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In recent years, wireless body sensor network (wBSN) has gained tremendous interest in research community .Using this network, wireless sensors can be affixed to the skin or the underside of clothes to perform a variety of important tasks, such as monitoring vital signs, evaluating motor functions, and measuring physical activity .Micro sensors may albe implanted within the body by either surgery or injection to perform additional functions, such as restoring lost vision, hearing, and motor functions, releasing drugs, and monitoring cancer or cardiovascular diseases. In the military fields, a wBSN embedded within the clothes is highly desirable since it can potentially produce warning signals of imminent attacks, detect the presence of people or objects of interest, monitor chemicals in the air, evaluate wounds, and communicate with a central station or an assistive device such as a rescue robot. With the development of innovative wearable and implantable biosensors, the applications of wBSN have been extended from physiological monitoring to everyday healthcare, as well as fitness, sports and security. Despite the recent developments in low power sensing devices and interface circuitry, system integration, sensor miniaturization, wireless network communication and signal processing, the critical energy problem in wBSN has not yet been solved. It is a challenge to power a highly distributed network of electronic devices without wired connections and batteries. Currently, many wBSNs use a separate battery for each sensor node, which is obviously inconvenient, costly, and difficult to maintain. In the case of implantable sensors, these problems become even more serious. It is highly desirable that the implants are able to receive energy outside of the body wirelessly to avoid the use of transcutaneous wires or the battery replacement by surgery. In 2007, a new wireless energy transfer technology was reported in Science . This technology is often called witricitry (a short form of ³wireless electricity´) which has been used to transmit a considerably large amount of power [2-6]. For example, the original paper  reported a wireless power of 60-walt which fully illuminated a light bulb approximately two meters away from a power source with an efficiency of approximately 40%. Department of CSE, TOCE Page 1
Rectenna conversion efficiencies exceeding 95% have been realized.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks This initial experiment demonstrated the feasibility of witricity in wireless power transfer over a ³midrange´. the system utilized two large coil resonators of 60 cm in diameter which were excessively large and structurally unsuitable in practical applications.1 Main Challenges For Wireless Electricity y Induction methods: The electrodynamic induction wireless transmission technique is near field over distances up to about one-sixth of the wavelength used. more and more of the magnetic field misses the secondary. allowing longer distance power beaming. power can be transmitted by converting electricity into a laser beam that is then pointed at a solar cell receiver. Department of CSE. when compared to the existing methods. electric current flowing through a primary coil creates a magnetic field that acts on a secondary coil producing a current within it. With electrodynamic induction. with shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. In addition there are usually resistive losses. Near field energy itself is non-radiative but some radiative losses do occur. A rectenna may be used to convert the microwave energy back into electricity. the power transfer by witricity was much less affected by the adjacent nonresonant objects including biological tissues. This experiment also showed that. Power beaming using microwaves has been proposed for the transmission of energy from orbiting solar power satellites to Earth and the beaming of power to spacecraft leaving orbit has been considered y Microwave methods: In the case of electromagnetic radiation closer to visible region of spectrum (10s of microns (um) to 10s of nm). y Directed radio waves: Power transmission via radio waves can be made more directional. wasting much of the transmitted energy. Coupling must be tight in order to achieve high efficiency. 1. As the distance from the primary is increased. Even over a relatively short range the inductive coupling is grossly inefficient. This mechanism is generally known as "powerbeaming" because the power is beamed at a receiver that can convert it to usable electrical energy. Despite these advantages. defined as a distance equal to several times of the resonator size. TOCE Page 2 . typically in the microwave range.
With this witricity setup. This concept of witricity was made possible using resonance where an object vibrates with the application of a certain frequency of energy. So two objects having similar resonance tend to exchange energy without causing any effects on the surrounding objects. In this experiment. the concept of wireless electricity. witricity is made possible with the resonance of low frequency electromagnetic waves. The interesting part of the electricity was that the bulb glowed despite the fact that wood. This was made possible using two copper coils that were twenty inches in diameter which were designed so that they resonated together in the MHz range. a transmitter that was attached to a power source and a receiver that was placed about seven feet from the transmitter. TOCE Page 3 . the coils were resonated at 10 MHz where the cols coupled and energy Department of CSE. This experiment was done using two copper coils of diameter two feet. Data collected through measurements showed that there was transference of 40% of electricity through witricity. This receiver was attached to a light bulb and once power was switched on at the transmitter. where there is a chance of a glass breaking if you strike the right tone. The Assistant Professor of this team of researchers was Marin Soljacic. the bulb got powered even when the coils were not in sight.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks 1.2 Existing Wireless Electicity System y First Experiment Of Witricity The first experiment of historicity. metal and other devices were placed in between the two coils. The MIT researchers have been able to power a 60 watt light bulb from a power source that is located about seven feet away. the bulb lit up despite there being no physical connection between the transmitter and receiver. One of these coils were connected to a power source while the other. was conducted in the year 2006. by researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. while providing forty percent efficiency. to a bulb. Just like in acoustic resonance.
more pressure and voltage built up in the coil till the accumulation of voltage provided enough pressure and energy to flow to the light bulb. These low frequency electromagnetic waves are rather safe as though the body responds strongly to electric fields. it has almost zero response to absorbing power from a magnetic field. With each cycle. Fig: power a 60 watt light bulb from a power source Department of CSE.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks made to flow between them. TOCE Page 4 .
These new layers are not human resource intensive. The main contribution of this paper is the demonstration of resilience. In addition. these two layers are unsupervised algorithms which are not completely dependent on known frauds but use them only for evaluation.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks The main objective of this research is to achieve resilience by adding two new. They represent patterns in a score where the higher the score for an application. And crucially. only the highest scores require human intervention. Finally. credit application fraud detection also prevents some credit transactional fraud. better account for changing legal behaviour. Department of CSE. the last contribution is the recommendation of credit application fraud detection as one of the many solutions to identity crime. TOCE Page 5 . real time data mining-based layers to complement the two existing non-data mining layers. These two new layers do not use external databases. Being at the first stage of the credit life cycle. These new layers will improve detection of fraudulent applications because the detection system can detect more types of attacks. The second contribution is the significant extension of knowledge in credit application fraud detection because publications in this area are rare. and remove the redundant attributes. with adaptivity and quality data in real-time data mining-based detection algorithms. but only the credit application database. In this way. this research uses the key ideas from other related domains to design the credit application fraud detection algorithms. the higher the suspicion of fraud (or anomaly).
Essentially. However. a power transmitter could fill the space around it with a "non-radiative" electromagnetic field. convenience and portability of electrical appliances Department of CSE.1 Developments Made So Far y As witricity is in the developmental stage. They wonder what happens if a glass of water is spilt in a witricity room. y Just as beneficial witricity may be.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks CHAPTER 2 RELATED WORK 2. This has also been achieved. TOCE Page 6 . with debates if it is risky living next to power lines and having a low power witricity network running in the home. witricity has a bright future with the many advantages it provides in terms of weight. y However despite these contraindications.It is realized that instead of irradiating the environment with electromagnetic waves. Intel reproduced the MIT group's experiment by wirelessly powering a light bulb with 75% efficiency at a shorter distance. lots of work is still to be done in improving it as it is disclosed that witricity power applications operate at only 40% efficiency. energy would only be picked up by gadgets specified to "resonate" with the frequency. there are some contraindications to the concept.
1. their near fields (evanescent Department of CSE. strongly coupled magnetic resonance is utilized. Similarly. TOCE Page 7 . the device resonator is coupled inductively with the output loop to supply power to an external load. the distance of transmission can be extended significantly The physical principle of operation is that.1 Understanding Witricity Based On Coupled Mode Theory Fig:3. and an output loop. The source resonator is coupled inductively with the driving loop which is linked to an oscillator to obtain the energy for the system. if two resonators are in the midrange as defined previously.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks CHAPTER 3 PROPOSED METHODS 3. provided that both resonators have the same resonant frequency. In the witricity design. Due to this tunneling effect.1 Basic components of Witricity system As shown in Fig. the conventional non-resonant magnetic induction method (such as those used in transformers) is inefficient to transmit energy because of the rapid decrease in magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary coils. which increases the transfer efficiency dramatically by "tunneling" the magnetic fields from the source resonator to the device resonator. the witricity system consists of tworesonators (labeled as ³Source´ and ³Device´). a driving loop.As discussed in over a greater distance.
one can even send electricity to multiple devices at once. this midrange energy-transfer scheme does not impose the ³lineof. The respond time of the oscillatory energy transfer is designed to be much shorter than the time constant of system losses. electricity can be passed between them at farther distances and without health dangers. introduces a concept called ´resonanceµ to the wireless energy equation. allowing the total energy to concentrate on a specific resonant frequency. Similar to mutual induction. While this technology is yet to come to market. Since the resonant wavelength is much larger than the diameter of the resonators. TOCE Page 8 . Therefore.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks waves) will strongly couple each other. Department of CSE.2 Evanescent Wave Coupling (EWC) Or non-radiative energy transfer. which is highly desirable in many practical applications. Under the same energy transmitted from a distance. the coupling magnetic fields can effectively circumvent extraneous non-resonant objects in the path of energy transfer. wherein electricity traveling along an electromagnetic wave moves between coils on the same frequency. This ³tuned´ form of energy travels between the two resonators in an oscillatory fashion. in 2007.sight´ condition. the witricity system can be more safely implemented than electromagnetic energy transfer systems because the witricity system can be designed to use the magnetic field in energy transfer and this type of field interacts weakly with living organisms. rather than mono directional as observed in traditional systems. as long as they all share the same resonance frequency. According to this th eory. 3. researchers at MIT published a detailed report describing a working prototype they had built which powered a light bulb from two metres away. EWC functions on the concept that if you make both coils resonate at the same frequency.
2 A depiction of how Evanescent Wave Coupling would work . Department of CSE.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks Fig:3. TOCE Page 9 .
the coupling coefficients satisfy Solving for the natural frequencies of the coupled systems.1 Resonators Energy Calculation : The simple formalism for the temporal dynamic of a resonant mode is particularly well suited for the description of coupling between two witricity resonators. a restriction on 12 k and 21 k should be imposed. In then extreme case where no energy loss is assumed. Considering the equations of motion of the amplitudes a1( t) anda2 ( t) of two coupled lossless resonators with natural frequencies Where 12 k and 21 k are the coupling coefficients between two modes and can be treated as complex numbers rather than operators. the time rate of energy change must vanish. TOCE Page 10 . given by Since a1(t) and a2(t) can have arbitrary initial amplitudes and phases. Department of CSE.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 4. we can obtain two homogeneous equations in the amplitudes and a1(t) and a2(t) from (1) and (2). According to the law of energy conservation.
Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks Equation (7) indicates that the two frequencies of the coupled system are separated by In particular.1 Energies for (a) symmetric resonant case (b) general case. the two solutions of equations (1) and (2) are expressed. initially. Then. the difference between the two natural : Fig 4. Department of CSE. when frequencies of the coupled modes is Suppose. TOCE Page 11 . . that at a1(t) and a2(t) are specified.
a1(0)=1 and a2(0)=0 and . it facilitates heat dispersion. This thin-film design not only utilizes the maximum dimensions of the parent device to capture magnetic flux. Several vertical copper strips (red) are affixed to the insulator film (blue). respectively. while the electric field is mostly confined within the physical capacitors. Clearly. In addition. but also provides the maximum space for the parent device itself. In our design. we have 4. a thin-film belt-shaped resonator is highly desirable. Another motivation of our design is to obtain a compact size.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks Considering. 3a: two layers of copper (red) and one layer of insulator (blue). energy transfer is primarily provided by the magnetic field. The top and middle panels in Fig. the top and side views of the resonator. this thin-film design represents a compact LC tank circuit. This type of resonator can be imprinted or embedded on the exterior or interior cover of the parent device to which the electric power will be transferred without taking its interior space.2 Design Of Witricity Resonator For the wBSN application. By increasing the Department of CSE. The bottom panel shows the side view from the interior. The yellow lines represent the spaces between the copper strips. The horizontal narrow copper strips (red) in the middle panel represent a helical inductor. without loss of generality. This feature effectively prevents the leakage of the electrical field and helps reduce health concerns since the biological tissue (and other electrically conductive objects) interacts much more strongly with electric fields than with magnetic fields. 3a show. Our cylindrical resonator design consists of three layers of films as shown in Fig. the case where the total system energy equals unity. These vertical strips form physical capacitors with the coil conductors in the exterior layer. TOCE Page 12 .
is usually limited by the size of the parent device. Eight copper strips with 2.turn coil. we made a larger transmitter resonator in the form of Fig. we set its resonant frequency to be 7 MHz and Q value was measured to be51.62.3: Thin-film belt shaped resonator: (a) cylindrical structure 4. The exterior copper tape (width 0.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks capacitance using the strips while keeping the same inductance in the LC tank resonator. The resonator was incorporated into the waist belt.54-cm widths were affixed to the insulator film on the internal side. As shown in Fig.3b.74. and width 29 mm.though preferred to be as large as possible. Department of CSE. in our experiments. the size and shape of the source resonator have fewer restrictions and can be larger than that of the device resonator. In practical applications. Conversely.635 cm) formed a 4. thickness 0. which was likely lower than its true value because aprecise Q measurement was difficult without expensive equipment and the error was expected to be large. The insulator had a dielectric constant of 3. Likewise. the size of the device resonator. based on the design in Fig. and the one oneturn driving coil (a loop) linked to the RF power source can was attached on the belt to make the system wearable. Fig 4. It was a large flexible ring with diameter 350 mm. 3a. which is desirable in many practical applications where the size of the parent device is small. the operating frequency of the witricity system can be reduced.35 mm.3 Design of RF Power Source A larger source resonator can produce stronger magnetic fields for a longer transmission range. TOCE Page 13 . Using vector network analyzer (8753ES).
We also set its resonant frequency to be 7 MHz and measured its Q value as 56. The exterior copper strip with 0. 3c. This LED was then replaced by a resister from which quantitative measurements was performed. The radius and height of the cell were about 8. For the purpose of observation. we also designed much smaller resonator for other body part such as arm. Similarly.38. (d) and (e) planar resonator Department of CSE.3d and 3e. Due to page limitation. transparent). (c) receiver resonator. a planar thin-film receiver resonator is also designed.635-cm width formed a 6-turn coil. resulting in a compact LC tank resonator. TOCE Page 14 .3: Thin-film belt shaped resonator: (b)transmitter resonator.54-cm widths were affixed to the insulator film on the internal side. an LED was first used as the load. and six copper strips with 2. A seven-turn coil was used as the output coil to connect and power the load. respectively. or embedded in the clothes. Similarly with above cylindrical structures. It includes three layers: the top metal layer formed a planar spiral rectangular coil by attaching the metal strip on an insulated thin film (middle layer. we also believe the planar structure will be desirable since it will be easily implemented by printing this resonator on the internal or external cover. a smaller receiver resonator was made as shown in Fig.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks 3a.1 cm and 5 cm. as shown in Fig. simulating the load effect of electronics devices and allowing visual examination. we will focus on the cylindrical structure. underneath which there are several separated vertical metal strips. The top metal strip and bottom metal strips can form capacitors. Fig 4. In order to satisfy the requirement of commonly usedn electronics devices.
Utilizing a diode-based RF detector.3 shows an experimental 7 MHz witricity system on a workbench. Department of CSE. we measured the RF energy at the input terminals of the driving loop and the energy at the loadterminals of the output loop. This phenomenon differs from that of the conventional magnetic induction methods.4b.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks 4. Wireless energy fully illuminated the LED. we replaced the LED with a resistor whose resistance approximates the impedance of the output terminals at resonance. When we misaligned the axes of source and device resonators. TOCE Page 15 . the power was still be transmitted efficiently as shown in Fig. In order to evaluate system performance quantitatively.4 Experimental Results Fig. 4.
This tolerance in misalignment is highly desirable in practical applications since. this physical mechanism will further enhance the robustness of Department of CSE.5. It can also be seen that certain misalignments (e. it allows energy to be transmitted to a moving target or multiple locations as in the case of wBSN. for example.3(a) Measured transmission efficiency vs. TOCE Page 16 .Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks Fig 4. which allows a much longer effective transmission distance with one or more relay resonator between source and device resonators. It can be seen that. Also in . the efficiency without misalignment can reach approximately 80 % at a 15 cm separation between the transmitter and receiver. 3]. distances of separation Then the power transfer efficiencies with and without misalignment are measured and plotted in Fig. Obviously.sight between the transmitter and receiver is unnecessary in the witricity system. 5 cm) between transmi tter and receiver cause only a slight drop in efficiency.g. we reported a relay effect of witricity. As [2. we also arrived at the same conclusion that the uninterruptible line of.
A theoretical analysis has been presented to understand the oscillatory behavior in system operation. TOCE Page 17 . Our experimental results have indicated that the witricity technology provides a powerful solution to power multiple sensors in wireless body sensor networks Department of CSE. A novel type of thin film belt-shaped resonators has been designed. In this paper. witricity has a high potential in medical applications. fabricated and measured. A witricity prototype system was built and evaluated.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION As a new method of wireless energy transfer. we investigate the feasibility of witricity in providing wireless power to body sensor networks.
Vol. X. A. NJ. Karalis. Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics. Fu and M. Hackworth. Chapter 7. Chen.81 83. ³The Relay Effect on Wireless Power Transfer Using Witricity´. Sun. Maryland. Science. Jan. Moffatt. Zhang. Vol. Birkhauser. and M. Soljacic. ³In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on Wireless Powering of Medical Sensors and Implantable Devices. J. ³Wireless Energy Transfer Platform for Medical Sensors and Implantable Devices´. and M.´ Fourth annual IEEE-NIH Life Science Systems and Application. Moffatt. Chicago Illinois. IEEE International Conf.044102. Hackworth. Sclabassi. Jul. 2009. Soljacic.  F. Joannopoulos. Minneapolis. pp. ³A note on Computer Solution of Wireless Energy Transmit via Magnetic Resonance´. pp. ³Efficient Wireless Non-radiative Mid-range Energy Transfer´. ³Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances´. Sep. 2006. Jan. J. R. and M. 2007. Joannopoulos. USA.  V. 2010  F.  A. Hackworth. Apr 9-10.1984 Department of CSE. Chrisianto and F. and M. Vol. W. R. Zhang. 2008. Minnesota. A. J. TOCE Page 18 . Englewood Cliffs. Sclabassi. 323. Process in Physics.Wireless electricity for Implants in Body Sensor Networks REFERENCES  G. Soljacic. Fisher. ³Simultaneous mid-range power transfer to multiple devices´. Liu. May 9-12. Hori.96. S. 14th Biennial IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation. R. Feb. Bethesda.231-239. Smarandache. 83-86. Kurs. P. USA. S.D. J.  Y. Vol. USA. Annals of Physics. 1. pp. Vol. D. Sun. R. Jan. Prenticehall. Kurs. A. 2-6. IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering.84628-272-0  A. 317.  A. Applied Physics Letters. S. 2009. 2009. Yang. 34-48. 2010. Karalis. of EMBS.  F. ISBN: 978-1. Haus.4. 2008. ³Body sensor networks´. Zhang. H. pp. ³Motion Control of Electric Vehicles and Prospects of supercapacitors´ . Sun. and M. X. Liu.Z. pp.  H. A.
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