ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS

A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010

Written by: Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi K2206029

Submitted to Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Undergraduate Degree of Education

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2010 i

APPROVAL

This thesis is approved by the consultants to be examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University.

Approved by

Consultant 1

Consultant 2

Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005

Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP. 19730205 200604 1 001

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This thesis is examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University and accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for achieving the Undergraduate Degree of Education in English. Place of the test Date of the test : :

The Board of Examiners 1. Chairman Drs. Suparno, M. Pd NIP. 19511127 198601 1 001 2. Secretary Dewi Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd. NIP. 19780818 200312 2 002 3. Consultant 1 Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005 4. Consultant 2 Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP 19730205 200604 1 001 (………………………) (……………………....) (………………………) (………………………)

Legalized by, Teacher Training and Education Faculty Sebelas Maret University The Dean

Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd NIP. 19600727 198702 1 001

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and document analysis. students iv . they also like having discussion with their friends. This study is based on the problem of the low vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Sebelas Maret University. the students are more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. the scores of the pre-test and post-test show that there is also an improvement of students who achieve the minimum standard score. grasp. observing or monitoring the action. the improvement of students’ score can be seen from the differences between the pre-test and post-test.3% of students. The cycle consisted of four meetings. They are from 2. implementing the action. they do not do something useless during teaching learning process. The results of this research show that short texts can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. and research findings. they have more concentration to do the exercises.07 to 7. Next. In the qualitative method. In the quantitative method. First. planning the action.” Teacher Training and Education Faculty. photographs. Then. Surakarta 2010. write about 75 until 80 % of the words correctly and also use the words in context appropriately. pronounce. Then. It is also aimed at the improvement of the students’ achievement in teaching learning process using short stories. The results of this research imply that using short texts are good material to improve students’ vocabulary mastery and also improve students’ learning activity during teaching learning process. The procedure of the research consisted of identifying the problems. from the students’ motivation. It is aimed at knowing whether using short texts can enrich the students’ vocabulary. Then. Besides that. K2206029: “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010).ABSTRACT Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi. The materials used in this research were short text.8% to 94. The results of the observation were in the form of field notes and photographs. remember. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. field notes. The test consisted of the pre-test and post-test. that is 60. this research also used descriptive statistics and the t-test of non-independent. Through short texts. The techniques in collecting the data were qualitative and quantitative method. the researcher used tests. from the aspect of the vocabulary mastery. The mean score of the pre-test improves from 4. the students could understand. reflecting the result of the observation. They can be seen from the aspects of vocabulary mastery and the students’ motivation. The improvement can be seen in the form of students’ achievements.36 in post-test. the researcher used observations. The research was conducted in one cycle. The technique to analyze the test result was by comparing the mean score of pre-test and post-test. Second. At last.

were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading, writing and pronouncing correctly.

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MOTTO
“Mantapkan hati dan niat seraya berucap Bismillahirrahmanirrahim”

"No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross, no crown." (William Penn)

"Criticism should not be querulous and wasting, all knife and rootpuller, but guiding, instructive, inspiring." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

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DEDICATION

With deep profound love, this research is devoted to: 1. Her beloved father and mother, thank you. Nothing compares to what they have done for her. 2. Her beloved “eyang uti” and sisters “dek sha”, who always pray and encourage her. 3. Her best friends “pam, sopal, dee, lucy, jhono, anggit, riph, tika” who give her unbroken support, prayer, and cares. 4. Her all friends, who always support her. 5. Herself and her beautiful future.

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6. Hum. for all his valuable guidance. Abdul Asib.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillahirabbil’alamin. in this occasion she would like to express her deepest gratitude and appreciation to the following: 1. the second consultant and academic consultant. advice. the English teacher of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. M. advice.S. encouragement. who helped and given her a chance to do the research. for all his valuable guidance. The Headmaster of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo for the permission and advices for doing the research in SMP N 5 Sukoharjo.. S. 3. The writer is also fully aware that her thesis can never be finished without the help of others during the process of writing. 5.. M. 4.. Teguh Sarosa. the first consultant. The Head of the English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty for his advice. Sugiyati. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. Praise be to ALLAH SWT who has given His blessing to the writer so that she can complete the writing of this thesis as a partial requirement for achieving the undergraduate degree of education in English Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University. viii . Dr.Pd. 2. The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University who had given his permission to write this thesis. Mrs. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. Therefore. encouragement.

Her incredible support. Everyone who helped the writer to conduct the research for his or her participation in writing this thesis. 10. caring. Yoyok Sandi Wibowo. for his motivation to make the writer keep move on. her sister. 8. her mother. her grandmother. Surakarta. and prayer. Ariph and Atika for their supports and suggestions.7. her father. The second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo who participated well in the research. Hopefully. The researcher realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect. and Aji. Her beloved family. Muthya. 9. Anggi. June. Her friends in the English Department of the year 2006 for their everlasting friendship. Lucy. Didit Hermawan. for their supports. 2010  Rea  ix . Dewi. this thesis will be useful for the readers. 12. Her “best friends”. She hopes and accepts gratefully every comment and suggestion. 11. Pamrih. Riana.

.................................................. 7 E.... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................ ix LIST OF APPENDIXES ................ TABLE OF CONTENT TITLE PAGE ....................... 11 d........................................................................... vii TABLE OF CONTENT ......................................................................................................................................... ii ABSTRACT ........ 9 b................. 6 C................... The Importance of Vocabulary ................ v DEDICATION ................................................................ 1 A............................................................................................. 13 e.... The Problems Statement ........ xiv LIST OF FIGURE ..... xiii LIST OF TABLE ..................... RATIONALE AND HYPHOTHESIS ................................ iv MOTTO.................................................................................................................... 6 D....................... xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ....................................... The Objectives of the Research ................................................................................................................... The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery .................................................................................. 10 c........................................................................................................................................ Notion of Vocabulary ........................................................................... The Benefits of the Study ...................................................................................................... i APPROVAL.............................. The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery ................2005-2008 For Evaluation Only.................................. General Concept of Vocabulary .......................................................................................... 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE. The Limitation of the Problem ........................................................ Review on Related Literature ........................................ Background of the Study ............................... Vocabulary Mastery ........................................ 9 a................................... 1 B.............................................. 19 x ......................................................................... 9 A............................... 9 1............................................................................Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company..............................................................

................................................. Research Implementation ..... Technique of Data Analysis .................................................. 23 b.................2....... Planning the Action . 30 a.................................... The Model of Action Research ......... Validity of the Instrument.............................. The Concept of Text ................................................................................ The Concept of Story ..................................... 47 A........................ 49 1................................ Essences of Short Text ...................... The Definition of Motivation ......................................................................................................................... 45 H... 45 I............... 30 b................................. The General Concept of Young Learners .................................................................................... Introduction ....................................................... The Procedures of Action research............................................... 50 2.......... 32 B. 31 c................. 35 B........................................ Reliability of the Instrument ...... 25 3..................................... 39 E............. Method of the Research ...... 28 b........... The Description of the Research ......................................................................................................................... Hypothesis ......................................................................................... The Characteristic of Children ......................... 44 G............. The Types of Motivation ........ 41 F........... 28 a................... The Notion of Young Learners ..... 66 xi ................. 33 C................................................................................................ The Notion of Folktales .. 51 3........ 35 A........ Observing and Monitoring the Action .......................................... The Notion of Motivation ......................................... 28 4................................... Rationale ......................... 37 D........................... 34 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ....................................................... 23 a.............................................. 46 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION .................................................... Setting and Subject of the Research .................................... 36 C.... Technique of Collecting Data .......................................... 24 c.. 47 B.................. The Characteristic of Motivated Students ................................. The Criteria of Successful Action .......

........................................................................... 77 B.............................................4........................................................................................ 80 2... 69 5. 81 3...... 81 4....................................... Research Finding..................................................... 80 1................................................. 74 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION...................................... English Teacher......................................................................................................................................................................... IMPLICATION.... Discussion ........................... 72 C............................................................ 79 C... 77 A.................................................. Reflecting the Result of the Observation .................. 81 BYBLIOGRAPHY xii ...... Conclusion ....... School....................... Suggestion ... SUGGESTION ..................................... Implication ................................... Students .... Other Researcher ...........................

........ 236 Appendix 17 : Letters of Permission ............................................................................................................................................. 153 Appendix 12 : The Students’ Pre-test and Post Test Score ........................................................................................................................ 160 Appendix 16 : Key Answer of Worksheet .............................. 155 Appendix 13 : The Computation of Validity and Reliability ........................................ 157 Appendix 14 : The Computation of T-Test ............. 118 Appendix 6 : Blue Print of Vocabulary Test ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 150 Appendix 11 : Students Score before the Action ........................... 148 Appendix 9 : The Research Schedule ........................... 145 Appendix 8 : Key Answer of the Test ..................................... 149 Appendix 10 : Syllabus of KTSP ..................... 82 Appendix 2 : The Photographs ................. 144 Appendix 7 : Pre and Post Test Items ........................ 102 Appendix 5 : Field Notes .................................................LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix 1 : Description of location SMP N 5 Sukoharjo .......................................................... 85 Appendix 3 : Lesson Plans .................................................................................................................... 244 xiii ....... 159 Appendix 15 : The Students’ Test and Worksheet done by the Students ..................... 90 Appendix 4 : Students’ Worksheet ...

.................................................LIST OF TABLE Table 1 Table 2 : The Steps in Action Research...................... 70 xiv ......................... 43 : Improvement of the Students’ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts .............................................

...........LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1......... An Illustration of Action Research Spiral .................. 38 xv .............

education. there are so many kinds of foreign language. such as trade. It has a function as a bridge for all aspects of human life. science. Background of the Study Mastering of a foreign language is one of the important things that is needed in modern society and globalization era. That is the most important reason why English is learned in school. Then.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. English is one of the important foreign languages. communication. one of the requirements is language competence. In education. . technology. so does English. there are many education books that are written in foreign languages. and culture. As quoted in Undang-Undang Sisdiknas (2003: 15) “bahasa asing dapat digunakan sebagai bahasa pengantar pada satuan pendidikan tertentu untuk mendukung kemampuan berbahasa asing peserta didik”. both of in spoken and written form. it can be said that mastering foreign language is very important for surviving life. It has been discussed before that foreign language has many functions. So. As it is known. The importance can be seen from some sides of life. society. for example is job requirement. English is one of the native languages used to improve students‟ ability. It is because language is one of instruments which has important functions in communication.

2. The advantage of starting with early second language instruction so that later the language can be used as a medium of teaching. it prepares young learners to make a link of communication to understand concept of communication it self. Third. Singleton in Brumfit (1997: 7) also defines some reasons for teaching English at primary level. The need for maximum learning time for important languages. they are: 1. By learning foreign language earlier. Ellis.2 Actually. and culturally for language learning. it can be concluded that studying foreign language. First. Brewster. It also maximizes . the earlier you start the more time you get. psychologically. the indisputable fact those young learners have a greater facility for understanding and imitating what they hear than adult. 4. From some statements above. especially English language. The need to expose children from an early age to understanding of foreign cultures so that they grow up tolerant and sympathetic to others. at junior high school is very important. The need to link communication to understanding of view concepts. 3. the aim of early foreign language learning is to prepare young learner linguistically. and Girard (1992: 23-24) define some reasons for starting to learn a foreign language earlier. teaching English to young learner is aimed to increase the total number of years spent learning language. Second. teaching English at junior high school is extremely important because it is still the basis for the higher level.

speaking. They will more understand what they have learned. There are many kinds of students‟ characteristic. a teacher has many problems to develop the students‟ vocabulary mastery. Then. First. here are the junior high students. Sometimes.3 learning time for learning foreign language. Firstly. One of the problems that are faced is the characteristics of the students as young learners. Therefore. it is not easy to teach English for the young learners. Considering the importance of vocabulary competence. young learners forget something quickly. vocabulary mastery is the basic knowledge in learning English. it is better to introduce new vocabulary earlier to the students. It makes them know and understand a lot of vocabularies. It should not be neglected by anyone who learns a language. For enhancing all aspects in foreign language. especially English skills (listening. and reading). knowing words is the key for understanding and being understood. Knowing more words in English language. writing. the students need to understand the meaning of words. For beginners. The words here means as vocabulary. So it can be concluded that vocabulary takes the important aspect to master English well as a foreign language. Vocabulary supports all of the English skills. the earlier they start the more time they get. Coady and Huckin (1998: 5) say that vocabulary is the central to language and of critical importance to language learning for the young learners. They will forget some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat . the students need something to do. it will make other person understand or make ourselves understood easily.

technique. The teaching learning process uses teacher centre in delivering the lessons. In teaching learning process. After having pre research by interviewing the teacher and observing teaching learning process of mastering vocabulary at the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. So. The materials used in teaching learning process only from books and students worksheet. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. Most of materials come from the teachers. the researcher finds out that the students‟ vocabulary mastery is still low. so the . young learners get bored easily. Second. magazine. there are no interesting technique that used by the teacher. They always discuss about something in their around while playing. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students‟ acts as follows: firstly. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. Here. There are no materials from other sources like internet. it makes the students less interested and do not be active in teaching learning process. The method. Third. By using the appropriate method. It may be caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate and attractive. especially in vocabulary mastery. it is important to find out the appropriate. etc. It is clear that repetition is needed.4 the words many times. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. So. technique or and material. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. technique. young learners still like playing. They prefer playing than studying. the teachers have to find out the appropriate. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery.

Most of the students forget to write down the second letter. . The students also get difficulties when they have to translate the words. It is because there are no appropriate learning sources that used to help the students for remembering the materials that are given. Due to the facts above. Thirdly. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. the researcher tries to enrich vocabulary mastery of the students using short texts. It is because all words or group word are inside of the short texts. Secondly. The students usually get mistake to rearrange into the correct word. Short text is one of an interesting material that helps the students to find out the keys to remember and grasp many new vocabularies. It can be seen when they find some words that have double letters. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words. She wants to make the students interested by using the teaching material of short texts.5 students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. The correct arrangement is “winter” but students rearrange them become “writen”. For example the word “suddenly”. Beside that the students will be easy to write down the correct words or group words. The other difficulties that the students faced when they do an exercise on jumble word. Example is the word “n-t-w-i-r-e”. She uses short texts because short texts will help to solve the problems that are faced by the students. From the indicators that are mentioned above. the students write the word only “sudenly”. students‟ marks are still lower than the passing grade.

the researcher wants to prove whether or not the short texts can improve students‟ vocabulary mastery in learning English at the junior high school. The Limitation of the Problem The research has a broad scope and it is impossible for the researcher to handle the study consisting of so many complicated problems. B. How is the students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? . C. The Problems Statement Based on the background of study.6 Based on the description above. The problems of the study can be formulated as follows: 1. the researcher limits the problem on how to enrich the students‟ vocabulary mastery using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Can short texts enrich vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? 2. the researcher would like to conduct a research to solve the problem and also enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery by using short stories entitled “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS” (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). Therefore.

The Benefits of the Study It is expected that this research contributes some significant progresses in teaching vocabulary for several sides. they are: 1. the teacher can take some correct problems solving from those problems. So the teacher hoped to create an interesting teaching learning process by using this teaching material. . Then. Particularly. It will help the teacher to identify the students‟ difficulties in learning vocabulary and also find the students who need more guiding.7 D. the data of the research are also very useful for the teacher. E. Whether using short texts can enrich the students‟ vocabulary of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. 2. this research is aimed to find out: 1. the general objective of this research is to improve students‟ vocabulary by using short texts. in this case is short texts. The students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Teacher It is expected that the teacher will get more information about one of the appropriate teaching materials. The Objectives of the Research Based on the formulation of the problem. Then.

students are expected to have good enrichment in vocabulary and also the changes of behavior during teaching learning process. . The result of the research is also hoped to improve students‟ achievement in English lesson standard. Through short texts.8 2. Students It is expected that the result will give motivation to the students to be better in vocabulary mastery. so the quality of teaching learning process can be increased. 3. School It is expected that the information of the result will be very useful for getting success in teaching learning process.

2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. for example post office. the only system involved is alphabetical order in dictionaries. 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE (RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESIS) A. It means vocabulary is written or spoken unit of language as symbol of idea in foreign language for the learners. which expressing a single idea. General Concept of Vocabulary a. Here. Review On Related Literature 1. Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) state that vocabulary is a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. The items in vocabulary may be more than a single word. Since vocabulary is a list. Notion of Vocabulary There are some definitions of vocabulary proposed by linguist experts. mother-in-law. vocabulary is written in alphabetical order in dictionaries based on system or rule of foreign language. McWhorter (1989: 311) says that vocabulary means the ability to recognize individual words and to associate .Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Furthermore. Ur (1998: 60) defines that vocabulary can be mean as the words we teach in foreign language. if someone learns new words in foreign language. For example. it means that someone learns vocabulary.

Based on Hatch and Brown. It is because people need vocabulary in expressing their ideas both of in mother . The words here are the symbols in form of groups of letter represent either a physical object or an idea. Meanwhile. usually supported by four legs. an object with a flat surface. vocabulary deals with a series of words in particular language. the word chair in our minds a physical reality. For example.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. b. It can be formed from a single or more than one word.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. groups of letter that stand for. vocabulary is the competence or skill in recognizing words and its meaning. 10 meaning with the particular combination of letters that form a word. does not represent a physical object. the word love on the other hand. McWhorter states that vocabulary deals with the competence in recognizing words and its meaning. In the other word. vocabulary can be constructed as a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. and used to for sitting. Based on three definitions above. It symbolizes the feeling of one person toward another. Then. Words are symbols. The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary is an important aspect in our life. Ur adds that vocabulary deals with word taught in foreign language. Then. recognizing words means knowing its meaning or idea and how they are formed by a combination of letters. or represent. either a physical object or an idea.

Vocabulary always becomes the essential part of English as a foreign language. Without a name. and a feeling. we must name objects. According to the statement above. Tailor (1991: 1) says that in order to live in the world.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Every person who learns a language must learn the vocabulary of the language in order to make the learning process easier. Vocabulary Mastery Coulson et al (1987: 1050) define that mastery is skill. an event. In language learning. it will be difficult to accept the existence of an object. Edge (1993: 27) states that knowing a lot of words in foreign language are very important. Cross (1995: 14) states that a good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication. 11 tongue and foreign language. both in college and later in our career. A strong vocabulary can be a valuable asset.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. While Hornby (1984:523) says that mastery is the complete control or . it can be concluded that vocabulary is very important in learning language and mastering vocabulary will facilitate someone in using language in communication. It means mastery is the ability to use one of knowledge. c. use. Names are essential for the construction of reality. learning a language becomes a very hard thing to do and communication in second language cannot happen in any meaningful way. Without vocabulary mastery. or knowledge. vocabulary plays an important role.

from both of definitions above. It means mastery is the ability to combine skill and knowledge in one certain area. Here. The vocabulary mastery can not be done spontaneous but step by step. Keraf (1989: 6566) defines the step in processing vocabulary mastery. in case of the physical object or idea. this term children are able to define concept vocabulary to say their concrete idea. this term is the adolescent start to use the language and make it more extensive directly in simple communication. this term the vocabulary are used more and more intensive because they make more communication each other. So. . The process of vocabulary mastery is not simple. children period. Third. vocabulary mastery can be constructed as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. mastery is the whole power or ability to direct knowledge. It is usually arranged by a standard of curriculum and syllabus in every aspect whether the topic or the test. adolescent period. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. Second. While vocabulary is a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning in form of symbols of groups of letter. either a physical object or an idea and it also can be formed from a single or more than one word. The certain area in teaching means a lesson taught. First.12 knowledge. adult period.

and science lesson. Direct technique is usually used through the language book. d. The technique here refers to the way of teaching. social lesson. The teachers may have some techniques to teach it.13 From the definition above. There are some techniques of teaching vocabulary. poetry and games. Unplanned vocabulary teaching is . in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. The success of teaching learning process depends on not only the teachers‟ and students‟ competence but also the technique of teaching. Then vocabulary mastery define as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. Then indirect technique uses the other source of lesson like mathematic. in case of the physical object or idea. prose. The techniques are the unplanned vocabulary teaching and planned vocabulary teaching. there are so many techniques proposed by some experts. Dealing with the technique of vocabulary teaching. They are direct and indirect techniques. means a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery There are various ways to improve vocabulary mastery. There are two techniques in improving vocabulary mastery. mastery may be defined as the ability to use skill or knowledge in one subject area based on recognized standard. While vocabulary.

While Lewis and Hill (1992: 102-103) mention some ways to teach vocabulary. stagger. The planned vocabulary teaching can be described as “the vocabulary lesson” since the primary objective of the teaching activities is the presentation and practice of the lexical item themselves. the teachers present vocabulary items by bringing the real things into classroom. while planned vocabulary teaching where the teacher goes into classroom with an item or a set of vocabulary items that the teacher has decided before hand. . They are: 1) Demonstrate Demonstration is the way of teaching vocabulary by doing physical demonstration together verbal explanation. Beside that it also helps students to memorize both of visual and aural memories. chuckle. The objects of the real things can be in the class or probably through the window. For examples. Sometimes the explanation is no more complicated than pointing. The demonstration helps to make the meaning clearer and to fix the word in the students‟ minds. 2) Use the real thing In this way. etc.14 extemporaneous teaching of vocabulary items that come up without planning in course of lesson.

For example the meaning of bush was explained by two very simple sketches. It is worth that the explanations given here are not exact definitions of the word. For example: light bag >< heavy bag light word >< strong word rough area >< quite area poor >< rich dirty >< clean happy >< sad red orange yellow certainly / definitely probably / possibly . or probably may be explained by presenting them with groups of related words: Hot warm cool cold 5) Antonyms This is the way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites or antonyms of the word. like accuracy can often be counter-productive. orange (color).15 3) Draw or sketch Teachers do not need to be artists to make simple sketches which illustrate meaning. the learners have to be aware that a word may have different opposite in difficult context. Here. 4) Use the blackboard to show scales or grades Words like cool. the level of the explanation must be suitable to the students‟ level of English at the time so that dictionary.

7) The dictionary This is the way of teaching vocabulary by using dictionary to know vocabulary items. 9) Translation It is a way of teaching vocabulary by translating some words or individual words from the target language into other language. A bilingual dictionary can be used at low levels and monolingual dictionary at the high levels. their connotation meanings often differ. Though words may have similar denotation meaning. It is . using the former phrase also helps to build up in the students‟ mind ides that language consists of choice. or not. 8) Verbal explanation Verbal explanation refers to the way of teaching vocabulary by explaining the meaning of vocabulary items in students‟ own language. that words do not mean the same as each other. asking one or more students to look the word up in a dictionary.16 rough texture >< smooth texture 6) Synonyms high >< low Synonyms are the way of teaching vocabulary by giving same meaning of two or more words. One technique for explaining these which teachers too frequently overlook is asking the class whether anybody knows the word and. Beside that.

Gairns (1991: 73-75) says that there are some techniques used in presenting new vocabulary. the teacher will find difficulty to translate the word(s) into all languages. photographs. and realia (i. To ensure that students understand. In this technique. Furthermore. They are extensively used for conveying meaning and particularly useful for teaching concrete items of vocabulary such as furniture. and certain areas of vocabulary such as places. wallcharts. if the class consists of different nationalities.e. actions. b) Mime and gesture These are often used to supplement other ways of conveying meaning. descriptions of people.17 seen as boring and traditional. objects themselves). a teacher might build a situation to illustrate it. blackboard drawings. 2) Verbal Techniques a) Use illustrative situation (oral or written) This is most helpful when items become more abstract. and activities. professions. When teaching an item such as “to swerve”. making use of blackboard and gesture to reinforce the concept. They are: 1) Visual techniques a) Visual These include flashcards. teachers often make use of .

Synonymy is also the way of teaching by giving more than one meaning for a word. this can be a useful way of revising and feeding in new items. d) Scales Once students have learnt two contrasting or related gradable items. This is the example of adverbs of frequency: never hardly ever occasionally I sometimes often always go to cinema on Sundays . c) Contrast and opposites Contrast and opposites are they way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites of the words. b) Use of synonymy and definition Definition here is the way of teaching vocabulary by defining or describing objects. However.18 more than one situation or context to check that students have grasped the concept. it is vital to illustrate the contexts in which this is true.

dictionary. The example of “furniture” is “table. The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery Dealing with the vocabulary mastery. it can be defined as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that is used to express meaning. the researcher uses definition. It is because the techniques that are mentioned are usually used in school. verbal explanation and translation techniques to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery. e. In this paper. chair. mime and gesture. etc”. the students can understand and grasp the vocabulary easily. The teacher will find difficulties if the students come from different nationalities. bed. it is also hoped that by using these techniques. synonyms. Then. 3) Translation Translation can be very effective way of conveying meaning. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. sofa. antonyms. It can save valuable time in teaching process but it seen as boring and traditional. Some of these can of course also be dealt with through visual aids. in case of the physical object or idea. .19 e) Examples of type This is the way of teaching vocabulary by exemplifying things it self.

are also problematic. either of pronunciation or of spelling. 1) Pronunciation Research shows that words that are difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn.20 Thornbury (2002: 27) declares some factors why learning vocabulary is rather difficult for second language learner. someone can be said that he or she has achieved the vocabulary mastery.spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors.such as regular and lorry for Japanese speakers. Those six aspects above will be defined briefly here. how to pronunce. connotation and idiomatic are the indicators in vocabulary mastery. Thornbury says that the factors come from the word‟s aspects such pronunciation. It is because she or he should know the appropriate word. and can contribute to a . If those factors are fulfilled. how to spell. Many learners find that words with clusters of consonants. meaning. She or he can not understand the lesson easily. what‟s the meaning. etc to express the idea of the subject. and range. grammar. The example is when an Indonesian student has an English subject at school and it is the second language for her or him. Here. Potentially difficult words will typically be those that contain sounds that are unfamiliar to some groups of learners. length and complexity. such as strength or crisp or breakfast. spelling. 2) Spelling Sound.

and say he explained me the lesson. . as a rule of thumb. Remembering whether a verb like enjoy. especially if this differs from that of its L 1 equivalent. love. necessity and necessarily can add to their difficulty. Spanish learners of English. a factor favoring their „learn ability‟. muscle. cupboard. honest. 3) Length and complexity Long words seem to be no more difficult to learn than short ones. Words that contain silent letters are particularly problematic: foreign. While most English spelling is fairly law-abiding. climbing.21 word‟s difficulty.such as in word families like necessary. for example. tend to assume that explain follows the same pattern as both Spanish explicar and English tell. or hope is followed by an infinitive (to swim) or an –ing form (swimming) can add to its difficulty. Then the grammar of phrasal verbs is particularly troublesome: some phrasal verbs are separable (she looked the word up) but others are not (she looked after the children). variable stress in polysyllabic words. headache. 4) Grammar It is problematic when grammar associated with the word. there are also some glaring irregularities. and therefore the learner is likely to meet them more often. listen. etc. However. high frequency words tend to be short in English. Furthermore. bored.

etc. Having learned one meaning of the word. The words with multiple meanings such as since. learners are likely to confuse them. .22 5) Meaning When two words overlap in meaning. connotation and idiomaticity Words that can be used in a wide range of context will generally be perceived as easier than their synonyms with a narrower range. Unfamiliar concepts may make a word difficult to learn. slim. Make and do are a case in point: you make breakfast and make an appointment. Thus put is a very wide-ranging verb. such as very informal words (chuck for throw. Uncertainly to the connotations of some words may cause problems too. Thus. propaganda has negative connotations in English. compare to impose. but its nearest equivalent in other languages may dean deviant. culture specific items such as words and expressions associated with the game cricket (a sticky wicket. meaning. Thus. Finally. a hat trick. swap for exchange) may cause problems. can also be troublesome for learners. slender. and still. thin is a safer bet than skinny. but you do the housework and do a questionnaire. totally different. 6) Range. place. they may be reluctant to accept a second. Likewise. The words have style constraints. and a good innings) will seem fairly opaque to most learners and are likely to be easily learned. position.

the use of words in meaning and meaning. watch). Willis (1998: 67) says that text in general sense to mean a continuous piece of spoken or written language. The Concept of Text Brown and Yule (1997: 24) suggest that the term to spoke “text” as well. length. Arthur Hughes (2003:140) states that texts candidates are expected to be able to deal with can be specified along number of parameters: type. those three aspects that are learned in junior high school. . The aspects to be measured are limited to pronunciation of words. where “text” means verbal record communication. keep an eye on…) will generally be more difficult than words whose meaning is transparent (decide. They also differentiate the term of those text and discourse dealing with the context. 2. Texts in this sense are printed texts. form.23 words or expression that are idiomatic (like make up your mind. we conclude that vocabulary mastery is the students‟ awareness of understanding the words and their rules to communicate. graphic features. spelling. From all those definition above. intended readership. It is because. Essences of Short Text a. style. It is their idiomaticity. as well as their syntactic complexity that makes phrasal verbs so difficult. topic.

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readability or difficulty, range of vocabulary and grammatical structure. Text type include: text books, handouts, articles (in newspaper, journals or magazine), poems, encyclopedia, dictionary, novel (extracts) and short stories, etc. He also states that text forms include: description, exposition, argumentation, instruction, and narration. Cross (1995:77-78) states that the text is a major resources; permitting you to vary the learning activities from lesson to lesson. There are four main factors to consider when deciding how to threat a passage; linguistic complexity, length, interest level and aims. From the definition above, it can be concluded that the text is a verbal communication which consists of continuous piece of spoken or written language and its meaning is contextually. b. The Concept of Story Story is account of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events, etc (Hornby: 1995: 94). Taylor (2000: 16) says that story is relating tale to one or more listener through voice and gesture. It is clear that vocabulary in a story should be presented in clear context; the amusing situations can make the vocabulary easy to remember. Ray B. West (1968: v) says that story is something brought into being by application of the skill and workings of the imagination of the author. Its aim is to arouse the emotions and stimulate the imagination of the students.

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Brad Hooper (1992: xi) says that story is different from a novel in that it is short enough to be read in one sitting, with every word leading toward some final, preordained effect. In story, the sentences are generally shorter in order the students easy to follow the story. From the statements above, the writer draw conclusion that story refers to the written or spoken description of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events that can be used to for teaching students which have aims to make the students easier to follow the story and it has different from a novel that is short enough to be read in one sitting. This paper, the writer uses the story as text especially folktale for increasing vocabulary mastery in second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo Academic Year 2009/2010. c. The Notion of Folktales One kind of story that usually heard by child is the folktales. It is type words composition that recites the story of the folklore in a certain region that is popularly and orally told from one generation to other generation in a certain community. (www.classicalfolktale.wikipedia.com) 1) The meaning of Folktales The word folktale is not defined in English usage. Taylor (2000:4) defines the term “folktale” as traditional story that has been

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passed by words of mouth, told from parents to children over many generations or passed on by countless storytellers sitting around countless evening fires. No one knows who the original author was, and there are usually different versions of the same story, he also states that the term “folktale” has also been used to refer to literary retelling of these tales. Another definition of folktales is that “words folktales refer to the many types of traditional narratives know to the “folk” (Coffin and Cohen, 1996:1). Philips (1992) defines folktales as story about telling stories with unverifiable claims and its literary form. From the definition above, we can assume that folktales are traditional stories that have been passed by words of mouth and told from generation to generation. Folktales lasted through a long period of time due to their universality. They are forms of traditional literature which began as attempt to explain and understand the natural and spiritual world. The origin of folktales lies in oral tradition. 2) The type of folktales There are several types of folktales. Taylor (2000) divides folktales as fable, fairy tales, hero stories, myths, legend. Fables are very short folktales with animals as the main characteristic and with very obvious moral lesson, often summon up in single line at the end.

and usually involving God. It is told as if they are fact. 3) The Characteristics of Folktales Although there a lot of variations between folktales. when strictly defined. Hero stories some of which have some real historical parts and other of which may not. Fairy tales are folktales that include some magical elements (not necessity fairies): the German word marchen is sometimes used for this.27 Legend is stories that are based on real hero and his or her mighty deeds. primitive myth. Examples: Tumbelina. Example: “Shakespeare‟s Ghost” and “Paul Bunyan”. Fairy tales are fictional and take place in a never-land. Legends are stories that are based on a real hero and his or her mighty deeds and believed by the teller and serve a historical purpose. Goddesses and supernatural power: “Adam and Eve” and “Noah‟s ark”. Examples “Johnny Appleased” and “Pail Bunyan”. is religious and deals with the creating and ordering of the universe and with the earlier order in which present world condition were being established. and even between two telling stories of the same tale. certain characteristics typical in folktales contribute to relatively easy reading. And believed by the teller and served as historical purpose: “The dog and the meat” and “the greedy old spider”. Taylor .

they need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. 1997: 98) b. The Notion of Young Learners Teaching English to children is different from teaching English to and adult.28 (2000:9) gives various characteristics of folktales that make them exceptionally good for language teaching. The General Concept of Young Learners a. In relation to the English teaching learning process. These are the list: time order repetition and redundancy predictability relatively simply grammar concrete ideas illustrations that provide support and context for the texts a unique reader-write relationship 3. The Characteristic of Children In general. children have the following characteristics: . It means that the English teacher should be use the technique for English teaching that can make the students interested in learning English Lesson (House.

They learn more slowly.29 1) They like playing Children like playing. 3) Their own understanding comes through hands. They teach subject what school provides for them 3) Children are still developing their common skill such as turn taking and the use of body language. They develop their way of thinking from the concrete to the abstract thing. and ears. 2) Children have no real linguistic. eyes. eyes. . 4) Young children are very egocentric. and ears Children will be understandings about what we talk are using hands. 2) They talk about “Here and Now” Children always discuss about existing in their around and happened in that time. So material of teaching that will be teaching is about their surrounding and happened in that time. They more like playing than learning. that is playing and learning in the same time. Hence from that to convey the material of learning we should be able to take both. They tend to resolves around themselves. Clark (1990: 6-8) states the characteristics of the children are as follows: 1) Children are developing conceptually.

7) Children are better mimics. 4. 8) Children forget quickly. especially in teaching learning process. of course based on their characteristics in teaching learning English lesson. Thus. 6) Children are at early of their education. it is very important for teachers to know about motivation. Therefore. The class activities must be fun and interesting by setting up the interesting activities. The Notion of Motivation a.30 5) Children get bored easily children have no choice to attend school. The Definition of Motivation Motivation is needed in every occasion. ensuring success and enhancing the children‟s motivation are important factors in promoting the success of early start in foreign language learning. . From the definition above. the teacher in teaching English needs repetition. It will take them more confident in attempting the sound of foreign language and they delighted in playing the sound. It is because motivation will influence someone both in process and result. it can be conclude that young learner need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity.

Brophy (1998: 3) says that motivation refers to the students‟ subjective experiences. and keep us engaged in certain activities. Then. Next. Groccia (1992: 62) states that people learn and study because the consequences of such behavior satisfy certain internal and/or external motives. Biggs and Watkins (1995: 84) state that there are four categories of motivation. 2000: 332) says that motivation is internal states that arouses us to action. their willingness to engage in teaching learning activities and their reasons for doing this. pushes us in particular direction. Weiner (in Elliot et al. social motivation. achievement motivation. . b. or desire that moves and leads learner to do a particular action in order to meet and needs or to attain a set of goals of teaching learning process. Extrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because of consequences to obtain a reward and to avoid the punishment. namely: extrinsic motivation. impulse.31 Some experts define some definition of motivation. From the definition above it can be concluded that motivation is an arousal. The Types of Motivation There are many kinds of learning motivation stated by the experts. intrinsic motivation. While intrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because they are interested in task or activities itself.

Ego-involvement. those are as follows: 1). Then instrumental motivation is to wish to learn the language for purposes of study or carrier. Ur (1996: 19) defines some kinds of motivation. Need for achievement. in Ur (1996: 275) comes to conclusion that the most successful students are not necessary those to whom a language comes very easily. Integrative motivation is the desire to identify with and integrate into target language culture. The learner finds it important to succeed in learning and promote his or her own positive self-image.32 Achievement motivation. . The learner is ambitious. the students learn in order to compete against the other students. They are integrated motivation and instrumental motivation. c. Positive task oriented. 3). high proficiency. most of them clearly associated with motivation. 2). The Characteristic of Motivated Students Naiman et al. goes for demanding challenges. they are those who display certain typical characteristic. High aspiration. to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do. social motivation is defined as the students‟ motivation in order to make the other people feel pleasure. The learner has needs to achieve. top grades. that is winning makes they feel good. Then. The learner willing to tackle tasks and challenges. 4). and has confidence in his or her success.

6). Rationale In learning English vocabulary. Secondly. Most of the students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. Tolerance of ambiguity. They could . The students‟ vocabulary mastery of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010 is still low.33 5). It can be seen when they do the exercises. B. there are difficulties that might be faced by the learners especially the young learners. or of specific learning activities. Perseverance. and directs his or her effort towards achieving them. and it is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack progress. The learner is not disturbed or frustrated by situations involving a temporary lack of understanding will come later. Goal orientation. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students as follows: firstly. The learner consistently invests a high level of effort in learning. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. It is caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate on their level. Thirdly. The learner is very aware of the goals of learning. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words and then translate them. 7).

the students can improve their vocabulary mastery. Most of their marks are still lower than the passing grade. By using short texts. So. Short texts are interesting materials in teaching language. especially for the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic Year of 2009/2010. Considering the explanation above. the teacher should create an interesting teaching material. One of the teaching materials that can be used is the short texts. Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research can be formulated as follows: by using short texts. The teaching materials should be suitable with the young learners‟ characteristics. the researcher believes that short texts can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery. the teacher helps the students to remember the words and understand the meaning and also the grammatical pattern of the sentences easily. C.34 not do the exercises perfectly. .

Sukoharjo Regency. Setting and Subject of the Research. It was done for knowing the students‟ basic ability of the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. The aim was to master vocabulary by using short stories. Last. It was done for knowing the students‟ improvement after using short texts in teaching learning process. Subject of the Research The subject of this research is the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. The pre-test was done on the first meeting. the treatments were done on the second until five meeting. 35 CHAPTER III RESEACH METODHOLOGY A.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Time of research This research held on a cycle on second semester in the academic year of 2009/2010. 2.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. It is because there is a problem related with students‟ vocabulary mastery. and the posttest. the post-test was done on the sixth meeting. The details are the pre-test. Post test was done on the six meeting. consist of 11 boys and 24 girls. the treatments. Sukoharjo. Setting of place This research was done in SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo. . This school is located at Bulakan. 1. Next. 3. There are 35 students for class A.

For a starting point. 36 B. . it is necessary to give a definition of action research. Dewi Rochsantiningsih (2008) defines action research as: “proses sistematis di mana guru dengan sukarela melibatkan diri untuk melakukan refleksi dokumentasi. (b) their understanding to these practices. dan atau tindakan untuk lebih memahami hakekat dan atau konsekuensi mengajar dengan tujuan untuk melakukan tindakan atau menguabah atau meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dan lebih baik bila dilakukan secara kolaboratif dengan kolega atau teman guru. Method of the Research This research is a kind of action research.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Rapport (1970) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is aimed to contribute both to the practical concern of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of the school science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework. and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out. though it is often undertaken by individuals and sometimes in cooperation with outsiders.” Kemmis (1983) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Meanwhile. It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively. Ebbutt (1985) in Hopkins (1993: 45) states action research is about the systematic study of attempts to improve educational practice by groups of participants by means of their own practical actions and by means of own reflection upon the effects of those actions.

or other educational professionals to aid in decision making in the local school. this research is done to increase the students‟ vocabulary mastery through short texts. research conducted by a teacher. By participating the actions in this research. it is hoped that the researcher will find the solution for developing the students‟ vocabulary mastery. According to the model. only a single group or individual is involved in the study. Action research is usually less rigorous in term of design and methodology than other educational researches. the implementation of the classroom action research includes four steps in the following: . it can be concluded that action research is a systematic study and it is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken or carried out by participants in educational situation rather than outside researches to solve the problem in order to improve the students‟ ability. administrator. Wiersma (2000: 10) states one type of applied research is action research.37 Furthermore. The Model of Action Research The model of classroom action research used in this study is based on the model developed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1985). From the definition above. C. Action research focuses on the solution of day-to-day problems at the local level. Often. intact groups are used in some cases. Based on the definition and the aims above.

38 1. . through a succession of a stages. subsequent critically informed and so on. 4. 3. 2. Planning Develop a plan of critically informed action to improve what is already happening. Reflection Reflecting process on these effects as the basis for further planning. Based on Hopkins‟ point of views (1993: 48) this model can be illustrated as follow. Action Act to implement the plan. Observation Observe the effects of the critically informed action in the context in which it occurs.

Identifying the problems The researcher identified the problem before planning the action.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Preparing a test. . f. 39 D. b. and conducting a pre-test. d. e. Planning the steps and technique for delivering the material in the form of lesson plan. 2. Designing the steps in doing the action. c. The Procedures of Action Research In this classroom action research. The problem was caused by the technique of delivering material which was not suitable and interesting to the learners. interviewing the students. It was obtained by observing the teaching learning process. It was done to know whether students‟ vocabulary could be improved or not. Preparing the material. each procedure takes five steps in one cycle. Preparing teaching aids. The problem referred to the students‟ difficulty in learning vocabulary. Planning the action The researcher prepared everything related to the action as follows: a.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of teaching learning process when the technique is applied). There are follows: 1.

b. The researcher greeted the students and checked the students‟ attendance at the beginning of class. The researcher gave the students time to make note in their book. e. After doing the practices. c. The researcher gave the students oral task by pointing the students one by one to guess and pronounce the words that are related to the stories shown by teacher to check whether the students had understood. The researcher stimulated the students to try guessing some words related to the stories. g. and drilled the students. The researcher gave explanation about the words. pronounced them correctly. . Observing and monitoring the action The researcher observed all activities in the teaching learning process and created a conducive atmosphere in a class. The researcher gave the students individual task. 4. h. the researcher reviewed the material. The researcher discussed the answer of task with the students i. f.40 3. The researcher presented the material by giving a worksheet one by one to the students. The real implementations were generally presented as follows: a. Implementing the action The researcher implemented the teaching learning activity of vocabulary using short texts. d.

interview. E. Technique of Collecting Data The techniques of collecting data are qualitative and quantitative method. field notes. The researcher observed the actions to find the problems of the activities that had been carried out in using short stories in teaching vocabulary. Qualitative method consists of observation. Based on Burns (1999: 80). photograph. observation is a kind of activities in action research that enables researchers to document and reflect systematically upon classroom interactions and events. as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur. document analysis.41 5. Observation technique means the researcher comes to the class. The teacher takes the position behind the class while observing the teaching learning process and makes a note all things about what happen during the teaching learning process. Evaluating and Reflecting the result of the observation The researcher evaluated all actions in the cycle. . observes the teaching learning process done by the teacher and the students.

quantitative method uses test technique. The interview technique is done spontaneously. Test technique which is used is achievement test. The aim of this analysis was to complete the information which had been gotten from observation and interview. It means that the researcher does not make some questions first.42 Notes or field notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context that are written in relatively factual and objective style (Burns. Achievement test is the test that is used to measure students‟ ability after learning something (Arikunto. The test here is a vocabulary test. This interview is also done to the students and the teacher before and after teaching learning process. The researcher made note to all activities during the lesson. the researcher used essay and pronoun test type for both . and noted the students‟ reaction and response to the learning. The vocabulary test is used to measure the students‟ vocabulary mastery. 1996: 21). Analyzing the document was done toward the Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. 1999: 101). The researcher made notes of each observation done. Then. In this research. Photographs are a way of greatly enhancing classroom analysis and providing visual stimuli that can be integrated into reporting and presenting the research to others (Burns. which is about English lesson in Junior High School including its Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar. The purpose is to get the information about everything in teaching learning process using short stories. 1999: 87).

The total numbers of test items were 30 items. Table 1.43 the pre-test and post-test. There are some steps that should be done by the researcher in this action research. The result of the test was analyzed to know the students‟ achievement on vocabulary. The test consisted of vocabularies that had been taught to the students. Here is the diagram of the steps. The steps in Action Research Step of action Participant  Students Pre action  Researcher  Students  Researcher The action Technique  Interview  Observation  Test (Pre-test)  Planning  Implementing  Observing monitoring  Reflecting Post action  Students  Researcher  Test (Post-test)  Result of post-test and Data  Result of the interview  Result of observation  Result of pre-test  Result of observation  Field notes .

2. this research uses descriptive statistics. the pre-test is compared with the post-test to know whether teaching vocabulary using short stories can improve the students‟ vocabulary mastery. The steps are: (a) compare the data from each informant to make easy in classifying the same data. 2001:8). 1. interview. This step uses a simple formula that is called as t-test of non-independent.44 F. Making a hypothesis using the classify data. (c) Making the inference. Quantitative descriptive analysis In quantitative descriptive analysis. The formula of t-test of non-independent is as follows: t= where t is the result of t-test non-independent . the data are the result of observation. In this formula. (b) classify the data in certain classification. they are qualitative descriptive analysis and also quantitative descriptive analysis. Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis in this research consists of two kinds. (d) making an inductive conclusion. It makes clearer the data and the characteristic of the data (Nurgiantoro. It is used to make the data simple and communicative. and photographs. Qualitative descriptive In qualitative descriptive analysis. field notes. making the data in the table.

when the difference between the values of t-obtained and the value of t-table is significant. the reliability can be determined by using the formula: . . H. from this. where k is the number of valid items.45 Finally. Validity of the Instrument In computing the validity of each item from the instrument. G. Reliability of the Instrument After the valid items are determined. the researcher uses the formula as follows: where. it will be known whether or not the instrument is valid. p q n and : the number of correct answer : the number of incorrect answer : the number of respondent The result of the computation of validity will be consulted to t-table distribution. the effectiveness of using short stories to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery will be known.

and (2) there is an improving average mark of the class based on the criteria in the curriculum that is used in that school. The indicators are: (1) there is an improvement number of students that have minimal criterion at least 75 % from the total number of students. From this. . The Criteria of Successful Action The measurement that is used in checking vocabulary mastery is test.46 The result of the computation of reliability will be consulted to r table of statistics. I. it will be known whether or not the instrument is reliable.

It can be seen from the indicators like: 1) they were less interested in teaching learning process.47 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION In this chapter. many problems were found in teaching English for students of the second year of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. the students as young learners forget something quickly. The structure of the writing contains introduction. They were supported in pre-research that has been done by the researcher. The difficulties of learning vocabularies were caused by some reasons. The discussion deals with the implementations of the actions that are teaching by using short texts based on theories from some experts. First. The main problem faced by the students was the lack of vocabularies. They will forget . and discussion. A. Their vocabulary was still low. the description of the research. Introduction contains the problem faced by the students. The description of the research contains the implementations of the actions of the research in the field. and 3) they got difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. 2) they got difficulties to understand and grasp the meaning of words. the researcher discusses the implementation of the action. Introduction As presented in chapter I.

Thus. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. Firstly. the researcher wanted to create interesting situation in the classroom. the research is concentrated on improving materials of teaching vocabulary through a classroom action research and the use of short texts as the teaching learning source. So. it is important to find out the appropriate method.48 some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat the words many times. the students as young learners still like playing. Here. So. the researcher wanted to make the students are able to grasp and remember the . the researcher decided to conduct a research to solve the problems through this study. Third. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. technique or and material. They always talk about something while playing. the students as young learners get bored easily. technique. technique. Based on the facts above. There were some targets which the researcher expected to achieve by conducting the action for the improvement of students‟ vocabulary. especially in vocabulary mastery. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. repetition is needed. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. One of the problems that is taken in this study is the materials that are not suitable and interesting to the students. By using the appropriate method. Secondly. the teachers have to find out the appropriate method. Second. The method. They prefer playing to studying.

The Description of the Research The implementation of the action planned in this research was held in a cycle. implementing the action. In this cycle. evaluating and reflecting the result of the observation. Through a classroom action research. observing or monitoring the action. namely planning the action. The cycle in this research also consisted of series of steps. Thirdly. the researcher decided to carry out interesting teaching materials. and revising the plan. It was conducted from April. 2010. B.49 meaning of words more easily. Based on the problems and the targets that the researcher expected to achieve. the researcher wanted to make the students able to write the words or group of words correctly so the improvement of students‟ vocabulary could be achieved. the researcher used short texts as the teaching materials. They are explained as follows: . the researcher hopes that the research can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery and change the situation during the teaching learning process. 2010 until April. Each meeting took 80 minutes. in presenting and practicing new vocabularies. The researcher divided the cycle into four meetings. in this case was short texts.

The students could drill every word until five times. The students could ask questions whenever they found problems. The researcher chose short texts as the teaching materials. The researcher believed that short stories could improve the students‟ vocabulary and attract the students‟ enthusiasm in teaching learning process. The researcher taught 80 minutes in every meeting. it was expected that the students are able to grasp the meaning of new vocabulary easily. The teacher also planned to drill the students‟ pronunciations using the words that have been prepared. The researcher told the students that they were going to learn English by using short stories that day. By using short text. the indicators of vocabulary mastery can be completed. the students are able to write down the words or group of words correctly. To overcome those problems. The researcher allocated 60 minutes to give the students a chance to learn the material by doing the worksheet and to practice . The researcher also gave a lot of time to drill the students. The researcher planned to use 10 minutes to greet the students and stated the topic. the researcher planned and chose interesting learning materials to solve the problems and improve students‟ behavior during teaching learning process. So.50 1. It is because the stories are very funny and give the students a lot of new list of vocabularies. It was to get the students‟ attention and interest. Besides that. Planning the action The action plan was made based on the problems that were mentioned in the introduction above.

2010. 2. a.25 a. students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. students‟ worksheet that consisted of some tasks and also teaching equipments that are related to the action. The test started at 2010 to know the 10. Research Implementation The action plan was implemented by the researcher with the help from the teacher as the observer. This test was conducted in the beginning to know the students‟ ability about the material that would be given.51 the pronunciation of the words that they have learned. the researcher conducted a post-test.m. the researcher prepared the material. This cycle was conducted in four meetings. main activity. Before implementing the action. Each meeting was divided into three terms. Post-test was conducted after the last action on the last meeting of the cycle. namely: opening. First meeting 1) Opening A pre test was conducted on April. 2010. The last five up to ten minutes was to review and close the lesson. Besides preparing the pre-test. April. the researcher conducted a pre-test on the first meeting. lesson plans as researcher‟s guidance in teaching vocabulary. The researcher came to the class on time . The bell rang. and closing. The pre test was conducted on April. After implementing the action.

in this case was short stories. the use of words in context and spelling. Then. 2) Main activity After getting test worksheet. the students did the test individually. The test was a pre-test. pronunciation of words. The test was about understanding the meaning of words. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the test that would be done on that day.52 and greeted the students. she passed the worksheet test to the students. After that. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. 3) Closing After the bell rang. the researcher asked about the students‟ feeling. Next. the researcher checked the test worksheet whether they were complete or not. the researcher asked the students to collect the test worksheet on the desk. the researcher gave the information that the students would get the materials in the next meeting and closed the meeting on that day . This test was aimed to know students‟ ability about the new materials that would be given. After greeting the students. After that. . the researcher explained about the rules of the test. Then. The students were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary.

Mam”.53 b. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance. After introducing the materials that would be used. They tried to answer the task by looking for the answer on the dictionary.25 am and then greeted the students. No one was absent that day. the researcher began the lesson of the day by asking the students to find the meaning of some words. Then. this means that they understood what learning source that would be used. After greeting the students. . the researcher and the students checked the answer together. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the second meeting. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. Second meeting 1) Opening The second meeting was conducted on April. the researcher asked the students to mention some short texts that they ever read or heard. 2) Main Activity To open the lesson. 2010. Then. The students answered “yes. Some of them mentioned some titles of short stories. she asked the students whether they ever read or heard short stories or not.

the researcher asked the students to write down some words and find the meaning of each word. They obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. Some students were shy and afraid to speak loudly. All students obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. the researcher asked three of the students to mention the main idea of the story. the researcher asked the students to do the next task that is to fill in the blanks in some . Next. Next. The title was “The Flowers from the Moon”. After the students finished reading the short story. it could be seen that the students still made some mistakes in getting the main point of the story. the researcher drilled the students‟ pronunciation with the guiding words on the worksheet. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the words together. They were afraid if they made a mistake. The researcher pronounced every word once and the students pronounced every word three times. to check the students understanding about new vocabulary. the researcher gave a chance to the students to read the story on their own worksheet. After the students finished doing the task. The researcher also asked them to find out the idea of the story using words that they ever had before. Next. to know the students‟ understanding. From the students‟ answer.54 Next. The researcher advised them that it was only a practice.

then. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 08. the researcher reviewed the material. the researcher and the students discussed the answers of the task together. “very-very interesting”.55 sentences with the words that were mentioned on the worksheet and answered the questions about the story. Then. If they made a mistake. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. The researcher showed all the words to the students. Next. 2010. The researcher asked “how about your feeling today?” The students answered. 3) Closing After finishing the task. c. Third meeting 1) Opening The third meeting was conducted on April. Most students made a mistake in pronouncing the words.05 am. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words. The story‟s title was “Royal Spaghetti”. In the . the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. Some students were very enthusiastic to answer the question of the task. the researcher gave the students choice to choose the correct answer. After finishing the task.

There were some pronunciation mistakes done by the students. After that. In this main activity. all students focused on the lesson. The researcher passed a new worksheet for each student and asked the students to do the exercises. the researcher asked some of students to read the story. the learning source used in teaching learning process was the same as before. The students felt easily to grasp the main idea of the text because they have translated some difficult words before. the students started the main activity by finding the correct words and their meaning. 2) Main Activity In the beginning of the lesson. Then. the researcher checked the answered with the students together. the students and the researcher discussed the story to get the main idea. No one was absent. The researcher used this chance to begin the main activity. The researcher checked the students‟ pronunciation. To prepare the class. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that had been given in the second meeting. After five minutes. In this meeting. The title was ”Rainbow”.56 second meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. . Then.

The students tried to find the synonymy of the words by using their dictionary. the researcher changed the technique in introducing the new words to the students. it could be seen that students still made mistakes in arranging the words. the researcher asked the students to fill in the blanks in some sentences with the words that were mentioned on the students‟ worksheet. They were very busy to discuss the correct arrangement of the letters with their friends. After that. The title was “The Caliph and the Clown”. the researcher and the students discussed the answer together. the researcher asked some students to answer the questions and wrote the answers on the whiteboard. From the students‟ answer. Next. The students looked very interested in the new task. then they wrote their answer in the whiteboard. they were also asked to find the meaning of the words. The students who had finished discussing the correct arrangement. Then. the researcher asked the students to pay attention to some words. and then asked them to get the meaning of them. After five minutes. the researcher asked the students to arrange the letters into a good word. . Then.57 Next. After checking the answer. the students and the researcher checked the answers together. In the middle of the activity. The researcher and the students checked the answers together. The researcher used the synonym to introduce the words.

Next. Students who had finished discussing the answers. Some of them were very busy to remember some of the new words that they heard before and the other discussed with their friends to find the main idea of the story. . The students were enthusiastic in answering the question from the researcher. the researcher reviewed the material from the beginning.58 After checking the answers. 3) Closing In the end section. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. The researcher also asked the other students to pay attention to the text. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of phrases from the story before. and then they wrote their answer on the whiteboard and then checked the answer with the researcher. The students pronounced every word three to four times. They were very busy to prepare the answer. The researcher mentioned some difficult words and the students tried to guess the right pronunciation and the right meaning. the students tried to grasp the main point of the story with the researcher. On the last task of the third meeting. Then. the researcher asked some students to read the story loudly. The reseacher asked “bagaimana pendapat kalian tentang pelajaran pada hari ini?” The students answered.

No one was absent. Banyak kosa kata baru dan gampang ingetnya”. Sometimes they made an underline for some difficult words. d. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. In the fourth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. 2) Main activity Then.59 “menyenangkan bu. The title was “The Magic Seeds”. The researcher asked the students to discuss the story . 2010. the researcher asked the students to make a pair of discussion. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. the researcher began the lesson by reading a story. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the first and second meeting. The students listened curiously to the researcher‟s story. Then. Then. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the fourth meeting.25 am. Fourth meeting 1) Opening The fourth meeting was conducted on April. To prepare the class. Then.

the researcher and the students checked the answer together. Next. some of students wrote their difficult words on the whiteboard. the researcher asked the students to match the words with their antonyms. The students had to write some words they heard. the researcher asked the students‟ ability in writing words. After that. Some of them were busy to remember the story and the other tried to grasp and write the meaning of some words. The story‟s title was “The Owl and the Nightingale”. The researcher and the students discussed the answers together. the researcher addressed some of the . Then. The students worked in pairs. Then. the students wrote the answers in the whiteboard. The researcher checked the answers. the researcher also asked the students to find the meaning of the words. After that. The students wrote the answers on their worksheet. the researcher asked some of the students to read the story. The researcher continued the lesson by drilling the students‟ pronunciations. The researcher also asked the students to find some difficult words on the story. Next. After five minutes.60 that they heard. Then. they had to find the meaning of the words. the researcher asked the students to write some words that they found in the story before. The next task. The students pronounced the words three or four times. Then.

the students had to find the hyponymy of some words based on the text that they ever read before. The other students added “senang. Bu”. the researcher asked the students to answer some questions about the story. Tau arti katanya. The students were very busy to find the answers. The students already knew some words so it made the students easy to retell the story. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. There are some students discussed the answers with their friends. The students discussed with their friends. the researcher asked some students to write the students‟ answers and then checked the answers. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. Then. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. The researcher showed all the words to the students. The next task. 3) Closing After finishing the task. bu. For the last task. . After 5 minutes. “lumayan. Then.61 students to retell the story by their own words. the researcher reviewed the material. Next. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times.

Then. After that. the researcher checked the students‟ answer. Then. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10.25 am. the researcher asked the student‟s to find the meaning of some words. Then. the researcher asked the students to write the answers on the white board and discuss the answers together. . 2010. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. No one was absent. the researcher began to teach the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the third meeting. the researcher passed the student‟s worksheet for the fifth meeting to the students. 2) Main activity For the first activity.62 e. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. the researcher asked the students to listen what the researcher pronounced and then write the answer on the students‟ worksheet. To prepare the class. They could find the meaning in the dictionary. After five minutes. In the fifth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. Fifth meeting 1) Opening The fifth meeting was conducted on April.

After 5 minutes. the researcher asked the students to arrange the jumble words into a good arrangement. Then. Then. The students felt happy because the story was very funny. After the students read the story. After 10 minutes. Some of the students tried to get the answer from the dictionary and the others were discussed. the researcher guided the students to find the meaning form the difficult words that they found. After that. The students worked in pairs. the researcher addressed some students to pronounce some words that were mentioned by the researcher. The students pronounced the words three or four times. The title of the story was “Why Bears Hibernate in the Winter”. The researcher also asked the students to write the difficult words that they found. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. Many students raised their hand to write their answer in the whiteboard.63 Next. They enjoyed this material. the researcher asked the students to write the answer in the whiteboard. the students tried to grasp the main idea of the story. Some of the students worked with their dictionary and the other tried to get the answer from the short story that they read before. the researcher asked some students to read the story and the other paid attention to their friends. . the students had to find the synonym of some words by matching the words in the column A to the column B. Next.

All of the students were silent and did the instruction well. They worked in groups. the researcher asked three of the students to retell the story. Bu”. The title was “The Necklace”.64 For next material. Then. After 10 minutes. 3) Closing After finishing the task. The last task. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. The other students added “senang. the students were asked to read the story. The researcher repeated some difficult words to the students. Tau arti katanya. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. the students wrote the answer on the whiteboard. the researcher reviewed the material. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. They had to grasp the main idea of the story individually then retold the story in their own words. After 5 minutes. “menyenangkan. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of the phrases from the text. The researcher did not forget to . Next. the researcher discussed with the students about the story that they heard. bu. They felt happy with this teaching way. Then. The other students paid attention to their friend who retold the story.

3) Closing After the test finished. the use of words in context and spelling. After greeting the students. 2) Main Activity The students did the test individually. Then. After that. All students were very active in discussing the .m. The researcher came to the class on time and greeted the students. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the post-test that would be done on that day. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. Sixth meeting 1) Opening A post-test was conducted on April. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. They were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary.65 inform the students that in the next meeting the test would be done. Then. The bell rang at 08. f. The test was the same with the pre test that was done before. The materials were such as understanding meaning of words. the researcher discussed the answers of test with the students. pronunciation of words.05 a. she passed the test worksheets to the students. This post-test was aimed to know the students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. 2010.

All students paid attention with the discussion. In the teaching and learning process. pronunciation of words. there were six meetings. the use of words in context. The observation was conducted simultaneously when teaching learning process took place. the researcher closed the discussion because the bell rang. They were the mastery of . Then. From the observation results. In this cycle. Then the second to fifth meeting was focused on improving vocabulary aspects and students‟ motivation in teaching learning process. The first and the sixth meeting of the cycle were used for testing. short texts were used to make the way of grasping the meaning easier.66 answers with the researcher. 3. The researcher said thank you to the students for everything during the research. No student was busy with his own business. Then. it was known that there were some improvements on students‟ vocabulary. Besides the explanation of implementing the actions above. and spelling. Observing and Monitoring the Action In monitoring the implementation of this cycle. The aspects that should be improved were meaning of words. the researcher asked the students‟ feeling and comment during teaching learning process with the researcher. the researcher used observation to see the effects of conducting the cycle. the results of the observation of the teaching and learning process were also supported by the interviews with the students about the use of short texts in teaching vocabulary.

They paid attention to the lesson. They also did the task on their worksheet well. the researcher gave advice to the students that it was only a practice. In the second meeting. They paid attention to the lesson. pronunciation. They were afraid if their answers were wrong. Some students were active to answer the questions from the researcher when the researcher gave them some question or asked them to do the exercises. All students did the task quite well. Some students tried to answer the questions of the task. and using words in context. most students were shy to speak loudly. Some students were silent when the researcher asked the question to the students. the students‟ motivation was good. the students looked happy and enthusiastic to attend the class. some students were still passive. Beside the students‟ improvements on vocabulary. the others were quiet. In the third meeting. Beside passive.67 meaning. No students were busy with their own business in the class. No one was busy with their own business. The students also obeyed the researcher instruction. All of them were seriously listened to the stories. spelling. Although the students‟ motivation increased. Their responses were good. The situation was conducive because there was no noisy outside the class. . To solve this problem. the observation results explained the students‟ motivation and activities in teaching-learning process and student‟s motivation from the second to the fifth meeting.

It seemed that they had already understood about the term. To solve this problem. Sometimes they told each other about something else. When the researcher asked the students to read the story and do the task. They were also enthusiastic when discussing with their friends. Good atmosphere was created in the class. The students were happy and enthusiastic when the researcher changed the activity in introducing the new words. the students still had problem in pronouncing the word. the students were asked to fill in the blank sentences with the correct words. In middle of the fourth meeting. many students raised their hand. the researcher just reviewed all materials from the third meeting.68 In the middle of the third meeting. the researcher still used short stories for teaching learning process. So. They still made mistake to pronounce the right pronunciation. It can be seen when the researcher asked the students one by one to check the students‟ understanding. the students‟ motivation increased. Before starting the lesson. . The researcher used synonymy technique in introducing the new words. After that. In the fourth meeting. In the third meeting. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the word three or four times. the students asked to write some words on their worksheet. the researcher went around the class to monitor and guide them whether they were active to discuss with their friends or not. They could do the exercises well because there were some phonetic symbols that helped them to do the exercises.

07. It could be seen during the teaching-learning process. c) the students were able to write the words correctly and could use the words in context.36. all students were active to grasp the meaning of every word. . In the fifth meeting. b) the students were able to grasp the meaning of words when the researcher gave them some new vocabularies. the test score in the first and sixth meeting showed the improvement result.69 The students felt happy and enthusiastic doing this task because they knew all of the meaning of the difficult words by discussing with their friends and also looking for the dictionary. 4. The mean of the pre-test was 4. the students were very active. In reviewing the materials. Reflecting the Result of the Observation Based on the observation results which were gathered in field notes. d) the students were also able to pronounce the words correctly. while the mean score of the post-test was 7. They also could write the correct words that they heard. They listened what the researcher pronounced. the researcher reflected the results of the action as follows: a) the students who were still passive were getting more active and interested when they were reading and understanding the story. Moreover. Most students were active and all students got attention to the lesson.

Short texts also encouraged the students to be more active during teaching learning process. All of the aspects were completed. The researcher concluded that teaching vocabulary using short texts attracted students‟ curiosity in knowing new words. easily. students were encouraged to practice their ability in pronouncing and writing words correctly. Table 2. into English or vice versa. The improvement of students‟ achievements in teaching learning process using short stories can be seen in the table 2.70 Based on the result of the observing and the test above. . They also got difficulties They translated words from when they had to translate Indonesian into English or the words from Indonesian vice versa easily. They forgot words remembered the words and their meanings easily. The students got 1. it could be seen that there were increasing students‟ motivation and also the aspects of vocabulary. Improvement of the Students‟ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts Source of the data before implementing the action Vocabulary mastery after implementing the action Vocabulary mastery Observation and Interview 1. They became more motivated and enthusiastic in learning English which they did not tend to do something useless and got bored in the middle of teaching learning process. They also words. Through short texts. The students understood difficulties to understand and grasped the meaning of and grasp the meaning of words easily.

understand remember. The students could write mistakes when they wrote the words correctly. The students were less 1. They still made words correctly. 2. grasp and use words in context about 25 words in context about 75% of them. The students could not 2. The students were more interested during teaching active and enthusiastic learning process during teaching learning process.71 2. Most of the students also made mistakes when they did the exercises in arranging some letters into a correct word. 80 % of them. grasp and use remember. They started to ask and answer the questions. The students had more full concentration during concentration to do the teaching learning process. They words. There were no mistakes in Most of the students forgot writing the words to write the second letter. which has double letters. The students could pronounce. Students‟ motivation Students‟ motivation 1. The students still made 3. understand. The students did not have 2. The students could only 4. They did not do something something useless during useless during teaching teaching learning process learning process. . pronounce. exercises. The students pronounce the words pronounce most correctly. 4. For example when also could arrange the the students found a word letters into a correct word. mistakes to pronounce the words. 3. could of the 3. The students liked doing 3.

discussion with their friends. There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. chuckled. sea.36 5. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there was an improvement of students who achieved the minimum standard score. They could pronounce. the students‟ improvement could be seen. they could pronounce and write the words correctly.36. purple. etc. The students liked having exercises individually. Then the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was . The students did the 4. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. grasp and use the words in context about 75 until 80 % of them.07 7.07 to 7.3 % of students. understand. Test The mean score of pre-test : The mean score of post-test : 4.72 4. the students understood and grasped the meaning of words easily. in this case 60. daughter. The improvements were students‟ vocabulary mastery and also students‟ motivation. captured. from 4. Research Findings From the table above. different. From the vocabulary aspects. Beside that. from 2. dream. the improvement also could be seen on the students‟ scores of test. reason. The examples were prince. quarrel. sky. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. Then.8 % of students became 94. freedom. remember.

the students‟ motivation increased when the short text were used. They asked more questions than before. Meanwhile. There were some reasons for stopping this research only in one cycle.73 3. They also had more concentration to the lesson. The students understood and grasped the meaning of the words easily. they could pronounce the words correctly. Since is . They also raised their hands to answer the questions. The indicators showed that they were more active and enthusiastic during the teaching learning process. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. the t-table higher than for 35 students is 2. the students‟ motivation also increased. they could write the words correctly. they did not do something useless . it means that there is a significant difference between pre- test and post-test score. they had more concentration to do the exercises.04.29. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process and like having discussion with their friends. They were more active and attractive during teaching learning process.30. and they also could use the words in context appropriately. finally. the researcher decided to stop the cycle. Considering the facts of some improvements dealing with teaching vocabulary by using short texts above. They were as follows: a) The aspects of vocabulary mastery were completed. Beside the vocabulary mastery. Next. Next.

36. the students could understand. The observation that was done showed that there were some improvements in students‟ vocabulary mastery aspects and students‟ motivation. from 2. grasp. The school gave two weeks to finish the implementation of the research. C. the students did more practices and steps by steps in understanding. so they could have more practices for enriching vocabulary mastery using short stories. from 4. Discussion The research findings came from the observation and the test scores. The students also could pronounce the words correctly. It was because the school would hold a mid term test for all the students. and remember the meaning easily. b) There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. c) The researcher only had limited time to conduct the research. From the pre-test and post-test score. and using the words. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. At first from the students‟ vocabulary mastery. They liked having discussion with their friends. They have their own worksheet that was completed with some short texts. pronouncing. grasping. in this case 60.3 %.74 during teaching learning process. It could be understood since human brain has limit . They also could use and write the words correctly.07 to 7.8 % became 94. Here. spelling. The discussion helped them to understand the lesson and do the tasks well.

read and write”. teachers of English to young learners. especially the students at the back. say. edu). as the young learners. They focused on the materials which were used . The students were more active and enthusiastic because the materials used were new materials. Next. the students had more concentration during teaching learning process. and write”. Second from the students‟ motivation. According to Linse (2005). the students. The best way to add breadth and depth to child‟s vocabulary is by providing a variety of opportunities for new and interesting experience.75 capacity to absorb new things from surrounding. question and answer”. and game. Beside the new materials. more active and enthusiastic to follow the teaching learning process. story. were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. the class situation became more active and enthusiastic. Young learners like to read and listen interesting stories. Ur (1998) explains that there are three sources of young learners‟ attention in class. such as talking with other students or disturbing their friends. Human also has limit memory to remember all at once (www. and Jensen (1980: 285) also states that teaching English to children needs special techniques. It made the students enjoy. Then. should know the techniques of teaching practically for example “listen and repeat”. there were also many kinds of interesting techniques used to teach short texts. “listen. namely pictures. the situation in the class before implementing the action was described as some students were busy with themselves. Petty.ksmumail/human_brain. They did some useless activities. After implementing the action.

They are active if they are suitable with the teacher‟s technique and they are far from teacher pressure (www. Maya K. .david399.htm). It matches with Elli‟s theory. The amusing situation could make students become more enthusiastic. According to Elli (1991:31). vocabulary in story is presented in clear context and the amusing situation.76 through short texts. David also states that one indicator which makes teaching learning process succeed is the active students during teaching learning process.

. First. Third. AND SUGGESTION A. They also could remember the meaning of the words easily.77 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION. Second. in arranging the jumble letters. Fourth. Based on the analysis of the result of the implementation of the actions which had been conducted to improve the students‟ vocabulary. For example. The first is about the enrichment of the students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. it can be seen that the implementation of teaching vocabulary by using short texts can effectively improve students‟ vocabulary. the students also could write the words correctly. the students could understand and grasp the meaning easily. they could rearrange the letters into a correct word. IMPLICATION. This is based on the facts found in accordance with the result of the action implemented to find answers to the problem statements. the students could pronounce. It could be seen from the aspects of vocabulary which are completed. The more detailed results of the action implemented in this research were as follows. the researcher comes to a conclusion that teaching vocabulary by using short texts can improve the students‟ vocabulary. the students could pronounce the words correctly. Conclusion Having conducted the research of teaching vocabulary by using short texts in Junior High School.

while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19.07 to 7.8 % became 94. The difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was 3. There were so many students who raised their hands to answer the question on the whiteboard or oral answer. Meanwhile. The students were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process.78 understand. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there were more students who achieved the minimum standard score. in this case 60.30. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. there was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. They also liked having discussion with their friends. the t-table than for 35 students is 2. remember. it means that there is a significant difference between pre-test and post- test score.04.36. there was an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. they had more concentration to do the exercises. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process.29. Most of the students gave more attention than before. grasp and use the words in context about 75-80 % of them correctly.3 % of students. Beside that. The second is about the students‟ motivation. Next. The researcher found a good atmosphere in the class. Next. from 4. . from 2. Since is higher .

synonyms and definition. The students suggest using dictionary in translating the words. read and write”. The teacher could use “listen and repeat”. and write”. the teacher also can use the visual techniques such as mime and gesture and verbal techniques such as verbal explanation. and media. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. antonyms in teaching vocabulary to the students. It is conducted by English teacher to make the students‟ more interested and more active in teaching-learning process and to avoid the boredom.79 B. The teacher can also conduct an oral test to make the students more motivated and attracted in teaching-learning process. the teacher should have to choose the appropriate materials and media to teach vocabulary. writing and pronouncing correctly. Then. there is a significant improvement of students‟ vocabulary and improvement of students‟ learning activity after teaching used short texts to teach new vocabulary and to train the students in order to write and pronounce correctly. materials. the teacher should choose appropriate techniques. question and answer”. “listen. Beside the appropriate techniques. It implies that using short texts are good material to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery and also improve students‟ learning activity during teaching learning process. students were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading. say. Implication Based on the conclusion of the study. Through short texts. The material in this case is . In teaching English using short texts.

the teacher could choose the most suitable method. It is suitable with the material that used in the second year of junior high school. C. other researcher. Students will be easy in . The genre that is used is narrative. there is an improvement of students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. 1. techniques. The students can find the difficult words and their meaning. The materials have to appropriate with the syllabus that used in that school. and for school. Suggestion After carrying out the researcher and obtaining the conclusion. By understanding those points. and then make analyses of the stories by their own words. students. Besides. and materials in improving the students‟ motivation in learning English based on certain condition. English teacher The English teachers should learn the characteristics of the students in order to know exactly what they need and what problems they faced on their development. By implementing short texts using appropriate techniques and materials. the English teachers should create an interesting and enjoyable situation of teaching learning process. the researcher would like to propose some suggestion directed to the English teacher. It makes the students understand the stories well.80 short texts. The short texts have to contain new and old information to the students.

There are many other method. It is expected that the finding of this study will be used as a starting point of the future research on similar problems. It should encourage the English teacher to be creative to use various method. techniques or materials. 4. They can practice English in their daily life. It should also be facilitated with various media supporting the teaching activity.81 learning when the situation is interesting for them and the students will more enthusiastic. 2. School The institution should state a policy in improving the quality of the teaching English for children. 3. . The students not only can study English in the class but also can study everywhere and every time. Other researcher This study is just one of efforts in improving students‟ vocabulary. techniques. It also would avoid the boredom. and materials of teaching English of Junior High School students that can be taken as objects of research to find out the effectiveness of teaching. The students have to be more active and motivated to learn English. Students An instructional process will not be successful if students are not maximally involved in it.

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