ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS

A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010

Written by: Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi K2206029

Submitted to Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Undergraduate Degree of Education

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2010 i

APPROVAL

This thesis is approved by the consultants to be examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University.

Approved by

Consultant 1

Consultant 2

Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005

Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP. 19730205 200604 1 001

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This thesis is examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University and accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for achieving the Undergraduate Degree of Education in English. Place of the test Date of the test : :

The Board of Examiners 1. Chairman Drs. Suparno, M. Pd NIP. 19511127 198601 1 001 2. Secretary Dewi Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd. NIP. 19780818 200312 2 002 3. Consultant 1 Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005 4. Consultant 2 Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP 19730205 200604 1 001 (………………………) (……………………....) (………………………) (………………………)

Legalized by, Teacher Training and Education Faculty Sebelas Maret University The Dean

Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd NIP. 19600727 198702 1 001

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Then. The mean score of the pre-test improves from 4. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. It is also aimed at the improvement of the students’ achievement in teaching learning process using short stories. First. At last. Then. they have more concentration to do the exercises. They can be seen from the aspects of vocabulary mastery and the students’ motivation. pronounce. the improvement of students’ score can be seen from the differences between the pre-test and post-test. Second. The results of this research imply that using short texts are good material to improve students’ vocabulary mastery and also improve students’ learning activity during teaching learning process. The materials used in this research were short text. observing or monitoring the action. field notes. students iv . The cycle consisted of four meetings. Through short texts. The research was conducted in one cycle.07 to 7. In the qualitative method.3% of students. The improvement can be seen in the form of students’ achievements. from the aspect of the vocabulary mastery. the students could understand. photographs. Surakarta 2010. They are from 2. from the students’ motivation.” Teacher Training and Education Faculty. reflecting the result of the observation. K2206029: “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). write about 75 until 80 % of the words correctly and also use the words in context appropriately. Then. Next. The test consisted of the pre-test and post-test. In the quantitative method. the researcher used observations. Besides that. the scores of the pre-test and post-test show that there is also an improvement of students who achieve the minimum standard score. remember. The technique to analyze the test result was by comparing the mean score of pre-test and post-test. This study is based on the problem of the low vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. they do not do something useless during teaching learning process. and research findings. The techniques in collecting the data were qualitative and quantitative method. The results of this research show that short texts can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. they also like having discussion with their friends. the students are more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process.8% to 94. and document analysis.ABSTRACT Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi. implementing the action. this research also used descriptive statistics and the t-test of non-independent.36 in post-test. It is aimed at knowing whether using short texts can enrich the students’ vocabulary. grasp. the researcher used tests. The procedure of the research consisted of identifying the problems. The results of the observation were in the form of field notes and photographs. Sebelas Maret University. planning the action. that is 60.

were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading, writing and pronouncing correctly.

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MOTTO
“Mantapkan hati dan niat seraya berucap Bismillahirrahmanirrahim”

"No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross, no crown." (William Penn)

"Criticism should not be querulous and wasting, all knife and rootpuller, but guiding, instructive, inspiring." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

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DEDICATION

With deep profound love, this research is devoted to: 1. Her beloved father and mother, thank you. Nothing compares to what they have done for her. 2. Her beloved “eyang uti” and sisters “dek sha”, who always pray and encourage her. 3. Her best friends “pam, sopal, dee, lucy, jhono, anggit, riph, tika” who give her unbroken support, prayer, and cares. 4. Her all friends, who always support her. 5. Herself and her beautiful future.

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The Headmaster of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo for the permission and advices for doing the research in SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. Dr. Mrs. for all his valuable guidance. the first consultant. for all his valuable guidance. M. who helped and given her a chance to do the research. Therefore. in this occasion she would like to express her deepest gratitude and appreciation to the following: 1.. the second consultant and academic consultant. encouragement. advice. The Head of the English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty for his advice. Hum. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. advice. viii . and patience during the writing process of this thesis. 6. 3. M.S. encouragement. The writer is also fully aware that her thesis can never be finished without the help of others during the process of writing. 4. S. The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University who had given his permission to write this thesis.. Praise be to ALLAH SWT who has given His blessing to the writer so that she can complete the writing of this thesis as a partial requirement for achieving the undergraduate degree of education in English Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University. 5. Teguh Sarosa.Pd. the English teacher of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. Abdul Asib. 2. Sugiyati.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillahirabbil’alamin..

Lucy. Hopefully. Surakarta. Everyone who helped the writer to conduct the research for his or her participation in writing this thesis. and Aji. her sister. for their supports. Didit Hermawan. Pamrih. Anggi. Dewi. her mother. Yoyok Sandi Wibowo. Her “best friends”. for his motivation to make the writer keep move on. Her incredible support. 2010  Rea  ix . June. and prayer. Ariph and Atika for their supports and suggestions. The researcher realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect. caring. 10. this thesis will be useful for the readers.7. her grandmother. 11. 8. Muthya. her father. 9. She hopes and accepts gratefully every comment and suggestion. Her friends in the English Department of the year 2006 for their everlasting friendship. 12. The second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo who participated well in the research. Her beloved family. Riana.

........................................ 9 1................................................................... 6 D........................ v DEDICATION ................................. RATIONALE AND HYPHOTHESIS ......... 9 a................................................................................................................................. 19 x .................................................................... i APPROVAL..................................................................................................................... The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery ...................... 1 B...................................................................................................................... xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ..................... TABLE OF CONTENT TITLE PAGE ...................................... xiv LIST OF FIGURE .............................. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .. iv MOTTO... Vocabulary Mastery ................................................................................. 11 d............................................. ii ABSTRACT ........ 7 E................ 1 A.....................Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company..................................................... ix LIST OF APPENDIXES ......... Notion of Vocabulary .............. Background of the Study ........................................................... 9 A............................................................................................................... 13 e................................ The Benefits of the Study .................................................................................... 10 c.............................. vii TABLE OF CONTENT ......................................................................... The Problems Statement ......................................................................................... General Concept of Vocabulary ........................................................................ 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE................................................ 6 C.... The Importance of Vocabulary ....................................... The Objectives of the Research ..................................2005-2008 For Evaluation Only................................................................................................................................................. The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery .................................. 9 b... Review on Related Literature ........................................................................................................ The Limitation of the Problem ............................................... xiii LIST OF TABLE .........

.................................................................................... 49 1.........................................2................. 36 C.. 30 b................................... 34 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .. 47 B.... 23 b.......................... Research Implementation ................ 23 a.......................................... The Model of Action Research ......... The General Concept of Young Learners ................. 28 4............. 45 H................................................. Planning the Action ............................................ Validity of the Instrument.......................................................................................................................................... 44 G................... The Characteristic of Motivated Students ..... 51 3.................... The Criteria of Successful Action ........................................................................... The Definition of Motivation ...................... 37 D...... The Notion of Folktales . Reliability of the Instrument ...... 31 c..................................................................................... The Notion of Young Learners ................................................................................................... Observing and Monitoring the Action ...... 25 3................................................... The Description of the Research ...................................................................................................................................................... 66 xi .................. 47 A....... 46 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION ..................................... The Types of Motivation ........................ Rationale ....................................... Hypothesis ............. 32 B.................. Essences of Short Text ........................... 45 I................................. 35 A.... Setting and Subject of the Research .............................................. Technique of Collecting Data ............................................. 33 C......................... 28 b............ 28 a... 41 F................................... Method of the Research ........................ The Procedures of Action research........ 30 a................................... The Concept of Text ........................... 50 2............................................................... The Characteristic of Children ...... Introduction ...................... The Notion of Motivation ....................... 24 c........... 35 B. Technique of Data Analysis ...................................................................................... 39 E....... The Concept of Story ..

.................................................. 77 B....... School.................... 80 1........................................................................ 74 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION............................................................... Research Finding.......................... 80 2.................................................. 81 4........................... SUGGESTION .......... 81 3...................... Students .............................. 72 C................................. Implication .................................................. Suggestion ......................................... Discussion .................................... IMPLICATION........ 69 5................... Conclusion ..................................................................................... 81 BYBLIOGRAPHY xii ......................................................................4.......................... 79 C...................................... Reflecting the Result of the Observation ............ English Teacher........................ Other Researcher ............................... 77 A....................

........ 244 xiii ............................................. 149 Appendix 10 : Syllabus of KTSP ................................................................... 102 Appendix 5 : Field Notes .. 144 Appendix 7 : Pre and Post Test Items ................................................................................ 145 Appendix 8 : Key Answer of the Test ..................................................... 153 Appendix 12 : The Students’ Pre-test and Post Test Score ............................................................ 85 Appendix 3 : Lesson Plans .............. 148 Appendix 9 : The Research Schedule ............................................ 160 Appendix 16 : Key Answer of Worksheet .......................................................................................... 236 Appendix 17 : Letters of Permission ....... 150 Appendix 11 : Students Score before the Action .................... 157 Appendix 14 : The Computation of T-Test ............................................... 118 Appendix 6 : Blue Print of Vocabulary Test .LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix 1 : Description of location SMP N 5 Sukoharjo .................... 155 Appendix 13 : The Computation of Validity and Reliability ........... 82 Appendix 2 : The Photographs ................................................................................... 159 Appendix 15 : The Students’ Test and Worksheet done by the Students ................................................. 90 Appendix 4 : Students’ Worksheet ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

......................................................... 43 : Improvement of the Students’ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts .....................................................................LIST OF TABLE Table 1 Table 2 : The Steps in Action Research..... 70 xiv ..........

.........LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1................................. 38 xv ... An Illustration of Action Research Spiral ......

science. It has been discussed before that foreign language has many functions. As it is known. technology. and culture. there are many education books that are written in foreign languages. one of the requirements is language competence. English is one of the native languages used to improve students‟ ability. It is because language is one of instruments which has important functions in communication. Background of the Study Mastering of a foreign language is one of the important things that is needed in modern society and globalization era. Then. both of in spoken and written form. communication. such as trade. So. education. so does English. It has a function as a bridge for all aspects of human life. there are so many kinds of foreign language. . As quoted in Undang-Undang Sisdiknas (2003: 15) “bahasa asing dapat digunakan sebagai bahasa pengantar pada satuan pendidikan tertentu untuk mendukung kemampuan berbahasa asing peserta didik”. English is one of the important foreign languages. it can be said that mastering foreign language is very important for surviving life. society. for example is job requirement. That is the most important reason why English is learned in school.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. In education. The importance can be seen from some sides of life.

and Girard (1992: 23-24) define some reasons for starting to learn a foreign language earlier. psychologically. First. Third.2 Actually. they are: 1. teaching English at junior high school is extremely important because it is still the basis for the higher level. Second. 4. It also maximizes . By learning foreign language earlier. From some statements above. The need for maximum learning time for important languages. Singleton in Brumfit (1997: 7) also defines some reasons for teaching English at primary level. it prepares young learners to make a link of communication to understand concept of communication it self. the indisputable fact those young learners have a greater facility for understanding and imitating what they hear than adult. 2. Ellis. The need to link communication to understanding of view concepts. The advantage of starting with early second language instruction so that later the language can be used as a medium of teaching. at junior high school is very important. Brewster. teaching English to young learner is aimed to increase the total number of years spent learning language. the earlier you start the more time you get. the aim of early foreign language learning is to prepare young learner linguistically. and culturally for language learning. it can be concluded that studying foreign language. 3. especially English language. The need to expose children from an early age to understanding of foreign cultures so that they grow up tolerant and sympathetic to others.

young learners forget something quickly. especially English skills (listening. It makes them know and understand a lot of vocabularies.3 learning time for learning foreign language. here are the junior high students. vocabulary mastery is the basic knowledge in learning English. For beginners. It should not be neglected by anyone who learns a language. the students need to understand the meaning of words. Sometimes. writing. the earlier they start the more time they get. So it can be concluded that vocabulary takes the important aspect to master English well as a foreign language. There are many kinds of students‟ characteristic. Considering the importance of vocabulary competence. The words here means as vocabulary. knowing words is the key for understanding and being understood. Therefore. and reading). speaking. For enhancing all aspects in foreign language. Then. the students need something to do. First. Firstly. They will more understand what they have learned. it is better to introduce new vocabulary earlier to the students. Vocabulary supports all of the English skills. Knowing more words in English language. They will forget some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat . a teacher has many problems to develop the students‟ vocabulary mastery. it will make other person understand or make ourselves understood easily. One of the problems that are faced is the characteristics of the students as young learners. it is not easy to teach English for the young learners. Coady and Huckin (1998: 5) say that vocabulary is the central to language and of critical importance to language learning for the young learners.

Second. They always discuss about something in their around while playing. It is clear that repetition is needed. By using the appropriate method. technique. young learners still like playing. magazine. young learners get bored easily. especially in vocabulary mastery. there are no interesting technique that used by the teacher. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. it is important to find out the appropriate. There are no materials from other sources like internet. technique. In teaching learning process. So. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. So. so the . After having pre research by interviewing the teacher and observing teaching learning process of mastering vocabulary at the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo.4 the words many times. The teaching learning process uses teacher centre in delivering the lessons. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. They prefer playing than studying. Here. the researcher finds out that the students‟ vocabulary mastery is still low. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. Third. Most of materials come from the teachers. The method. It may be caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate and attractive. technique or and material. it makes the students less interested and do not be active in teaching learning process. the teachers have to find out the appropriate. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students‟ acts as follows: firstly. etc. The materials used in teaching learning process only from books and students worksheet.

students‟ marks are still lower than the passing grade. Example is the word “n-t-w-i-r-e”. From the indicators that are mentioned above. the students write the word only “sudenly”. It is because there are no appropriate learning sources that used to help the students for remembering the materials that are given. The other difficulties that the students faced when they do an exercise on jumble word. For example the word “suddenly”. Short text is one of an interesting material that helps the students to find out the keys to remember and grasp many new vocabularies. Thirdly. The students usually get mistake to rearrange into the correct word. It is because all words or group word are inside of the short texts. The correct arrangement is “winter” but students rearrange them become “writen”. the researcher tries to enrich vocabulary mastery of the students using short texts. Beside that the students will be easy to write down the correct words or group words. She wants to make the students interested by using the teaching material of short texts. Secondly. Due to the facts above.5 students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words. It can be seen when they find some words that have double letters. Most of the students forget to write down the second letter. The students also get difficulties when they have to translate the words. She uses short texts because short texts will help to solve the problems that are faced by the students. . the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly.

the researcher wants to prove whether or not the short texts can improve students‟ vocabulary mastery in learning English at the junior high school. the researcher would like to conduct a research to solve the problem and also enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery by using short stories entitled “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS” (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). How is the students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? . Can short texts enrich vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? 2. the researcher limits the problem on how to enrich the students‟ vocabulary mastery using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010.6 Based on the description above. The Limitation of the Problem The research has a broad scope and it is impossible for the researcher to handle the study consisting of so many complicated problems. The problems of the study can be formulated as follows: 1. B. C. Therefore. The Problems Statement Based on the background of study.

So the teacher hoped to create an interesting teaching learning process by using this teaching material. 2. the data of the research are also very useful for the teacher. Then. The Objectives of the Research Based on the formulation of the problem. the general objective of this research is to improve students‟ vocabulary by using short texts. The students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. . the teacher can take some correct problems solving from those problems. Particularly. in this case is short texts. Then. they are: 1. Whether using short texts can enrich the students‟ vocabulary of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. It will help the teacher to identify the students‟ difficulties in learning vocabulary and also find the students who need more guiding. this research is aimed to find out: 1.7 D. The Benefits of the Study It is expected that this research contributes some significant progresses in teaching vocabulary for several sides. Teacher It is expected that the teacher will get more information about one of the appropriate teaching materials. E.

Through short texts. Students It is expected that the result will give motivation to the students to be better in vocabulary mastery. . so the quality of teaching learning process can be increased.8 2. 3. School It is expected that the information of the result will be very useful for getting success in teaching learning process. students are expected to have good enrichment in vocabulary and also the changes of behavior during teaching learning process. The result of the research is also hoped to improve students‟ achievement in English lesson standard.

which expressing a single idea. Since vocabulary is a list. mother-in-law. Here.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. if someone learns new words in foreign language. Review On Related Literature 1. Furthermore. the only system involved is alphabetical order in dictionaries. for example post office. McWhorter (1989: 311) says that vocabulary means the ability to recognize individual words and to associate . Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) state that vocabulary is a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. For example. The items in vocabulary may be more than a single word. vocabulary is written in alphabetical order in dictionaries based on system or rule of foreign language. General Concept of Vocabulary a. Ur (1998: 60) defines that vocabulary can be mean as the words we teach in foreign language. It means vocabulary is written or spoken unit of language as symbol of idea in foreign language for the learners. it means that someone learns vocabulary.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Notion of Vocabulary There are some definitions of vocabulary proposed by linguist experts. 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE (RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESIS) A.

either a physical object or an idea. an object with a flat surface. McWhorter states that vocabulary deals with the competence in recognizing words and its meaning. the word chair in our minds a physical reality. does not represent a physical object. The words here are the symbols in form of groups of letter represent either a physical object or an idea. For example. Then. vocabulary is the competence or skill in recognizing words and its meaning. vocabulary can be constructed as a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. vocabulary deals with a series of words in particular language. or represent. usually supported by four legs. Based on three definitions above. Ur adds that vocabulary deals with word taught in foreign language. b. groups of letter that stand for. Based on Hatch and Brown. The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary is an important aspect in our life. In the other word. It can be formed from a single or more than one word. the word love on the other hand. Then. It is because people need vocabulary in expressing their ideas both of in mother . 10 meaning with the particular combination of letters that form a word.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. It symbolizes the feeling of one person toward another. Meanwhile. and used to for sitting. Words are symbols. recognizing words means knowing its meaning or idea and how they are formed by a combination of letters.

or knowledge.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. we must name objects. Edge (1993: 27) states that knowing a lot of words in foreign language are very important. It means mastery is the ability to use one of knowledge. it can be concluded that vocabulary is very important in learning language and mastering vocabulary will facilitate someone in using language in communication. According to the statement above. Tailor (1991: 1) says that in order to live in the world. c. vocabulary plays an important role. Cross (1995: 14) states that a good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication. Vocabulary Mastery Coulson et al (1987: 1050) define that mastery is skill. an event. While Hornby (1984:523) says that mastery is the complete control or . Vocabulary always becomes the essential part of English as a foreign language. use. learning a language becomes a very hard thing to do and communication in second language cannot happen in any meaningful way. Without vocabulary mastery. Names are essential for the construction of reality. it will be difficult to accept the existence of an object. Without a name. A strong vocabulary can be a valuable asset. both in college and later in our career. and a feeling. 11 tongue and foreign language. Every person who learns a language must learn the vocabulary of the language in order to make the learning process easier. In language learning.

Here. adolescent period. adult period. . vocabulary mastery can be constructed as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. Keraf (1989: 6566) defines the step in processing vocabulary mastery. First. mastery is the whole power or ability to direct knowledge. this term is the adolescent start to use the language and make it more extensive directly in simple communication. from both of definitions above. The certain area in teaching means a lesson taught. It means mastery is the ability to combine skill and knowledge in one certain area. Third. either a physical object or an idea and it also can be formed from a single or more than one word. children period. The vocabulary mastery can not be done spontaneous but step by step.12 knowledge. While vocabulary is a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning in form of symbols of groups of letter. It is usually arranged by a standard of curriculum and syllabus in every aspect whether the topic or the test. The process of vocabulary mastery is not simple. this term children are able to define concept vocabulary to say their concrete idea. Second. in case of the physical object or idea. So. this term the vocabulary are used more and more intensive because they make more communication each other. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word.

There are two techniques in improving vocabulary mastery. social lesson. mastery may be defined as the ability to use skill or knowledge in one subject area based on recognized standard. There are some techniques of teaching vocabulary. there are so many techniques proposed by some experts. The techniques are the unplanned vocabulary teaching and planned vocabulary teaching. in case of the physical object or idea. The technique here refers to the way of teaching. While vocabulary. The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery There are various ways to improve vocabulary mastery. The success of teaching learning process depends on not only the teachers‟ and students‟ competence but also the technique of teaching. Then indirect technique uses the other source of lesson like mathematic. means a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. Unplanned vocabulary teaching is . Then vocabulary mastery define as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. They are direct and indirect techniques. poetry and games. Dealing with the technique of vocabulary teaching. d.13 From the definition above. prose. The teachers may have some techniques to teach it. and science lesson. Direct technique is usually used through the language book.

etc. For examples. while planned vocabulary teaching where the teacher goes into classroom with an item or a set of vocabulary items that the teacher has decided before hand. chuckle. the teachers present vocabulary items by bringing the real things into classroom. While Lewis and Hill (1992: 102-103) mention some ways to teach vocabulary. stagger. Sometimes the explanation is no more complicated than pointing.14 extemporaneous teaching of vocabulary items that come up without planning in course of lesson. Beside that it also helps students to memorize both of visual and aural memories. The planned vocabulary teaching can be described as “the vocabulary lesson” since the primary objective of the teaching activities is the presentation and practice of the lexical item themselves. The demonstration helps to make the meaning clearer and to fix the word in the students‟ minds. . They are: 1) Demonstrate Demonstration is the way of teaching vocabulary by doing physical demonstration together verbal explanation. The objects of the real things can be in the class or probably through the window. 2) Use the real thing In this way.

the learners have to be aware that a word may have different opposite in difficult context. For example: light bag >< heavy bag light word >< strong word rough area >< quite area poor >< rich dirty >< clean happy >< sad red orange yellow certainly / definitely probably / possibly . the level of the explanation must be suitable to the students‟ level of English at the time so that dictionary. orange (color). 4) Use the blackboard to show scales or grades Words like cool. or probably may be explained by presenting them with groups of related words: Hot warm cool cold 5) Antonyms This is the way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites or antonyms of the word. Here. It is worth that the explanations given here are not exact definitions of the word. like accuracy can often be counter-productive. For example the meaning of bush was explained by two very simple sketches.15 3) Draw or sketch Teachers do not need to be artists to make simple sketches which illustrate meaning.

8) Verbal explanation Verbal explanation refers to the way of teaching vocabulary by explaining the meaning of vocabulary items in students‟ own language. that words do not mean the same as each other. 7) The dictionary This is the way of teaching vocabulary by using dictionary to know vocabulary items. or not. A bilingual dictionary can be used at low levels and monolingual dictionary at the high levels. using the former phrase also helps to build up in the students‟ mind ides that language consists of choice. asking one or more students to look the word up in a dictionary. Beside that. It is . 9) Translation It is a way of teaching vocabulary by translating some words or individual words from the target language into other language. Though words may have similar denotation meaning.16 rough texture >< smooth texture 6) Synonyms high >< low Synonyms are the way of teaching vocabulary by giving same meaning of two or more words. One technique for explaining these which teachers too frequently overlook is asking the class whether anybody knows the word and. their connotation meanings often differ.

b) Mime and gesture These are often used to supplement other ways of conveying meaning. a teacher might build a situation to illustrate it. photographs. descriptions of people. To ensure that students understand. and activities. 2) Verbal Techniques a) Use illustrative situation (oral or written) This is most helpful when items become more abstract. wallcharts. professions. Gairns (1991: 73-75) says that there are some techniques used in presenting new vocabulary. if the class consists of different nationalities. teachers often make use of .e. blackboard drawings. When teaching an item such as “to swerve”. and certain areas of vocabulary such as places. Furthermore. making use of blackboard and gesture to reinforce the concept. They are extensively used for conveying meaning and particularly useful for teaching concrete items of vocabulary such as furniture. and realia (i. the teacher will find difficulty to translate the word(s) into all languages. In this technique. They are: 1) Visual techniques a) Visual These include flashcards.17 seen as boring and traditional. actions. objects themselves).

d) Scales Once students have learnt two contrasting or related gradable items. it is vital to illustrate the contexts in which this is true. However. b) Use of synonymy and definition Definition here is the way of teaching vocabulary by defining or describing objects. Synonymy is also the way of teaching by giving more than one meaning for a word. c) Contrast and opposites Contrast and opposites are they way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites of the words.18 more than one situation or context to check that students have grasped the concept. This is the example of adverbs of frequency: never hardly ever occasionally I sometimes often always go to cinema on Sundays . this can be a useful way of revising and feeding in new items.

in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. . 3) Translation Translation can be very effective way of conveying meaning. it is also hoped that by using these techniques. It is because the techniques that are mentioned are usually used in school. The example of “furniture” is “table.19 e) Examples of type This is the way of teaching vocabulary by exemplifying things it self. the researcher uses definition. bed. the students can understand and grasp the vocabulary easily. in case of the physical object or idea. mime and gesture. In this paper. It can save valuable time in teaching process but it seen as boring and traditional. verbal explanation and translation techniques to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery. Then. it can be defined as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that is used to express meaning. synonyms. Some of these can of course also be dealt with through visual aids. dictionary. The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery Dealing with the vocabulary mastery. antonyms. The teacher will find difficulties if the students come from different nationalities. etc”. e. chair. sofa.

spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors. 1) Pronunciation Research shows that words that are difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn.such as regular and lorry for Japanese speakers. how to pronunce. spelling. If those factors are fulfilled. Potentially difficult words will typically be those that contain sounds that are unfamiliar to some groups of learners. length and complexity. how to spell. Here. such as strength or crisp or breakfast. It is because she or he should know the appropriate word. either of pronunciation or of spelling. someone can be said that he or she has achieved the vocabulary mastery. what‟s the meaning. meaning.20 Thornbury (2002: 27) declares some factors why learning vocabulary is rather difficult for second language learner. connotation and idiomatic are the indicators in vocabulary mastery. and range. She or he can not understand the lesson easily. The example is when an Indonesian student has an English subject at school and it is the second language for her or him. 2) Spelling Sound. Those six aspects above will be defined briefly here. Many learners find that words with clusters of consonants. grammar. and can contribute to a . Thornbury says that the factors come from the word‟s aspects such pronunciation. etc to express the idea of the subject. are also problematic.

Remembering whether a verb like enjoy. or hope is followed by an infinitive (to swim) or an –ing form (swimming) can add to its difficulty. a factor favoring their „learn ability‟. 4) Grammar It is problematic when grammar associated with the word. etc. listen. While most English spelling is fairly law-abiding. 3) Length and complexity Long words seem to be no more difficult to learn than short ones. there are also some glaring irregularities. bored. cupboard. variable stress in polysyllabic words. especially if this differs from that of its L 1 equivalent. necessity and necessarily can add to their difficulty.21 word‟s difficulty. for example. Then the grammar of phrasal verbs is particularly troublesome: some phrasal verbs are separable (she looked the word up) but others are not (she looked after the children). However. honest. . Words that contain silent letters are particularly problematic: foreign. tend to assume that explain follows the same pattern as both Spanish explicar and English tell. high frequency words tend to be short in English. headache. and say he explained me the lesson. as a rule of thumb.such as in word families like necessary. Furthermore. and therefore the learner is likely to meet them more often. climbing. love. muscle. Spanish learners of English.

The words with multiple meanings such as since. Thus. swap for exchange) may cause problems. totally different. such as very informal words (chuck for throw. compare to impose. meaning. they may be reluctant to accept a second. Make and do are a case in point: you make breakfast and make an appointment. slim. The words have style constraints. place. position. Unfamiliar concepts may make a word difficult to learn. culture specific items such as words and expressions associated with the game cricket (a sticky wicket. . but you do the housework and do a questionnaire. learners are likely to confuse them. and still. 6) Range. Thus put is a very wide-ranging verb. Uncertainly to the connotations of some words may cause problems too. Finally. but its nearest equivalent in other languages may dean deviant. and a good innings) will seem fairly opaque to most learners and are likely to be easily learned.22 5) Meaning When two words overlap in meaning. Likewise. Having learned one meaning of the word. can also be troublesome for learners. etc. slender. thin is a safer bet than skinny. Thus. propaganda has negative connotations in English. connotation and idiomaticity Words that can be used in a wide range of context will generally be perceived as easier than their synonyms with a narrower range. a hat trick.

those three aspects that are learned in junior high school. It is because. spelling. form. graphic features. intended readership. . watch). where “text” means verbal record communication. The aspects to be measured are limited to pronunciation of words. keep an eye on…) will generally be more difficult than words whose meaning is transparent (decide. They also differentiate the term of those text and discourse dealing with the context. style. Essences of Short Text a. we conclude that vocabulary mastery is the students‟ awareness of understanding the words and their rules to communicate. 2. the use of words in meaning and meaning. Texts in this sense are printed texts. as well as their syntactic complexity that makes phrasal verbs so difficult.23 words or expression that are idiomatic (like make up your mind. length. From all those definition above. Arthur Hughes (2003:140) states that texts candidates are expected to be able to deal with can be specified along number of parameters: type. Willis (1998: 67) says that text in general sense to mean a continuous piece of spoken or written language. topic. The Concept of Text Brown and Yule (1997: 24) suggest that the term to spoke “text” as well. It is their idiomaticity.

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readability or difficulty, range of vocabulary and grammatical structure. Text type include: text books, handouts, articles (in newspaper, journals or magazine), poems, encyclopedia, dictionary, novel (extracts) and short stories, etc. He also states that text forms include: description, exposition, argumentation, instruction, and narration. Cross (1995:77-78) states that the text is a major resources; permitting you to vary the learning activities from lesson to lesson. There are four main factors to consider when deciding how to threat a passage; linguistic complexity, length, interest level and aims. From the definition above, it can be concluded that the text is a verbal communication which consists of continuous piece of spoken or written language and its meaning is contextually. b. The Concept of Story Story is account of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events, etc (Hornby: 1995: 94). Taylor (2000: 16) says that story is relating tale to one or more listener through voice and gesture. It is clear that vocabulary in a story should be presented in clear context; the amusing situations can make the vocabulary easy to remember. Ray B. West (1968: v) says that story is something brought into being by application of the skill and workings of the imagination of the author. Its aim is to arouse the emotions and stimulate the imagination of the students.

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Brad Hooper (1992: xi) says that story is different from a novel in that it is short enough to be read in one sitting, with every word leading toward some final, preordained effect. In story, the sentences are generally shorter in order the students easy to follow the story. From the statements above, the writer draw conclusion that story refers to the written or spoken description of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events that can be used to for teaching students which have aims to make the students easier to follow the story and it has different from a novel that is short enough to be read in one sitting. This paper, the writer uses the story as text especially folktale for increasing vocabulary mastery in second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo Academic Year 2009/2010. c. The Notion of Folktales One kind of story that usually heard by child is the folktales. It is type words composition that recites the story of the folklore in a certain region that is popularly and orally told from one generation to other generation in a certain community. (www.classicalfolktale.wikipedia.com) 1) The meaning of Folktales The word folktale is not defined in English usage. Taylor (2000:4) defines the term “folktale” as traditional story that has been

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passed by words of mouth, told from parents to children over many generations or passed on by countless storytellers sitting around countless evening fires. No one knows who the original author was, and there are usually different versions of the same story, he also states that the term “folktale” has also been used to refer to literary retelling of these tales. Another definition of folktales is that “words folktales refer to the many types of traditional narratives know to the “folk” (Coffin and Cohen, 1996:1). Philips (1992) defines folktales as story about telling stories with unverifiable claims and its literary form. From the definition above, we can assume that folktales are traditional stories that have been passed by words of mouth and told from generation to generation. Folktales lasted through a long period of time due to their universality. They are forms of traditional literature which began as attempt to explain and understand the natural and spiritual world. The origin of folktales lies in oral tradition. 2) The type of folktales There are several types of folktales. Taylor (2000) divides folktales as fable, fairy tales, hero stories, myths, legend. Fables are very short folktales with animals as the main characteristic and with very obvious moral lesson, often summon up in single line at the end.

It is told as if they are fact. Legends are stories that are based on a real hero and his or her mighty deeds and believed by the teller and serve a historical purpose. when strictly defined. Fairy tales are fictional and take place in a never-land. Fairy tales are folktales that include some magical elements (not necessity fairies): the German word marchen is sometimes used for this.27 Legend is stories that are based on real hero and his or her mighty deeds. 3) The Characteristics of Folktales Although there a lot of variations between folktales. Examples “Johnny Appleased” and “Pail Bunyan”. And believed by the teller and served as historical purpose: “The dog and the meat” and “the greedy old spider”. Example: “Shakespeare‟s Ghost” and “Paul Bunyan”. is religious and deals with the creating and ordering of the universe and with the earlier order in which present world condition were being established. and usually involving God. Taylor . Goddesses and supernatural power: “Adam and Eve” and “Noah‟s ark”. and even between two telling stories of the same tale. certain characteristics typical in folktales contribute to relatively easy reading. Examples: Tumbelina. Hero stories some of which have some real historical parts and other of which may not. primitive myth.

The Notion of Young Learners Teaching English to children is different from teaching English to and adult. The General Concept of Young Learners a. In relation to the English teaching learning process. children have the following characteristics: . These are the list: time order repetition and redundancy predictability relatively simply grammar concrete ideas illustrations that provide support and context for the texts a unique reader-write relationship 3. It means that the English teacher should be use the technique for English teaching that can make the students interested in learning English Lesson (House. 1997: 98) b. they need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. The Characteristic of Children In general.28 (2000:9) gives various characteristics of folktales that make them exceptionally good for language teaching.

They tend to resolves around themselves. eyes. 2) They talk about “Here and Now” Children always discuss about existing in their around and happened in that time. They develop their way of thinking from the concrete to the abstract thing. 2) Children have no real linguistic. They more like playing than learning. They teach subject what school provides for them 3) Children are still developing their common skill such as turn taking and the use of body language. 4) Young children are very egocentric. Hence from that to convey the material of learning we should be able to take both. So material of teaching that will be teaching is about their surrounding and happened in that time. that is playing and learning in the same time. They learn more slowly. Clark (1990: 6-8) states the characteristics of the children are as follows: 1) Children are developing conceptually. 3) Their own understanding comes through hands. and ears Children will be understandings about what we talk are using hands. and ears. eyes. .29 1) They like playing Children like playing.

The class activities must be fun and interesting by setting up the interesting activities.30 5) Children get bored easily children have no choice to attend school. 8) Children forget quickly. ensuring success and enhancing the children‟s motivation are important factors in promoting the success of early start in foreign language learning. It will take them more confident in attempting the sound of foreign language and they delighted in playing the sound. it can be conclude that young learner need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. The Notion of Motivation a. it is very important for teachers to know about motivation. . It is because motivation will influence someone both in process and result. 7) Children are better mimics. The Definition of Motivation Motivation is needed in every occasion. From the definition above. the teacher in teaching English needs repetition. Therefore. Thus. 6) Children are at early of their education. especially in teaching learning process. of course based on their characteristics in teaching learning English lesson. 4.

. Then. 2000: 332) says that motivation is internal states that arouses us to action.31 Some experts define some definition of motivation. social motivation. pushes us in particular direction. or desire that moves and leads learner to do a particular action in order to meet and needs or to attain a set of goals of teaching learning process. Biggs and Watkins (1995: 84) state that there are four categories of motivation. namely: extrinsic motivation. Groccia (1992: 62) states that people learn and study because the consequences of such behavior satisfy certain internal and/or external motives. impulse. Extrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because of consequences to obtain a reward and to avoid the punishment. intrinsic motivation. achievement motivation. b. The Types of Motivation There are many kinds of learning motivation stated by the experts. Brophy (1998: 3) says that motivation refers to the students‟ subjective experiences. and keep us engaged in certain activities. While intrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because they are interested in task or activities itself. From the definition above it can be concluded that motivation is an arousal. Weiner (in Elliot et al. Next. their willingness to engage in teaching learning activities and their reasons for doing this.

Integrative motivation is the desire to identify with and integrate into target language culture. Need for achievement. social motivation is defined as the students‟ motivation in order to make the other people feel pleasure. that is winning makes they feel good. to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do. The learner has needs to achieve. . The Characteristic of Motivated Students Naiman et al. 2). The learner finds it important to succeed in learning and promote his or her own positive self-image. Then. and has confidence in his or her success. top grades. they are those who display certain typical characteristic. the students learn in order to compete against the other students. Positive task oriented. Ur (1996: 19) defines some kinds of motivation. 4). goes for demanding challenges. 3). The learner is ambitious. c. High aspiration. in Ur (1996: 275) comes to conclusion that the most successful students are not necessary those to whom a language comes very easily. They are integrated motivation and instrumental motivation. Then instrumental motivation is to wish to learn the language for purposes of study or carrier. Ego-involvement. most of them clearly associated with motivation. those are as follows: 1). The learner willing to tackle tasks and challenges. high proficiency.32 Achievement motivation.

They could . Rationale In learning English vocabulary. there are difficulties that might be faced by the learners especially the young learners. The learner consistently invests a high level of effort in learning. and it is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack progress. Goal orientation. It is caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate on their level. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students as follows: firstly. Secondly. 7). The students‟ vocabulary mastery of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010 is still low. It can be seen when they do the exercises. 6).33 5). Most of the students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. Thirdly. B. The learner is very aware of the goals of learning. Tolerance of ambiguity. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. or of specific learning activities. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. Perseverance. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words and then translate them. and directs his or her effort towards achieving them. The learner is not disturbed or frustrated by situations involving a temporary lack of understanding will come later.

the teacher should create an interesting teaching material. Most of their marks are still lower than the passing grade. So. One of the teaching materials that can be used is the short texts. By using short texts.34 not do the exercises perfectly. The teaching materials should be suitable with the young learners‟ characteristics. especially for the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic Year of 2009/2010. Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research can be formulated as follows: by using short texts. C. Considering the explanation above. the students can improve their vocabulary mastery. the teacher helps the students to remember the words and understand the meaning and also the grammatical pattern of the sentences easily. the researcher believes that short texts can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery. . Short texts are interesting materials in teaching language.

Sukoharjo. It is because there is a problem related with students‟ vocabulary mastery. The details are the pre-test. The pre-test was done on the first meeting. the treatments were done on the second until five meeting. consist of 11 boys and 24 girls. Next. It was done for knowing the students‟ improvement after using short texts in teaching learning process. Sukoharjo Regency. and the posttest. 35 CHAPTER III RESEACH METODHOLOGY A. the post-test was done on the sixth meeting. The aim was to master vocabulary by using short stories. Time of research This research held on a cycle on second semester in the academic year of 2009/2010. Setting of place This research was done in SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo. This school is located at Bulakan. Setting and Subject of the Research. There are 35 students for class A. Subject of the Research The subject of this research is the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Last.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. 1. Post test was done on the six meeting. the treatments.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. It was done for knowing the students‟ basic ability of the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. 2. 3. .

dan atau tindakan untuk lebih memahami hakekat dan atau konsekuensi mengajar dengan tujuan untuk melakukan tindakan atau menguabah atau meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dan lebih baik bila dilakukan secara kolaboratif dengan kolega atau teman guru.” Kemmis (1983) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices. Meanwhile. 36 B. Rapport (1970) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is aimed to contribute both to the practical concern of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of the school science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework. For a starting point. It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively. (b) their understanding to these practices. . Ebbutt (1985) in Hopkins (1993: 45) states action research is about the systematic study of attempts to improve educational practice by groups of participants by means of their own practical actions and by means of own reflection upon the effects of those actions.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Method of the Research This research is a kind of action research. it is necessary to give a definition of action research. Dewi Rochsantiningsih (2008) defines action research as: “proses sistematis di mana guru dengan sukarela melibatkan diri untuk melakukan refleksi dokumentasi. though it is often undertaken by individuals and sometimes in cooperation with outsiders.

intact groups are used in some cases. it can be concluded that action research is a systematic study and it is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken or carried out by participants in educational situation rather than outside researches to solve the problem in order to improve the students‟ ability. it is hoped that the researcher will find the solution for developing the students‟ vocabulary mastery. this research is done to increase the students‟ vocabulary mastery through short texts. administrator. By participating the actions in this research. only a single group or individual is involved in the study. From the definition above. Often. research conducted by a teacher. According to the model. The Model of Action Research The model of classroom action research used in this study is based on the model developed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1985). or other educational professionals to aid in decision making in the local school. Action research focuses on the solution of day-to-day problems at the local level.37 Furthermore. C. Wiersma (2000: 10) states one type of applied research is action research. the implementation of the classroom action research includes four steps in the following: . Action research is usually less rigorous in term of design and methodology than other educational researches. Based on the definition and the aims above.

Based on Hopkins‟ point of views (1993: 48) this model can be illustrated as follow. . Action Act to implement the plan. Reflection Reflecting process on these effects as the basis for further planning. through a succession of a stages. 2. Planning Develop a plan of critically informed action to improve what is already happening. subsequent critically informed and so on.38 1. 3. Observation Observe the effects of the critically informed action in the context in which it occurs. 4.

f. and conducting a pre-test. Designing the steps in doing the action. Planning the action The researcher prepared everything related to the action as follows: a. 39 D. It was obtained by observing the teaching learning process. each procedure takes five steps in one cycle. c. b. Preparing a test. The problem referred to the students‟ difficulty in learning vocabulary. d. The problem was caused by the technique of delivering material which was not suitable and interesting to the learners. It was done to know whether students‟ vocabulary could be improved or not. Preparing the material. . interviewing the students. There are follows: 1. e. Preparing teaching aids.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. 2. Planning the steps and technique for delivering the material in the form of lesson plan. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of teaching learning process when the technique is applied). The Procedures of Action Research In this classroom action research. Identifying the problems The researcher identified the problem before planning the action.

The researcher gave the students oral task by pointing the students one by one to guess and pronounce the words that are related to the stories shown by teacher to check whether the students had understood. 4. The researcher presented the material by giving a worksheet one by one to the students. Observing and monitoring the action The researcher observed all activities in the teaching learning process and created a conducive atmosphere in a class. Implementing the action The researcher implemented the teaching learning activity of vocabulary using short texts. The researcher greeted the students and checked the students‟ attendance at the beginning of class. The researcher discussed the answer of task with the students i. pronounced them correctly. The researcher gave the students time to make note in their book. c. f. The real implementations were generally presented as follows: a. g. the researcher reviewed the material. . and drilled the students. b. After doing the practices. The researcher gave explanation about the words.40 3. The researcher stimulated the students to try guessing some words related to the stories. e. The researcher gave the students individual task. d. h.

Observation technique means the researcher comes to the class. observes the teaching learning process done by the teacher and the students. Technique of Collecting Data The techniques of collecting data are qualitative and quantitative method. document analysis. Qualitative method consists of observation. field notes. interview. Based on Burns (1999: 80).41 5. photograph. Evaluating and Reflecting the result of the observation The researcher evaluated all actions in the cycle. The researcher observed the actions to find the problems of the activities that had been carried out in using short stories in teaching vocabulary. The teacher takes the position behind the class while observing the teaching learning process and makes a note all things about what happen during the teaching learning process. as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur. . observation is a kind of activities in action research that enables researchers to document and reflect systematically upon classroom interactions and events. E.

The purpose is to get the information about everything in teaching learning process using short stories. In this research. Then. Analyzing the document was done toward the Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. This interview is also done to the students and the teacher before and after teaching learning process. Photographs are a way of greatly enhancing classroom analysis and providing visual stimuli that can be integrated into reporting and presenting the research to others (Burns. Test technique which is used is achievement test. The interview technique is done spontaneously. Achievement test is the test that is used to measure students‟ ability after learning something (Arikunto. and noted the students‟ reaction and response to the learning. 1996: 21). The vocabulary test is used to measure the students‟ vocabulary mastery. The researcher made note to all activities during the lesson. which is about English lesson in Junior High School including its Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar. It means that the researcher does not make some questions first.42 Notes or field notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context that are written in relatively factual and objective style (Burns. 1999: 101). The researcher made notes of each observation done. quantitative method uses test technique. The aim of this analysis was to complete the information which had been gotten from observation and interview. The test here is a vocabulary test. 1999: 87). the researcher used essay and pronoun test type for both .

43 the pre-test and post-test. The result of the test was analyzed to know the students‟ achievement on vocabulary. The total numbers of test items were 30 items. There are some steps that should be done by the researcher in this action research. The steps in Action Research Step of action Participant  Students Pre action  Researcher  Students  Researcher The action Technique  Interview  Observation  Test (Pre-test)  Planning  Implementing  Observing monitoring  Reflecting Post action  Students  Researcher  Test (Post-test)  Result of post-test and Data  Result of the interview  Result of observation  Result of pre-test  Result of observation  Field notes . Here is the diagram of the steps. The test consisted of vocabularies that had been taught to the students. Table 1.

Making a hypothesis using the classify data. field notes. this research uses descriptive statistics. Quantitative descriptive analysis In quantitative descriptive analysis. The formula of t-test of non-independent is as follows: t= where t is the result of t-test non-independent . This step uses a simple formula that is called as t-test of non-independent. the pre-test is compared with the post-test to know whether teaching vocabulary using short stories can improve the students‟ vocabulary mastery. (c) Making the inference. and photographs. It makes clearer the data and the characteristic of the data (Nurgiantoro. 2001:8). they are qualitative descriptive analysis and also quantitative descriptive analysis. Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis in this research consists of two kinds. 1. interview. the data are the result of observation. It is used to make the data simple and communicative. Qualitative descriptive In qualitative descriptive analysis. (d) making an inductive conclusion. The steps are: (a) compare the data from each informant to make easy in classifying the same data. In this formula.44 F. making the data in the table. 2. (b) classify the data in certain classification.

. G. from this.45 Finally. where k is the number of valid items. the effectiveness of using short stories to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery will be known. H. when the difference between the values of t-obtained and the value of t-table is significant. p q n and : the number of correct answer : the number of incorrect answer : the number of respondent The result of the computation of validity will be consulted to t-table distribution. the reliability can be determined by using the formula: . it will be known whether or not the instrument is valid. Validity of the Instrument In computing the validity of each item from the instrument. Reliability of the Instrument After the valid items are determined. the researcher uses the formula as follows: where.

From this. The indicators are: (1) there is an improvement number of students that have minimal criterion at least 75 % from the total number of students. I. and (2) there is an improving average mark of the class based on the criteria in the curriculum that is used in that school.46 The result of the computation of reliability will be consulted to r table of statistics. The Criteria of Successful Action The measurement that is used in checking vocabulary mastery is test. . it will be known whether or not the instrument is reliable.

Their vocabulary was still low. the students as young learners forget something quickly. The structure of the writing contains introduction. and 3) they got difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. The main problem faced by the students was the lack of vocabularies. A. many problems were found in teaching English for students of the second year of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. The discussion deals with the implementations of the actions that are teaching by using short texts based on theories from some experts. Introduction As presented in chapter I. They will forget . 2) they got difficulties to understand and grasp the meaning of words. the description of the research.47 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION In this chapter. First. They were supported in pre-research that has been done by the researcher. the researcher discusses the implementation of the action. The difficulties of learning vocabularies were caused by some reasons. and discussion. It can be seen from the indicators like: 1) they were less interested in teaching learning process. The description of the research contains the implementations of the actions of the research in the field. Introduction contains the problem faced by the students.

So. the teachers have to find out the appropriate method. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. Based on the facts above. repetition is needed. Thus. So. One of the problems that is taken in this study is the materials that are not suitable and interesting to the students. the researcher decided to conduct a research to solve the problems through this study. the students as young learners get bored easily.48 some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat the words many times. especially in vocabulary mastery. They prefer playing to studying. the students as young learners still like playing. Here. Second. The method. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. There were some targets which the researcher expected to achieve by conducting the action for the improvement of students‟ vocabulary. technique. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. Third. the researcher wanted to make the students are able to grasp and remember the . By using the appropriate method. the researcher wanted to create interesting situation in the classroom. Firstly. technique. They always talk about something while playing. technique or and material. it is important to find out the appropriate method. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. Secondly. the research is concentrated on improving materials of teaching vocabulary through a classroom action research and the use of short texts as the teaching learning source.

the researcher wanted to make the students able to write the words or group of words correctly so the improvement of students‟ vocabulary could be achieved. and revising the plan. B. namely planning the action. the researcher decided to carry out interesting teaching materials. The cycle in this research also consisted of series of steps. The Description of the Research The implementation of the action planned in this research was held in a cycle. It was conducted from April. evaluating and reflecting the result of the observation. observing or monitoring the action. They are explained as follows: . the researcher used short texts as the teaching materials. Based on the problems and the targets that the researcher expected to achieve. Through a classroom action research. the researcher hopes that the research can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery and change the situation during the teaching learning process. in this case was short texts. 2010 until April. implementing the action.49 meaning of words more easily. in presenting and practicing new vocabularies. Thirdly. In this cycle. The researcher divided the cycle into four meetings. 2010. Each meeting took 80 minutes.

The researcher allocated 60 minutes to give the students a chance to learn the material by doing the worksheet and to practice . By using short text. It is because the stories are very funny and give the students a lot of new list of vocabularies. The researcher believed that short stories could improve the students‟ vocabulary and attract the students‟ enthusiasm in teaching learning process. The researcher chose short texts as the teaching materials. The researcher also gave a lot of time to drill the students. The researcher told the students that they were going to learn English by using short stories that day. The students could ask questions whenever they found problems. So. the researcher planned and chose interesting learning materials to solve the problems and improve students‟ behavior during teaching learning process. To overcome those problems. The researcher planned to use 10 minutes to greet the students and stated the topic.50 1. it was expected that the students are able to grasp the meaning of new vocabulary easily. The teacher also planned to drill the students‟ pronunciations using the words that have been prepared. the indicators of vocabulary mastery can be completed. Planning the action The action plan was made based on the problems that were mentioned in the introduction above. The researcher taught 80 minutes in every meeting. The students could drill every word until five times. It was to get the students‟ attention and interest. Besides that. the students are able to write down the words or group of words correctly.

the researcher conducted a post-test. Research Implementation The action plan was implemented by the researcher with the help from the teacher as the observer. the researcher conducted a pre-test on the first meeting. and closing.51 the pronunciation of the words that they have learned. main activity. The bell rang. April. 2. lesson plans as researcher‟s guidance in teaching vocabulary. After implementing the action. The pre test was conducted on April. Each meeting was divided into three terms. Post-test was conducted after the last action on the last meeting of the cycle. namely: opening. This test was conducted in the beginning to know the students‟ ability about the material that would be given. The researcher came to the class on time . The last five up to ten minutes was to review and close the lesson. a. The test started at 2010 to know the 10. 2010. students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. students‟ worksheet that consisted of some tasks and also teaching equipments that are related to the action.25 a. Before implementing the action. Besides preparing the pre-test. 2010. This cycle was conducted in four meetings. First meeting 1) Opening A pre test was conducted on April.m. the researcher prepared the material.

The test was about understanding the meaning of words. she passed the worksheet test to the students. 3) Closing After the bell rang. This test was aimed to know students‟ ability about the new materials that would be given.52 and greeted the students. the students did the test individually. After greeting the students. Then. the researcher asked about the students‟ feeling. After that. the researcher gave the information that the students would get the materials in the next meeting and closed the meeting on that day . 2) Main activity After getting test worksheet. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. Then. The students were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the test that would be done on that day. the researcher asked the students to collect the test worksheet on the desk. Next. pronunciation of words. . in this case was short stories. the researcher checked the test worksheet whether they were complete or not. the use of words in context and spelling. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. After that. The test was a pre-test.

2010. Then. Then. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the second meeting.25 am and then greeted the students. Mam”. . the researcher began the lesson of the day by asking the students to find the meaning of some words. this means that they understood what learning source that would be used. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. They tried to answer the task by looking for the answer on the dictionary. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. Some of them mentioned some titles of short stories. 2) Main Activity To open the lesson. Second meeting 1) Opening The second meeting was conducted on April. the researcher asked the students to mention some short texts that they ever read or heard. she asked the students whether they ever read or heard short stories or not. The students answered “yes. No one was absent that day. After introducing the materials that would be used. After greeting the students.53 b.

the researcher asked the students to pronounce the words together. the researcher asked the students to write down some words and find the meaning of each word. the researcher gave a chance to the students to read the story on their own worksheet. Next. After the students finished reading the short story. They obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. All students obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. the researcher drilled the students‟ pronunciation with the guiding words on the worksheet.54 Next. the researcher asked the students to do the next task that is to fill in the blanks in some . The researcher advised them that it was only a practice. After the students finished doing the task. The title was “The Flowers from the Moon”. to check the students understanding about new vocabulary. The researcher also asked them to find out the idea of the story using words that they ever had before. it could be seen that the students still made some mistakes in getting the main point of the story. to know the students‟ understanding. the researcher asked three of the students to mention the main idea of the story. Next. The researcher pronounced every word once and the students pronounced every word three times. From the students‟ answer. Some students were shy and afraid to speak loudly. They were afraid if they made a mistake. Next.

If they made a mistake. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words. Some students were very enthusiastic to answer the question of the task. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. then. The story‟s title was “Royal Spaghetti”. The researcher showed all the words to the students. After finishing the task. Then. 2010. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up.05 am. The researcher asked “how about your feeling today?” The students answered. “very-very interesting”. the researcher gave the students choice to choose the correct answer. Next. 3) Closing After finishing the task. Most students made a mistake in pronouncing the words. the researcher reviewed the material. the researcher and the students discussed the answers of the task together.55 sentences with the words that were mentioned on the worksheet and answered the questions about the story. Third meeting 1) Opening The third meeting was conducted on April. c. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 08. In the .

No one was absent. The researcher used this chance to begin the main activity. the students and the researcher discussed the story to get the main idea. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that had been given in the second meeting. all students focused on the lesson. In this meeting. After that. The students felt easily to grasp the main idea of the text because they have translated some difficult words before. The researcher checked the students‟ pronunciation. Then. There were some pronunciation mistakes done by the students. the students started the main activity by finding the correct words and their meaning. The researcher passed a new worksheet for each student and asked the students to do the exercises. . the learning source used in teaching learning process was the same as before. To prepare the class. The title was ”Rainbow”.56 second meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. 2) Main Activity In the beginning of the lesson. After five minutes. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. the researcher asked some of students to read the story. Then. the researcher checked the answered with the students together. In this main activity.

The students tried to find the synonymy of the words by using their dictionary. the researcher asked the students to arrange the letters into a good word. After checking the answer. it could be seen that students still made mistakes in arranging the words. then they wrote their answer in the whiteboard. the researcher changed the technique in introducing the new words to the students.57 Next. They were very busy to discuss the correct arrangement of the letters with their friends. the researcher asked some students to answer the questions and wrote the answers on the whiteboard. Then. the researcher asked the students to pay attention to some words. From the students‟ answer. The researcher used the synonym to introduce the words. After five minutes. the researcher asked the students to fill in the blanks in some sentences with the words that were mentioned on the students‟ worksheet. they were also asked to find the meaning of the words. After that. the students and the researcher checked the answers together. The students who had finished discussing the correct arrangement. Next. and then asked them to get the meaning of them. The title was “The Caliph and the Clown”. The students looked very interested in the new task. In the middle of the activity. Then. the researcher and the students discussed the answer together. . The researcher and the students checked the answers together.

58 After checking the answers. The students were enthusiastic in answering the question from the researcher. The reseacher asked “bagaimana pendapat kalian tentang pelajaran pada hari ini?” The students answered. Next. On the last task of the third meeting. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of phrases from the story before. The students pronounced every word three to four times. the researcher asked some students to read the story loudly. 3) Closing In the end section. Some of them were very busy to remember some of the new words that they heard before and the other discussed with their friends to find the main idea of the story. and then they wrote their answer on the whiteboard and then checked the answer with the researcher. The researcher mentioned some difficult words and the students tried to guess the right pronunciation and the right meaning. Then. Students who had finished discussing the answers. the researcher reviewed the material from the beginning. The researcher also asked the other students to pay attention to the text. the students tried to grasp the main point of the story with the researcher. They were very busy to prepare the answer. . the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment.

The title was “The Magic Seeds”. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the first and second meeting. Then. the researcher asked the students to make a pair of discussion. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. Fourth meeting 1) Opening The fourth meeting was conducted on April. No one was absent. the researcher began the lesson by reading a story. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the fourth meeting. Then. The researcher asked the students to discuss the story . 2) Main activity Then.25 am. Banyak kosa kata baru dan gampang ingetnya”. To prepare the class. Then. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. The students listened curiously to the researcher‟s story. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. Sometimes they made an underline for some difficult words.59 “menyenangkan bu. d. 2010. In the fourth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories.

The story‟s title was “The Owl and the Nightingale”. the researcher also asked the students to find the meaning of the words. The students wrote the answers on their worksheet. the students wrote the answers in the whiteboard. Next. After that. Then. The researcher also asked the students to find some difficult words on the story. Some of them were busy to remember the story and the other tried to grasp and write the meaning of some words. After five minutes. The researcher continued the lesson by drilling the students‟ pronunciations. they had to find the meaning of the words. the researcher asked some of the students to read the story. The students pronounced the words three or four times. The students had to write some words they heard.60 that they heard. The researcher and the students discussed the answers together. the researcher addressed some of the . The researcher checked the answers. some of students wrote their difficult words on the whiteboard. Then. The next task. the researcher asked the students to match the words with their antonyms. Then. After that. Next. The students worked in pairs. the researcher asked the students‟ ability in writing words. the researcher asked the students to write some words that they found in the story before. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. Then.

the students had to find the hyponymy of some words based on the text that they ever read before. For the last task. the researcher reviewed the material. Next. The researcher showed all the words to the students. After 5 minutes. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. The other students added “senang. “lumayan. . the researcher asked the students to answer some questions about the story. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. the researcher asked some students to write the students‟ answers and then checked the answers. 3) Closing After finishing the task. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. bu. Then. There are some students discussed the answers with their friends. Bu”. Tau arti katanya. The students were very busy to find the answers. The students discussed with their friends. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. Then. The next task. The students already knew some words so it made the students easy to retell the story.61 students to retell the story by their own words.

To prepare the class. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. the researcher asked the student‟s to find the meaning of some words.62 e.25 am. After that. They could find the meaning in the dictionary. No one was absent. In the fifth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. 2010. the researcher asked the students to listen what the researcher pronounced and then write the answer on the students‟ worksheet. . the researcher passed the student‟s worksheet for the fifth meeting to the students. Fifth meeting 1) Opening The fifth meeting was conducted on April. Then. 2) Main activity For the first activity. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. Then. the researcher asked the students to write the answers on the white board and discuss the answers together. Then. After five minutes. the researcher began to teach the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the third meeting. the researcher checked the students‟ answer. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance.

The researcher also asked the students to write the difficult words that they found. . After 5 minutes. After 10 minutes. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. the researcher asked some students to read the story and the other paid attention to their friends. Some of the students worked with their dictionary and the other tried to get the answer from the short story that they read before. Then. the researcher addressed some students to pronounce some words that were mentioned by the researcher. The students worked in pairs. After the students read the story. They enjoyed this material. the researcher asked the students to arrange the jumble words into a good arrangement. Many students raised their hand to write their answer in the whiteboard. After that. Some of the students tried to get the answer from the dictionary and the others were discussed. the researcher asked the students to write the answer in the whiteboard. The title of the story was “Why Bears Hibernate in the Winter”. Then. the researcher guided the students to find the meaning form the difficult words that they found. The students pronounced the words three or four times.63 Next. Next. the students had to find the synonym of some words by matching the words in the column A to the column B. the students tried to grasp the main idea of the story. The students felt happy because the story was very funny.

The other students added “senang. The other students paid attention to their friend who retold the story. Tau arti katanya. bu. the researcher asked three of the students to retell the story. All of the students were silent and did the instruction well. 3) Closing After finishing the task. They worked in groups. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. They felt happy with this teaching way. Next. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. Bu”. Then. The title was “The Necklace”. The researcher did not forget to . the researcher reviewed the material. After 5 minutes. The researcher repeated some difficult words to the students.64 For next material. Then. The last task. They had to grasp the main idea of the story individually then retold the story in their own words. the students were asked to read the story. the researcher discussed with the students about the story that they heard. the students wrote the answer on the whiteboard. After 10 minutes. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of the phrases from the text. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. “menyenangkan.

the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. The researcher came to the class on time and greeted the students. Then. After that. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. The materials were such as understanding meaning of words. All students were very active in discussing the . The bell rang at 08. the researcher discussed the answers of test with the students. Then. After greeting the students. she passed the test worksheets to the students. pronunciation of words. They were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary.m. the use of words in context and spelling. 2010. The test was the same with the pre test that was done before. f. 3) Closing After the test finished. This post-test was aimed to know the students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery.05 a. Sixth meeting 1) Opening A post-test was conducted on April. 2) Main Activity The students did the test individually. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the post-test that would be done on that day.65 inform the students that in the next meeting the test would be done.

Observing and Monitoring the Action In monitoring the implementation of this cycle. Then the second to fifth meeting was focused on improving vocabulary aspects and students‟ motivation in teaching learning process. pronunciation of words. the researcher used observation to see the effects of conducting the cycle. In this cycle. the researcher closed the discussion because the bell rang. The aspects that should be improved were meaning of words. The researcher said thank you to the students for everything during the research. From the observation results. and spelling. Besides the explanation of implementing the actions above. They were the mastery of . the researcher asked the students‟ feeling and comment during teaching learning process with the researcher. Then. short texts were used to make the way of grasping the meaning easier. No student was busy with his own business. it was known that there were some improvements on students‟ vocabulary. there were six meetings. The observation was conducted simultaneously when teaching learning process took place.66 answers with the researcher. 3. the results of the observation of the teaching and learning process were also supported by the interviews with the students about the use of short texts in teaching vocabulary. the use of words in context. All students paid attention with the discussion. The first and the sixth meeting of the cycle were used for testing. Then. In the teaching and learning process.

Some students tried to answer the questions of the task. In the second meeting. They paid attention to the lesson. the students‟ motivation was good. Some students were silent when the researcher asked the question to the students. No students were busy with their own business in the class. No one was busy with their own business. the researcher gave advice to the students that it was only a practice. To solve this problem. They also did the task on their worksheet well. All of them were seriously listened to the stories. spelling. All students did the task quite well. Beside passive. most students were shy to speak loudly. pronunciation.67 meaning. They were afraid if their answers were wrong. The situation was conducive because there was no noisy outside the class. Beside the students‟ improvements on vocabulary. the others were quiet. The students also obeyed the researcher instruction. and using words in context. Some students were active to answer the questions from the researcher when the researcher gave them some question or asked them to do the exercises. Their responses were good. . In the third meeting. the students looked happy and enthusiastic to attend the class. They paid attention to the lesson. the observation results explained the students‟ motivation and activities in teaching-learning process and student‟s motivation from the second to the fifth meeting. some students were still passive. Although the students‟ motivation increased.

So. In the fourth meeting. After that. . In the third meeting. They could do the exercises well because there were some phonetic symbols that helped them to do the exercises. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the word three or four times. the students asked to write some words on their worksheet. the students still had problem in pronouncing the word. The students were happy and enthusiastic when the researcher changed the activity in introducing the new words.68 In the middle of the third meeting. It can be seen when the researcher asked the students one by one to check the students‟ understanding. The researcher used synonymy technique in introducing the new words. the researcher just reviewed all materials from the third meeting. To solve this problem. many students raised their hand. It seemed that they had already understood about the term. Good atmosphere was created in the class. In middle of the fourth meeting. Sometimes they told each other about something else. When the researcher asked the students to read the story and do the task. the students‟ motivation increased. They still made mistake to pronounce the right pronunciation. Before starting the lesson. the researcher went around the class to monitor and guide them whether they were active to discuss with their friends or not. the researcher still used short stories for teaching learning process. the students were asked to fill in the blank sentences with the correct words. They were also enthusiastic when discussing with their friends.

4. b) the students were able to grasp the meaning of words when the researcher gave them some new vocabularies. c) the students were able to write the words correctly and could use the words in context. In reviewing the materials. all students were active to grasp the meaning of every word. It could be seen during the teaching-learning process.36. . They also could write the correct words that they heard. d) the students were also able to pronounce the words correctly.69 The students felt happy and enthusiastic doing this task because they knew all of the meaning of the difficult words by discussing with their friends and also looking for the dictionary. Most students were active and all students got attention to the lesson. Reflecting the Result of the Observation Based on the observation results which were gathered in field notes. the researcher reflected the results of the action as follows: a) the students who were still passive were getting more active and interested when they were reading and understanding the story. The mean of the pre-test was 4. while the mean score of the post-test was 7. Moreover. In the fifth meeting. the test score in the first and sixth meeting showed the improvement result. They listened what the researcher pronounced. the students were very active.07.

. into English or vice versa. Short texts also encouraged the students to be more active during teaching learning process. Table 2.70 Based on the result of the observing and the test above. They became more motivated and enthusiastic in learning English which they did not tend to do something useless and got bored in the middle of teaching learning process. Improvement of the Students‟ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts Source of the data before implementing the action Vocabulary mastery after implementing the action Vocabulary mastery Observation and Interview 1. easily. students were encouraged to practice their ability in pronouncing and writing words correctly. All of the aspects were completed. They also words. They forgot words remembered the words and their meanings easily. it could be seen that there were increasing students‟ motivation and also the aspects of vocabulary. The researcher concluded that teaching vocabulary using short texts attracted students‟ curiosity in knowing new words. Through short texts. They also got difficulties They translated words from when they had to translate Indonesian into English or the words from Indonesian vice versa easily. The students understood difficulties to understand and grasped the meaning of and grasp the meaning of words easily. The improvement of students‟ achievements in teaching learning process using short stories can be seen in the table 2. The students got 1.

grasp and use words in context about 25 words in context about 75% of them. The students had more full concentration during concentration to do the teaching learning process. 3. The students liked doing 3. The students did not have 2. For example when also could arrange the the students found a word letters into a correct word. could of the 3. The students pronounce the words pronounce most correctly. grasp and use remember. . 4. The students still made 3. Most of the students also made mistakes when they did the exercises in arranging some letters into a correct word. mistakes to pronounce the words. They did not do something something useless during useless during teaching teaching learning process learning process. The students were more interested during teaching active and enthusiastic learning process during teaching learning process. The students could only 4. exercises. There were no mistakes in Most of the students forgot writing the words to write the second letter. The students could not 2. They started to ask and answer the questions. They words. understand remember. They still made words correctly. The students could write mistakes when they wrote the words correctly. 2. The students were less 1. which has double letters. 80 % of them. Students‟ motivation Students‟ motivation 1. understand.71 2. The students could pronounce. pronounce.

07 to 7. Research Findings From the table above. freedom. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. in this case 60. remember. from 2. understand. The examples were prince. sea. purple.72 4. The improvements were students‟ vocabulary mastery and also students‟ motivation. captured. the improvement also could be seen on the students‟ scores of test. quarrel. There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. the students understood and grasped the meaning of words easily. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there was an improvement of students who achieved the minimum standard score. The students liked having exercises individually. etc. Then the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was . discussion with their friends. grasp and use the words in context about 75 until 80 % of them. the students‟ improvement could be seen. From the vocabulary aspects. The students did the 4.36 5. from 4. daughter. Test The mean score of pre-test : The mean score of post-test : 4. sky. They could pronounce. different.07 7. Then. reason. chuckled.36.8 % of students became 94. Beside that. dream.3 % of students. they could pronounce and write the words correctly.

Next. the t-table higher than for 35 students is 2. They were as follows: a) The aspects of vocabulary mastery were completed. the researcher decided to stop the cycle. they could write the words correctly. Considering the facts of some improvements dealing with teaching vocabulary by using short texts above. finally. the students‟ motivation increased when the short text were used. The indicators showed that they were more active and enthusiastic during the teaching learning process.30. They were more active and attractive during teaching learning process. Next. Beside the vocabulary mastery. They also had more concentration to the lesson. the students‟ motivation also increased. The students understood and grasped the meaning of the words easily. Since is . They also raised their hands to answer the questions. they did not do something useless . it means that there is a significant difference between pre- test and post-test score. they could pronounce the words correctly.29. Meanwhile. They asked more questions than before. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. and they also could use the words in context appropriately. they had more concentration to do the exercises.04. There were some reasons for stopping this research only in one cycle.73 3. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process and like having discussion with their friends.

8 % became 94. and remember the meaning easily.36. They have their own worksheet that was completed with some short texts. Discussion The research findings came from the observation and the test scores. from 4. At first from the students‟ vocabulary mastery. They also could use and write the words correctly. in this case 60. The school gave two weeks to finish the implementation of the research.3 %. The students also could pronounce the words correctly. It was because the school would hold a mid term test for all the students. spelling. c) The researcher only had limited time to conduct the research. Here. From the pre-test and post-test score. grasp. C. It could be understood since human brain has limit . The observation that was done showed that there were some improvements in students‟ vocabulary mastery aspects and students‟ motivation. pronouncing.07 to 7. so they could have more practices for enriching vocabulary mastery using short stories. the students did more practices and steps by steps in understanding. b) There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. grasping. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. the students could understand. and using the words. The discussion helped them to understand the lesson and do the tasks well. They liked having discussion with their friends.74 during teaching learning process. from 2.

They did some useless activities. Next. Beside the new materials. question and answer”. Second from the students‟ motivation. teachers of English to young learners. and Jensen (1980: 285) also states that teaching English to children needs special techniques. the students had more concentration during teaching learning process. They focused on the materials which were used .75 capacity to absorb new things from surrounding. It made the students enjoy. “listen. as the young learners. story. edu). read and write”. especially the students at the back. should know the techniques of teaching practically for example “listen and repeat”. Human also has limit memory to remember all at once (www. and write”. say. such as talking with other students or disturbing their friends. According to Linse (2005). the situation in the class before implementing the action was described as some students were busy with themselves. and game. Petty. Ur (1998) explains that there are three sources of young learners‟ attention in class.ksmumail/human_brain. namely pictures. were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. Then. After implementing the action. more active and enthusiastic to follow the teaching learning process. The best way to add breadth and depth to child‟s vocabulary is by providing a variety of opportunities for new and interesting experience. the students. The students were more active and enthusiastic because the materials used were new materials. there were also many kinds of interesting techniques used to teach short texts. Young learners like to read and listen interesting stories. the class situation became more active and enthusiastic.

It matches with Elli‟s theory. They are active if they are suitable with the teacher‟s technique and they are far from teacher pressure (www.76 through short texts.htm).david399. Maya K. vocabulary in story is presented in clear context and the amusing situation. According to Elli (1991:31). David also states that one indicator which makes teaching learning process succeed is the active students during teaching learning process. The amusing situation could make students become more enthusiastic. .

This is based on the facts found in accordance with the result of the action implemented to find answers to the problem statements. Fourth. First. the students could pronounce. Second. IMPLICATION. AND SUGGESTION A. the researcher comes to a conclusion that teaching vocabulary by using short texts can improve the students‟ vocabulary.77 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION. For example. Third. The first is about the enrichment of the students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. the students could understand and grasp the meaning easily. It could be seen from the aspects of vocabulary which are completed. Based on the analysis of the result of the implementation of the actions which had been conducted to improve the students‟ vocabulary. it can be seen that the implementation of teaching vocabulary by using short texts can effectively improve students‟ vocabulary. . the students could pronounce the words correctly. Conclusion Having conducted the research of teaching vocabulary by using short texts in Junior High School. the students also could write the words correctly. They also could remember the meaning of the words easily. The more detailed results of the action implemented in this research were as follows. they could rearrange the letters into a correct word. in arranging the jumble letters.

Next.36.3 % of students. they had more concentration to do the exercises. Meanwhile.07 to 7. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process. the t-table than for 35 students is 2. there was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test.78 understand. from 4. grasp and use the words in context about 75-80 % of them correctly. They also liked having discussion with their friends. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there were more students who achieved the minimum standard score. The researcher found a good atmosphere in the class. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. The difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was 3. in this case 60. Beside that. The students were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process.8 % became 94. There were so many students who raised their hands to answer the question on the whiteboard or oral answer. The second is about the students‟ motivation.30. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. there was an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. from 2.29. Most of the students gave more attention than before. Next. Since is higher . remember.04. . it means that there is a significant difference between pre-test and post- test score.

79 B. students were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading. It is conducted by English teacher to make the students‟ more interested and more active in teaching-learning process and to avoid the boredom. the teacher also can use the visual techniques such as mime and gesture and verbal techniques such as verbal explanation. synonyms and definition. Beside the appropriate techniques. read and write”. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. Then. Through short texts. antonyms in teaching vocabulary to the students. there is a significant improvement of students‟ vocabulary and improvement of students‟ learning activity after teaching used short texts to teach new vocabulary and to train the students in order to write and pronounce correctly. question and answer”. The teacher could use “listen and repeat”. the teacher should have to choose the appropriate materials and media to teach vocabulary. In teaching English using short texts. materials. the teacher should choose appropriate techniques. Implication Based on the conclusion of the study. The teacher can also conduct an oral test to make the students more motivated and attracted in teaching-learning process. and write”. say. “listen. writing and pronouncing correctly. It implies that using short texts are good material to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery and also improve students‟ learning activity during teaching learning process. and media. The material in this case is . The students suggest using dictionary in translating the words.

1. students. The students can find the difficult words and their meaning. C. It is suitable with the material that used in the second year of junior high school.80 short texts. the English teachers should create an interesting and enjoyable situation of teaching learning process. English teacher The English teachers should learn the characteristics of the students in order to know exactly what they need and what problems they faced on their development. there is an improvement of students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Suggestion After carrying out the researcher and obtaining the conclusion. It makes the students understand the stories well. The materials have to appropriate with the syllabus that used in that school. and for school. and then make analyses of the stories by their own words. the teacher could choose the most suitable method. By implementing short texts using appropriate techniques and materials. other researcher. Besides. Students will be easy in . The genre that is used is narrative. and materials in improving the students‟ motivation in learning English based on certain condition. By understanding those points. techniques. the researcher would like to propose some suggestion directed to the English teacher. The short texts have to contain new and old information to the students.

and materials of teaching English of Junior High School students that can be taken as objects of research to find out the effectiveness of teaching. techniques. . Students An instructional process will not be successful if students are not maximally involved in it. 2. Other researcher This study is just one of efforts in improving students‟ vocabulary. They can practice English in their daily life. It is expected that the finding of this study will be used as a starting point of the future research on similar problems. 4. There are many other method.81 learning when the situation is interesting for them and the students will more enthusiastic. 3. It should also be facilitated with various media supporting the teaching activity. It also would avoid the boredom. The students have to be more active and motivated to learn English. techniques or materials. It should encourage the English teacher to be creative to use various method. The students not only can study English in the class but also can study everywhere and every time. School The institution should state a policy in improving the quality of the teaching English for children.

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