ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS

A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010

Written by: Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi K2206029

Submitted to Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Undergraduate Degree of Education

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2010 i

APPROVAL

This thesis is approved by the consultants to be examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University.

Approved by

Consultant 1

Consultant 2

Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005

Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP. 19730205 200604 1 001

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This thesis is examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University and accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for achieving the Undergraduate Degree of Education in English. Place of the test Date of the test : :

The Board of Examiners 1. Chairman Drs. Suparno, M. Pd NIP. 19511127 198601 1 001 2. Secretary Dewi Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd. NIP. 19780818 200312 2 002 3. Consultant 1 Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005 4. Consultant 2 Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP 19730205 200604 1 001 (………………………) (……………………....) (………………………) (………………………)

Legalized by, Teacher Training and Education Faculty Sebelas Maret University The Dean

Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd NIP. 19600727 198702 1 001

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First. The test consisted of the pre-test and post-test. grasp. The mean score of the pre-test improves from 4. It is also aimed at the improvement of the students’ achievement in teaching learning process using short stories. The research was conducted in one cycle. reflecting the result of the observation. In the qualitative method. the scores of the pre-test and post-test show that there is also an improvement of students who achieve the minimum standard score. students iv . The results of this research show that short texts can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. It is aimed at knowing whether using short texts can enrich the students’ vocabulary. remember. from the students’ motivation. observing or monitoring the action. and research findings. this research also used descriptive statistics and the t-test of non-independent. field notes. The results of this research imply that using short texts are good material to improve students’ vocabulary mastery and also improve students’ learning activity during teaching learning process. they do not do something useless during teaching learning process. Through short texts. K2206029: “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). Second. the students could understand. planning the action. the students are more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. The cycle consisted of four meetings. and document analysis.36 in post-test. The techniques in collecting the data were qualitative and quantitative method. the improvement of students’ score can be seen from the differences between the pre-test and post-test. write about 75 until 80 % of the words correctly and also use the words in context appropriately. In the quantitative method. They are from 2. The procedure of the research consisted of identifying the problems. they have more concentration to do the exercises. they also like having discussion with their friends. Then. the researcher used tests. the researcher used observations.” Teacher Training and Education Faculty. Besides that. This study is based on the problem of the low vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Sebelas Maret University. pronounce. The improvement can be seen in the form of students’ achievements. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. The results of the observation were in the form of field notes and photographs.3% of students. Surakarta 2010. implementing the action. from the aspect of the vocabulary mastery.8% to 94. photographs. The materials used in this research were short text.07 to 7. that is 60. The technique to analyze the test result was by comparing the mean score of pre-test and post-test.ABSTRACT Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi. Then. Then. Next. They can be seen from the aspects of vocabulary mastery and the students’ motivation. At last.

were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading, writing and pronouncing correctly.

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MOTTO
“Mantapkan hati dan niat seraya berucap Bismillahirrahmanirrahim”

"No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross, no crown." (William Penn)

"Criticism should not be querulous and wasting, all knife and rootpuller, but guiding, instructive, inspiring." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

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DEDICATION

With deep profound love, this research is devoted to: 1. Her beloved father and mother, thank you. Nothing compares to what they have done for her. 2. Her beloved “eyang uti” and sisters “dek sha”, who always pray and encourage her. 3. Her best friends “pam, sopal, dee, lucy, jhono, anggit, riph, tika” who give her unbroken support, prayer, and cares. 4. Her all friends, who always support her. 5. Herself and her beautiful future.

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Teguh Sarosa. M. Sugiyati. Hum. encouragement.. The writer is also fully aware that her thesis can never be finished without the help of others during the process of writing. advice. The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University who had given his permission to write this thesis. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. viii . who helped and given her a chance to do the research. S. 5. the second consultant and academic consultant. for all his valuable guidance. advice. encouragement. Abdul Asib. the first consultant. The Headmaster of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo for the permission and advices for doing the research in SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. for all his valuable guidance. 4. Therefore. M. 6...S. 2. and patience during the writing process of this thesis.Pd. the English teacher of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. Praise be to ALLAH SWT who has given His blessing to the writer so that she can complete the writing of this thesis as a partial requirement for achieving the undergraduate degree of education in English Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University. 3. Dr. The Head of the English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty for his advice.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillahirabbil’alamin. in this occasion she would like to express her deepest gratitude and appreciation to the following: 1. Mrs.

Her incredible support. for their supports. Everyone who helped the writer to conduct the research for his or her participation in writing this thesis. Lucy. Didit Hermawan. her mother. 10. She hopes and accepts gratefully every comment and suggestion. 2010  Rea  ix . Anggi. caring. and Aji. Her friends in the English Department of the year 2006 for their everlasting friendship. The researcher realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect. for his motivation to make the writer keep move on. and prayer. Her beloved family. Pamrih. 8. The second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo who participated well in the research. Her “best friends”. Dewi.7. Ariph and Atika for their supports and suggestions. 9. her father. Yoyok Sandi Wibowo. her sister. 12. Muthya. 11. her grandmother. Riana. this thesis will be useful for the readers. Hopefully. June. Surakarta.

........................................................................ 13 e....... 7 E............................................................................................. 10 c................... 9 b................. vii TABLE OF CONTENT ................ The Objectives of the Research .... 11 d....................................................................................................................................................................... 6 D....................................................................... The Limitation of the Problem ............. The Problems Statement ...................................................................... i APPROVAL.................... 1 A........................................................................................... 1 B................. v DEDICATION .................................... TABLE OF CONTENT TITLE PAGE .. The Importance of Vocabulary ............................. 9 A...................................................... ii ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................ xiii LIST OF TABLE ........................................ The Benefits of the Study .......................Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company................... The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery ............................................................ Review on Related Literature ........................... xiv LIST OF FIGURE ........... ix LIST OF APPENDIXES .......................................................................... The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery ............................................................................................................................................ 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE............. 19 x ... Notion of Vocabulary ...... General Concept of Vocabulary ....................................................................................................................... iv MOTTO............................................... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .. Background of the Study ............................................................ RATIONALE AND HYPHOTHESIS ........................................................................................................2005-2008 For Evaluation Only........... Vocabulary Mastery .................... 9 a....................................... xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ................ 9 1........................ 6 C.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................... 25 3........................ 23 b................... 50 2................................................... The Characteristic of Children .................................... The Model of Action Research ......... Introduction ................ 35 B. 46 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION ............................... The Types of Motivation ............ Observing and Monitoring the Action . Essences of Short Text ................................ 66 xi ................................ 28 4......................................................... The Notion of Folktales ....................................... 47 A............................. The Notion of Motivation ... Method of the Research ... The Notion of Young Learners ... The Definition of Motivation ..................... 23 a....... 28 b.......................... 24 c....... Rationale ................................................................ Reliability of the Instrument .......... 37 D..... 28 a........................................ The Procedures of Action research......................................... The Description of the Research .............. The Concept of Text .................................................................... The Characteristic of Motivated Students ........................................................ 34 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................ 30 a............................ The Concept of Story ......... 30 b.............................................................. 45 I.................................................................................... 51 3............................................. 32 B..................... The Criteria of Successful Action .............................................................. Validity of the Instrument.............................................................................. 35 A. 49 1............................. 47 B...... 36 C......................... 39 E.................................... 45 H.......................... Technique of Collecting Data .................................................................... The General Concept of Young Learners ... Research Implementation ......................................................... Setting and Subject of the Research . 41 F.......................................................................................................................... 44 G............................................ Hypothesis ...... Technique of Data Analysis ... 31 c.......................................2................................................................. Planning the Action ...................... 33 C............

.................................................................................................................................4...... Discussion .................. 81 BYBLIOGRAPHY xii .......................................................... 77 A............ 81 4.............. English Teacher............. School..................................... 80 2....................................................................................................... 79 C....................................................................... Conclusion .................. 74 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION......................................................... 69 5............................. 72 C............................. Research Finding................................ 81 3........................ IMPLICATION.. 77 B.. Suggestion .............................................. Implication ............................................................................................... SUGGESTION ............. Reflecting the Result of the Observation .... Other Researcher ....................................... 80 1.............. Students .....

....................................................................... 153 Appendix 12 : The Students’ Pre-test and Post Test Score ........................ 159 Appendix 15 : The Students’ Test and Worksheet done by the Students .................................. 155 Appendix 13 : The Computation of Validity and Reliability . 145 Appendix 8 : Key Answer of the Test ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 85 Appendix 3 : Lesson Plans ............................................................................LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix 1 : Description of location SMP N 5 Sukoharjo ..................................................................................... 90 Appendix 4 : Students’ Worksheet ........................ 148 Appendix 9 : The Research Schedule ........ 118 Appendix 6 : Blue Print of Vocabulary Test .. 102 Appendix 5 : Field Notes ........................................................................................... 160 Appendix 16 : Key Answer of Worksheet ....... 236 Appendix 17 : Letters of Permission .......................................................................... 157 Appendix 14 : The Computation of T-Test ........................ 244 xiii ............................................................................................. 149 Appendix 10 : Syllabus of KTSP .................... 150 Appendix 11 : Students Score before the Action .................................................................... 144 Appendix 7 : Pre and Post Test Items ............................................................. 82 Appendix 2 : The Photographs .........

.....................LIST OF TABLE Table 1 Table 2 : The Steps in Action Research........ 70 xiv .................................................................... 43 : Improvement of the Students’ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts ............................................

........ 38 xv ........ An Illustration of Action Research Spiral ......................LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1.............

It is because language is one of instruments which has important functions in communication. So. for example is job requirement. science. English is one of the native languages used to improve students‟ ability. technology. there are many education books that are written in foreign languages. and culture. so does English. education. society.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. communication. such as trade. It has a function as a bridge for all aspects of human life. As quoted in Undang-Undang Sisdiknas (2003: 15) “bahasa asing dapat digunakan sebagai bahasa pengantar pada satuan pendidikan tertentu untuk mendukung kemampuan berbahasa asing peserta didik”. one of the requirements is language competence. It has been discussed before that foreign language has many functions. there are so many kinds of foreign language. English is one of the important foreign languages. As it is known. . The importance can be seen from some sides of life. Background of the Study Mastering of a foreign language is one of the important things that is needed in modern society and globalization era. it can be said that mastering foreign language is very important for surviving life. In education. Then. both of in spoken and written form. That is the most important reason why English is learned in school.

By learning foreign language earlier. The advantage of starting with early second language instruction so that later the language can be used as a medium of teaching. 3. First. teaching English at junior high school is extremely important because it is still the basis for the higher level. the aim of early foreign language learning is to prepare young learner linguistically. The need to expose children from an early age to understanding of foreign cultures so that they grow up tolerant and sympathetic to others. It also maximizes . they are: 1. 4. The need for maximum learning time for important languages. From some statements above. Singleton in Brumfit (1997: 7) also defines some reasons for teaching English at primary level. The need to link communication to understanding of view concepts. at junior high school is very important. psychologically. it can be concluded that studying foreign language.2 Actually. especially English language. Third. Second. teaching English to young learner is aimed to increase the total number of years spent learning language. and culturally for language learning. the earlier you start the more time you get. the indisputable fact those young learners have a greater facility for understanding and imitating what they hear than adult. Brewster. it prepares young learners to make a link of communication to understand concept of communication it self. Ellis. 2. and Girard (1992: 23-24) define some reasons for starting to learn a foreign language earlier.

it is not easy to teach English for the young learners. It should not be neglected by anyone who learns a language. the students need to understand the meaning of words. the students need something to do. They will more understand what they have learned. it is better to introduce new vocabulary earlier to the students. For beginners. Knowing more words in English language. speaking. vocabulary mastery is the basic knowledge in learning English. There are many kinds of students‟ characteristic. Considering the importance of vocabulary competence. Coady and Huckin (1998: 5) say that vocabulary is the central to language and of critical importance to language learning for the young learners. It makes them know and understand a lot of vocabularies. Vocabulary supports all of the English skills. Therefore. Sometimes. a teacher has many problems to develop the students‟ vocabulary mastery. knowing words is the key for understanding and being understood. it will make other person understand or make ourselves understood easily. For enhancing all aspects in foreign language. Firstly. The words here means as vocabulary. young learners forget something quickly. First. the earlier they start the more time they get. here are the junior high students. So it can be concluded that vocabulary takes the important aspect to master English well as a foreign language. Then. and reading).3 learning time for learning foreign language. They will forget some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat . especially English skills (listening. writing. One of the problems that are faced is the characteristics of the students as young learners.

there are no interesting technique that used by the teacher. They always discuss about something in their around while playing. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. especially in vocabulary mastery. technique. Here. it is important to find out the appropriate. so the . the teachers have to find out the appropriate. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students‟ acts as follows: firstly. By using the appropriate method. magazine. it makes the students less interested and do not be active in teaching learning process. the researcher finds out that the students‟ vocabulary mastery is still low. Third. The teaching learning process uses teacher centre in delivering the lessons. young learners get bored easily. The method. It is clear that repetition is needed. It may be caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate and attractive. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. After having pre research by interviewing the teacher and observing teaching learning process of mastering vocabulary at the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. Most of materials come from the teachers. young learners still like playing. There are no materials from other sources like internet. In teaching learning process. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed.4 the words many times. Second. etc. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. The materials used in teaching learning process only from books and students worksheet. They prefer playing than studying. So. technique or and material. So. technique. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery.

the researcher tries to enrich vocabulary mastery of the students using short texts. She uses short texts because short texts will help to solve the problems that are faced by the students. Most of the students forget to write down the second letter. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. The students also get difficulties when they have to translate the words. Thirdly. The correct arrangement is “winter” but students rearrange them become “writen”. It is because there are no appropriate learning sources that used to help the students for remembering the materials that are given. The other difficulties that the students faced when they do an exercise on jumble word. Secondly. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words. The students usually get mistake to rearrange into the correct word.5 students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. It is because all words or group word are inside of the short texts. Short text is one of an interesting material that helps the students to find out the keys to remember and grasp many new vocabularies. It can be seen when they find some words that have double letters. From the indicators that are mentioned above. Beside that the students will be easy to write down the correct words or group words. students‟ marks are still lower than the passing grade. Due to the facts above. . She wants to make the students interested by using the teaching material of short texts. For example the word “suddenly”. Example is the word “n-t-w-i-r-e”. the students write the word only “sudenly”.

the researcher would like to conduct a research to solve the problem and also enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery by using short stories entitled “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS” (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). How is the students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? . the researcher limits the problem on how to enrich the students‟ vocabulary mastery using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. C. The Problems Statement Based on the background of study. Can short texts enrich vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? 2. B. Therefore.6 Based on the description above. The problems of the study can be formulated as follows: 1. the researcher wants to prove whether or not the short texts can improve students‟ vocabulary mastery in learning English at the junior high school. The Limitation of the Problem The research has a broad scope and it is impossible for the researcher to handle the study consisting of so many complicated problems.

. The students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. E.7 D. in this case is short texts. the general objective of this research is to improve students‟ vocabulary by using short texts. Particularly. So the teacher hoped to create an interesting teaching learning process by using this teaching material. the teacher can take some correct problems solving from those problems. Then. The Benefits of the Study It is expected that this research contributes some significant progresses in teaching vocabulary for several sides. the data of the research are also very useful for the teacher. Teacher It is expected that the teacher will get more information about one of the appropriate teaching materials. It will help the teacher to identify the students‟ difficulties in learning vocabulary and also find the students who need more guiding. 2. they are: 1. Then. this research is aimed to find out: 1. The Objectives of the Research Based on the formulation of the problem. Whether using short texts can enrich the students‟ vocabulary of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010.

School It is expected that the information of the result will be very useful for getting success in teaching learning process. Students It is expected that the result will give motivation to the students to be better in vocabulary mastery. so the quality of teaching learning process can be increased. Through short texts. 3. The result of the research is also hoped to improve students‟ achievement in English lesson standard. students are expected to have good enrichment in vocabulary and also the changes of behavior during teaching learning process.8 2. .

McWhorter (1989: 311) says that vocabulary means the ability to recognize individual words and to associate . which expressing a single idea. Since vocabulary is a list. Ur (1998: 60) defines that vocabulary can be mean as the words we teach in foreign language.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. for example post office. Here. Notion of Vocabulary There are some definitions of vocabulary proposed by linguist experts. Review On Related Literature 1. It means vocabulary is written or spoken unit of language as symbol of idea in foreign language for the learners.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. General Concept of Vocabulary a. the only system involved is alphabetical order in dictionaries. For example. if someone learns new words in foreign language. Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) state that vocabulary is a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. vocabulary is written in alphabetical order in dictionaries based on system or rule of foreign language. The items in vocabulary may be more than a single word. it means that someone learns vocabulary. 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE (RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESIS) A. mother-in-law. Furthermore.

10 meaning with the particular combination of letters that form a word.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Words are symbols. Meanwhile. b. does not represent a physical object.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. It can be formed from a single or more than one word. Based on Hatch and Brown. groups of letter that stand for. an object with a flat surface. vocabulary is the competence or skill in recognizing words and its meaning. For example. and used to for sitting. Then. The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary is an important aspect in our life. usually supported by four legs. It symbolizes the feeling of one person toward another. Then. the word love on the other hand. recognizing words means knowing its meaning or idea and how they are formed by a combination of letters. the word chair in our minds a physical reality. In the other word. vocabulary can be constructed as a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. The words here are the symbols in form of groups of letter represent either a physical object or an idea. either a physical object or an idea. McWhorter states that vocabulary deals with the competence in recognizing words and its meaning. It is because people need vocabulary in expressing their ideas both of in mother . or represent. Ur adds that vocabulary deals with word taught in foreign language. vocabulary deals with a series of words in particular language. Based on three definitions above.

Vocabulary Mastery Coulson et al (1987: 1050) define that mastery is skill. Vocabulary always becomes the essential part of English as a foreign language. we must name objects. Edge (1993: 27) states that knowing a lot of words in foreign language are very important. Tailor (1991: 1) says that in order to live in the world. It means mastery is the ability to use one of knowledge. learning a language becomes a very hard thing to do and communication in second language cannot happen in any meaningful way. A strong vocabulary can be a valuable asset. 11 tongue and foreign language. Without a name. Without vocabulary mastery.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. use. and a feeling. or knowledge. vocabulary plays an important role. it can be concluded that vocabulary is very important in learning language and mastering vocabulary will facilitate someone in using language in communication. c. Every person who learns a language must learn the vocabulary of the language in order to make the learning process easier. it will be difficult to accept the existence of an object. In language learning.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. both in college and later in our career. While Hornby (1984:523) says that mastery is the complete control or . an event. According to the statement above. Names are essential for the construction of reality. Cross (1995: 14) states that a good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication.

this term is the adolescent start to use the language and make it more extensive directly in simple communication. It is usually arranged by a standard of curriculum and syllabus in every aspect whether the topic or the test. either a physical object or an idea and it also can be formed from a single or more than one word. this term the vocabulary are used more and more intensive because they make more communication each other. It means mastery is the ability to combine skill and knowledge in one certain area. from both of definitions above. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. in case of the physical object or idea. children period. First. Here. Keraf (1989: 6566) defines the step in processing vocabulary mastery. Third.12 knowledge. vocabulary mastery can be constructed as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. The vocabulary mastery can not be done spontaneous but step by step. adult period. adolescent period. Second. The certain area in teaching means a lesson taught. . While vocabulary is a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning in form of symbols of groups of letter. The process of vocabulary mastery is not simple. mastery is the whole power or ability to direct knowledge. this term children are able to define concept vocabulary to say their concrete idea. So.

there are so many techniques proposed by some experts. prose. There are some techniques of teaching vocabulary. poetry and games. They are direct and indirect techniques. The technique here refers to the way of teaching. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. Then vocabulary mastery define as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. d. The success of teaching learning process depends on not only the teachers‟ and students‟ competence but also the technique of teaching.13 From the definition above. The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery There are various ways to improve vocabulary mastery. Then indirect technique uses the other source of lesson like mathematic. Dealing with the technique of vocabulary teaching. Direct technique is usually used through the language book. The teachers may have some techniques to teach it. mastery may be defined as the ability to use skill or knowledge in one subject area based on recognized standard. means a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. While vocabulary. Unplanned vocabulary teaching is . There are two techniques in improving vocabulary mastery. and science lesson. in case of the physical object or idea. social lesson. The techniques are the unplanned vocabulary teaching and planned vocabulary teaching.

14 extemporaneous teaching of vocabulary items that come up without planning in course of lesson. While Lewis and Hill (1992: 102-103) mention some ways to teach vocabulary. the teachers present vocabulary items by bringing the real things into classroom. etc. They are: 1) Demonstrate Demonstration is the way of teaching vocabulary by doing physical demonstration together verbal explanation. Sometimes the explanation is no more complicated than pointing. For examples. The planned vocabulary teaching can be described as “the vocabulary lesson” since the primary objective of the teaching activities is the presentation and practice of the lexical item themselves. chuckle. stagger. The demonstration helps to make the meaning clearer and to fix the word in the students‟ minds. The objects of the real things can be in the class or probably through the window. 2) Use the real thing In this way. while planned vocabulary teaching where the teacher goes into classroom with an item or a set of vocabulary items that the teacher has decided before hand. Beside that it also helps students to memorize both of visual and aural memories. .

orange (color). Here. the learners have to be aware that a word may have different opposite in difficult context. like accuracy can often be counter-productive. or probably may be explained by presenting them with groups of related words: Hot warm cool cold 5) Antonyms This is the way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites or antonyms of the word.15 3) Draw or sketch Teachers do not need to be artists to make simple sketches which illustrate meaning. For example the meaning of bush was explained by two very simple sketches. It is worth that the explanations given here are not exact definitions of the word. 4) Use the blackboard to show scales or grades Words like cool. the level of the explanation must be suitable to the students‟ level of English at the time so that dictionary. For example: light bag >< heavy bag light word >< strong word rough area >< quite area poor >< rich dirty >< clean happy >< sad red orange yellow certainly / definitely probably / possibly .

Though words may have similar denotation meaning. 7) The dictionary This is the way of teaching vocabulary by using dictionary to know vocabulary items. asking one or more students to look the word up in a dictionary. It is . A bilingual dictionary can be used at low levels and monolingual dictionary at the high levels.16 rough texture >< smooth texture 6) Synonyms high >< low Synonyms are the way of teaching vocabulary by giving same meaning of two or more words. 9) Translation It is a way of teaching vocabulary by translating some words or individual words from the target language into other language. 8) Verbal explanation Verbal explanation refers to the way of teaching vocabulary by explaining the meaning of vocabulary items in students‟ own language. their connotation meanings often differ. using the former phrase also helps to build up in the students‟ mind ides that language consists of choice. One technique for explaining these which teachers too frequently overlook is asking the class whether anybody knows the word and. that words do not mean the same as each other. or not. Beside that.

Furthermore. professions. actions. b) Mime and gesture These are often used to supplement other ways of conveying meaning. and certain areas of vocabulary such as places. teachers often make use of . wallcharts. They are: 1) Visual techniques a) Visual These include flashcards.e. if the class consists of different nationalities. descriptions of people. and activities. the teacher will find difficulty to translate the word(s) into all languages. a teacher might build a situation to illustrate it. When teaching an item such as “to swerve”. To ensure that students understand. and realia (i. They are extensively used for conveying meaning and particularly useful for teaching concrete items of vocabulary such as furniture. photographs. Gairns (1991: 73-75) says that there are some techniques used in presenting new vocabulary. 2) Verbal Techniques a) Use illustrative situation (oral or written) This is most helpful when items become more abstract. making use of blackboard and gesture to reinforce the concept. blackboard drawings.17 seen as boring and traditional. In this technique. objects themselves).

However. This is the example of adverbs of frequency: never hardly ever occasionally I sometimes often always go to cinema on Sundays . this can be a useful way of revising and feeding in new items. Synonymy is also the way of teaching by giving more than one meaning for a word.18 more than one situation or context to check that students have grasped the concept. d) Scales Once students have learnt two contrasting or related gradable items. b) Use of synonymy and definition Definition here is the way of teaching vocabulary by defining or describing objects. it is vital to illustrate the contexts in which this is true. c) Contrast and opposites Contrast and opposites are they way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites of the words.

19 e) Examples of type This is the way of teaching vocabulary by exemplifying things it self. . the researcher uses definition. sofa. The teacher will find difficulties if the students come from different nationalities. chair. synonyms. it can be defined as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that is used to express meaning. antonyms. verbal explanation and translation techniques to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery. The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery Dealing with the vocabulary mastery. bed. it is also hoped that by using these techniques. It is because the techniques that are mentioned are usually used in school. The example of “furniture” is “table. It can save valuable time in teaching process but it seen as boring and traditional. the students can understand and grasp the vocabulary easily. in case of the physical object or idea. In this paper. Some of these can of course also be dealt with through visual aids. mime and gesture. dictionary. etc”. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. e. Then. 3) Translation Translation can be very effective way of conveying meaning.

The example is when an Indonesian student has an English subject at school and it is the second language for her or him. etc to express the idea of the subject. Thornbury says that the factors come from the word‟s aspects such pronunciation. 2) Spelling Sound. Here. meaning. are also problematic. It is because she or he should know the appropriate word. how to pronunce.20 Thornbury (2002: 27) declares some factors why learning vocabulary is rather difficult for second language learner. length and complexity. such as strength or crisp or breakfast. and can contribute to a . connotation and idiomatic are the indicators in vocabulary mastery. 1) Pronunciation Research shows that words that are difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn. what‟s the meaning. grammar. She or he can not understand the lesson easily. Potentially difficult words will typically be those that contain sounds that are unfamiliar to some groups of learners. either of pronunciation or of spelling.such as regular and lorry for Japanese speakers. how to spell. someone can be said that he or she has achieved the vocabulary mastery. and range. Those six aspects above will be defined briefly here. spelling. Many learners find that words with clusters of consonants. If those factors are fulfilled.spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors.

cupboard. tend to assume that explain follows the same pattern as both Spanish explicar and English tell. for example. climbing. love. and say he explained me the lesson. a factor favoring their „learn ability‟. necessity and necessarily can add to their difficulty. especially if this differs from that of its L 1 equivalent. and therefore the learner is likely to meet them more often. muscle. Furthermore. or hope is followed by an infinitive (to swim) or an –ing form (swimming) can add to its difficulty.21 word‟s difficulty. as a rule of thumb. listen. Then the grammar of phrasal verbs is particularly troublesome: some phrasal verbs are separable (she looked the word up) but others are not (she looked after the children). 3) Length and complexity Long words seem to be no more difficult to learn than short ones. Remembering whether a verb like enjoy. bored. Spanish learners of English. etc. However. headache. Words that contain silent letters are particularly problematic: foreign. 4) Grammar It is problematic when grammar associated with the word. . there are also some glaring irregularities. While most English spelling is fairly law-abiding. variable stress in polysyllabic words. honest. high frequency words tend to be short in English.such as in word families like necessary.

they may be reluctant to accept a second. The words with multiple meanings such as since. slim. culture specific items such as words and expressions associated with the game cricket (a sticky wicket. but you do the housework and do a questionnaire. Likewise. and still. learners are likely to confuse them. totally different. place. Having learned one meaning of the word. compare to impose. slender.22 5) Meaning When two words overlap in meaning. Uncertainly to the connotations of some words may cause problems too. Make and do are a case in point: you make breakfast and make an appointment. thin is a safer bet than skinny. propaganda has negative connotations in English. 6) Range. and a good innings) will seem fairly opaque to most learners and are likely to be easily learned. Unfamiliar concepts may make a word difficult to learn. . a hat trick. Thus put is a very wide-ranging verb. such as very informal words (chuck for throw. swap for exchange) may cause problems. etc. Thus. position. meaning. Finally. connotation and idiomaticity Words that can be used in a wide range of context will generally be perceived as easier than their synonyms with a narrower range. but its nearest equivalent in other languages may dean deviant. can also be troublesome for learners. Thus. The words have style constraints.

Willis (1998: 67) says that text in general sense to mean a continuous piece of spoken or written language. we conclude that vocabulary mastery is the students‟ awareness of understanding the words and their rules to communicate. It is because. where “text” means verbal record communication. watch). Arthur Hughes (2003:140) states that texts candidates are expected to be able to deal with can be specified along number of parameters: type. spelling. The aspects to be measured are limited to pronunciation of words. They also differentiate the term of those text and discourse dealing with the context. intended readership. Texts in this sense are printed texts. From all those definition above. as well as their syntactic complexity that makes phrasal verbs so difficult.23 words or expression that are idiomatic (like make up your mind. keep an eye on…) will generally be more difficult than words whose meaning is transparent (decide. graphic features. form. It is their idiomaticity. 2. those three aspects that are learned in junior high school. the use of words in meaning and meaning. Essences of Short Text a. style. The Concept of Text Brown and Yule (1997: 24) suggest that the term to spoke “text” as well. topic. length. .

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readability or difficulty, range of vocabulary and grammatical structure. Text type include: text books, handouts, articles (in newspaper, journals or magazine), poems, encyclopedia, dictionary, novel (extracts) and short stories, etc. He also states that text forms include: description, exposition, argumentation, instruction, and narration. Cross (1995:77-78) states that the text is a major resources; permitting you to vary the learning activities from lesson to lesson. There are four main factors to consider when deciding how to threat a passage; linguistic complexity, length, interest level and aims. From the definition above, it can be concluded that the text is a verbal communication which consists of continuous piece of spoken or written language and its meaning is contextually. b. The Concept of Story Story is account of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events, etc (Hornby: 1995: 94). Taylor (2000: 16) says that story is relating tale to one or more listener through voice and gesture. It is clear that vocabulary in a story should be presented in clear context; the amusing situations can make the vocabulary easy to remember. Ray B. West (1968: v) says that story is something brought into being by application of the skill and workings of the imagination of the author. Its aim is to arouse the emotions and stimulate the imagination of the students.

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Brad Hooper (1992: xi) says that story is different from a novel in that it is short enough to be read in one sitting, with every word leading toward some final, preordained effect. In story, the sentences are generally shorter in order the students easy to follow the story. From the statements above, the writer draw conclusion that story refers to the written or spoken description of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events that can be used to for teaching students which have aims to make the students easier to follow the story and it has different from a novel that is short enough to be read in one sitting. This paper, the writer uses the story as text especially folktale for increasing vocabulary mastery in second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo Academic Year 2009/2010. c. The Notion of Folktales One kind of story that usually heard by child is the folktales. It is type words composition that recites the story of the folklore in a certain region that is popularly and orally told from one generation to other generation in a certain community. (www.classicalfolktale.wikipedia.com) 1) The meaning of Folktales The word folktale is not defined in English usage. Taylor (2000:4) defines the term “folktale” as traditional story that has been

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passed by words of mouth, told from parents to children over many generations or passed on by countless storytellers sitting around countless evening fires. No one knows who the original author was, and there are usually different versions of the same story, he also states that the term “folktale” has also been used to refer to literary retelling of these tales. Another definition of folktales is that “words folktales refer to the many types of traditional narratives know to the “folk” (Coffin and Cohen, 1996:1). Philips (1992) defines folktales as story about telling stories with unverifiable claims and its literary form. From the definition above, we can assume that folktales are traditional stories that have been passed by words of mouth and told from generation to generation. Folktales lasted through a long period of time due to their universality. They are forms of traditional literature which began as attempt to explain and understand the natural and spiritual world. The origin of folktales lies in oral tradition. 2) The type of folktales There are several types of folktales. Taylor (2000) divides folktales as fable, fairy tales, hero stories, myths, legend. Fables are very short folktales with animals as the main characteristic and with very obvious moral lesson, often summon up in single line at the end.

Fairy tales are fictional and take place in a never-land. Example: “Shakespeare‟s Ghost” and “Paul Bunyan”. Fairy tales are folktales that include some magical elements (not necessity fairies): the German word marchen is sometimes used for this. 3) The Characteristics of Folktales Although there a lot of variations between folktales. Examples: Tumbelina.27 Legend is stories that are based on real hero and his or her mighty deeds. Hero stories some of which have some real historical parts and other of which may not. is religious and deals with the creating and ordering of the universe and with the earlier order in which present world condition were being established. Goddesses and supernatural power: “Adam and Eve” and “Noah‟s ark”. Taylor . when strictly defined. and even between two telling stories of the same tale. Examples “Johnny Appleased” and “Pail Bunyan”. and usually involving God. certain characteristics typical in folktales contribute to relatively easy reading. Legends are stories that are based on a real hero and his or her mighty deeds and believed by the teller and serve a historical purpose. It is told as if they are fact. primitive myth. And believed by the teller and served as historical purpose: “The dog and the meat” and “the greedy old spider”.

These are the list: time order repetition and redundancy predictability relatively simply grammar concrete ideas illustrations that provide support and context for the texts a unique reader-write relationship 3. The Notion of Young Learners Teaching English to children is different from teaching English to and adult. In relation to the English teaching learning process. they need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. It means that the English teacher should be use the technique for English teaching that can make the students interested in learning English Lesson (House. children have the following characteristics: . 1997: 98) b. The General Concept of Young Learners a.28 (2000:9) gives various characteristics of folktales that make them exceptionally good for language teaching. The Characteristic of Children In general.

They develop their way of thinking from the concrete to the abstract thing. Clark (1990: 6-8) states the characteristics of the children are as follows: 1) Children are developing conceptually. . and ears Children will be understandings about what we talk are using hands. They learn more slowly. eyes. eyes. 3) Their own understanding comes through hands. They more like playing than learning. that is playing and learning in the same time. Hence from that to convey the material of learning we should be able to take both. 4) Young children are very egocentric. They tend to resolves around themselves. They teach subject what school provides for them 3) Children are still developing their common skill such as turn taking and the use of body language.29 1) They like playing Children like playing. 2) They talk about “Here and Now” Children always discuss about existing in their around and happened in that time. and ears. So material of teaching that will be teaching is about their surrounding and happened in that time. 2) Children have no real linguistic.

6) Children are at early of their education. The Definition of Motivation Motivation is needed in every occasion. it is very important for teachers to know about motivation. Thus.30 5) Children get bored easily children have no choice to attend school. 7) Children are better mimics. ensuring success and enhancing the children‟s motivation are important factors in promoting the success of early start in foreign language learning. It is because motivation will influence someone both in process and result. 8) Children forget quickly. of course based on their characteristics in teaching learning English lesson. the teacher in teaching English needs repetition. . Therefore. especially in teaching learning process. 4. it can be conclude that young learner need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. The Notion of Motivation a. It will take them more confident in attempting the sound of foreign language and they delighted in playing the sound. The class activities must be fun and interesting by setting up the interesting activities. From the definition above.

31 Some experts define some definition of motivation. or desire that moves and leads learner to do a particular action in order to meet and needs or to attain a set of goals of teaching learning process. Brophy (1998: 3) says that motivation refers to the students‟ subjective experiences. achievement motivation. their willingness to engage in teaching learning activities and their reasons for doing this. intrinsic motivation. impulse. While intrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because they are interested in task or activities itself. Biggs and Watkins (1995: 84) state that there are four categories of motivation. Then. From the definition above it can be concluded that motivation is an arousal. 2000: 332) says that motivation is internal states that arouses us to action. Weiner (in Elliot et al. Next. Extrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because of consequences to obtain a reward and to avoid the punishment. Groccia (1992: 62) states that people learn and study because the consequences of such behavior satisfy certain internal and/or external motives. namely: extrinsic motivation. b. pushes us in particular direction. The Types of Motivation There are many kinds of learning motivation stated by the experts. and keep us engaged in certain activities. social motivation. .

to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do. most of them clearly associated with motivation. . The learner willing to tackle tasks and challenges. high proficiency. they are those who display certain typical characteristic. They are integrated motivation and instrumental motivation. 3). 2). Positive task oriented. social motivation is defined as the students‟ motivation in order to make the other people feel pleasure. top grades. The Characteristic of Motivated Students Naiman et al. Ego-involvement. High aspiration. The learner has needs to achieve. Integrative motivation is the desire to identify with and integrate into target language culture. the students learn in order to compete against the other students. those are as follows: 1). that is winning makes they feel good. c. The learner finds it important to succeed in learning and promote his or her own positive self-image. and has confidence in his or her success. Ur (1996: 19) defines some kinds of motivation. in Ur (1996: 275) comes to conclusion that the most successful students are not necessary those to whom a language comes very easily. goes for demanding challenges. Then instrumental motivation is to wish to learn the language for purposes of study or carrier. Then.32 Achievement motivation. The learner is ambitious. Need for achievement. 4).

Tolerance of ambiguity. It can be seen when they do the exercises. or of specific learning activities. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. and directs his or her effort towards achieving them. there are difficulties that might be faced by the learners especially the young learners. The students‟ vocabulary mastery of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010 is still low. 7).33 5). The learner consistently invests a high level of effort in learning. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words and then translate them. They could . Rationale In learning English vocabulary. The learner is not disturbed or frustrated by situations involving a temporary lack of understanding will come later. 6). Thirdly. Most of the students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students as follows: firstly. B. The learner is very aware of the goals of learning. and it is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack progress. It is caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate on their level. Perseverance. Goal orientation. Secondly.

One of the teaching materials that can be used is the short texts. Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research can be formulated as follows: by using short texts. Considering the explanation above. C. The teaching materials should be suitable with the young learners‟ characteristics. the students can improve their vocabulary mastery. . the teacher helps the students to remember the words and understand the meaning and also the grammatical pattern of the sentences easily. By using short texts. Short texts are interesting materials in teaching language. the teacher should create an interesting teaching material. So. the researcher believes that short texts can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery.34 not do the exercises perfectly. Most of their marks are still lower than the passing grade. especially for the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic Year of 2009/2010.

2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. The pre-test was done on the first meeting. It was done for knowing the students‟ basic ability of the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. The aim was to master vocabulary by using short stories. This school is located at Bulakan. 1. the treatments were done on the second until five meeting. 35 CHAPTER III RESEACH METODHOLOGY A. 2. the post-test was done on the sixth meeting. Setting and Subject of the Research. consist of 11 boys and 24 girls. Last. Setting of place This research was done in SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo. It is because there is a problem related with students‟ vocabulary mastery. the treatments. Next. Time of research This research held on a cycle on second semester in the academic year of 2009/2010. Post test was done on the six meeting. Sukoharjo. . Sukoharjo Regency.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. The details are the pre-test. Subject of the Research The subject of this research is the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. 3. There are 35 students for class A. It was done for knowing the students‟ improvement after using short texts in teaching learning process. and the posttest.

Ebbutt (1985) in Hopkins (1993: 45) states action research is about the systematic study of attempts to improve educational practice by groups of participants by means of their own practical actions and by means of own reflection upon the effects of those actions. Rapport (1970) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is aimed to contribute both to the practical concern of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of the school science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework. Dewi Rochsantiningsih (2008) defines action research as: “proses sistematis di mana guru dengan sukarela melibatkan diri untuk melakukan refleksi dokumentasi.” Kemmis (1983) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices. For a starting point.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Method of the Research This research is a kind of action research. Meanwhile.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively. and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out. (b) their understanding to these practices. 36 B. though it is often undertaken by individuals and sometimes in cooperation with outsiders. . it is necessary to give a definition of action research. dan atau tindakan untuk lebih memahami hakekat dan atau konsekuensi mengajar dengan tujuan untuk melakukan tindakan atau menguabah atau meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dan lebih baik bila dilakukan secara kolaboratif dengan kolega atau teman guru.

this research is done to increase the students‟ vocabulary mastery through short texts. According to the model. The Model of Action Research The model of classroom action research used in this study is based on the model developed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1985). intact groups are used in some cases. Wiersma (2000: 10) states one type of applied research is action research.37 Furthermore. or other educational professionals to aid in decision making in the local school. the implementation of the classroom action research includes four steps in the following: . Action research is usually less rigorous in term of design and methodology than other educational researches. it can be concluded that action research is a systematic study and it is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken or carried out by participants in educational situation rather than outside researches to solve the problem in order to improve the students‟ ability. administrator. Action research focuses on the solution of day-to-day problems at the local level. From the definition above. Based on the definition and the aims above. it is hoped that the researcher will find the solution for developing the students‟ vocabulary mastery. By participating the actions in this research. C. Often. only a single group or individual is involved in the study. research conducted by a teacher.

. Based on Hopkins‟ point of views (1993: 48) this model can be illustrated as follow. subsequent critically informed and so on. 2. 3. Observation Observe the effects of the critically informed action in the context in which it occurs. 4. Reflection Reflecting process on these effects as the basis for further planning. through a succession of a stages. Planning Develop a plan of critically informed action to improve what is already happening. Action Act to implement the plan.38 1.

Identifying the problems The researcher identified the problem before planning the action.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. c. . Preparing a test.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. and conducting a pre-test. The Procedures of Action Research In this classroom action research. Planning the action The researcher prepared everything related to the action as follows: a. Preparing teaching aids. There are follows: 1. The problem referred to the students‟ difficulty in learning vocabulary. d. 2. each procedure takes five steps in one cycle. f. Preparing the material. interviewing the students. The problem was caused by the technique of delivering material which was not suitable and interesting to the learners. It was done to know whether students‟ vocabulary could be improved or not. Designing the steps in doing the action. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of teaching learning process when the technique is applied). It was obtained by observing the teaching learning process. e. 39 D. b. Planning the steps and technique for delivering the material in the form of lesson plan.

the researcher reviewed the material. The researcher greeted the students and checked the students‟ attendance at the beginning of class. d. The researcher gave explanation about the words. The researcher presented the material by giving a worksheet one by one to the students. g. Implementing the action The researcher implemented the teaching learning activity of vocabulary using short texts. c. h. b. The researcher gave the students time to make note in their book. e.40 3. Observing and monitoring the action The researcher observed all activities in the teaching learning process and created a conducive atmosphere in a class. The researcher discussed the answer of task with the students i. . The researcher stimulated the students to try guessing some words related to the stories. The real implementations were generally presented as follows: a. The researcher gave the students oral task by pointing the students one by one to guess and pronounce the words that are related to the stories shown by teacher to check whether the students had understood. 4. The researcher gave the students individual task. f. pronounced them correctly. and drilled the students. After doing the practices.

Technique of Collecting Data The techniques of collecting data are qualitative and quantitative method. observes the teaching learning process done by the teacher and the students. field notes. E. . interview. Qualitative method consists of observation. Based on Burns (1999: 80). Observation technique means the researcher comes to the class. document analysis. observation is a kind of activities in action research that enables researchers to document and reflect systematically upon classroom interactions and events. The teacher takes the position behind the class while observing the teaching learning process and makes a note all things about what happen during the teaching learning process. as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur.41 5. The researcher observed the actions to find the problems of the activities that had been carried out in using short stories in teaching vocabulary. photograph. Evaluating and Reflecting the result of the observation The researcher evaluated all actions in the cycle.

The vocabulary test is used to measure the students‟ vocabulary mastery. Then. the researcher used essay and pronoun test type for both . The purpose is to get the information about everything in teaching learning process using short stories. and noted the students‟ reaction and response to the learning. Photographs are a way of greatly enhancing classroom analysis and providing visual stimuli that can be integrated into reporting and presenting the research to others (Burns. 1996: 21). 1999: 87). quantitative method uses test technique. The aim of this analysis was to complete the information which had been gotten from observation and interview. Achievement test is the test that is used to measure students‟ ability after learning something (Arikunto. Test technique which is used is achievement test. The test here is a vocabulary test. The researcher made note to all activities during the lesson.42 Notes or field notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context that are written in relatively factual and objective style (Burns. It means that the researcher does not make some questions first. 1999: 101). which is about English lesson in Junior High School including its Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar. Analyzing the document was done toward the Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. The researcher made notes of each observation done. The interview technique is done spontaneously. In this research. This interview is also done to the students and the teacher before and after teaching learning process.

43 the pre-test and post-test. The test consisted of vocabularies that had been taught to the students. There are some steps that should be done by the researcher in this action research. The steps in Action Research Step of action Participant  Students Pre action  Researcher  Students  Researcher The action Technique  Interview  Observation  Test (Pre-test)  Planning  Implementing  Observing monitoring  Reflecting Post action  Students  Researcher  Test (Post-test)  Result of post-test and Data  Result of the interview  Result of observation  Result of pre-test  Result of observation  Field notes . The total numbers of test items were 30 items. Table 1. The result of the test was analyzed to know the students‟ achievement on vocabulary. Here is the diagram of the steps.

the data are the result of observation. interview. In this formula. It makes clearer the data and the characteristic of the data (Nurgiantoro. Making a hypothesis using the classify data. making the data in the table. 2001:8). this research uses descriptive statistics. 1. Quantitative descriptive analysis In quantitative descriptive analysis. and photographs. the pre-test is compared with the post-test to know whether teaching vocabulary using short stories can improve the students‟ vocabulary mastery. (d) making an inductive conclusion. The formula of t-test of non-independent is as follows: t= where t is the result of t-test non-independent . Qualitative descriptive In qualitative descriptive analysis. 2. (c) Making the inference. they are qualitative descriptive analysis and also quantitative descriptive analysis. field notes. (b) classify the data in certain classification.44 F. The steps are: (a) compare the data from each informant to make easy in classifying the same data. It is used to make the data simple and communicative. This step uses a simple formula that is called as t-test of non-independent. Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis in this research consists of two kinds.

p q n and : the number of correct answer : the number of incorrect answer : the number of respondent The result of the computation of validity will be consulted to t-table distribution. H. when the difference between the values of t-obtained and the value of t-table is significant. the effectiveness of using short stories to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery will be known. the reliability can be determined by using the formula: . it will be known whether or not the instrument is valid. from this.45 Finally. Reliability of the Instrument After the valid items are determined. . where k is the number of valid items. G. the researcher uses the formula as follows: where. Validity of the Instrument In computing the validity of each item from the instrument.

The indicators are: (1) there is an improvement number of students that have minimal criterion at least 75 % from the total number of students. I. and (2) there is an improving average mark of the class based on the criteria in the curriculum that is used in that school. The Criteria of Successful Action The measurement that is used in checking vocabulary mastery is test. it will be known whether or not the instrument is reliable. From this.46 The result of the computation of reliability will be consulted to r table of statistics. .

They will forget . the students as young learners forget something quickly. and discussion. many problems were found in teaching English for students of the second year of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. First. The structure of the writing contains introduction. The difficulties of learning vocabularies were caused by some reasons. They were supported in pre-research that has been done by the researcher. Introduction contains the problem faced by the students. 2) they got difficulties to understand and grasp the meaning of words. Their vocabulary was still low. It can be seen from the indicators like: 1) they were less interested in teaching learning process. Introduction As presented in chapter I. the description of the research. The discussion deals with the implementations of the actions that are teaching by using short texts based on theories from some experts. The description of the research contains the implementations of the actions of the research in the field. the researcher discusses the implementation of the action. The main problem faced by the students was the lack of vocabularies.47 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION In this chapter. and 3) they got difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. A.

the research is concentrated on improving materials of teaching vocabulary through a classroom action research and the use of short texts as the teaching learning source. the researcher wanted to create interesting situation in the classroom. technique. The method. the researcher wanted to make the students are able to grasp and remember the . technique. Second. Based on the facts above. Secondly. There were some targets which the researcher expected to achieve by conducting the action for the improvement of students‟ vocabulary. They prefer playing to studying. They always talk about something while playing. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. it is important to find out the appropriate method.48 some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat the words many times. By using the appropriate method. So. the students as young learners get bored easily. Firstly. So. Here. the teachers have to find out the appropriate method. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. Third. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. the students as young learners still like playing. Thus. technique or and material. the researcher decided to conduct a research to solve the problems through this study. One of the problems that is taken in this study is the materials that are not suitable and interesting to the students. especially in vocabulary mastery. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. repetition is needed.

The researcher divided the cycle into four meetings. Each meeting took 80 minutes. the researcher hopes that the research can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery and change the situation during the teaching learning process. B. and revising the plan. They are explained as follows: . in this case was short texts. implementing the action. namely planning the action. in presenting and practicing new vocabularies. the researcher decided to carry out interesting teaching materials. 2010. 2010 until April. the researcher wanted to make the students able to write the words or group of words correctly so the improvement of students‟ vocabulary could be achieved. the researcher used short texts as the teaching materials. The Description of the Research The implementation of the action planned in this research was held in a cycle. It was conducted from April. The cycle in this research also consisted of series of steps. Thirdly. Through a classroom action research. Based on the problems and the targets that the researcher expected to achieve.49 meaning of words more easily. observing or monitoring the action. evaluating and reflecting the result of the observation. In this cycle.

Besides that. So. the students are able to write down the words or group of words correctly. The students could drill every word until five times. Planning the action The action plan was made based on the problems that were mentioned in the introduction above. The teacher also planned to drill the students‟ pronunciations using the words that have been prepared. the indicators of vocabulary mastery can be completed. it was expected that the students are able to grasp the meaning of new vocabulary easily. It was to get the students‟ attention and interest. By using short text. The students could ask questions whenever they found problems.50 1. It is because the stories are very funny and give the students a lot of new list of vocabularies. The researcher believed that short stories could improve the students‟ vocabulary and attract the students‟ enthusiasm in teaching learning process. The researcher taught 80 minutes in every meeting. The researcher also gave a lot of time to drill the students. The researcher allocated 60 minutes to give the students a chance to learn the material by doing the worksheet and to practice . The researcher planned to use 10 minutes to greet the students and stated the topic. To overcome those problems. the researcher planned and chose interesting learning materials to solve the problems and improve students‟ behavior during teaching learning process. The researcher told the students that they were going to learn English by using short stories that day. The researcher chose short texts as the teaching materials.

2010. the researcher prepared the material.m. The bell rang. Before implementing the action. students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. April. This test was conducted in the beginning to know the students‟ ability about the material that would be given. The test started at 2010 to know the 10. After implementing the action. Research Implementation The action plan was implemented by the researcher with the help from the teacher as the observer. the researcher conducted a post-test. This cycle was conducted in four meetings. the researcher conducted a pre-test on the first meeting.51 the pronunciation of the words that they have learned. lesson plans as researcher‟s guidance in teaching vocabulary. The pre test was conducted on April. a. and closing. Besides preparing the pre-test.25 a. Each meeting was divided into three terms. The researcher came to the class on time . Post-test was conducted after the last action on the last meeting of the cycle. students‟ worksheet that consisted of some tasks and also teaching equipments that are related to the action. main activity. The last five up to ten minutes was to review and close the lesson. 2. First meeting 1) Opening A pre test was conducted on April. namely: opening. 2010.

The test was about understanding the meaning of words. the researcher gave the information that the students would get the materials in the next meeting and closed the meeting on that day . The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the test that would be done on that day. . the use of words in context and spelling. in this case was short stories. Then. After greeting the students. the students did the test individually. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list.52 and greeted the students. Then. pronunciation of words. she passed the worksheet test to the students. the researcher asked the students to collect the test worksheet on the desk. After that. Next. the researcher checked the test worksheet whether they were complete or not. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. The test was a pre-test. 3) Closing After the bell rang. 2) Main activity After getting test worksheet. After that. the researcher asked about the students‟ feeling. The students were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. This test was aimed to know students‟ ability about the new materials that would be given.

Then. the researcher began the lesson of the day by asking the students to find the meaning of some words. this means that they understood what learning source that would be used.25 am and then greeted the students. After introducing the materials that would be used. The students answered “yes. . the researcher and the students checked the answer together.53 b. They tried to answer the task by looking for the answer on the dictionary. Second meeting 1) Opening The second meeting was conducted on April. Then. Some of them mentioned some titles of short stories. the researcher asked the students to mention some short texts that they ever read or heard. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the second meeting. After greeting the students. 2) Main Activity To open the lesson. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance. 2010. she asked the students whether they ever read or heard short stories or not. No one was absent that day. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. Mam”.

The researcher advised them that it was only a practice. Next. the researcher asked three of the students to mention the main idea of the story. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the words together. The researcher also asked them to find out the idea of the story using words that they ever had before. the researcher drilled the students‟ pronunciation with the guiding words on the worksheet.54 Next. After the students finished doing the task. it could be seen that the students still made some mistakes in getting the main point of the story. They were afraid if they made a mistake. From the students‟ answer. to know the students‟ understanding. the researcher asked the students to do the next task that is to fill in the blanks in some . Next. The title was “The Flowers from the Moon”. Some students were shy and afraid to speak loudly. the researcher gave a chance to the students to read the story on their own worksheet. Next. After the students finished reading the short story. The researcher pronounced every word once and the students pronounced every word three times. They obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. All students obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. to check the students understanding about new vocabulary. the researcher asked the students to write down some words and find the meaning of each word.

The researcher and the observer came to the class at 08. c. the researcher gave the students choice to choose the correct answer. Then. the researcher and the students discussed the answers of the task together. The researcher showed all the words to the students. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. In the .05 am. Some students were very enthusiastic to answer the question of the task.55 sentences with the words that were mentioned on the worksheet and answered the questions about the story. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words. Most students made a mistake in pronouncing the words. Third meeting 1) Opening The third meeting was conducted on April. “very-very interesting”. then. The story‟s title was “Royal Spaghetti”. the researcher reviewed the material. 2010. The researcher asked “how about your feeling today?” The students answered. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. After finishing the task. Next. 3) Closing After finishing the task. If they made a mistake.

The title was ”Rainbow”. The researcher checked the students‟ pronunciation. Then. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. the researcher checked the answered with the students together. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that had been given in the second meeting. To prepare the class. the students started the main activity by finding the correct words and their meaning. In this meeting.56 second meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. No one was absent. After that. the researcher asked some of students to read the story. The researcher passed a new worksheet for each student and asked the students to do the exercises. all students focused on the lesson. After five minutes. the learning source used in teaching learning process was the same as before. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. 2) Main Activity In the beginning of the lesson. the students and the researcher discussed the story to get the main idea. The students felt easily to grasp the main idea of the text because they have translated some difficult words before. Then. There were some pronunciation mistakes done by the students. In this main activity. . The researcher used this chance to begin the main activity.

The students looked very interested in the new task. they were also asked to find the meaning of the words. The students who had finished discussing the correct arrangement. the researcher changed the technique in introducing the new words to the students. The title was “The Caliph and the Clown”. Then. In the middle of the activity. The researcher and the students checked the answers together. Next. the researcher asked the students to pay attention to some words. Then. the researcher asked the students to arrange the letters into a good word. After that. . From the students‟ answer. The students tried to find the synonymy of the words by using their dictionary. the students and the researcher checked the answers together. the researcher asked the students to fill in the blanks in some sentences with the words that were mentioned on the students‟ worksheet. it could be seen that students still made mistakes in arranging the words. After five minutes. the researcher asked some students to answer the questions and wrote the answers on the whiteboard. and then asked them to get the meaning of them. The researcher used the synonym to introduce the words. the researcher and the students discussed the answer together. They were very busy to discuss the correct arrangement of the letters with their friends. then they wrote their answer in the whiteboard. After checking the answer.57 Next.

. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of phrases from the story before. the researcher reviewed the material from the beginning.58 After checking the answers. and then they wrote their answer on the whiteboard and then checked the answer with the researcher. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. On the last task of the third meeting. The students pronounced every word three to four times. Next. Some of them were very busy to remember some of the new words that they heard before and the other discussed with their friends to find the main idea of the story. The researcher mentioned some difficult words and the students tried to guess the right pronunciation and the right meaning. the students tried to grasp the main point of the story with the researcher. The researcher also asked the other students to pay attention to the text. Students who had finished discussing the answers. 3) Closing In the end section. They were very busy to prepare the answer. The reseacher asked “bagaimana pendapat kalian tentang pelajaran pada hari ini?” The students answered. The students were enthusiastic in answering the question from the researcher. the researcher asked some students to read the story loudly. Then.

the researcher asked the students to make a pair of discussion. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. Then. the researcher began the lesson by reading a story. In the fourth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. d. 2010. To prepare the class. Banyak kosa kata baru dan gampang ingetnya”. Fourth meeting 1) Opening The fourth meeting was conducted on April.25 am. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. Then. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the fourth meeting. Then. The title was “The Magic Seeds”. Sometimes they made an underline for some difficult words. The students listened curiously to the researcher‟s story.59 “menyenangkan bu. The researcher asked the students to discuss the story . No one was absent. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the first and second meeting. 2) Main activity Then.

the researcher addressed some of the . After that. the researcher asked the students‟ ability in writing words. The researcher checked the answers. the researcher also asked the students to find the meaning of the words. the researcher asked the students to match the words with their antonyms. The researcher continued the lesson by drilling the students‟ pronunciations. The students had to write some words they heard. Next. The next task. the researcher asked some of the students to read the story. The students pronounced the words three or four times. the students wrote the answers in the whiteboard. The researcher also asked the students to find some difficult words on the story. Then. Some of them were busy to remember the story and the other tried to grasp and write the meaning of some words.60 that they heard. Then. After that. Then. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. The students wrote the answers on their worksheet. the researcher asked the students to write some words that they found in the story before. The story‟s title was “The Owl and the Nightingale”. The students worked in pairs. After five minutes. Then. some of students wrote their difficult words on the whiteboard. Next. they had to find the meaning of the words. The researcher and the students discussed the answers together.

the researcher asked the students to answer some questions about the story. After 5 minutes. Next. . The researcher showed all the words to the students. 3) Closing After finishing the task. bu. the researcher reviewed the material. Tau arti katanya. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment.61 students to retell the story by their own words. the students had to find the hyponymy of some words based on the text that they ever read before. the researcher asked some students to write the students‟ answers and then checked the answers. The other students added “senang. The next task. There are some students discussed the answers with their friends. Then. “lumayan. The students already knew some words so it made the students easy to retell the story. For the last task. The students discussed with their friends. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. The students were very busy to find the answers. Then. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. Bu”.

the researcher checked the students‟ answer. Then.25 am. After that. Then.62 e. No one was absent. . After five minutes. the researcher passed the student‟s worksheet for the fifth meeting to the students. In the fifth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. They could find the meaning in the dictionary. 2010. the researcher asked the student‟s to find the meaning of some words. the researcher began to teach the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the third meeting. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. the researcher asked the students to listen what the researcher pronounced and then write the answer on the students‟ worksheet. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. the researcher asked the students to write the answers on the white board and discuss the answers together. 2) Main activity For the first activity. Fifth meeting 1) Opening The fifth meeting was conducted on April. To prepare the class. Then. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10.

Some of the students worked with their dictionary and the other tried to get the answer from the short story that they read before.63 Next. The researcher also asked the students to write the difficult words that they found. Then. The students pronounced the words three or four times. After 5 minutes. the researcher addressed some students to pronounce some words that were mentioned by the researcher. The students felt happy because the story was very funny. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. Many students raised their hand to write their answer in the whiteboard. After 10 minutes. Next. The title of the story was “Why Bears Hibernate in the Winter”. Some of the students tried to get the answer from the dictionary and the others were discussed. the researcher guided the students to find the meaning form the difficult words that they found. the students tried to grasp the main idea of the story. Then. the researcher asked the students to write the answer in the whiteboard. The students worked in pairs. the students had to find the synonym of some words by matching the words in the column A to the column B. After the students read the story. They enjoyed this material. . the researcher asked some students to read the story and the other paid attention to their friends. After that. the researcher asked the students to arrange the jumble words into a good arrangement.

the researcher asked the students to discuss some of the phrases from the text. the researcher reviewed the material. The researcher repeated some difficult words to the students. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. Tau arti katanya. All of the students were silent and did the instruction well. the researcher asked three of the students to retell the story. The researcher did not forget to . 3) Closing After finishing the task. After 10 minutes. the researcher discussed with the students about the story that they heard. They worked in groups. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. bu. “menyenangkan. The other students added “senang. the students wrote the answer on the whiteboard. The other students paid attention to their friend who retold the story. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. Then. Bu”. After 5 minutes.64 For next material. The title was “The Necklace”. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. The last task. the students were asked to read the story. Next. They felt happy with this teaching way. Then. They had to grasp the main idea of the story individually then retold the story in their own words.

They were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. 3) Closing After the test finished. This post-test was aimed to know the students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. Then. All students were very active in discussing the .05 a. The materials were such as understanding meaning of words. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the post-test that would be done on that day. The test was the same with the pre test that was done before. the use of words in context and spelling. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. After that. the researcher explained about the rules of the test.m. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. 2010. pronunciation of words. the researcher discussed the answers of test with the students. she passed the test worksheets to the students. After greeting the students. 2) Main Activity The students did the test individually. Sixth meeting 1) Opening A post-test was conducted on April. The researcher came to the class on time and greeted the students. Then. f.65 inform the students that in the next meeting the test would be done. The bell rang at 08.

short texts were used to make the way of grasping the meaning easier. The first and the sixth meeting of the cycle were used for testing. The observation was conducted simultaneously when teaching learning process took place. the researcher closed the discussion because the bell rang. it was known that there were some improvements on students‟ vocabulary. Then the second to fifth meeting was focused on improving vocabulary aspects and students‟ motivation in teaching learning process. In this cycle. Besides the explanation of implementing the actions above. Then.66 answers with the researcher. In the teaching and learning process. 3. No student was busy with his own business. the results of the observation of the teaching and learning process were also supported by the interviews with the students about the use of short texts in teaching vocabulary. there were six meetings. the researcher used observation to see the effects of conducting the cycle. and spelling. Observing and Monitoring the Action In monitoring the implementation of this cycle. the use of words in context. From the observation results. the researcher asked the students‟ feeling and comment during teaching learning process with the researcher. All students paid attention with the discussion. The aspects that should be improved were meaning of words. They were the mastery of . Then. The researcher said thank you to the students for everything during the research. pronunciation of words.

All of them were seriously listened to the stories. No students were busy with their own business in the class. the researcher gave advice to the students that it was only a practice. They also did the task on their worksheet well. some students were still passive. Some students were silent when the researcher asked the question to the students. Although the students‟ motivation increased. They paid attention to the lesson. The students also obeyed the researcher instruction. pronunciation. the others were quiet. and using words in context. spelling. They were afraid if their answers were wrong. . To solve this problem. Beside passive. most students were shy to speak loudly. Some students tried to answer the questions of the task. Beside the students‟ improvements on vocabulary. Some students were active to answer the questions from the researcher when the researcher gave them some question or asked them to do the exercises. The situation was conducive because there was no noisy outside the class. the students looked happy and enthusiastic to attend the class. All students did the task quite well.67 meaning. In the second meeting. the observation results explained the students‟ motivation and activities in teaching-learning process and student‟s motivation from the second to the fifth meeting. No one was busy with their own business. In the third meeting. the students‟ motivation was good. Their responses were good. They paid attention to the lesson.

the researcher asked the students to pronounce the word three or four times. the students‟ motivation increased. The researcher used synonymy technique in introducing the new words. When the researcher asked the students to read the story and do the task. the researcher went around the class to monitor and guide them whether they were active to discuss with their friends or not. Sometimes they told each other about something else. the students asked to write some words on their worksheet. They could do the exercises well because there were some phonetic symbols that helped them to do the exercises. many students raised their hand. the students were asked to fill in the blank sentences with the correct words. The students were happy and enthusiastic when the researcher changed the activity in introducing the new words. To solve this problem. So. the students still had problem in pronouncing the word. . They still made mistake to pronounce the right pronunciation. Good atmosphere was created in the class. They were also enthusiastic when discussing with their friends. In the third meeting.68 In the middle of the third meeting. In middle of the fourth meeting. It seemed that they had already understood about the term. the researcher just reviewed all materials from the third meeting. the researcher still used short stories for teaching learning process. After that. Before starting the lesson. It can be seen when the researcher asked the students one by one to check the students‟ understanding. In the fourth meeting.

c) the students were able to write the words correctly and could use the words in context. In reviewing the materials.36. Most students were active and all students got attention to the lesson. 4. all students were active to grasp the meaning of every word. the test score in the first and sixth meeting showed the improvement result.07. The mean of the pre-test was 4. In the fifth meeting. d) the students were also able to pronounce the words correctly. while the mean score of the post-test was 7. They also could write the correct words that they heard. b) the students were able to grasp the meaning of words when the researcher gave them some new vocabularies.69 The students felt happy and enthusiastic doing this task because they knew all of the meaning of the difficult words by discussing with their friends and also looking for the dictionary. It could be seen during the teaching-learning process. the students were very active. Reflecting the Result of the Observation Based on the observation results which were gathered in field notes. . the researcher reflected the results of the action as follows: a) the students who were still passive were getting more active and interested when they were reading and understanding the story. They listened what the researcher pronounced. Moreover.

The improvement of students‟ achievements in teaching learning process using short stories can be seen in the table 2.70 Based on the result of the observing and the test above. They also words. They became more motivated and enthusiastic in learning English which they did not tend to do something useless and got bored in the middle of teaching learning process. The researcher concluded that teaching vocabulary using short texts attracted students‟ curiosity in knowing new words. Table 2. easily. They also got difficulties They translated words from when they had to translate Indonesian into English or the words from Indonesian vice versa easily. They forgot words remembered the words and their meanings easily. students were encouraged to practice their ability in pronouncing and writing words correctly. The students got 1. All of the aspects were completed. it could be seen that there were increasing students‟ motivation and also the aspects of vocabulary. Short texts also encouraged the students to be more active during teaching learning process. Through short texts. into English or vice versa. . Improvement of the Students‟ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts Source of the data before implementing the action Vocabulary mastery after implementing the action Vocabulary mastery Observation and Interview 1. The students understood difficulties to understand and grasped the meaning of and grasp the meaning of words easily.

. 3. could of the 3. The students did not have 2. There were no mistakes in Most of the students forgot writing the words to write the second letter. Students‟ motivation Students‟ motivation 1. They still made words correctly. They started to ask and answer the questions. understand remember. The students were more interested during teaching active and enthusiastic learning process during teaching learning process. Most of the students also made mistakes when they did the exercises in arranging some letters into a correct word. The students could pronounce. understand. The students could not 2. They words. grasp and use words in context about 25 words in context about 75% of them. 80 % of them. grasp and use remember. exercises. 4. The students could only 4. The students could write mistakes when they wrote the words correctly. The students pronounce the words pronounce most correctly. They did not do something something useless during useless during teaching teaching learning process learning process. For example when also could arrange the the students found a word letters into a correct word. pronounce. The students liked doing 3. The students had more full concentration during concentration to do the teaching learning process. mistakes to pronounce the words. 2.71 2. The students still made 3. which has double letters. The students were less 1.

3 % of students.36 5. The examples were prince. Then the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was . The students did the 4. daughter.07 7. quarrel. from 4. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there was an improvement of students who achieved the minimum standard score.07 to 7. dream. Research Findings From the table above. chuckled. in this case 60. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. from 2. understand.8 % of students became 94. Beside that. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. the students‟ improvement could be seen. the improvement also could be seen on the students‟ scores of test. sky. grasp and use the words in context about 75 until 80 % of them. The students liked having exercises individually.72 4. the students understood and grasped the meaning of words easily. From the vocabulary aspects. Then. they could pronounce and write the words correctly. reason. discussion with their friends. sea.36. purple. Test The mean score of pre-test : The mean score of post-test : 4. etc. There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. remember. captured. The improvements were students‟ vocabulary mastery and also students‟ motivation. different. They could pronounce. freedom.

Beside the vocabulary mastery. They also had more concentration to the lesson. they could pronounce the words correctly. they could write the words correctly. the t-table higher than for 35 students is 2. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process and like having discussion with their friends. they had more concentration to do the exercises. Next. There were some reasons for stopping this research only in one cycle. they did not do something useless . The students understood and grasped the meaning of the words easily. Meanwhile. and they also could use the words in context appropriately.04. They were more active and attractive during teaching learning process. the students‟ motivation increased when the short text were used. They asked more questions than before. Considering the facts of some improvements dealing with teaching vocabulary by using short texts above. The indicators showed that they were more active and enthusiastic during the teaching learning process.30. They were as follows: a) The aspects of vocabulary mastery were completed. it means that there is a significant difference between pre- test and post-test score. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19.29. Next. the students‟ motivation also increased. the researcher decided to stop the cycle. finally. They also raised their hands to answer the questions. Since is .73 3.

From the pre-test and post-test score. and using the words. from 4.3 %. from 2. The observation that was done showed that there were some improvements in students‟ vocabulary mastery aspects and students‟ motivation. grasp. pronouncing. They liked having discussion with their friends.36. It was because the school would hold a mid term test for all the students. the students did more practices and steps by steps in understanding. The discussion helped them to understand the lesson and do the tasks well.8 % became 94. At first from the students‟ vocabulary mastery.07 to 7. They also could use and write the words correctly. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. The students also could pronounce the words correctly. c) The researcher only had limited time to conduct the research.74 during teaching learning process. in this case 60. Here. grasping. the students could understand. and remember the meaning easily. C. The school gave two weeks to finish the implementation of the research. It could be understood since human brain has limit . They have their own worksheet that was completed with some short texts. b) There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. so they could have more practices for enriching vocabulary mastery using short stories. spelling. Discussion The research findings came from the observation and the test scores.

75 capacity to absorb new things from surrounding. story. They focused on the materials which were used . teachers of English to young learners. and Jensen (1980: 285) also states that teaching English to children needs special techniques. the situation in the class before implementing the action was described as some students were busy with themselves. more active and enthusiastic to follow the teaching learning process. The students were more active and enthusiastic because the materials used were new materials. the students. Human also has limit memory to remember all at once (www. Beside the new materials. “listen.ksmumail/human_brain. there were also many kinds of interesting techniques used to teach short texts. and write”. the students had more concentration during teaching learning process. Petty. Next. especially the students at the back. Second from the students‟ motivation. edu). should know the techniques of teaching practically for example “listen and repeat”. the class situation became more active and enthusiastic. such as talking with other students or disturbing their friends. and game. Ur (1998) explains that there are three sources of young learners‟ attention in class. question and answer”. It made the students enjoy. as the young learners. namely pictures. were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. Young learners like to read and listen interesting stories. Then. read and write”. After implementing the action. According to Linse (2005). The best way to add breadth and depth to child‟s vocabulary is by providing a variety of opportunities for new and interesting experience. They did some useless activities. say.

Maya K. vocabulary in story is presented in clear context and the amusing situation. . David also states that one indicator which makes teaching learning process succeed is the active students during teaching learning process. It matches with Elli‟s theory. According to Elli (1991:31). They are active if they are suitable with the teacher‟s technique and they are far from teacher pressure (www.david399.htm).76 through short texts. The amusing situation could make students become more enthusiastic.

The more detailed results of the action implemented in this research were as follows. This is based on the facts found in accordance with the result of the action implemented to find answers to the problem statements. the students could understand and grasp the meaning easily. Third. AND SUGGESTION A. They also could remember the meaning of the words easily. . the students also could write the words correctly. First. the students could pronounce. Second. they could rearrange the letters into a correct word. in arranging the jumble letters. For example. Fourth. the students could pronounce the words correctly. it can be seen that the implementation of teaching vocabulary by using short texts can effectively improve students‟ vocabulary.77 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION. Based on the analysis of the result of the implementation of the actions which had been conducted to improve the students‟ vocabulary. The first is about the enrichment of the students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. IMPLICATION. It could be seen from the aspects of vocabulary which are completed. the researcher comes to a conclusion that teaching vocabulary by using short texts can improve the students‟ vocabulary. Conclusion Having conducted the research of teaching vocabulary by using short texts in Junior High School.

Most of the students gave more attention than before. The difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was 3. grasp and use the words in context about 75-80 % of them correctly. Since is higher . . They also liked having discussion with their friends.30. remember.78 understand. The students were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. in this case 60. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19.8 % became 94.29. The researcher found a good atmosphere in the class. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there were more students who achieved the minimum standard score. there was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. The second is about the students‟ motivation. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process.36. Beside that. Next. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. There were so many students who raised their hands to answer the question on the whiteboard or oral answer. they had more concentration to do the exercises. Meanwhile. from 2.04.3 % of students.07 to 7. Next. it means that there is a significant difference between pre-test and post- test score. there was an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. from 4. the t-table than for 35 students is 2.

the teacher should have to choose the appropriate materials and media to teach vocabulary. Implication Based on the conclusion of the study. The teacher could use “listen and repeat”. “listen. the teacher should choose appropriate techniques. question and answer”. Through short texts. there is a significant improvement of students‟ vocabulary and improvement of students‟ learning activity after teaching used short texts to teach new vocabulary and to train the students in order to write and pronounce correctly. Then. read and write”.79 B. the teacher also can use the visual techniques such as mime and gesture and verbal techniques such as verbal explanation. and media. The students suggest using dictionary in translating the words. The material in this case is . synonyms and definition. say. In teaching English using short texts. materials. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. Beside the appropriate techniques. and write”. students were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading. It is conducted by English teacher to make the students‟ more interested and more active in teaching-learning process and to avoid the boredom. antonyms in teaching vocabulary to the students. It implies that using short texts are good material to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery and also improve students‟ learning activity during teaching learning process. writing and pronouncing correctly. The teacher can also conduct an oral test to make the students more motivated and attracted in teaching-learning process.

C. Suggestion After carrying out the researcher and obtaining the conclusion. It makes the students understand the stories well. techniques. The short texts have to contain new and old information to the students. The materials have to appropriate with the syllabus that used in that school. 1. other researcher. there is an improvement of students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. students. and for school.80 short texts. the researcher would like to propose some suggestion directed to the English teacher. By understanding those points. Students will be easy in . and then make analyses of the stories by their own words. It is suitable with the material that used in the second year of junior high school. English teacher The English teachers should learn the characteristics of the students in order to know exactly what they need and what problems they faced on their development. and materials in improving the students‟ motivation in learning English based on certain condition. the English teachers should create an interesting and enjoyable situation of teaching learning process. Besides. The students can find the difficult words and their meaning. the teacher could choose the most suitable method. By implementing short texts using appropriate techniques and materials. The genre that is used is narrative.

3. They can practice English in their daily life. 2. and materials of teaching English of Junior High School students that can be taken as objects of research to find out the effectiveness of teaching. The students have to be more active and motivated to learn English. Students An instructional process will not be successful if students are not maximally involved in it. It is expected that the finding of this study will be used as a starting point of the future research on similar problems. . School The institution should state a policy in improving the quality of the teaching English for children. The students not only can study English in the class but also can study everywhere and every time. 4.81 learning when the situation is interesting for them and the students will more enthusiastic. techniques or materials. It also would avoid the boredom. It should encourage the English teacher to be creative to use various method. It should also be facilitated with various media supporting the teaching activity. Other researcher This study is just one of efforts in improving students‟ vocabulary. There are many other method. techniques.

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