Steph Jarram How is the representation of ethnicity constructed in this extract?

Sound, camera angles, editing and mise en scene are used significantly throughout this extract to emphasise the representation of ethnicity. They all portray ethnicity in different ways, some clearer than others. But they are used effectively to demonstrate this area of representation. Throughout the extract high intensity music is associated with the immigration officers and can be heard whenever the officers are present. The music represents the confliction between the binary opposites of the officers and the immigrants themselves. It begins with the amplified sound of the officer s footsteps which creates tension and anxiety as to who is approaching. The music begins with the arrival of the immigration servicemen and the music is reminiscent of a clock, emphasising the countdown and small amount of time the immigrants have to hide away. The ticking sound also links to their occupation as it makes the officers and servicemen look more powerful. This countdown is an example of selective sound. The sounds of the footsteps are the first thing we hear which makes a clear entrance of the officer and this is an example of direct sound. The music stays the same throughout this extract but the tone and pace changes slightly. The volume also varies to create a contrast in atmosphere. The music that starts after the appearance of the first two officers is quite loud and fast pace. This type of sound would usually be heard in an action/thriller genre. The beat is very repetitive which could reflect the repetitive nature of the immigrant s struggle to avoid the immigration service. This beat can also reflect the characters, for example when the officers are on-screen the beat is fast and creates a tense atmosphere - whereas when the immigrants are on screen the beat is slow. This change in beat represents the difference between the two groups highlighting the binary opposition and contrast in ethnicity. Found sounds are also included to make the extract seem more realistic, examples of these include the keys, the hoover and the rattling of the jars. The futuristic Star Wars like sound when the lift doors open to reveal the immigration officers could represent how the immigrants (in this case Ibrahim) feel alienated in their environment. This is also a found sound although there could be a link to his feelings at that point. The music is very repetitive and continuous which shows that the tension is consistent and helps create the chaotic atmosphere of the current situation that the two groups of people are in. Silence is significantly used at some moments in the clip to add to the tension and creates an interesting change in atmosphere and mood. The sound of the headphones playing music when Ibrahim is hovering shows his vulnerability and realistic aspect of being searched for by the officers. The sound of the door knocking is an example of studio and parallel sound. The door also knocks twice which emphasises the pressure on the immigrants. The harsh noises that build up to this point shows the anxiety of the characters and how the tension is building up. The contrast in tone and pace of the music in the different areas shows the different atmospheres up until the officers come and take Ibrahim away. The sound of the countdown is a lot calmer in the store room but the music builds up whereas the sound is quite chaotic and loud in the corridor as additional found sounds are included to add to the realistic aspect. The melancholy music that starts after the officers have left demonstrates the emotion and reflects the mood of the worker and immigrants. The loud conversations on the tables near the end show a normal atmosphere whereas the music is a lot quieter when it gets to the table with the man and the woman. The prayers that he says before the meal represent their religion and ethnicity. The music ends by fading out. The sounds used in this extract represent ethnicity in many ways. Some

Steph Jarram are clearer than others but they can symbolise different things. Direct sound, studio sound, selective sound, parallel sound, sound effects, music and silence are all used to emphasise the binary opposite and conflict between the officers and the immigrants. Editing is also used to represent ethnicity. There are a number of shots used nearer the beginning of the extract such as jump cuts which introduce the characters, buffer shots between the character s dialogue and motivated shots which show the policemen s faces. Fast paced editing is used when the officers enter the building which builds up tension. This also shows power as it makes the characters look more dominant and meaningful. There is a limited use of cuts whilst the camera is focussed on the staff as it builds up more tension as the audience are waiting to find out what they are doing. This is another example of a motivated cut. There are slow cuts between the dialogue of the receptionists and the police although these get quicker as the man runs out of the room to warn the others. Long shots and close ups are also used to create a blur so a wiping transition is used to combine the two. Long shots are also used in the store room scene to once again create tension and fewer cuts are used to emphasise the cleaner s vulnerability and unawareness of the situation. This shot works well with the music as it slows down his unawareness up until the moment he finds out. In the next scene a mix of shots are used to keep the audience intrigued. The length of the shots speed up when the man gets the box; this is because of the chaotic atmosphere. Quicker shots also flick between the slow walking of the officers which demonstrates the power the have over the immigrants. This once again relates to the binary opposite. The music is audible but slows down as the pace of the cuts and the length of each shot becomes longer. This demonstrates the increasing anxiety of the immigrants but also captures the audience s attention. The editing goes from fast to slow as the woman goes to open the door. This shows the change in mood which also creates tension. Handheld shots are then used in combination with pauses in the music and the longer shot of the man turning around. The cut of the back of his head makes the audience have to watch him turn around, so this enhances the idea of power and dominance. This shows his true reaction to the situation is realised. The cuts then start to slow down once again which emphasises the grief and emotion of the characters. Camera angles are also used to represent ethnicity. The first camera shot is the one that overlooks the shoulders of the police officers to the hotel worker. This emphasises the power of the policemen over the hotel worker and the camera shot helps to enhance this. The next angle we see is the camera zooming in on the woman at the reception. This represents her importance in the extract. Several close-ups are used on the man leading the immigration officers showing his authority. The camera then looks down on the two men sitting on the sofa and this shows the dominance that the woman has over them and this is evident through her orders to them. The camera follows the man that is going to warn the woman in the store room which is effective as the shot is hand-held which makes the situation more realistic and tense. The camera angle then looks down on the woman and is then raised when the two men enter the room which shows their role in the situation as they are in a rush to tell her something. In the next scene the camera is positioned lower and is looking up to the woman which shows that she now has power over the others instead of them having power over her. There is then a close up on the door handle which highlights the urgency of escaping and getting away from the officers. The close up on each of the individual s faces in the store room shows their fear and emotions at that point in the extract. The camera gradually zooms in on the missing worker which creates dramatic irony for the audience as they are aware of what is happening in the

Steph Jarram situation although the worker is unaware. The camera angles also relate to the words that the characters say. For example, when the woman says Adam the camera instantly focuses on him. The main focus is on the woman that has fainted although the camera closes up on him shows his importance. When the camera switches between the two scenes, this creates more of a sense of panic and distress for the audience as they want to find out what will happen to Ibrahim. The shot of this worker falling over his hoover makes the audience wonder what will happen next and what he will overcome. The zoomed in camera angle when the door knocks shows that that the workers think that it is the immigration officers that have found them. The camera then flashes to other people around the hotel which represents their unawareness of what is going on. Over shoulder shots are then used between the conversation of the immigration officer and the worker, whilst other shots of the receptionist and workers are used in contrast with the over shoulder shots. The focus on the worker and receptionist s facial expressions demonstrate the realisation that other people in the hotel were present throughout the whole ordeal. The camera then focuses on the locker, showing her true emotions and feelings. In the last scene, the camera focuses on the individual groups at the tables. The camera ends on the two people at the end table who are praying before they eat which shows that they are religious. This relates back to ethnicity as religion is a huge factor of this area of representation. The camera focuses on their facial expressions and emotions once again which emphasises the eye contact between the two workers. Mise en scene is also a major factor of how ethnicity is represented. In the first scene we first see the worker who is a white male dressed smartly which shows that he is a figure of authority. The setting is very realistic, just like any other hotel would look like. The two policemen are also white and are part of the immigration raid which portrays the conflict between the immigration officers and the immigrants themselves. The officer s clothes are very smart as the man is wearing a suit and tie which shows his dominance and that he is a threat to others. The businessmen and policemen are just in their usual uniform which also shows their importance in the situation. The main officer is dressed more casually than the other two men and this makes him look less of an authoritative figure, regardless of his race. The black man sitting in the lobby of the hotel is dressed more formally than the other characters which highlights the fact that he is a worker. It may also because he is on a higher level than the other workers and this outfit goes against the typical stereotype of this race. The sofa that he is sitting on is red which could symbolise that there is something bad about to happen. Jacquie, the woman who works there, sits in her stereotypical office at her desk. We know that it is an office because of the contents such as the desk, books, a lamp and other objects in the background. She rushes the immigrant workers to the store room which is quite dark which could represent her personality. Her face on one side is quite dark and the other is light because of the lighting, this could show that she has two motives. Because she is a foreign worker working in the UK she must repress her culture to fit into the UK system. The bars that are present when we see the group of immigrants emerge into the store room could symbolise that they should be behind bars as theyare working illegally. When they are in the store room the multicultural workers have their uniform on and are integrated away from everybody else which makes them feel unequal. The accent of the man shows that he is South African and that he is clearly an immigrant, although he is very intelligent when he attends to the woman who faints. Ibrahim s job is very common for immigrant workers. The colour red is very consistent throughout the extract up until the officers take him away as the red symbolises the threat and danger. The colours nearer the end are quite neutral and blue

Steph Jarram which represents the low tone and mood. The workers in the store room are praying which also shows the religious aspect of their individual ethnicities. The main immigration officer casually strolls out of the lift and leaves the two men to take Ibrahim away which shows his authority and dominance above him. The exotic reception demonstrates the diversity of races in the hotel as many multicultural workers and visitors are present. As the immigration officers are white and the worker is black, you could argue that it is a racist incident for taking him away and not the others. This is also an example of juxtaposition as the two people are very different. When Jacquie gathers her belongings from the locker, the colleagues and workers are with her and the colours and lighting is quite dark and cold which highlights their emotion and feelings. In the last seen in the canteen, the colleagues socialise with their own individual nationalities and races. This is a typical example of ethnic groups sticking together. When the woman goes to eat, the man demands her to wait until he has prayed, which shows how important it is to him. Overall, these four features of the extract highlight how cultural differences are portrayed and how they emphasise this particular area of representation. There are positive and negative representations, some not always fair, but some are very stereotypical. For example the workplace is very stereotypical for immigrants. The workers almost had their own community as they stuck together as a group and the camera angles helped demonstrate the fear that they had on their faces of the immigration officers. The consistent music kept the situation tense and left the audience think about what will happen. Editing helped represent ethnicity by making the camera shots quicker and snappier and expressed the hierarchy of each character. Mise en scene kept each scene very realistic which made you focus more on the story and of what is going on in the situation because nothing was a distraction.

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