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Welding of Reinforcing Bars :: KEY to METALS Article

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Concrete reinforcing bars, or as they are more technically known, deformed steel information and knowledge from the World's
reinforcing bars, are used in reinforced concrete construction. This includes buildings, Most Comprehensive Metal Database.
bridges, highways, locks, dams, docks, piers, etc.
Welding is finding increasing importance for splicing concrete reinforcing bars. Three
welding processes are used for the majority of welding splices; however, several of the
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other processes can be used.
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Concrete reinforcing bars, or as they are more technically known, deformed steel reinforcing
bars, are used in reinforced concrete construction. This includes buildings, bridges, highways, Full text Headings
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locks, dams, docks, piers, etc. The principle applications of reinforcing bars include Keywords Abstracts
reinforcement of columns, girders, beams, slabs, pavements, as well as precast and
prestressed concrete structures.
Concrete is strong in compression and shear but is weak in tension. By using deformed steel
reinforcing bars imbedded in the concrete, tensile stresses can be accommodated, thus Documents download
reinforced concrete provides compression strength of concrete and tensile strength of steel. Click on the links to download documents.
It is necessary, however, that the concrete and steel work together. This is accomplished by KEY to METALS Fact Sheet
means of a bond between the bar and the concrete which is achieved by means of KEY to METALS Leaflet
deformations which are rolled into the bars. These deformations keep the bars from slipping
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through the concrete.
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Concrete reinforcing bars come in different sizes which are designated by a series of numbers.
The numbers assigned to bars are based on the number of 1/8 inches included in the nominal
diameter. The nominal diameter of a deformed reinforcement bar is equivalent to the diameter
of a plain steel bar having the same weight per foot as the deformed bar.
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There are three ASTM specifications for reinforcing bars:
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A 615, plain billet steel bars; services is ensured through the use of
A 616, rail steel reinforcing bars; and dedicated superstructure and ISO 27001:2005
A 617, axle steel reinforcement bars. certification.
All of the reinforcing bars produced in the USA are identified by markings rolled into the bar.
These markings will show, by means of raised letters, the code for the manufacturer of the
steel bar. This is then followed by the letter identifying the specific steel mill where the bar was
produced, based on standard designations. The next symbol indicates the bar size by the bar
number. The next symbol indicates the type of steel as follows: N indicates new billet steel, A
indicates axle steel, and the third symbol which is a cross section of a railroad rail indicates that
the bar was rerolled from used railroad rails.
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The next identification symbol is a number indicating the grade of the steel. If there is no METALS quality and reliability.
number it normally means it is the minimum grade within the specification. Grades are also
identified by a single or double continuous longitudinal line through at least five spaces offset
from the center of the bar. A single line indicates the middle-strength grade and a double line
indicates the highest-strength grade. It is important to determine the type of steel and the grade
since this will be valuable information in establishing the welding procedure.
The specifications do not include chemical requirements for the different classes; however,
when bars are purchased from the mill, the mill will provide a chemical analysis report of the
bars, if requested. The grade number is the indication of the strength of the bars and the
numbers indicate the yield point in thousand pounds per square inch minimum.
It is necessary to splice concrete reinforcing bars in all but the most simple concrete structures.
In the past, splicing was done by overlapping the bars from 20 to 40 diameters and wiring them
together and relying on the surrounding concrete to transmit the load from one bar to the other.
This method is wasteful of the steel and is sometimes impractical. An example of this occurs
when splices must be made in heavily reinforced columns. The close spacing of the bars
makes lap splicing particularly difficult and often requires a larger column diameter to provide
sufficient concrete between bars and covering the bars.
Welding is thus finding increasing importance for splicing concrete reinforcing bars. Three
welding processes are used for the majority of welding splices; however, several of the other
processes can be used. There is a mechanical splice similar to welding which utilizes medium-
strength metal cast metallic grout around the ends of the bars enclosed within a steel sleeve
having internal grooves.
The welding processes most commonly used are the shielded metal arc welding process, the
gas metal arc welding process, and the thermit welding process.
There are no chemistry requirements for the three ASTM specifications. However, the
reinforcing bars of specification A 616 rail steel are produced from used railroad rails which
were originally made to specification A 1. Old railroad rails are salvaged and heated and cut
into three parts, the flange, the web, and the head. The heads are then rolled into the
deformed reinforcing bars. ASTM specification A 1 has chemical requirements for steel rails
and they contain relatively high amounts of carbon and manganese.
The reinforcing bars made to specification A 617 are made from salvaged carbon steel axles

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Welding of Reinforcing Bars :: KEY to METALS Article

used for railroad cars. These axles when originally produced were made to specification A 21.
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In this ASTM specification the carbon and manganese is relatively high. These are both
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considered in the hard-to-weld category of steels. Sheet | Articles | News and
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The bars produced to A 615 have only a maximum for phosphorous content; however, based
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on the strength level of steels the alloy content should not be too high. For quality welding it is
best to assume that they, too, are in the hard-to-weld category. If at all possible, the analysis of © 1999-2010 Key to Metals
the reinforcing bars should be determined from mill reports. If this is not possible the bars could AG. All Rights Reserved.
be analyzed for exact composition. It is recommended that the bars be considered to have a
carbon equivalent of 0.75, thus in the hard-to-weld category.
The American Welding Society has provided a specification entitled, "Reinforcing Steel
Welding Code". This code provides a table of carbon equivalents which relates to the bar size
and then presents recommended preheat and interpass temperature. The standard formula for
the determination of carbon equivalent is used. There are six carbon equivalents which can
only be calculated if the analysis of the reinforcing bars are known.
The code also provides joint design information for making direct butt splices, for making
indirect butt splices, and for making lap splices. A butt splice is a direct end-to-end splice of
bars with their axis approximately in line and of approximately the same size. An indirect butt
splice is one in which an intermediary piece such as a steel plate or rolled angle is used with
each reinforcing bar welded directly to the same piece.
The lap welded splice is made by overlapping the two bars alongside each other and welding
together. For butt splices when the bars are in the horizontal position the single groove weld is
most often used with a 45° to 60° included angle. Double groove welds can be made in the
larger size bars. When the bars are to be welded with the axis vertical a single or double bevel
groove weld is used with the flat side or horizontal side on the lower bar. On occasion, the
reinforcing bar may need to be welded to other steel members and a variety of weld joints can
be used.
This code provides filler metal selection information based on the grade number of the steel.
When welding using the shielded metal arc welding process, Grade 40, the AWS E-7018 would
be recommended, for Grade 50 the AWS E-8018 would be recommended, for Grade 60 and
the low-alloy A706 the AWS E-9018 electrode is recommended, and for the Grade 75 the AWS
E-10018 electrode would be recommended.
If the XXI8 is not available the XX15 or XX16 can be used. In the case of gas metal arc welding,
the E-70S electrode would be used and for flux-cored arc welding the E70T type would be
used when welding Grade 40 bars. There are no filler metal specifications for the higher levels
of gas metal arc welding electrodes or flux-cored arc welding electrodes at this time. If these
processes are to be used the filler metal would need to meet the same mechanical properties
as the equivalent shielded metal arc welding electrode mentioned.
The code also provides minimum preheat and inner-pass temperatures based on the carbon
equivalent of the reinforcing bars. It also relates to the size of the bar. It is therefore important
to determine the composition of the bar so that carbon equivalent can be determined. In the
case of large bars and if the carbon equivalent is not known the 500° preheat would be
The code further requires that joint welding procedures should be established based on the
welding process, filler metal type and size, and welding technique, which involves position, joint
detail, etc.
Welders must be qualified. A direct butt splice or indirect butt splice specimen is used. The gas
metal arc welding process will make the weld in approximately one-half the time required for
shielded metal arc covered electrodes. In either case, however, or with the flux-cored arc
welding process, the welds will develop strengths equal or exceeding the specified yield
strength of the reinforcing steel bars.
Welding is highly recommended as the way to splice reinforcing bars since the concrete will fail
at values substantially below the yield strength of the reinforcing bars. This means that the
strength of the welds will exceed the requirements for most applications. In any case, the
welded splices will exceed the strength of lapped and wired splices. It will also exceed a
strength level of the cast metal splices which are sufficiently strong to withstand the strength
level of the reinforced concrete composite structure.

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