ENRICHING VOCABULARY( presentation of V) | Vocabulary | Fairy Tales

ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS

A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010

Written by: Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi K2206029

Submitted to Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Undergraduate Degree of Education

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2010 i

APPROVAL

This thesis is approved by the consultants to be examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University.

Approved by

Consultant 1

Consultant 2

Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005

Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP. 19730205 200604 1 001

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This thesis is examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University and accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for achieving the Undergraduate Degree of Education in English. Place of the test Date of the test : :

The Board of Examiners 1. Chairman Drs. Suparno, M. Pd NIP. 19511127 198601 1 001 2. Secretary Dewi Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd. NIP. 19780818 200312 2 002 3. Consultant 1 Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005 4. Consultant 2 Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP 19730205 200604 1 001 (………………………) (……………………....) (………………………) (………………………)

Legalized by, Teacher Training and Education Faculty Sebelas Maret University The Dean

Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd NIP. 19600727 198702 1 001

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field notes. reflecting the result of the observation. In the quantitative method. and research findings. The results of this research imply that using short texts are good material to improve students’ vocabulary mastery and also improve students’ learning activity during teaching learning process.” Teacher Training and Education Faculty. The research was conducted in one cycle. photographs. It is also aimed at the improvement of the students’ achievement in teaching learning process using short stories. At last. planning the action. Besides that. This study is based on the problem of the low vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. the students are more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. The cycle consisted of four meetings.3% of students. Through short texts.8% to 94. implementing the action. The improvement can be seen in the form of students’ achievements. Second.07 to 7. Sebelas Maret University. the researcher used observations. The procedure of the research consisted of identifying the problems. that is 60.ABSTRACT Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi.36 in post-test. They are from 2. from the students’ motivation. Then. and document analysis. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. The materials used in this research were short text. they do not do something useless during teaching learning process. The test consisted of the pre-test and post-test. The results of the observation were in the form of field notes and photographs. grasp. They can be seen from the aspects of vocabulary mastery and the students’ motivation. observing or monitoring the action. First. The technique to analyze the test result was by comparing the mean score of pre-test and post-test. remember. write about 75 until 80 % of the words correctly and also use the words in context appropriately. this research also used descriptive statistics and the t-test of non-independent. Next. The mean score of the pre-test improves from 4. pronounce. they have more concentration to do the exercises. The results of this research show that short texts can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. Then. The techniques in collecting the data were qualitative and quantitative method. Surakarta 2010. from the aspect of the vocabulary mastery. the scores of the pre-test and post-test show that there is also an improvement of students who achieve the minimum standard score. the students could understand. It is aimed at knowing whether using short texts can enrich the students’ vocabulary. they also like having discussion with their friends. students iv . K2206029: “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). Then. In the qualitative method. the improvement of students’ score can be seen from the differences between the pre-test and post-test. the researcher used tests.

were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading, writing and pronouncing correctly.

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MOTTO
“Mantapkan hati dan niat seraya berucap Bismillahirrahmanirrahim”

"No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross, no crown." (William Penn)

"Criticism should not be querulous and wasting, all knife and rootpuller, but guiding, instructive, inspiring." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

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DEDICATION

With deep profound love, this research is devoted to: 1. Her beloved father and mother, thank you. Nothing compares to what they have done for her. 2. Her beloved “eyang uti” and sisters “dek sha”, who always pray and encourage her. 3. Her best friends “pam, sopal, dee, lucy, jhono, anggit, riph, tika” who give her unbroken support, prayer, and cares. 4. Her all friends, who always support her. 5. Herself and her beautiful future.

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Dr. encouragement. the second consultant and academic consultant. Abdul Asib.S.. advice. 2. 5. 6. M. Teguh Sarosa. the English teacher of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. who helped and given her a chance to do the research. M. The Headmaster of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo for the permission and advices for doing the research in SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. viii . The Head of the English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty for his advice. Therefore. Praise be to ALLAH SWT who has given His blessing to the writer so that she can complete the writing of this thesis as a partial requirement for achieving the undergraduate degree of education in English Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University. Hum. the first consultant. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. encouragement. Sugiyati. advice. for all his valuable guidance.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillahirabbil’alamin.. The writer is also fully aware that her thesis can never be finished without the help of others during the process of writing. S. The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University who had given his permission to write this thesis. in this occasion she would like to express her deepest gratitude and appreciation to the following: 1. 3. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. for all his valuable guidance. 4.Pd. Mrs..

her mother. and prayer. She hopes and accepts gratefully every comment and suggestion. Everyone who helped the writer to conduct the research for his or her participation in writing this thesis. Hopefully. Her “best friends”.7. June. for his motivation to make the writer keep move on. for their supports. 9. 2010  Rea  ix . Riana. The second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo who participated well in the research. her sister. 8. 11. Ariph and Atika for their supports and suggestions. and Aji. Muthya. Anggi. 12. her grandmother. Her friends in the English Department of the year 2006 for their everlasting friendship. her father. Dewi. Didit Hermawan. Lucy. Pamrih. this thesis will be useful for the readers. Her beloved family. Her incredible support. Yoyok Sandi Wibowo. caring. Surakarta. 10. The researcher realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect.

................ 6 D.................2005-2008 For Evaluation Only...................................................................................................... 10 c..................................... 19 x ............................................................................................... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................ 11 d........................................... The Importance of Vocabulary .............. RATIONALE AND HYPHOTHESIS ....................... xiii LIST OF TABLE .............................................. 1 A........................................... 7 E................ 9 a............................................................................................................................... 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE.... 6 C................... 9 A........................................................................ The Problems Statement ... xiv LIST OF FIGURE ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Vocabulary Mastery ............................. The Benefits of the Study .............................. General Concept of Vocabulary .......................... The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery .................................................................................. The Limitation of the Problem .....................................Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company.................................................... The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery ................................................................................................. Background of the Study ..... v DEDICATION ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 b. i APPROVAL................ The Objectives of the Research ....................................................................................................................... vii TABLE OF CONTENT .................. 13 e..................................... 1 B.... 9 1....... xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ......... ix LIST OF APPENDIXES .................... iv MOTTO............................ TABLE OF CONTENT TITLE PAGE ...... Review on Related Literature ....................................................... Notion of Vocabulary .................................................................................................................................................... ii ABSTRACT ...................................................

........ 31 c... 66 xi ............................................. Technique of Collecting Data .................................................................................. 28 4............................. The Characteristic of Children .................................... 45 I.......... The Model of Action Research . 35 B..................................................... Research Implementation ...... Technique of Data Analysis ...................................... Method of the Research ........................ 32 B............................................................................................................................................................... The Types of Motivation ................................................................ 50 2.............................. Planning the Action ..................................................... 51 3.. 47 A............. 37 D........................................... The Procedures of Action research.... 33 C... The Definition of Motivation .............2................... Setting and Subject of the Research ... Rationale ............................................. Hypothesis . 36 C... The Concept of Story ..... Observing and Monitoring the Action ............................ The Description of the Research ......................... The Notion of Motivation .... Essences of Short Text ................................................ The Notion of Folktales ........................... The General Concept of Young Learners ............................... 49 1.. 34 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .................. 28 b.................. 30 b....................................................................................................................... 24 c................................................................................... Introduction . 44 G..................................... 23 a.. 39 E................... 35 A...................... Reliability of the Instrument ....................... 45 H................................................ The Criteria of Successful Action .... The Concept of Text ................ 23 b...................... 28 a............................................. The Characteristic of Motivated Students ........ Validity of the Instrument. 46 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION ...................... 30 a.................................................................................. 47 B.................................................................... 41 F.............................................................................................. 25 3........... The Notion of Young Learners ..............................................................

................................................................................................................... SUGGESTION .................................................. 72 C........................... 69 5..................................... Students ....................................... IMPLICATION.......... 77 A.............................................................................. 80 2. 81 BYBLIOGRAPHY xii ................................ School...... Other Researcher ........................................................................4....................... 79 C................................................................................................ Implication ........................ Suggestion ...................................................................................... English Teacher................................. 77 B................... 74 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION......................... Conclusion ..................... 81 3............................................. Research Finding. 81 4......... Reflecting the Result of the Observation ........ Discussion .. 80 1...........

................. 145 Appendix 8 : Key Answer of the Test ............................................................................................... 118 Appendix 6 : Blue Print of Vocabulary Test ............... 144 Appendix 7 : Pre and Post Test Items ................................. 159 Appendix 15 : The Students’ Test and Worksheet done by the Students ..................................................................... 149 Appendix 10 : Syllabus of KTSP ....................................... 153 Appendix 12 : The Students’ Pre-test and Post Test Score .............................. 82 Appendix 2 : The Photographs .................................................................................................................LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix 1 : Description of location SMP N 5 Sukoharjo ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 160 Appendix 16 : Key Answer of Worksheet .............................................................................. 150 Appendix 11 : Students Score before the Action ................... 102 Appendix 5 : Field Notes .............................................. 148 Appendix 9 : The Research Schedule ................. 90 Appendix 4 : Students’ Worksheet ....................... 157 Appendix 14 : The Computation of T-Test ....... 155 Appendix 13 : The Computation of Validity and Reliability .......... 244 xiii ............... 236 Appendix 17 : Letters of Permission ............ 85 Appendix 3 : Lesson Plans .................

....... 43 : Improvement of the Students’ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts ............................ 70 xiv ...................................................................LIST OF TABLE Table 1 Table 2 : The Steps in Action Research.......................................

.........LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1................. An Illustration of Action Research Spiral .... 38 xv .....................

English is one of the native languages used to improve students‟ ability. science. It is because language is one of instruments which has important functions in communication. Then. and culture. It has been discussed before that foreign language has many functions. That is the most important reason why English is learned in school. As quoted in Undang-Undang Sisdiknas (2003: 15) “bahasa asing dapat digunakan sebagai bahasa pengantar pada satuan pendidikan tertentu untuk mendukung kemampuan berbahasa asing peserta didik”. for example is job requirement. there are many education books that are written in foreign languages. both of in spoken and written form. technology. The importance can be seen from some sides of life. . English is one of the important foreign languages. So. In education. communication. It has a function as a bridge for all aspects of human life.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Mastering of a foreign language is one of the important things that is needed in modern society and globalization era. one of the requirements is language competence. society. it can be said that mastering foreign language is very important for surviving life. there are so many kinds of foreign language. such as trade. As it is known. so does English. education.

and Girard (1992: 23-24) define some reasons for starting to learn a foreign language earlier. 3.2 Actually. Brewster. 4. The advantage of starting with early second language instruction so that later the language can be used as a medium of teaching. Second. teaching English to young learner is aimed to increase the total number of years spent learning language. Singleton in Brumfit (1997: 7) also defines some reasons for teaching English at primary level. Third. 2. the earlier you start the more time you get. The need for maximum learning time for important languages. the aim of early foreign language learning is to prepare young learner linguistically. The need to expose children from an early age to understanding of foreign cultures so that they grow up tolerant and sympathetic to others. and culturally for language learning. teaching English at junior high school is extremely important because it is still the basis for the higher level. especially English language. it can be concluded that studying foreign language. the indisputable fact those young learners have a greater facility for understanding and imitating what they hear than adult. The need to link communication to understanding of view concepts. From some statements above. First. at junior high school is very important. By learning foreign language earlier. It also maximizes . psychologically. it prepares young learners to make a link of communication to understand concept of communication it self. Ellis. they are: 1.

Considering the importance of vocabulary competence. Firstly. They will forget some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat . For beginners. Then. a teacher has many problems to develop the students‟ vocabulary mastery. especially English skills (listening. First. writing. it is better to introduce new vocabulary earlier to the students. Therefore. It should not be neglected by anyone who learns a language. the students need to understand the meaning of words. knowing words is the key for understanding and being understood. There are many kinds of students‟ characteristic. the earlier they start the more time they get. here are the junior high students. For enhancing all aspects in foreign language. Knowing more words in English language. So it can be concluded that vocabulary takes the important aspect to master English well as a foreign language. speaking. vocabulary mastery is the basic knowledge in learning English. it is not easy to teach English for the young learners. the students need something to do. They will more understand what they have learned.3 learning time for learning foreign language. The words here means as vocabulary. It makes them know and understand a lot of vocabularies. Sometimes. Coady and Huckin (1998: 5) say that vocabulary is the central to language and of critical importance to language learning for the young learners. One of the problems that are faced is the characteristics of the students as young learners. and reading). young learners forget something quickly. it will make other person understand or make ourselves understood easily. Vocabulary supports all of the English skills.

it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. especially in vocabulary mastery. Here. They always discuss about something in their around while playing. it makes the students less interested and do not be active in teaching learning process. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. magazine. young learners get bored easily.4 the words many times. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. So. the researcher finds out that the students‟ vocabulary mastery is still low. technique or and material. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students‟ acts as follows: firstly. Third. Second. So. After having pre research by interviewing the teacher and observing teaching learning process of mastering vocabulary at the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. By using the appropriate method. it is important to find out the appropriate. the teachers have to find out the appropriate. etc. It is clear that repetition is needed. There are no materials from other sources like internet. technique. They prefer playing than studying. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. technique. Most of materials come from the teachers. there are no interesting technique that used by the teacher. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. The teaching learning process uses teacher centre in delivering the lessons. The method. so the . young learners still like playing. It may be caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate and attractive. The materials used in teaching learning process only from books and students worksheet. In teaching learning process.

The students also get difficulties when they have to translate the words. The other difficulties that the students faced when they do an exercise on jumble word. Short text is one of an interesting material that helps the students to find out the keys to remember and grasp many new vocabularies. students‟ marks are still lower than the passing grade.5 students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words. Example is the word “n-t-w-i-r-e”. It is because there are no appropriate learning sources that used to help the students for remembering the materials that are given. From the indicators that are mentioned above. The correct arrangement is “winter” but students rearrange them become “writen”. Secondly. Due to the facts above. For example the word “suddenly”. the researcher tries to enrich vocabulary mastery of the students using short texts. She wants to make the students interested by using the teaching material of short texts. Most of the students forget to write down the second letter. Beside that the students will be easy to write down the correct words or group words. She uses short texts because short texts will help to solve the problems that are faced by the students. The students usually get mistake to rearrange into the correct word. It can be seen when they find some words that have double letters. the students write the word only “sudenly”. Thirdly. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. . It is because all words or group word are inside of the short texts.

the researcher would like to conduct a research to solve the problem and also enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery by using short stories entitled “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS” (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). The problems of the study can be formulated as follows: 1. C. How is the students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? .6 Based on the description above. the researcher wants to prove whether or not the short texts can improve students‟ vocabulary mastery in learning English at the junior high school. The Limitation of the Problem The research has a broad scope and it is impossible for the researcher to handle the study consisting of so many complicated problems. the researcher limits the problem on how to enrich the students‟ vocabulary mastery using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Can short texts enrich vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? 2. B. The Problems Statement Based on the background of study. Therefore.

The Benefits of the Study It is expected that this research contributes some significant progresses in teaching vocabulary for several sides. Particularly. 2. The students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Then. . So the teacher hoped to create an interesting teaching learning process by using this teaching material. the general objective of this research is to improve students‟ vocabulary by using short texts. they are: 1. this research is aimed to find out: 1. in this case is short texts.7 D. the data of the research are also very useful for the teacher. It will help the teacher to identify the students‟ difficulties in learning vocabulary and also find the students who need more guiding. Whether using short texts can enrich the students‟ vocabulary of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. The Objectives of the Research Based on the formulation of the problem. E. Teacher It is expected that the teacher will get more information about one of the appropriate teaching materials. the teacher can take some correct problems solving from those problems. Then.

The result of the research is also hoped to improve students‟ achievement in English lesson standard. School It is expected that the information of the result will be very useful for getting success in teaching learning process. Through short texts. students are expected to have good enrichment in vocabulary and also the changes of behavior during teaching learning process. 3.8 2. . Students It is expected that the result will give motivation to the students to be better in vocabulary mastery. so the quality of teaching learning process can be increased.

Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) state that vocabulary is a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. For example.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. General Concept of Vocabulary a.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Since vocabulary is a list. The items in vocabulary may be more than a single word. if someone learns new words in foreign language. McWhorter (1989: 311) says that vocabulary means the ability to recognize individual words and to associate . Here. vocabulary is written in alphabetical order in dictionaries based on system or rule of foreign language. mother-in-law. Notion of Vocabulary There are some definitions of vocabulary proposed by linguist experts. for example post office. which expressing a single idea. the only system involved is alphabetical order in dictionaries. Furthermore. 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE (RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESIS) A. Ur (1998: 60) defines that vocabulary can be mean as the words we teach in foreign language. it means that someone learns vocabulary. Review On Related Literature 1. It means vocabulary is written or spoken unit of language as symbol of idea in foreign language for the learners.

the word love on the other hand. It can be formed from a single or more than one word.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. McWhorter states that vocabulary deals with the competence in recognizing words and its meaning. does not represent a physical object. vocabulary is the competence or skill in recognizing words and its meaning. It symbolizes the feeling of one person toward another. vocabulary deals with a series of words in particular language. Based on Hatch and Brown. recognizing words means knowing its meaning or idea and how they are formed by a combination of letters. Meanwhile. Words are symbols. usually supported by four legs. Then. For example. 10 meaning with the particular combination of letters that form a word. b. the word chair in our minds a physical reality. an object with a flat surface. Then. Based on three definitions above. groups of letter that stand for.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Ur adds that vocabulary deals with word taught in foreign language. The words here are the symbols in form of groups of letter represent either a physical object or an idea. vocabulary can be constructed as a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. It is because people need vocabulary in expressing their ideas both of in mother . The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary is an important aspect in our life. In the other word. or represent. either a physical object or an idea. and used to for sitting.

Without vocabulary mastery. c. Cross (1995: 14) states that a good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication. While Hornby (1984:523) says that mastery is the complete control or . use. 11 tongue and foreign language. learning a language becomes a very hard thing to do and communication in second language cannot happen in any meaningful way. vocabulary plays an important role. and a feeling.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. It means mastery is the ability to use one of knowledge.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Names are essential for the construction of reality. Every person who learns a language must learn the vocabulary of the language in order to make the learning process easier. According to the statement above. A strong vocabulary can be a valuable asset. Without a name. Tailor (1991: 1) says that in order to live in the world. or knowledge. Edge (1993: 27) states that knowing a lot of words in foreign language are very important. In language learning. both in college and later in our career. it will be difficult to accept the existence of an object. Vocabulary Mastery Coulson et al (1987: 1050) define that mastery is skill. Vocabulary always becomes the essential part of English as a foreign language. it can be concluded that vocabulary is very important in learning language and mastering vocabulary will facilitate someone in using language in communication. we must name objects. an event.

from both of definitions above.12 knowledge. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. adolescent period. The process of vocabulary mastery is not simple. this term the vocabulary are used more and more intensive because they make more communication each other. Keraf (1989: 6566) defines the step in processing vocabulary mastery. Second. this term is the adolescent start to use the language and make it more extensive directly in simple communication. It is usually arranged by a standard of curriculum and syllabus in every aspect whether the topic or the test. children period. The vocabulary mastery can not be done spontaneous but step by step. The certain area in teaching means a lesson taught. Third. While vocabulary is a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning in form of symbols of groups of letter. It means mastery is the ability to combine skill and knowledge in one certain area. in case of the physical object or idea. this term children are able to define concept vocabulary to say their concrete idea. . So. mastery is the whole power or ability to direct knowledge. either a physical object or an idea and it also can be formed from a single or more than one word. vocabulary mastery can be constructed as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. adult period. First. Here.

mastery may be defined as the ability to use skill or knowledge in one subject area based on recognized standard. The success of teaching learning process depends on not only the teachers‟ and students‟ competence but also the technique of teaching. prose. means a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. Then vocabulary mastery define as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. social lesson. The technique here refers to the way of teaching. They are direct and indirect techniques. There are some techniques of teaching vocabulary. Direct technique is usually used through the language book.13 From the definition above. The techniques are the unplanned vocabulary teaching and planned vocabulary teaching. Dealing with the technique of vocabulary teaching. Unplanned vocabulary teaching is . there are so many techniques proposed by some experts. poetry and games. The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery There are various ways to improve vocabulary mastery. in case of the physical object or idea. d. and science lesson. While vocabulary. There are two techniques in improving vocabulary mastery. The teachers may have some techniques to teach it. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. Then indirect technique uses the other source of lesson like mathematic.

The planned vocabulary teaching can be described as “the vocabulary lesson” since the primary objective of the teaching activities is the presentation and practice of the lexical item themselves. Beside that it also helps students to memorize both of visual and aural memories. They are: 1) Demonstrate Demonstration is the way of teaching vocabulary by doing physical demonstration together verbal explanation. The objects of the real things can be in the class or probably through the window. stagger. while planned vocabulary teaching where the teacher goes into classroom with an item or a set of vocabulary items that the teacher has decided before hand. The demonstration helps to make the meaning clearer and to fix the word in the students‟ minds. the teachers present vocabulary items by bringing the real things into classroom. Sometimes the explanation is no more complicated than pointing.14 extemporaneous teaching of vocabulary items that come up without planning in course of lesson. . For examples. While Lewis and Hill (1992: 102-103) mention some ways to teach vocabulary. chuckle. etc. 2) Use the real thing In this way.

the learners have to be aware that a word may have different opposite in difficult context. or probably may be explained by presenting them with groups of related words: Hot warm cool cold 5) Antonyms This is the way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites or antonyms of the word. orange (color). For example: light bag >< heavy bag light word >< strong word rough area >< quite area poor >< rich dirty >< clean happy >< sad red orange yellow certainly / definitely probably / possibly . It is worth that the explanations given here are not exact definitions of the word. For example the meaning of bush was explained by two very simple sketches. 4) Use the blackboard to show scales or grades Words like cool. like accuracy can often be counter-productive. Here.15 3) Draw or sketch Teachers do not need to be artists to make simple sketches which illustrate meaning. the level of the explanation must be suitable to the students‟ level of English at the time so that dictionary.

16 rough texture >< smooth texture 6) Synonyms high >< low Synonyms are the way of teaching vocabulary by giving same meaning of two or more words. Beside that. their connotation meanings often differ. 7) The dictionary This is the way of teaching vocabulary by using dictionary to know vocabulary items. It is . Though words may have similar denotation meaning. using the former phrase also helps to build up in the students‟ mind ides that language consists of choice. that words do not mean the same as each other. A bilingual dictionary can be used at low levels and monolingual dictionary at the high levels. One technique for explaining these which teachers too frequently overlook is asking the class whether anybody knows the word and. asking one or more students to look the word up in a dictionary. 9) Translation It is a way of teaching vocabulary by translating some words or individual words from the target language into other language. or not. 8) Verbal explanation Verbal explanation refers to the way of teaching vocabulary by explaining the meaning of vocabulary items in students‟ own language.

e. When teaching an item such as “to swerve”. teachers often make use of . professions. blackboard drawings. and certain areas of vocabulary such as places. wallcharts. b) Mime and gesture These are often used to supplement other ways of conveying meaning. the teacher will find difficulty to translate the word(s) into all languages. descriptions of people. making use of blackboard and gesture to reinforce the concept. photographs.17 seen as boring and traditional. actions. They are extensively used for conveying meaning and particularly useful for teaching concrete items of vocabulary such as furniture. a teacher might build a situation to illustrate it. and realia (i. They are: 1) Visual techniques a) Visual These include flashcards. Gairns (1991: 73-75) says that there are some techniques used in presenting new vocabulary. In this technique. To ensure that students understand. and activities. Furthermore. objects themselves). if the class consists of different nationalities. 2) Verbal Techniques a) Use illustrative situation (oral or written) This is most helpful when items become more abstract.

Synonymy is also the way of teaching by giving more than one meaning for a word. c) Contrast and opposites Contrast and opposites are they way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites of the words. d) Scales Once students have learnt two contrasting or related gradable items. b) Use of synonymy and definition Definition here is the way of teaching vocabulary by defining or describing objects. this can be a useful way of revising and feeding in new items.18 more than one situation or context to check that students have grasped the concept. This is the example of adverbs of frequency: never hardly ever occasionally I sometimes often always go to cinema on Sundays . However. it is vital to illustrate the contexts in which this is true.

The example of “furniture” is “table. dictionary. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. sofa. It is because the techniques that are mentioned are usually used in school. antonyms. etc”. it can be defined as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that is used to express meaning. chair. synonyms. in case of the physical object or idea. e. Some of these can of course also be dealt with through visual aids.19 e) Examples of type This is the way of teaching vocabulary by exemplifying things it self. mime and gesture. Then. The teacher will find difficulties if the students come from different nationalities. It can save valuable time in teaching process but it seen as boring and traditional. the students can understand and grasp the vocabulary easily. bed. it is also hoped that by using these techniques. verbal explanation and translation techniques to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery. The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery Dealing with the vocabulary mastery. 3) Translation Translation can be very effective way of conveying meaning. . the researcher uses definition. In this paper.

Thornbury says that the factors come from the word‟s aspects such pronunciation. connotation and idiomatic are the indicators in vocabulary mastery. Many learners find that words with clusters of consonants. either of pronunciation or of spelling. Here. grammar.spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors. etc to express the idea of the subject. If those factors are fulfilled. 2) Spelling Sound. She or he can not understand the lesson easily.such as regular and lorry for Japanese speakers. length and complexity. and can contribute to a . meaning. The example is when an Indonesian student has an English subject at school and it is the second language for her or him. Those six aspects above will be defined briefly here. and range. are also problematic. what‟s the meaning. spelling. someone can be said that he or she has achieved the vocabulary mastery.20 Thornbury (2002: 27) declares some factors why learning vocabulary is rather difficult for second language learner. how to pronunce. Potentially difficult words will typically be those that contain sounds that are unfamiliar to some groups of learners. 1) Pronunciation Research shows that words that are difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn. how to spell. such as strength or crisp or breakfast. It is because she or he should know the appropriate word.

as a rule of thumb. 4) Grammar It is problematic when grammar associated with the word. variable stress in polysyllabic words.such as in word families like necessary. However. Furthermore. honest. 3) Length and complexity Long words seem to be no more difficult to learn than short ones. . etc. cupboard. especially if this differs from that of its L 1 equivalent. love. Remembering whether a verb like enjoy. Words that contain silent letters are particularly problematic: foreign.21 word‟s difficulty. climbing. Then the grammar of phrasal verbs is particularly troublesome: some phrasal verbs are separable (she looked the word up) but others are not (she looked after the children). or hope is followed by an infinitive (to swim) or an –ing form (swimming) can add to its difficulty. and say he explained me the lesson. there are also some glaring irregularities. a factor favoring their „learn ability‟. high frequency words tend to be short in English. headache. Spanish learners of English. and therefore the learner is likely to meet them more often. tend to assume that explain follows the same pattern as both Spanish explicar and English tell. muscle. for example. listen. bored. necessity and necessarily can add to their difficulty. While most English spelling is fairly law-abiding.

propaganda has negative connotations in English. Thus. Thus put is a very wide-ranging verb. connotation and idiomaticity Words that can be used in a wide range of context will generally be perceived as easier than their synonyms with a narrower range. compare to impose. position. . Finally. Likewise. meaning. learners are likely to confuse them. and a good innings) will seem fairly opaque to most learners and are likely to be easily learned. but you do the housework and do a questionnaire. but its nearest equivalent in other languages may dean deviant. The words have style constraints. The words with multiple meanings such as since. etc. swap for exchange) may cause problems. thin is a safer bet than skinny. 6) Range. Having learned one meaning of the word. Make and do are a case in point: you make breakfast and make an appointment. can also be troublesome for learners. Thus. place. slim. Unfamiliar concepts may make a word difficult to learn.22 5) Meaning When two words overlap in meaning. Uncertainly to the connotations of some words may cause problems too. a hat trick. they may be reluctant to accept a second. and still. such as very informal words (chuck for throw. totally different. culture specific items such as words and expressions associated with the game cricket (a sticky wicket. slender.

23 words or expression that are idiomatic (like make up your mind. where “text” means verbal record communication. length. intended readership. as well as their syntactic complexity that makes phrasal verbs so difficult. we conclude that vocabulary mastery is the students‟ awareness of understanding the words and their rules to communicate. watch). Texts in this sense are printed texts. The aspects to be measured are limited to pronunciation of words. Essences of Short Text a. The Concept of Text Brown and Yule (1997: 24) suggest that the term to spoke “text” as well. the use of words in meaning and meaning. . Willis (1998: 67) says that text in general sense to mean a continuous piece of spoken or written language. They also differentiate the term of those text and discourse dealing with the context. spelling. Arthur Hughes (2003:140) states that texts candidates are expected to be able to deal with can be specified along number of parameters: type. 2. It is their idiomaticity. form. those three aspects that are learned in junior high school. topic. It is because. style. keep an eye on…) will generally be more difficult than words whose meaning is transparent (decide. graphic features. From all those definition above.

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readability or difficulty, range of vocabulary and grammatical structure. Text type include: text books, handouts, articles (in newspaper, journals or magazine), poems, encyclopedia, dictionary, novel (extracts) and short stories, etc. He also states that text forms include: description, exposition, argumentation, instruction, and narration. Cross (1995:77-78) states that the text is a major resources; permitting you to vary the learning activities from lesson to lesson. There are four main factors to consider when deciding how to threat a passage; linguistic complexity, length, interest level and aims. From the definition above, it can be concluded that the text is a verbal communication which consists of continuous piece of spoken or written language and its meaning is contextually. b. The Concept of Story Story is account of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events, etc (Hornby: 1995: 94). Taylor (2000: 16) says that story is relating tale to one or more listener through voice and gesture. It is clear that vocabulary in a story should be presented in clear context; the amusing situations can make the vocabulary easy to remember. Ray B. West (1968: v) says that story is something brought into being by application of the skill and workings of the imagination of the author. Its aim is to arouse the emotions and stimulate the imagination of the students.

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Brad Hooper (1992: xi) says that story is different from a novel in that it is short enough to be read in one sitting, with every word leading toward some final, preordained effect. In story, the sentences are generally shorter in order the students easy to follow the story. From the statements above, the writer draw conclusion that story refers to the written or spoken description of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events that can be used to for teaching students which have aims to make the students easier to follow the story and it has different from a novel that is short enough to be read in one sitting. This paper, the writer uses the story as text especially folktale for increasing vocabulary mastery in second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo Academic Year 2009/2010. c. The Notion of Folktales One kind of story that usually heard by child is the folktales. It is type words composition that recites the story of the folklore in a certain region that is popularly and orally told from one generation to other generation in a certain community. (www.classicalfolktale.wikipedia.com) 1) The meaning of Folktales The word folktale is not defined in English usage. Taylor (2000:4) defines the term “folktale” as traditional story that has been

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passed by words of mouth, told from parents to children over many generations or passed on by countless storytellers sitting around countless evening fires. No one knows who the original author was, and there are usually different versions of the same story, he also states that the term “folktale” has also been used to refer to literary retelling of these tales. Another definition of folktales is that “words folktales refer to the many types of traditional narratives know to the “folk” (Coffin and Cohen, 1996:1). Philips (1992) defines folktales as story about telling stories with unverifiable claims and its literary form. From the definition above, we can assume that folktales are traditional stories that have been passed by words of mouth and told from generation to generation. Folktales lasted through a long period of time due to their universality. They are forms of traditional literature which began as attempt to explain and understand the natural and spiritual world. The origin of folktales lies in oral tradition. 2) The type of folktales There are several types of folktales. Taylor (2000) divides folktales as fable, fairy tales, hero stories, myths, legend. Fables are very short folktales with animals as the main characteristic and with very obvious moral lesson, often summon up in single line at the end.

Example: “Shakespeare‟s Ghost” and “Paul Bunyan”. certain characteristics typical in folktales contribute to relatively easy reading. when strictly defined. And believed by the teller and served as historical purpose: “The dog and the meat” and “the greedy old spider”. and even between two telling stories of the same tale.27 Legend is stories that are based on real hero and his or her mighty deeds. Legends are stories that are based on a real hero and his or her mighty deeds and believed by the teller and serve a historical purpose. Fairy tales are folktales that include some magical elements (not necessity fairies): the German word marchen is sometimes used for this. Examples: Tumbelina. Taylor . is religious and deals with the creating and ordering of the universe and with the earlier order in which present world condition were being established. Examples “Johnny Appleased” and “Pail Bunyan”. Fairy tales are fictional and take place in a never-land. 3) The Characteristics of Folktales Although there a lot of variations between folktales. Hero stories some of which have some real historical parts and other of which may not. primitive myth. It is told as if they are fact. and usually involving God. Goddesses and supernatural power: “Adam and Eve” and “Noah‟s ark”.

they need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. The Notion of Young Learners Teaching English to children is different from teaching English to and adult.28 (2000:9) gives various characteristics of folktales that make them exceptionally good for language teaching. The General Concept of Young Learners a. 1997: 98) b. children have the following characteristics: . It means that the English teacher should be use the technique for English teaching that can make the students interested in learning English Lesson (House. These are the list: time order repetition and redundancy predictability relatively simply grammar concrete ideas illustrations that provide support and context for the texts a unique reader-write relationship 3. The Characteristic of Children In general. In relation to the English teaching learning process.

3) Their own understanding comes through hands. 2) Children have no real linguistic. They teach subject what school provides for them 3) Children are still developing their common skill such as turn taking and the use of body language. eyes. They tend to resolves around themselves. and ears Children will be understandings about what we talk are using hands. So material of teaching that will be teaching is about their surrounding and happened in that time.29 1) They like playing Children like playing. 4) Young children are very egocentric. . that is playing and learning in the same time. 2) They talk about “Here and Now” Children always discuss about existing in their around and happened in that time. and ears. eyes. They develop their way of thinking from the concrete to the abstract thing. They more like playing than learning. Clark (1990: 6-8) states the characteristics of the children are as follows: 1) Children are developing conceptually. They learn more slowly. Hence from that to convey the material of learning we should be able to take both.

. of course based on their characteristics in teaching learning English lesson. it can be conclude that young learner need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity.30 5) Children get bored easily children have no choice to attend school. From the definition above. The Notion of Motivation a. 4. it is very important for teachers to know about motivation. 7) Children are better mimics. the teacher in teaching English needs repetition. It will take them more confident in attempting the sound of foreign language and they delighted in playing the sound. The class activities must be fun and interesting by setting up the interesting activities. It is because motivation will influence someone both in process and result. ensuring success and enhancing the children‟s motivation are important factors in promoting the success of early start in foreign language learning. The Definition of Motivation Motivation is needed in every occasion. Therefore. especially in teaching learning process. 6) Children are at early of their education. 8) Children forget quickly. Thus.

Then. . achievement motivation. 2000: 332) says that motivation is internal states that arouses us to action. Next. b. and keep us engaged in certain activities. While intrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because they are interested in task or activities itself. their willingness to engage in teaching learning activities and their reasons for doing this. or desire that moves and leads learner to do a particular action in order to meet and needs or to attain a set of goals of teaching learning process. Brophy (1998: 3) says that motivation refers to the students‟ subjective experiences. social motivation. Biggs and Watkins (1995: 84) state that there are four categories of motivation. Extrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because of consequences to obtain a reward and to avoid the punishment. Weiner (in Elliot et al. intrinsic motivation. pushes us in particular direction. From the definition above it can be concluded that motivation is an arousal. impulse. The Types of Motivation There are many kinds of learning motivation stated by the experts. namely: extrinsic motivation.31 Some experts define some definition of motivation. Groccia (1992: 62) states that people learn and study because the consequences of such behavior satisfy certain internal and/or external motives.

in Ur (1996: 275) comes to conclusion that the most successful students are not necessary those to whom a language comes very easily. high proficiency. social motivation is defined as the students‟ motivation in order to make the other people feel pleasure. The learner is ambitious. Integrative motivation is the desire to identify with and integrate into target language culture. 3). High aspiration. The learner finds it important to succeed in learning and promote his or her own positive self-image. Ego-involvement. Positive task oriented. The learner has needs to achieve. 2). they are those who display certain typical characteristic. Need for achievement. . goes for demanding challenges. and has confidence in his or her success. those are as follows: 1). Ur (1996: 19) defines some kinds of motivation. top grades. The Characteristic of Motivated Students Naiman et al. The learner willing to tackle tasks and challenges. the students learn in order to compete against the other students. to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do. 4).32 Achievement motivation. c. They are integrated motivation and instrumental motivation. Then. most of them clearly associated with motivation. Then instrumental motivation is to wish to learn the language for purposes of study or carrier. that is winning makes they feel good.

The learner is not disturbed or frustrated by situations involving a temporary lack of understanding will come later. Goal orientation. It can be seen when they do the exercises. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students as follows: firstly. Rationale In learning English vocabulary. It is caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate on their level. and directs his or her effort towards achieving them. there are difficulties that might be faced by the learners especially the young learners. Perseverance. The students‟ vocabulary mastery of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010 is still low. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. 7). The learner consistently invests a high level of effort in learning. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words and then translate them. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. or of specific learning activities. Tolerance of ambiguity. Most of the students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. 6). B.33 5). and it is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack progress. Thirdly. The learner is very aware of the goals of learning. They could . Secondly.

One of the teaching materials that can be used is the short texts. the students can improve their vocabulary mastery. C. By using short texts. . So.34 not do the exercises perfectly. the teacher should create an interesting teaching material. especially for the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic Year of 2009/2010. Most of their marks are still lower than the passing grade. Short texts are interesting materials in teaching language. The teaching materials should be suitable with the young learners‟ characteristics. Considering the explanation above. the teacher helps the students to remember the words and understand the meaning and also the grammatical pattern of the sentences easily. Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research can be formulated as follows: by using short texts. the researcher believes that short texts can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery.

consist of 11 boys and 24 girls. the post-test was done on the sixth meeting. the treatments. 1. . This school is located at Bulakan. 3. Post test was done on the six meeting. Subject of the Research The subject of this research is the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Sukoharjo Regency. The details are the pre-test. 2. The pre-test was done on the first meeting. Setting of place This research was done in SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo. the treatments were done on the second until five meeting. Last. Next. Time of research This research held on a cycle on second semester in the academic year of 2009/2010. It was done for knowing the students‟ basic ability of the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. It is because there is a problem related with students‟ vocabulary mastery. It was done for knowing the students‟ improvement after using short texts in teaching learning process. 35 CHAPTER III RESEACH METODHOLOGY A.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. There are 35 students for class A. and the posttest. Setting and Subject of the Research. The aim was to master vocabulary by using short stories. Sukoharjo.

Ebbutt (1985) in Hopkins (1993: 45) states action research is about the systematic study of attempts to improve educational practice by groups of participants by means of their own practical actions and by means of own reflection upon the effects of those actions.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. . It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively. and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out. dan atau tindakan untuk lebih memahami hakekat dan atau konsekuensi mengajar dengan tujuan untuk melakukan tindakan atau menguabah atau meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dan lebih baik bila dilakukan secara kolaboratif dengan kolega atau teman guru. it is necessary to give a definition of action research.” Kemmis (1983) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices. Dewi Rochsantiningsih (2008) defines action research as: “proses sistematis di mana guru dengan sukarela melibatkan diri untuk melakukan refleksi dokumentasi.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Meanwhile. though it is often undertaken by individuals and sometimes in cooperation with outsiders. Method of the Research This research is a kind of action research. Rapport (1970) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is aimed to contribute both to the practical concern of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of the school science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework. 36 B. (b) their understanding to these practices. For a starting point.

it can be concluded that action research is a systematic study and it is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken or carried out by participants in educational situation rather than outside researches to solve the problem in order to improve the students‟ ability. or other educational professionals to aid in decision making in the local school. intact groups are used in some cases. By participating the actions in this research. C. Based on the definition and the aims above. Action research is usually less rigorous in term of design and methodology than other educational researches.37 Furthermore. it is hoped that the researcher will find the solution for developing the students‟ vocabulary mastery. From the definition above. Action research focuses on the solution of day-to-day problems at the local level. The Model of Action Research The model of classroom action research used in this study is based on the model developed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1985). this research is done to increase the students‟ vocabulary mastery through short texts. research conducted by a teacher. According to the model. only a single group or individual is involved in the study. Wiersma (2000: 10) states one type of applied research is action research. Often. the implementation of the classroom action research includes four steps in the following: . administrator.

Action Act to implement the plan. 4. . through a succession of a stages. 2. Based on Hopkins‟ point of views (1993: 48) this model can be illustrated as follow. 3. Planning Develop a plan of critically informed action to improve what is already happening. Reflection Reflecting process on these effects as the basis for further planning. subsequent critically informed and so on.38 1. Observation Observe the effects of the critically informed action in the context in which it occurs.

The problem was caused by the technique of delivering material which was not suitable and interesting to the learners. Preparing a test. e. Preparing teaching aids. c.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of teaching learning process when the technique is applied). each procedure takes five steps in one cycle. f. b.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Planning the action The researcher prepared everything related to the action as follows: a. There are follows: 1. . Planning the steps and technique for delivering the material in the form of lesson plan. Identifying the problems The researcher identified the problem before planning the action. and conducting a pre-test. Designing the steps in doing the action. It was obtained by observing the teaching learning process. The problem referred to the students‟ difficulty in learning vocabulary. interviewing the students. d. 2. It was done to know whether students‟ vocabulary could be improved or not. The Procedures of Action Research In this classroom action research. 39 D. Preparing the material.

The researcher stimulated the students to try guessing some words related to the stories. The researcher gave the students oral task by pointing the students one by one to guess and pronounce the words that are related to the stories shown by teacher to check whether the students had understood. d. The researcher gave the students individual task.40 3. e. The researcher greeted the students and checked the students‟ attendance at the beginning of class. g. Implementing the action The researcher implemented the teaching learning activity of vocabulary using short texts. The researcher discussed the answer of task with the students i. c. f. The researcher presented the material by giving a worksheet one by one to the students. . The researcher gave the students time to make note in their book. Observing and monitoring the action The researcher observed all activities in the teaching learning process and created a conducive atmosphere in a class. h. the researcher reviewed the material. The researcher gave explanation about the words. 4. and drilled the students. pronounced them correctly. After doing the practices. b. The real implementations were generally presented as follows: a.

Technique of Collecting Data The techniques of collecting data are qualitative and quantitative method. document analysis. Qualitative method consists of observation. observes the teaching learning process done by the teacher and the students. Based on Burns (1999: 80). The researcher observed the actions to find the problems of the activities that had been carried out in using short stories in teaching vocabulary. photograph. interview. . Observation technique means the researcher comes to the class.41 5. E. Evaluating and Reflecting the result of the observation The researcher evaluated all actions in the cycle. observation is a kind of activities in action research that enables researchers to document and reflect systematically upon classroom interactions and events. The teacher takes the position behind the class while observing the teaching learning process and makes a note all things about what happen during the teaching learning process. field notes. as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur.

1996: 21). Then. and noted the students‟ reaction and response to the learning. 1999: 101). 1999: 87). the researcher used essay and pronoun test type for both . The vocabulary test is used to measure the students‟ vocabulary mastery. This interview is also done to the students and the teacher before and after teaching learning process. Test technique which is used is achievement test. The test here is a vocabulary test. Analyzing the document was done toward the Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. quantitative method uses test technique. The interview technique is done spontaneously. Photographs are a way of greatly enhancing classroom analysis and providing visual stimuli that can be integrated into reporting and presenting the research to others (Burns. which is about English lesson in Junior High School including its Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar. The researcher made note to all activities during the lesson. It means that the researcher does not make some questions first.42 Notes or field notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context that are written in relatively factual and objective style (Burns. The purpose is to get the information about everything in teaching learning process using short stories. The researcher made notes of each observation done. In this research. Achievement test is the test that is used to measure students‟ ability after learning something (Arikunto. The aim of this analysis was to complete the information which had been gotten from observation and interview.

The test consisted of vocabularies that had been taught to the students. Here is the diagram of the steps. The total numbers of test items were 30 items.43 the pre-test and post-test. There are some steps that should be done by the researcher in this action research. The result of the test was analyzed to know the students‟ achievement on vocabulary. Table 1. The steps in Action Research Step of action Participant  Students Pre action  Researcher  Students  Researcher The action Technique  Interview  Observation  Test (Pre-test)  Planning  Implementing  Observing monitoring  Reflecting Post action  Students  Researcher  Test (Post-test)  Result of post-test and Data  Result of the interview  Result of observation  Result of pre-test  Result of observation  Field notes .

2001:8). the data are the result of observation. field notes. this research uses descriptive statistics. (b) classify the data in certain classification. Quantitative descriptive analysis In quantitative descriptive analysis. Making a hypothesis using the classify data. It makes clearer the data and the characteristic of the data (Nurgiantoro. and photographs. interview. 1. In this formula.44 F. the pre-test is compared with the post-test to know whether teaching vocabulary using short stories can improve the students‟ vocabulary mastery. The formula of t-test of non-independent is as follows: t= where t is the result of t-test non-independent . 2. It is used to make the data simple and communicative. The steps are: (a) compare the data from each informant to make easy in classifying the same data. Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis in this research consists of two kinds. making the data in the table. (d) making an inductive conclusion. Qualitative descriptive In qualitative descriptive analysis. This step uses a simple formula that is called as t-test of non-independent. they are qualitative descriptive analysis and also quantitative descriptive analysis. (c) Making the inference.

when the difference between the values of t-obtained and the value of t-table is significant. the researcher uses the formula as follows: where. the effectiveness of using short stories to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery will be known. G. p q n and : the number of correct answer : the number of incorrect answer : the number of respondent The result of the computation of validity will be consulted to t-table distribution. Validity of the Instrument In computing the validity of each item from the instrument. from this. it will be known whether or not the instrument is valid.45 Finally. . where k is the number of valid items. Reliability of the Instrument After the valid items are determined. H. the reliability can be determined by using the formula: .

and (2) there is an improving average mark of the class based on the criteria in the curriculum that is used in that school. . From this. I.46 The result of the computation of reliability will be consulted to r table of statistics. The Criteria of Successful Action The measurement that is used in checking vocabulary mastery is test. it will be known whether or not the instrument is reliable. The indicators are: (1) there is an improvement number of students that have minimal criterion at least 75 % from the total number of students.

The discussion deals with the implementations of the actions that are teaching by using short texts based on theories from some experts. The structure of the writing contains introduction. A. Their vocabulary was still low.47 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION In this chapter. They were supported in pre-research that has been done by the researcher. The description of the research contains the implementations of the actions of the research in the field. and discussion. and 3) they got difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. First. The main problem faced by the students was the lack of vocabularies. the students as young learners forget something quickly. They will forget . many problems were found in teaching English for students of the second year of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. The difficulties of learning vocabularies were caused by some reasons. 2) they got difficulties to understand and grasp the meaning of words. It can be seen from the indicators like: 1) they were less interested in teaching learning process. Introduction contains the problem faced by the students. the description of the research. Introduction As presented in chapter I. the researcher discusses the implementation of the action.

the researcher wanted to make the students are able to grasp and remember the . One of the problems that is taken in this study is the materials that are not suitable and interesting to the students. it is important to find out the appropriate method. They prefer playing to studying. Thus. the researcher decided to conduct a research to solve the problems through this study. especially in vocabulary mastery. Second. the teachers have to find out the appropriate method. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. There were some targets which the researcher expected to achieve by conducting the action for the improvement of students‟ vocabulary. By using the appropriate method. They always talk about something while playing. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. technique. the students as young learners get bored easily. technique or and material. Based on the facts above. So. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. Secondly. the research is concentrated on improving materials of teaching vocabulary through a classroom action research and the use of short texts as the teaching learning source. Third. Here. So. Firstly.48 some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat the words many times. the students as young learners still like playing. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. the researcher wanted to create interesting situation in the classroom. technique. repetition is needed. The method.

The cycle in this research also consisted of series of steps. namely planning the action. in presenting and practicing new vocabularies. The Description of the Research The implementation of the action planned in this research was held in a cycle. and revising the plan.49 meaning of words more easily. B. the researcher used short texts as the teaching materials. the researcher hopes that the research can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery and change the situation during the teaching learning process. in this case was short texts. In this cycle. observing or monitoring the action. Thirdly. The researcher divided the cycle into four meetings. 2010. Based on the problems and the targets that the researcher expected to achieve. It was conducted from April. implementing the action. They are explained as follows: . 2010 until April. the researcher wanted to make the students able to write the words or group of words correctly so the improvement of students‟ vocabulary could be achieved. Each meeting took 80 minutes. Through a classroom action research. evaluating and reflecting the result of the observation. the researcher decided to carry out interesting teaching materials.

Besides that. The researcher told the students that they were going to learn English by using short stories that day. it was expected that the students are able to grasp the meaning of new vocabulary easily. It was to get the students‟ attention and interest. The teacher also planned to drill the students‟ pronunciations using the words that have been prepared. The researcher believed that short stories could improve the students‟ vocabulary and attract the students‟ enthusiasm in teaching learning process. By using short text. To overcome those problems.50 1. The researcher taught 80 minutes in every meeting. the researcher planned and chose interesting learning materials to solve the problems and improve students‟ behavior during teaching learning process. The students could drill every word until five times. The students could ask questions whenever they found problems. the students are able to write down the words or group of words correctly. It is because the stories are very funny and give the students a lot of new list of vocabularies. So. The researcher chose short texts as the teaching materials. the indicators of vocabulary mastery can be completed. Planning the action The action plan was made based on the problems that were mentioned in the introduction above. The researcher planned to use 10 minutes to greet the students and stated the topic. The researcher also gave a lot of time to drill the students. The researcher allocated 60 minutes to give the students a chance to learn the material by doing the worksheet and to practice .

2010. Before implementing the action. namely: opening. lesson plans as researcher‟s guidance in teaching vocabulary. students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. main activity. The last five up to ten minutes was to review and close the lesson. The researcher came to the class on time . April.m. This cycle was conducted in four meetings.25 a. the researcher prepared the material. students‟ worksheet that consisted of some tasks and also teaching equipments that are related to the action. the researcher conducted a post-test. a. First meeting 1) Opening A pre test was conducted on April. and closing. The test started at 2010 to know the 10. After implementing the action. This test was conducted in the beginning to know the students‟ ability about the material that would be given. The bell rang. The pre test was conducted on April. Research Implementation The action plan was implemented by the researcher with the help from the teacher as the observer.51 the pronunciation of the words that they have learned. Each meeting was divided into three terms. Besides preparing the pre-test. Post-test was conducted after the last action on the last meeting of the cycle. the researcher conducted a pre-test on the first meeting. 2. 2010.

the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. the researcher gave the information that the students would get the materials in the next meeting and closed the meeting on that day . The students were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. This test was aimed to know students‟ ability about the new materials that would be given. After greeting the students. The test was a pre-test. The test was about understanding the meaning of words. Then. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the test that would be done on that day. she passed the worksheet test to the students. the use of words in context and spelling. in this case was short stories. the students did the test individually. Then. Next. After that. the researcher asked the students to collect the test worksheet on the desk. the researcher asked about the students‟ feeling. 3) Closing After the bell rang. . the researcher checked the test worksheet whether they were complete or not.52 and greeted the students. pronunciation of words. After that. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. 2) Main activity After getting test worksheet.

2010. Second meeting 1) Opening The second meeting was conducted on April. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. After greeting the students. this means that they understood what learning source that would be used. Mam”. the researcher asked the students to mention some short texts that they ever read or heard. After introducing the materials that would be used. Some of them mentioned some titles of short stories.53 b.25 am and then greeted the students. Then. the researcher began the lesson of the day by asking the students to find the meaning of some words. 2) Main Activity To open the lesson. They tried to answer the task by looking for the answer on the dictionary. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance. No one was absent that day. Then. . The students answered “yes. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the second meeting. she asked the students whether they ever read or heard short stories or not.

the researcher gave a chance to the students to read the story on their own worksheet. the researcher asked three of the students to mention the main idea of the story. The researcher also asked them to find out the idea of the story using words that they ever had before. The researcher advised them that it was only a practice. the researcher asked the students to write down some words and find the meaning of each word. Next. Next. After the students finished reading the short story.54 Next. The title was “The Flowers from the Moon”. They were afraid if they made a mistake. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the words together. to know the students‟ understanding. to check the students understanding about new vocabulary. After the students finished doing the task. Some students were shy and afraid to speak loudly. Next. it could be seen that the students still made some mistakes in getting the main point of the story. the researcher asked the students to do the next task that is to fill in the blanks in some . They obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. the researcher drilled the students‟ pronunciation with the guiding words on the worksheet. All students obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. The researcher pronounced every word once and the students pronounced every word three times. From the students‟ answer.

Some students were very enthusiastic to answer the question of the task. the researcher reviewed the material. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words. then. If they made a mistake. Most students made a mistake in pronouncing the words. the researcher gave the students choice to choose the correct answer. The story‟s title was “Royal Spaghetti”. “very-very interesting”. Third meeting 1) Opening The third meeting was conducted on April. 2010. c. Next.55 sentences with the words that were mentioned on the worksheet and answered the questions about the story. The researcher asked “how about your feeling today?” The students answered. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. the researcher and the students discussed the answers of the task together. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 08. The researcher showed all the words to the students. In the . Then.05 am. 3) Closing After finishing the task. After finishing the task. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment.

Then. After five minutes. After that. the researcher asked some of students to read the story. . 2) Main Activity In the beginning of the lesson. all students focused on the lesson. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. There were some pronunciation mistakes done by the students. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. To prepare the class. The students felt easily to grasp the main idea of the text because they have translated some difficult words before. The researcher used this chance to begin the main activity. Then. the students started the main activity by finding the correct words and their meaning. the researcher checked the answered with the students together.56 second meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. In this main activity. The researcher passed a new worksheet for each student and asked the students to do the exercises. the students and the researcher discussed the story to get the main idea. In this meeting. the learning source used in teaching learning process was the same as before. The title was ”Rainbow”. No one was absent. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that had been given in the second meeting. The researcher checked the students‟ pronunciation.

Then. Next. The researcher used the synonym to introduce the words. The researcher and the students checked the answers together. . the researcher asked the students to arrange the letters into a good word. it could be seen that students still made mistakes in arranging the words. The students who had finished discussing the correct arrangement. and then asked them to get the meaning of them. the researcher asked the students to pay attention to some words. In the middle of the activity. After five minutes. After checking the answer. the researcher changed the technique in introducing the new words to the students. They were very busy to discuss the correct arrangement of the letters with their friends.57 Next. Then. then they wrote their answer in the whiteboard. From the students‟ answer. they were also asked to find the meaning of the words. After that. The title was “The Caliph and the Clown”. the students and the researcher checked the answers together. the researcher and the students discussed the answer together. The students tried to find the synonymy of the words by using their dictionary. the researcher asked some students to answer the questions and wrote the answers on the whiteboard. The students looked very interested in the new task. the researcher asked the students to fill in the blanks in some sentences with the words that were mentioned on the students‟ worksheet.

The researcher also asked the other students to pay attention to the text. the students tried to grasp the main point of the story with the researcher. They were very busy to prepare the answer. The students pronounced every word three to four times. Next. Then. On the last task of the third meeting. 3) Closing In the end section. The students were enthusiastic in answering the question from the researcher.58 After checking the answers. Students who had finished discussing the answers. Some of them were very busy to remember some of the new words that they heard before and the other discussed with their friends to find the main idea of the story. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of phrases from the story before. The reseacher asked “bagaimana pendapat kalian tentang pelajaran pada hari ini?” The students answered. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. The researcher mentioned some difficult words and the students tried to guess the right pronunciation and the right meaning. and then they wrote their answer on the whiteboard and then checked the answer with the researcher. . the researcher reviewed the material from the beginning. the researcher asked some students to read the story loudly.

59 “menyenangkan bu. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. 2) Main activity Then. Fourth meeting 1) Opening The fourth meeting was conducted on April. Then. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the fourth meeting. Banyak kosa kata baru dan gampang ingetnya”. The students listened curiously to the researcher‟s story. Then.25 am. Then. 2010. In the fourth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. The title was “The Magic Seeds”. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. the researcher began the lesson by reading a story. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. The researcher asked the students to discuss the story . Sometimes they made an underline for some difficult words. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the first and second meeting. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. To prepare the class. d. the researcher asked the students to make a pair of discussion. No one was absent.

The students had to write some words they heard. the researcher addressed some of the . The next task. The researcher also asked the students to find some difficult words on the story. the researcher asked the students to match the words with their antonyms. The students pronounced the words three or four times. Some of them were busy to remember the story and the other tried to grasp and write the meaning of some words. Next. The students worked in pairs. The researcher checked the answers.60 that they heard. After that. the researcher asked some of the students to read the story. The story‟s title was “The Owl and the Nightingale”. After five minutes. After that. Then. The researcher and the students discussed the answers together. The researcher continued the lesson by drilling the students‟ pronunciations. The students wrote the answers on their worksheet. Then. Then. the researcher asked the students‟ ability in writing words. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. the researcher also asked the students to find the meaning of the words. they had to find the meaning of the words. Next. the researcher asked the students to write some words that they found in the story before. Then. some of students wrote their difficult words on the whiteboard. the students wrote the answers in the whiteboard.

Bu”. the researcher asked the students to answer some questions about the story. bu. The researcher showed all the words to the students. Then. the students had to find the hyponymy of some words based on the text that they ever read before. The students already knew some words so it made the students easy to retell the story. the researcher asked some students to write the students‟ answers and then checked the answers. “lumayan. After 5 minutes. For the last task.61 students to retell the story by their own words. Then. the researcher reviewed the material. . The other students added “senang. 3) Closing After finishing the task. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. There are some students discussed the answers with their friends. Tau arti katanya. The students discussed with their friends. The students were very busy to find the answers. Next. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. The next task. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”.

Then. They could find the meaning in the dictionary. the researcher asked the students to write the answers on the white board and discuss the answers together.25 am. 2) Main activity For the first activity. the researcher passed the student‟s worksheet for the fifth meeting to the students. Then. In the fifth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. 2010. the researcher asked the student‟s to find the meaning of some words. the researcher checked the students‟ answer. Then. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. . No one was absent.62 e. the researcher asked the students to listen what the researcher pronounced and then write the answer on the students‟ worksheet. After five minutes. To prepare the class. Fifth meeting 1) Opening The fifth meeting was conducted on April. the researcher began to teach the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the third meeting. After that. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10.

They enjoyed this material. Some of the students tried to get the answer from the dictionary and the others were discussed. After 10 minutes. the researcher asked some students to read the story and the other paid attention to their friends. . The title of the story was “Why Bears Hibernate in the Winter”. Next. After that. The students pronounced the words three or four times. Then.63 Next. the researcher asked the students to arrange the jumble words into a good arrangement. The students worked in pairs. Some of the students worked with their dictionary and the other tried to get the answer from the short story that they read before. After the students read the story. the researcher asked the students to write the answer in the whiteboard. Then. After 5 minutes. The researcher also asked the students to write the difficult words that they found. The students felt happy because the story was very funny. Many students raised their hand to write their answer in the whiteboard. the students had to find the synonym of some words by matching the words in the column A to the column B. the students tried to grasp the main idea of the story. the researcher addressed some students to pronounce some words that were mentioned by the researcher. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. the researcher guided the students to find the meaning form the difficult words that they found.

“menyenangkan. They felt happy with this teaching way. Next. Tau arti katanya. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. 3) Closing After finishing the task. Then. the researcher asked three of the students to retell the story. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. the researcher reviewed the material. They worked in groups. the students were asked to read the story. The other students paid attention to their friend who retold the story.64 For next material. All of the students were silent and did the instruction well. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of the phrases from the text. After 10 minutes. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. bu. They had to grasp the main idea of the story individually then retold the story in their own words. the students wrote the answer on the whiteboard. The last task. The researcher repeated some difficult words to the students. Then. After 5 minutes. The other students added “senang. Bu”. The researcher did not forget to . the researcher discussed with the students about the story that they heard. The title was “The Necklace”.

After that. Then. The test was the same with the pre test that was done before. They were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. After greeting the students. The researcher came to the class on time and greeted the students. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the post-test that would be done on that day. 2) Main Activity The students did the test individually. 3) Closing After the test finished. Sixth meeting 1) Opening A post-test was conducted on April. the researcher explained about the rules of the test.m. she passed the test worksheets to the students. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. 2010. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. f.65 inform the students that in the next meeting the test would be done. pronunciation of words. the use of words in context and spelling. The bell rang at 08.05 a. All students were very active in discussing the . the researcher discussed the answers of test with the students. Then. This post-test was aimed to know the students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. The materials were such as understanding meaning of words.

pronunciation of words. the researcher asked the students‟ feeling and comment during teaching learning process with the researcher. the researcher closed the discussion because the bell rang. No student was busy with his own business. Besides the explanation of implementing the actions above. All students paid attention with the discussion. Observing and Monitoring the Action In monitoring the implementation of this cycle. 3. The researcher said thank you to the students for everything during the research. the results of the observation of the teaching and learning process were also supported by the interviews with the students about the use of short texts in teaching vocabulary. the use of words in context. They were the mastery of . it was known that there were some improvements on students‟ vocabulary. Then. In the teaching and learning process. The observation was conducted simultaneously when teaching learning process took place. there were six meetings. Then the second to fifth meeting was focused on improving vocabulary aspects and students‟ motivation in teaching learning process.66 answers with the researcher. and spelling. From the observation results. The aspects that should be improved were meaning of words. the researcher used observation to see the effects of conducting the cycle. The first and the sixth meeting of the cycle were used for testing. Then. short texts were used to make the way of grasping the meaning easier. In this cycle.

No students were busy with their own business in the class. All students did the task quite well. spelling. Some students were active to answer the questions from the researcher when the researcher gave them some question or asked them to do the exercises. the others were quiet. In the third meeting. pronunciation. They were afraid if their answers were wrong. Their responses were good. the researcher gave advice to the students that it was only a practice. All of them were seriously listened to the stories. the students looked happy and enthusiastic to attend the class. and using words in context. Beside the students‟ improvements on vocabulary. most students were shy to speak loudly. They paid attention to the lesson. They paid attention to the lesson. Although the students‟ motivation increased. They also did the task on their worksheet well. some students were still passive. Beside passive. the students‟ motivation was good. The students also obeyed the researcher instruction. Some students were silent when the researcher asked the question to the students. . To solve this problem.67 meaning. The situation was conducive because there was no noisy outside the class. the observation results explained the students‟ motivation and activities in teaching-learning process and student‟s motivation from the second to the fifth meeting. Some students tried to answer the questions of the task. In the second meeting. No one was busy with their own business.

the researcher went around the class to monitor and guide them whether they were active to discuss with their friends or not. When the researcher asked the students to read the story and do the task. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the word three or four times. Sometimes they told each other about something else. To solve this problem. So. In the fourth meeting. the researcher still used short stories for teaching learning process. . In the third meeting. They were also enthusiastic when discussing with their friends. It can be seen when the researcher asked the students one by one to check the students‟ understanding. The students were happy and enthusiastic when the researcher changed the activity in introducing the new words. In middle of the fourth meeting. many students raised their hand. Before starting the lesson. the students were asked to fill in the blank sentences with the correct words. the students‟ motivation increased. They still made mistake to pronounce the right pronunciation. the researcher just reviewed all materials from the third meeting.68 In the middle of the third meeting. Good atmosphere was created in the class. the students asked to write some words on their worksheet. They could do the exercises well because there were some phonetic symbols that helped them to do the exercises. the students still had problem in pronouncing the word. It seemed that they had already understood about the term. After that. The researcher used synonymy technique in introducing the new words.

It could be seen during the teaching-learning process. Reflecting the Result of the Observation Based on the observation results which were gathered in field notes. In reviewing the materials. Most students were active and all students got attention to the lesson. d) the students were also able to pronounce the words correctly. They listened what the researcher pronounced. the test score in the first and sixth meeting showed the improvement result. In the fifth meeting. . Moreover. 4. the researcher reflected the results of the action as follows: a) the students who were still passive were getting more active and interested when they were reading and understanding the story. the students were very active.36. The mean of the pre-test was 4. c) the students were able to write the words correctly and could use the words in context. They also could write the correct words that they heard. b) the students were able to grasp the meaning of words when the researcher gave them some new vocabularies.07. all students were active to grasp the meaning of every word. while the mean score of the post-test was 7.69 The students felt happy and enthusiastic doing this task because they knew all of the meaning of the difficult words by discussing with their friends and also looking for the dictionary.

They also got difficulties They translated words from when they had to translate Indonesian into English or the words from Indonesian vice versa easily. it could be seen that there were increasing students‟ motivation and also the aspects of vocabulary. They forgot words remembered the words and their meanings easily. The researcher concluded that teaching vocabulary using short texts attracted students‟ curiosity in knowing new words. Table 2. They also words. The students got 1. The improvement of students‟ achievements in teaching learning process using short stories can be seen in the table 2. Short texts also encouraged the students to be more active during teaching learning process. All of the aspects were completed. They became more motivated and enthusiastic in learning English which they did not tend to do something useless and got bored in the middle of teaching learning process. Improvement of the Students‟ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts Source of the data before implementing the action Vocabulary mastery after implementing the action Vocabulary mastery Observation and Interview 1. . easily.70 Based on the result of the observing and the test above. The students understood difficulties to understand and grasped the meaning of and grasp the meaning of words easily. into English or vice versa. students were encouraged to practice their ability in pronouncing and writing words correctly. Through short texts.

The students did not have 2. The students could write mistakes when they wrote the words correctly. They did not do something something useless during useless during teaching teaching learning process learning process. The students could pronounce. pronounce. The students could not 2. They words. The students had more full concentration during concentration to do the teaching learning process. . grasp and use remember. Students‟ motivation Students‟ motivation 1. They still made words correctly. 3. The students were more interested during teaching active and enthusiastic learning process during teaching learning process. which has double letters. There were no mistakes in Most of the students forgot writing the words to write the second letter. The students still made 3. Most of the students also made mistakes when they did the exercises in arranging some letters into a correct word.71 2. understand remember. understand. could of the 3. They started to ask and answer the questions. 4. 2. The students were less 1. 80 % of them. For example when also could arrange the the students found a word letters into a correct word. The students liked doing 3. grasp and use words in context about 25 words in context about 75% of them. exercises. The students pronounce the words pronounce most correctly. mistakes to pronounce the words. The students could only 4.

there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. discussion with their friends.36. There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. daughter. purple. Test The mean score of pre-test : The mean score of post-test : 4. dream. The students liked having exercises individually. from 4. Then. from 2. the students understood and grasped the meaning of words easily. in this case 60. The examples were prince.3 % of students. they could pronounce and write the words correctly.07 to 7. The students did the 4. captured. Beside that. etc. Then the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was . chuckled. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there was an improvement of students who achieved the minimum standard score. reason.8 % of students became 94. sea. understand.07 7. They could pronounce. the students‟ improvement could be seen. different. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. Research Findings From the table above. sky.36 5. From the vocabulary aspects.72 4. quarrel. freedom. grasp and use the words in context about 75 until 80 % of them. The improvements were students‟ vocabulary mastery and also students‟ motivation. the improvement also could be seen on the students‟ scores of test. remember.

29. They also raised their hands to answer the questions.04. the researcher decided to stop the cycle. The indicators showed that they were more active and enthusiastic during the teaching learning process. Next. They were more active and attractive during teaching learning process. they had more concentration to do the exercises. they could pronounce the words correctly. They also had more concentration to the lesson. they could write the words correctly. the students‟ motivation also increased.73 3. The students understood and grasped the meaning of the words easily. Next. Meanwhile. Beside the vocabulary mastery. They asked more questions than before. finally. they did not do something useless .30. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process and like having discussion with their friends. and they also could use the words in context appropriately. Since is . Considering the facts of some improvements dealing with teaching vocabulary by using short texts above. They were as follows: a) The aspects of vocabulary mastery were completed. the t-table higher than for 35 students is 2. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. it means that there is a significant difference between pre- test and post-test score. There were some reasons for stopping this research only in one cycle. the students‟ motivation increased when the short text were used.

and using the words.07 to 7. They also could use and write the words correctly. pronouncing.8 % became 94. spelling.3 %. The students also could pronounce the words correctly. the students did more practices and steps by steps in understanding. It could be understood since human brain has limit . From the pre-test and post-test score. in this case 60. and remember the meaning easily. It was because the school would hold a mid term test for all the students.36. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. They have their own worksheet that was completed with some short texts. c) The researcher only had limited time to conduct the research. the students could understand. from 2. so they could have more practices for enriching vocabulary mastery using short stories. grasp.74 during teaching learning process. The observation that was done showed that there were some improvements in students‟ vocabulary mastery aspects and students‟ motivation. grasping. The school gave two weeks to finish the implementation of the research. They liked having discussion with their friends. Here. from 4. b) There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. C. At first from the students‟ vocabulary mastery. The discussion helped them to understand the lesson and do the tasks well. Discussion The research findings came from the observation and the test scores.

the students. Ur (1998) explains that there are three sources of young learners‟ attention in class. Next. “listen. the class situation became more active and enthusiastic. the situation in the class before implementing the action was described as some students were busy with themselves. and game. especially the students at the back. more active and enthusiastic to follow the teaching learning process.75 capacity to absorb new things from surrounding. They focused on the materials which were used . Second from the students‟ motivation. Human also has limit memory to remember all at once (www. read and write”. should know the techniques of teaching practically for example “listen and repeat”. the students had more concentration during teaching learning process. were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. story. Beside the new materials. It made the students enjoy. there were also many kinds of interesting techniques used to teach short texts. and write”. as the young learners. namely pictures. Petty. Young learners like to read and listen interesting stories. and Jensen (1980: 285) also states that teaching English to children needs special techniques. The best way to add breadth and depth to child‟s vocabulary is by providing a variety of opportunities for new and interesting experience. After implementing the action. According to Linse (2005). question and answer”. such as talking with other students or disturbing their friends. edu). teachers of English to young learners. say. Then. They did some useless activities. The students were more active and enthusiastic because the materials used were new materials.ksmumail/human_brain.

It matches with Elli‟s theory.htm). David also states that one indicator which makes teaching learning process succeed is the active students during teaching learning process. Maya K.76 through short texts. . vocabulary in story is presented in clear context and the amusing situation. They are active if they are suitable with the teacher‟s technique and they are far from teacher pressure (www. According to Elli (1991:31).david399. The amusing situation could make students become more enthusiastic.

It could be seen from the aspects of vocabulary which are completed. the students could understand and grasp the meaning easily. AND SUGGESTION A. the students could pronounce. the researcher comes to a conclusion that teaching vocabulary by using short texts can improve the students‟ vocabulary. The more detailed results of the action implemented in this research were as follows. First. Conclusion Having conducted the research of teaching vocabulary by using short texts in Junior High School. For example. Based on the analysis of the result of the implementation of the actions which had been conducted to improve the students‟ vocabulary. They also could remember the meaning of the words easily. the students also could write the words correctly. it can be seen that the implementation of teaching vocabulary by using short texts can effectively improve students‟ vocabulary. Fourth. This is based on the facts found in accordance with the result of the action implemented to find answers to the problem statements. the students could pronounce the words correctly. Third. in arranging the jumble letters. . IMPLICATION. The first is about the enrichment of the students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Second.77 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION. they could rearrange the letters into a correct word.

Next.78 understand. they had more concentration to do the exercises. the t-table than for 35 students is 2. They also liked having discussion with their friends. grasp and use the words in context about 75-80 % of them correctly. The difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was 3. Beside that.3 % of students. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. remember. The second is about the students‟ motivation.30.29. The researcher found a good atmosphere in the class. it means that there is a significant difference between pre-test and post- test score. Meanwhile. from 4. Next. There were so many students who raised their hands to answer the question on the whiteboard or oral answer. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there were more students who achieved the minimum standard score. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process. from 2. Most of the students gave more attention than before. Since is higher . in this case 60. there was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. The students were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. there was an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score.36. .8 % became 94.07 to 7. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores.04.

Then. the teacher should choose appropriate techniques. and media. The teacher could use “listen and repeat”. The students suggest using dictionary in translating the words.79 B. read and write”. the teacher should have to choose the appropriate materials and media to teach vocabulary. “listen. say. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. In teaching English using short texts. It is conducted by English teacher to make the students‟ more interested and more active in teaching-learning process and to avoid the boredom. Beside the appropriate techniques. Implication Based on the conclusion of the study. Through short texts. It implies that using short texts are good material to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery and also improve students‟ learning activity during teaching learning process. synonyms and definition. The material in this case is . question and answer”. students were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading. and write”. writing and pronouncing correctly. the teacher also can use the visual techniques such as mime and gesture and verbal techniques such as verbal explanation. antonyms in teaching vocabulary to the students. there is a significant improvement of students‟ vocabulary and improvement of students‟ learning activity after teaching used short texts to teach new vocabulary and to train the students in order to write and pronounce correctly. materials. The teacher can also conduct an oral test to make the students more motivated and attracted in teaching-learning process.

It makes the students understand the stories well. Students will be easy in . The materials have to appropriate with the syllabus that used in that school. It is suitable with the material that used in the second year of junior high school. other researcher. English teacher The English teachers should learn the characteristics of the students in order to know exactly what they need and what problems they faced on their development. C. and for school. the teacher could choose the most suitable method. the English teachers should create an interesting and enjoyable situation of teaching learning process. Suggestion After carrying out the researcher and obtaining the conclusion. techniques. 1. The students can find the difficult words and their meaning. and then make analyses of the stories by their own words. there is an improvement of students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. students. The genre that is used is narrative. The short texts have to contain new and old information to the students. By understanding those points. By implementing short texts using appropriate techniques and materials. and materials in improving the students‟ motivation in learning English based on certain condition. Besides. the researcher would like to propose some suggestion directed to the English teacher.80 short texts.

techniques. They can practice English in their daily life. There are many other method. 2. . Students An instructional process will not be successful if students are not maximally involved in it. 3. and materials of teaching English of Junior High School students that can be taken as objects of research to find out the effectiveness of teaching. It should also be facilitated with various media supporting the teaching activity. The students have to be more active and motivated to learn English. It should encourage the English teacher to be creative to use various method.81 learning when the situation is interesting for them and the students will more enthusiastic. 4. techniques or materials. Other researcher This study is just one of efforts in improving students‟ vocabulary. It also would avoid the boredom. The students not only can study English in the class but also can study everywhere and every time. School The institution should state a policy in improving the quality of the teaching English for children. It is expected that the finding of this study will be used as a starting point of the future research on similar problems.

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