 21. 24. interrogative. ("nenial") 229. 25. ("nenie") 225. 266. ("ie") 209. of pronoun. p." see acc. with intrans. b. 224. of elided word. 37. 12.. inf. primary.. = adverb. indefinite. 112. negative. (pronominal use of) 45.) 120. adj. participle. 13. Adjectives. 283 (also 198. (from adv. tra") 46. intrans. ("cxiel") 193. Accusative. Active voice. plural of. defined. expr. when avoided. 150. ("kiam") 155. verbs. relative. = expressed. by "laux". comparison of. For Esperanto words whose use or meaning is specially explained. causative verbs from. 93. 121. unless the page (p. distinguished from instrumentality and opposition. 139. 12. 38. = infinitive. ending of. (with nouns) 17. participles of. 286. 94. prep. causative verbs from roots of. 267. 32. ("al. formation of. ftn. reflexive possessive. 232.

Nominative. p. ftn. see Compounds. 242. Collective nouns. expr. of result. "sed". "nek". 105. by "ke". 240. p. p. (imperative). 96. conditional sentences. expr. subordinate imperative. explained.. Assumption. no indefinite. of participle. Agreement. expr. 25. 126. 108. see Correspondence. verbs. 249.. 21. dependent. 136. Argumentative conjunction. of adj. less vivid. 78.. Concrete nouns. 247. summary of. of purpose.. 32. 76. 52. with possessive adj. Compound tenses. by "de". 18. of adj. Possessive.) 24. "Cognate acc. Comparison. 264. 79. 254. (not omitted) p. causal. defined. formation of. invariable. factual. of adj. 32. independent use of.Agency. 240.. adverbial. of imaginative comparison. with prep. "se". 17. 246. for possessive adj. expr. Auxiliary verbs. 109. Consent.. 169. expr. "ju" and "des" in. Consonants. 244. 110. 218. 250. Conditions. of nouns in apposition. in contrary to fact conditions. ftn. 250. indefinite. 168.. ftn. Conclusion (of conditions) defined.. conjugation of. (in causal clauses) 83.. (in indirect statements). of predicate noun and adj. 81. (of letters). 243. with intrans. formation of. definite. of duration of time. 82. see Conditions. (future) 55. 3. p. 260.. 103. 53. expr. combinations of. ftn. Augmentatives. 47. descriptive. Complement of prep. of adv. of tenses. 167. "ke".. p. see Accusative. 32. 97. 36. 34.. ftn. (conditional) 241. implied. p. p. (in subordinate imperative clause) 259. "kaj". by inf. by clause. 74. by "de". 201. Conjunctions. 34. Compounds. with words connected by "nek". 45.. 48. 241. 6. with pronouns. II. Cardinal numerals.. 83. pronunciation of. "tamen". 33. 98. 53. 240. subordinating. 246. by "je". see Tenses. Alphabet. p. of adj. 189. (in subordinate clauses) 259. 256. conjugation of. 83. 32. 17. 84. 244. (in purpose clause) 262. (in result clause) 105.. by adverbial participle. 32. 179. ftn. 29. Conditional mood. "kvazaux". expression of. Complementary inf. 31.. Causative verbs. of words expressing quantity. 142. Characteristic. in subordinate clause. explained. 109. 32. 4. . by "pro". by "kun". 184. p. 11. Commands. 240. in less vivid conditions. b. Composition. 48. a. see Tenses. 122. coordinating. ftn. Collective sense given by use of "da". by clause.. 280. defined. contrary to fact. defined. Dative. 86. Connection. C. ftn. 52. Case. generic. "aux". 32. 26. Anticipation. elision of. containing "ol". 176. 259. 240. p. Clauses.. p. ftn. (past) 35. ftn. names of. 227. ftn. Apposition. 267.. ftn. "do"." see acc. I. 222. compound tenses of. Article. Aoristic tenses.. see p.. (present) 14. 257. (with acc. of "devi". 243. vivid. 214. 31. ftn. expression of. 259. of anticipation. Conjugation. 49. with two or more nouns. ftn. p. defined. 222. ftn. 262. Cause.. of impersonal verbs. of attributive adj. 97. synopsis of. possessive. 34. 222. p.

a. 283.) 121. 55.. expr. 260. 166." ethical. advs. Feminine nouns. "Dative. Definite quantity. 278. (in subordinative clause) 259. (active) 152. 32. Coordinating conjunctions. 278. Emphatic negation. 91. of participle. pronoun.. of participle. by "ecx". 90. expr. (passive) 196. 36. affectionate. (from prep. G. E. of adj. adjective. 159. Dates. 29. cxi tio") 233. 55. see Adverbs. as. Emphasis... of words from primary adv. of feminines. (passive) 199. p. of imperative. 171.) 120. 255. Diphthongs. 59. of acc. of complementary inf. 167. adv.. of noun. ("kiel") 134.. 53. 10. p. see Correspondence. Factual conditions. expressions of. followed by "de". 66. 100. adv. use of "je" in. see Complement. 175. see Complementary inf. 239. Future perfect tense. 176. Disjunctive conjunctions. by acc... 29. (of noun) 46. ("cxio") 233. Direct object. defined. see Participles. of opposites.. Correspondence. 23. Deliberation. of reference. 197. Fractions. expr. pronoun. 28. 171. 27.. F. 162. by prep. ("tio. from primary words. 35. (of adv. Future participle. 59. ("tiel") 88. adj. 259. of words from prep. ftn. 153. Double letters. Demonstrative. ftn. Elision. 5. Descriptive compounds. see also Comparison.. of conditional. on letters. ftn.. . Future tense. 200. 52. 240. 148. Dependent compounds. (passive) 183. prep. with "-ig-" and "-igx-". 23. Copulative conjunctions. of words." p. 108. 156. nouns of.. 67. 254. 89. inf. 115. 6. 235. 66. 79. see "po". of indicative. of plural. 215. formation of. of. 16. 259. ("cxiu") 173. Diminutives. Frequentative verbs. 79. by "antaux". clause as. 116. Degree.Contrary to fact conditions.. Derivation. 14. by "ja". of adv. of inf. ("tiu") 56. periphrastic. ftn. Distributive. Formation. highest possible. 263. see Adverbs. e. ("cxi tiu") 60. 177. 280.. Exhortation. of prep. 32. D. 241. 257. 197. 246. 198. 218. by acc. 12. Correlative words.. p. 159. Ending. of adv. Expedience. "Ethical dative. (progressive) 114. 65. expression of. of separation. Direction. Exclamations. expr.

b. ftn. advs. ftn. 63. p. with "da". Generalizing adv. 241. 18. in subordinate clauses. of article. 257. 218. Instrumentality. tenses of. 262. by clause. expr. 29. Limitation of third personal pronoun. Manner. requests for. defined. M. ftn. synopsis of. Interrogative. adj. 273. 50. Instruments. 232. Inversion. 232. as subject. 244. from trans. 285... 28. Interjections.. ftn. 113. advs. Inchoative verbs. defined. of cardinals. International money system. 50. 241. in resolve and exhortation. advs. see Adverbs. from adj. 51. pronoun. Interrogation. 260. 243. Introductory particle. 136. 29. 284. L. c. 279. ftn. 268. 49. 219.. 99. b. advs.. 259. Invariability.Generic article. suffixes. of "mem". ("kiu") 106. 208. 66. less peremptory uses of. 101.. expressions of. Imaginative comparison. from noun roots. 76. explained. p. 22. replaced by noun.. 259. 53. 122. (passive) 178.. adj. pronunciation of. 98. double. suffix. 30. 222. a. not needed. "ajn". to express purpose. 18. 254. Imperative mood. distinguished from accompaniment. 257. by "je". 278. defined. 141. formation of names of. quantity. weights and measures. by "per". questions in. see also Correspondence. Infinitive. expr. Instruction. by "kun". Independent use of conditional mood. expr.. names of. modifiers of. Impersonally used verbs. by adverbial participle. by. 201. ending of. . 232. 170. roots. Indefinite. Impersonal verbs. 30. of verb. 232. statements in. "Indirect object. prefixes. b. ("iu") 203. pronoun. see Synopsis. Indicative mood. 28. compound tenses of. 255. Highest degree possible. 38. 250. expr. Intention. of. p. with prep. 58. Imperfect tense. see Adverbs. 256. no passive. expr. 257. (personal) 54. 218. preps.. 141. p. ("io") 233. modifiers of. 42. 219. H. prep. 267. modifiers of. Indefinite connection. 267. "per". 179. 141. 130.. a. Letters. Intensive pronoun. complementary. Indirect quotation. 112." see "al". (table of). I. tenses in. e. 259. p. Intransitive verbs. see Adverbs. (orders). 162. "mem". 236. not needed in questions. in commands and prohibitions. 4. 260. Less vivid conditions. verb roots. Less peremptory uses of imperative. 64. 53. d. (kio) 233. 6..

. p. Past inception. 171. Names. present action with. predicate. Measure. 169. ftn. "gxis". distinguished from accompaniment. of. 254. indicative. 10. 141. see Infinitive. ace.. 205. pronoun. advs. of predicate noun and adj. 10. 108. Participial nouns. 285. followed by "da". of. (passive) 165. of letters. 136. p. possessive case of. ftn. advs. Part of the whole. N. tenses of.. 83. 166. 232. 74. expression of. 99. 241. 10. 142. introductory. 50. ("nenio") 233. fractional. 280. 64. abbreviation of. 284. expressing motion.. future. The international. 86. adverbial. Motive or reason. formation of. by clause. followed by acc. Noun roots. ftn. 193. p.. 241. see Direct object. ordinal. from adv. in conditions. 169. "tra") 46. 139. (after adv. p. Passive voice.. 158. see Adverbs. (for adj. orthography of proper. Particle. Money system. of.. 36. adj. Nominative case.. ending of. Opposition. 128.Material. causative verbs from. 59. Past tense... defined. expression of. expr.. 224. 152. p. p. not needed. formation of. see Participles. of "-ig-" formations. feminine. defined. 131. expr. P. (passive) 189. weights and. past participle.. Necessity. 138. ftn. see Participles. participial. of proper nouns. ("neniu") 220. 128. Numeral nouns. Number. . 16. expression of. 149. 239. 157. 31. expr. 263. b. distinguished from "-igx-" formations. Past periphrastic future. 107. see also Position. ("al". 247. intrans. 23. 149. b. from prep. by "de". Measures. verbs from. see Tenses. Participle. b. Obligation. Partitive construction. Metric system. cardinal. imperative. 49. Noun. 153. O. 159. 218. advs. 4. participles of. (translating "without") p. 20. 108. expressing quantity. replacing participial phrase. 158. Numerals. ftn. ending of. ftn. 259. conditional. abbreviation of. advs. see Conditions. Indirect object. Object... see Adverbs. see 267. (after noun) 99. by prep.. 210. plural of. 214. 222. advs. of word endings." how rendered. Mood. c. agent of. elision of. 51.) 12.) 101. (moral) 247. 107. 260. 119. 49. 108. 197. (passive) see Imperfect. 25. ftn. (for nouns) 10. (passive) 199. 232. conjunction. 222. of "pli" and "plej". Negative. 284. replacing inf. present. Ordinal numerals. see Plural. numeral. acc. Opposites. expression of. Moral obligation. Modifiers of impersonally used verbs. 100. "Nominative absolute. defined. 211. 80. with prep. Order. ftn. inf. 193. by "je". Means.. Orthography. (passive) 200. past. followed by "el". 35. 247. 157. d. 67. 205. Complement. agreement of. p..

256. of pronouns. of pronouns. 233. p. 147. Predicate. 266. 66. expression of. 16. by "cxi". noun. 135. (progressive) 110. 274.. "dis-". "eks-". 233. 54. future. 137. ftn. 32. verbs from. Possessive compounds. after trans. acc. "ek-". 233. 110. "ge-". of emphatic negative. expression of. 221. 277. Present tense. 270. adverb as. Possession. 128. 56. 281. after trans. 24. 67. 89. 95..Peremptory commands and prohibitions. Possibility. Prefixes. Present participle. 214. Prepositions. expr. 38. derivation of words from. 37. 66. Pluperfect tense. agreement of. followed by "el". 128. a. 56. 19. 232. ("cxies") 174. 274. 264. 16. series in "-o". defined. 257. 125. 71. 131. 21. 98. 39. 235. Prepositional phrase. 220. ftn. p. causative verbs from. by "de". distributive. 36. limitation of third personal. as. agreement with. relative. 274. 203. perfect participle. ftn. b. by inf. 18. 238. possessive form of. of "unu".. 153. expression of. none of pronouns ending in "-o". 32. by "-ej-". ftn. 270. 30. 40. 87. 60. 232. interrogative. summary. ftn. 195. verb. 153. adj. ("kiu") 106. 282. Primary adverbs. 115. 39. "Possessive pronouns. 173. ("tiu") 57. 120. (passive) 165. d. ("ambaux") 238. expr. ("neniu") 220. of. c." p. 223. p. position of unemphatic. defined. 173. 40.. 259. 54. personal. 220. 43. by prep. intensive. 229. Proper nouns. of attributive adj. 211. Progressive tenses. intrans. "duon-". 47. clause as. of adj. ("ies") 204. Probability. Purpose. advs. acc. 233. from. Pronominal adjective. ("iu") 203. 108. none of article. "re-". expressing time relations. reflexive. 216. as prefixes. 256. present. possessive. expr. 45.. limitation of third personal. verbs trans. see also Possessive adjective. 14. 87. 13. "pra-". with inf. 33. see Adverbs. see Possessive case. indefinite personal. by imperative. "ambaux". III. Periphrastic futures. (passive) 200. article for. with adv. of unemphatic pronoun. 146. 259. of interrogative adv. adjective. use of "je" in. 42. 42. negative. by "cxe". 46. c. prep. Perplexity. see Past participle. word derivation from. 262. 184. Proximity. agreement of. indefinite. 206. 49. advs. ftn. (in composition) p. 49. 66. Possessive. instead of. "bo-". with other preps. Personal pronouns. causative verbs from. orthography of. 32. see also references in Vocabulary. expression of. possessive adj. 203.. 233. 271. reflexive. expr. 124. 260. 200. Place. defined. 219.. 214. intrans. of adv. ("cxiu") 173. 233. (passive) 190. correlation of predicative or relative. 173. . 171.. 233. 234. 60. 106. ("kies") 107. 60. 160. 210. verbs from. Pronouns. a. 248. Position. p. 43. 167. making intrans. 114. case use with. 146. 245. "mal-". 44. d. 24. 265.. (passive) 200. expr. 20... as. ("nenies") 221. 160. of. pronoun as. Permission. reflexive. Possessive case of nouns. position of unemphatic. 269. expression of. demonstrative. 98. c. p. (passive) 168. of nouns.. (passive). Plural. Perfect tense. 106. passive. ftn.. Protestations.. 277. indefinite. 259. 36. Present action with past inception. 159. 21. 27. Present periphrastic future. 132. Prohibition... 259. ("ties") 62. interjection as. 233. verbs.

"-ist-". Root. defined. 180. 186. 44. inf. 81. 105. Salutations. 38. R. ("logxi: vivi") 133. expr. Superlatives. 261. expr. Statements.. Separation. Quotations. 222.) 74. "-id-" 207. (not omitted) p. expr. clause as. Route. Resolve. p. ftn. 218. by adverbial participle. Quantity. 98. 154. "-ig-". 166. 202. 154. Subordinate clause. 249. Questions. ("antikva: maljuna: . 237. "-acx-". construction with advs. "-il-". Reference. 191. 42. clause as. 40. of adverbial participle. followed by "el". 257. expression of. indirect.. 276. 279. b. 239. "-er-". (adj.. 252. "-em-".) 79. ftn. verbs from. ("iom") 217. Relative clause. ("diri: paroli: rakonti") 77. Request. 253. 75. ftn. expr. 246. or for instructions. 283. 122. ("koni: scii") 117. 214. "-nj-". "-uj-". "-on-". ftn. see Adverbs. 259 ("tial ke") 83. intrans. 38. by prep. 227. p. p. 170. 130. 192. Reciprocal expressions. not omitted. 232. 101. 232. see 146. 259. comparison of advs.Q. for instructions. 58. 198. indirect. Relative adjective. tenses in. defined.. 233. of deliberation. "-et-". "ke". ("kiom") 140. Reflexive pronouns. defined. of third person. "-cxj-". by "de". 105. 132. 111. 181. ("tiom") 104. ("neniom") 231. p. expr. see Conditions. "-eg-". (adv. 125. ("tempo. relative adverb. by "al". 161. by "dis-". 214. 150. (of manner) 156. "-an-". 59. ("kiu") 146. "-ej-". ("por ke") 262. ("cxiom") 194. p. Subordinating conjunctions. 240. 245. causative verbs from. p. 53. 272. Substantive. expression of.. 63.. 193. 255.. 262. by prep. "-ing-". imperative in. expression of. "-ebl-". 232. "-ec-". c. of first and second persons. "-ar-". indirect. apparent. 243. 51. 41. 259. 115. of noun for inf. "-igx-". Syllables. Summary of conditions. by "cxe". 53. "cxu". advs. 99. p. by "for".. (quantitative) 164. 71. ftn. ftn. (temporal) 155. Reflexive possessive adjective. 100. 126. S.. ftn. ftn. fojo") 127. 259. as. 15. 275. "-ul-". "-estr-". by "de". ("kio") 233. 259. 53. conditional in.. 130. clauses of. as. 170. defined. ftn. Substitution. ftn. 251. 53. 106. 257. 218. 145. Relative pronoun. expr. with inf. Synonyms. 7. "-obl-". with substantival inf. preceded by verb. 259. 130. 141. perplexity. of. 239. Reflexive verbs. 63. Situation. p. 268. by "al". distinguished from verbs in "-igx-". 164. Result. construction with nouns expressing. 53. 34. "kvazaux". 283. 222. "-ad-". 222. 30. 250. p. Suffixes. p. 170. b. 71. d. "se". inf. 98. 172.. Subject. 257. ftn. 39. expr. "-ajx-". "-ind-". expressing. "-um-". "-in-". "-op-". 58. Source. 259. expressing.

of inf. ftn. 55. 2. 102. ftn. correlative. (in exclamations) 115. expr. ("iam") 212. 163. in question.. from adv. 96. (passive) 168. defined. periphrastic. 241. p. 130. (passive) 178.. correlative. 116. 254. 257. 34. (progressive) 114.. 22. ftn. 171. 279. 284. 185. (in comparisons) 82. 189. Weights and measures. Way. in conditions. Tenses. 275. ("jxus") p. 30. pronunciation of. 214. 264. 148. 159. ("cxiam") 187. (in salutations) 115. 159. 284. p. 124. trans. W. 228. (passive) 200. ("ankoraux") p. System. (negative) 27. 153. see also Position. conjugation of.malnova") p. 89. Verbal roots. p. defined. 50. p. 228. expression of. defined. ftn. ("tiam") 73. as interjection. 163. by adverbial participle. c. implied. 275. of. (passive) 178. ("provi: peni: jugxi") p. ftn. list of some. 241. expr. Temporal adverbs. use of "mosxto". Wish. 155. Terminations. U. of imperative. trans.. Unemphatic words. 216. 258.. ftn. 155. imperfect. present. ("trovigxi: sin trovi: kusxi: sidi)" p. causative verbs from. of day. Verbs. Vivid conditions. intrans. 135. 250. ftn.. 156. metric. 116. 217. Verbal nouns in "-ad-". causative.. 35. 124. 232. (passive) 183.. 222. 221. in indirect quotations. of money. from intrans. ftn. see Temporal adverbs. . from prepositions. compound.. Synopsis of the verb.. (passive) 190. inchoative. (route) 191. composition of. 218. 109. of conditional. 22. 14.. ftn.. future. T. 67. formation of. invariable. 124. ("ankoraux: jam") p. advs. 232. 259. 41.. 18. p.. Titles. frequentative. 162. ftn. ftn. 155. intrans. b. 214. from trans. Words. Terms of address. ("indiferenta: nezorga") p. ftn. (passive) 195. preceding the subject. position of. (of impersonal verbs) 179. b. Transitive verbs. ftn. (manner) 76. ("cxiu: tuta") p. 214. roots. 66. by acc. see Endings. 267. Time. 171. with prepositional phrase containing "da". 198.. 22. a. synopsis of all. 58. expr. past. expr. 112. from intrans. roots. ("gxuste: juste: jxus") p. by prep. b. from prep.. formed by "-ig-". 235. mood of. 96. order of. a. 285. 283. roots. (synopsis) 267. ftn. Temporal clauses. 91. 249. V. 128. p. by clause. b. impersonal. aoristic. Vowels. 78. 267. 235. ftn. from primary advs. 113. 267. 193. 112. (pronoun) 274. ("kiam") 123. 242. pluperfect. ftn. perfect.. (progressive) 110. affectionate. (passive) 190. future perfect. see Compounds. expression of.. reflexive. 51. ("jam") p. ("neniam") 226. 218.

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