ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS

A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010

Written by: Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi K2206029

Submitted to Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Undergraduate Degree of Education

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2010 i

APPROVAL

This thesis is approved by the consultants to be examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University.

Approved by

Consultant 1

Consultant 2

Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005

Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP. 19730205 200604 1 001

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This thesis is examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University and accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for achieving the Undergraduate Degree of Education in English. Place of the test Date of the test : :

The Board of Examiners 1. Chairman Drs. Suparno, M. Pd NIP. 19511127 198601 1 001 2. Secretary Dewi Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd. NIP. 19780818 200312 2 002 3. Consultant 1 Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005 4. Consultant 2 Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP 19730205 200604 1 001 (………………………) (……………………....) (………………………) (………………………)

Legalized by, Teacher Training and Education Faculty Sebelas Maret University The Dean

Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd NIP. 19600727 198702 1 001

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the researcher used observations. and research findings. The results of the observation were in the form of field notes and photographs. Then. The procedure of the research consisted of identifying the problems. The results of this research show that short texts can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. K2206029: “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). Next.3% of students. the researcher used tests. from the students’ motivation. and document analysis. planning the action.36 in post-test. the students could understand. from the aspect of the vocabulary mastery. The improvement can be seen in the form of students’ achievements. students iv . This study is based on the problem of the low vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. they have more concentration to do the exercises. write about 75 until 80 % of the words correctly and also use the words in context appropriately. In the qualitative method. Then. the scores of the pre-test and post-test show that there is also an improvement of students who achieve the minimum standard score.07 to 7. Sebelas Maret University.8% to 94. Surakarta 2010. the improvement of students’ score can be seen from the differences between the pre-test and post-test. this research also used descriptive statistics and the t-test of non-independent. the students are more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. implementing the action. The techniques in collecting the data were qualitative and quantitative method. they also like having discussion with their friends. They are from 2. reflecting the result of the observation. The materials used in this research were short text. grasp. observing or monitoring the action. It is also aimed at the improvement of the students’ achievement in teaching learning process using short stories. Through short texts.ABSTRACT Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi.” Teacher Training and Education Faculty. they do not do something useless during teaching learning process. The mean score of the pre-test improves from 4. The results of this research imply that using short texts are good material to improve students’ vocabulary mastery and also improve students’ learning activity during teaching learning process. Second. At last. In the quantitative method. remember. First. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. Then. pronounce. The technique to analyze the test result was by comparing the mean score of pre-test and post-test. The research was conducted in one cycle. The test consisted of the pre-test and post-test. field notes. Besides that. They can be seen from the aspects of vocabulary mastery and the students’ motivation. photographs. It is aimed at knowing whether using short texts can enrich the students’ vocabulary. The cycle consisted of four meetings. that is 60.

were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading, writing and pronouncing correctly.

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MOTTO
“Mantapkan hati dan niat seraya berucap Bismillahirrahmanirrahim”

"No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross, no crown." (William Penn)

"Criticism should not be querulous and wasting, all knife and rootpuller, but guiding, instructive, inspiring." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

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DEDICATION

With deep profound love, this research is devoted to: 1. Her beloved father and mother, thank you. Nothing compares to what they have done for her. 2. Her beloved “eyang uti” and sisters “dek sha”, who always pray and encourage her. 3. Her best friends “pam, sopal, dee, lucy, jhono, anggit, riph, tika” who give her unbroken support, prayer, and cares. 4. Her all friends, who always support her. 5. Herself and her beautiful future.

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and patience during the writing process of this thesis. The writer is also fully aware that her thesis can never be finished without the help of others during the process of writing.Pd.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillahirabbil’alamin. encouragement. 3. Praise be to ALLAH SWT who has given His blessing to the writer so that she can complete the writing of this thesis as a partial requirement for achieving the undergraduate degree of education in English Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University. in this occasion she would like to express her deepest gratitude and appreciation to the following: 1. S. 2. Dr. M. Sugiyati. who helped and given her a chance to do the research. 6. 4. Therefore. advice. Hum. M. the English teacher of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. advice. The Head of the English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty for his advice..S. viii . The Headmaster of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo for the permission and advices for doing the research in SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. Teguh Sarosa. The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University who had given his permission to write this thesis. Abdul Asib. encouragement.. for all his valuable guidance.. 5. Mrs. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. for all his valuable guidance. the first consultant. the second consultant and academic consultant.

and Aji. Her beloved family. Lucy. Ariph and Atika for their supports and suggestions.7. The second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo who participated well in the research. her sister. She hopes and accepts gratefully every comment and suggestion. Anggi. 8. for his motivation to make the writer keep move on. Didit Hermawan. Yoyok Sandi Wibowo. Her incredible support. 10. 11. 9. Muthya. caring. June. Her friends in the English Department of the year 2006 for their everlasting friendship. The researcher realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect. Riana. her grandmother. Dewi. 12. for their supports. 2010  Rea  ix . her mother. Everyone who helped the writer to conduct the research for his or her participation in writing this thesis. Her “best friends”. her father. Hopefully. and prayer. Pamrih. this thesis will be useful for the readers. Surakarta.

....................................................................................................................................... 6 D............ v DEDICATION ................... 11 d.... 9 A................ ii ABSTRACT ................ 13 e.............................................. Notion of Vocabulary ....................................................................................... xiv LIST OF FIGURE .............................................................................. iv MOTTO...................................................................................................... The Problems Statement ............................................................. 7 E............................................... TABLE OF CONTENT TITLE PAGE .................................. Vocabulary Mastery ....................................... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................... The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery ...............................Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company................................... 6 C............................................................................................................................................ The Limitation of the Problem ...... The Importance of Vocabulary ...................................... 1 B............... Review on Related Literature .................................................................. The Benefits of the Study ....................... xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ..................................... RATIONALE AND HYPHOTHESIS ....................................... Background of the Study ......................................................................................................................... xiii LIST OF TABLE ............................................................................................................. General Concept of Vocabulary ............. 9 a.............. ix LIST OF APPENDIXES ....................................................... The Objectives of the Research ................................. 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE............................................................. 9 1................................... vii TABLE OF CONTENT ......................................................................... 10 c............................................... 19 x ....2005-2008 For Evaluation Only.......................................................................................................................................... i APPROVAL..................................... The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery .................. 9 b.......... 1 A............................

................................................... The Concept of Story ..................................................................... The Procedures of Action research...................... 23 b............................................................. Method of the Research ............................... 47 A..................... 28 4........................................................... Hypothesis .................. Setting and Subject of the Research ....................................................................................................... The Definition of Motivation ....................... 33 C........ Technique of Data Analysis . 46 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION ... Research Implementation ....................................................... 23 a................ 30 b.................................... Technique of Collecting Data ............................... 66 xi ...... 49 1.... Validity of the Instrument.............................. Planning the Action ..................2...................................................................................................................... 44 G................ 25 3................................................ The Model of Action Research ... The Types of Motivation ...... 32 B.................... The Notion of Young Learners ....................................... 35 A................................. 41 F................................................................ The Characteristic of Motivated Students ........................... 47 B.... The Characteristic of Children ..... The Concept of Text .... 45 H... 30 a....... The General Concept of Young Learners .................... 50 2........ 35 B............................. 37 D............... 28 b...................... 51 3........................................................................... The Description of the Research ............... Introduction ......................................................................... The Notion of Motivation ........................................................................................... 36 C................................................ 45 I.......................... 39 E...................... Essences of Short Text .......................... 24 c.............................................. The Criteria of Successful Action ... Reliability of the Instrument ............ 34 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................. 31 c......... The Notion of Folktales ........... Observing and Monitoring the Action ............................................................................... Rationale ...................................................... 28 a.....

.............................................................................................................................. 81 4................ 80 2.................................................................. 74 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION......... 77 A.............................................................4...... Discussion ............ 81 3....................................................................................... School............................................................................ 79 C.................. Implication . Other Researcher ........ 81 BYBLIOGRAPHY xii ... SUGGESTION .............................................................................................. Students ..................... English Teacher................................. Reflecting the Result of the Observation ...... 69 5................... 77 B.......... Suggestion .................................................................................................................................. IMPLICATION........................ Conclusion ...................... 80 1...... 72 C.. Research Finding..............

..................... 149 Appendix 10 : Syllabus of KTSP ............................. 157 Appendix 14 : The Computation of T-Test .............................. 155 Appendix 13 : The Computation of Validity and Reliability ......................................................... 85 Appendix 3 : Lesson Plans ..................................... 148 Appendix 9 : The Research Schedule ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 90 Appendix 4 : Students’ Worksheet ............................................................................................................................................................................ 118 Appendix 6 : Blue Print of Vocabulary Test .................. 82 Appendix 2 : The Photographs ............................... 153 Appendix 12 : The Students’ Pre-test and Post Test Score ........ 102 Appendix 5 : Field Notes ................................................................................................. 236 Appendix 17 : Letters of Permission .................... 145 Appendix 8 : Key Answer of the Test ............................................ 150 Appendix 11 : Students Score before the Action .................................................................................... 144 Appendix 7 : Pre and Post Test Items ....... 244 xiii ......LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix 1 : Description of location SMP N 5 Sukoharjo ..................................................... 160 Appendix 16 : Key Answer of Worksheet ............................... 159 Appendix 15 : The Students’ Test and Worksheet done by the Students ........

......................................................... 70 xiv ... 43 : Improvement of the Students’ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts ................................LIST OF TABLE Table 1 Table 2 : The Steps in Action Research.................................................

.........LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1.... 38 xv ................. An Illustration of Action Research Spiral .....................

such as trade. The importance can be seen from some sides of life. society. both of in spoken and written form. education. there are so many kinds of foreign language. it can be said that mastering foreign language is very important for surviving life. so does English. one of the requirements is language competence. It is because language is one of instruments which has important functions in communication. Then. As quoted in Undang-Undang Sisdiknas (2003: 15) “bahasa asing dapat digunakan sebagai bahasa pengantar pada satuan pendidikan tertentu untuk mendukung kemampuan berbahasa asing peserta didik”.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. So. technology. In education. English is one of the important foreign languages. It has been discussed before that foreign language has many functions. there are many education books that are written in foreign languages. and culture. . It has a function as a bridge for all aspects of human life. for example is job requirement. As it is known. Background of the Study Mastering of a foreign language is one of the important things that is needed in modern society and globalization era. science. That is the most important reason why English is learned in school. communication. English is one of the native languages used to improve students‟ ability.

From some statements above. Ellis. 2. 3. the aim of early foreign language learning is to prepare young learner linguistically. 4. teaching English to young learner is aimed to increase the total number of years spent learning language. at junior high school is very important. it prepares young learners to make a link of communication to understand concept of communication it self. It also maximizes . it can be concluded that studying foreign language. Singleton in Brumfit (1997: 7) also defines some reasons for teaching English at primary level. The advantage of starting with early second language instruction so that later the language can be used as a medium of teaching.2 Actually. and Girard (1992: 23-24) define some reasons for starting to learn a foreign language earlier. especially English language. The need to expose children from an early age to understanding of foreign cultures so that they grow up tolerant and sympathetic to others. the earlier you start the more time you get. The need to link communication to understanding of view concepts. By learning foreign language earlier. The need for maximum learning time for important languages. they are: 1. teaching English at junior high school is extremely important because it is still the basis for the higher level. First. Third. psychologically. Brewster. and culturally for language learning. Second. the indisputable fact those young learners have a greater facility for understanding and imitating what they hear than adult.

and reading). Considering the importance of vocabulary competence. Therefore. There are many kinds of students‟ characteristic. the students need to understand the meaning of words. For beginners.3 learning time for learning foreign language. it will make other person understand or make ourselves understood easily. Vocabulary supports all of the English skills. They will forget some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat . For enhancing all aspects in foreign language. vocabulary mastery is the basic knowledge in learning English. it is better to introduce new vocabulary earlier to the students. First. Coady and Huckin (1998: 5) say that vocabulary is the central to language and of critical importance to language learning for the young learners. It makes them know and understand a lot of vocabularies. The words here means as vocabulary. Firstly. It should not be neglected by anyone who learns a language. young learners forget something quickly. writing. They will more understand what they have learned. One of the problems that are faced is the characteristics of the students as young learners. Then. speaking. Knowing more words in English language. a teacher has many problems to develop the students‟ vocabulary mastery. the students need something to do. especially English skills (listening. knowing words is the key for understanding and being understood. it is not easy to teach English for the young learners. here are the junior high students. So it can be concluded that vocabulary takes the important aspect to master English well as a foreign language. the earlier they start the more time they get. Sometimes.

or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. After having pre research by interviewing the teacher and observing teaching learning process of mastering vocabulary at the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. there are no interesting technique that used by the teacher. technique. Most of materials come from the teachers. The teaching learning process uses teacher centre in delivering the lessons. technique. There are no materials from other sources like internet. magazine. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students‟ acts as follows: firstly. the teachers have to find out the appropriate. Here. so the . Second. They prefer playing than studying. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. So. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. The materials used in teaching learning process only from books and students worksheet. They always discuss about something in their around while playing. the students are less interested in teaching learning process.4 the words many times. Third. etc. technique or and material. it is important to find out the appropriate. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. The method. the researcher finds out that the students‟ vocabulary mastery is still low. So. In teaching learning process. It may be caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate and attractive. young learners get bored easily. especially in vocabulary mastery. It is clear that repetition is needed. By using the appropriate method. young learners still like playing. it makes the students less interested and do not be active in teaching learning process.

the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. . Beside that the students will be easy to write down the correct words or group words. It is because there are no appropriate learning sources that used to help the students for remembering the materials that are given. It can be seen when they find some words that have double letters. the students write the word only “sudenly”. She wants to make the students interested by using the teaching material of short texts. The students usually get mistake to rearrange into the correct word. The correct arrangement is “winter” but students rearrange them become “writen”. students‟ marks are still lower than the passing grade. Thirdly. the researcher tries to enrich vocabulary mastery of the students using short texts. The students also get difficulties when they have to translate the words. The other difficulties that the students faced when they do an exercise on jumble word. Most of the students forget to write down the second letter.5 students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words. From the indicators that are mentioned above. Example is the word “n-t-w-i-r-e”. For example the word “suddenly”. Secondly. Due to the facts above. She uses short texts because short texts will help to solve the problems that are faced by the students. Short text is one of an interesting material that helps the students to find out the keys to remember and grasp many new vocabularies. It is because all words or group word are inside of the short texts.

the researcher would like to conduct a research to solve the problem and also enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery by using short stories entitled “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS” (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). Therefore.6 Based on the description above. The Problems Statement Based on the background of study. the researcher limits the problem on how to enrich the students‟ vocabulary mastery using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. The problems of the study can be formulated as follows: 1. How is the students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? . The Limitation of the Problem The research has a broad scope and it is impossible for the researcher to handle the study consisting of so many complicated problems. B. the researcher wants to prove whether or not the short texts can improve students‟ vocabulary mastery in learning English at the junior high school. Can short texts enrich vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? 2. C.

Whether using short texts can enrich the students‟ vocabulary of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. the teacher can take some correct problems solving from those problems. Then.7 D. 2. the general objective of this research is to improve students‟ vocabulary by using short texts. Particularly. . The Objectives of the Research Based on the formulation of the problem. the data of the research are also very useful for the teacher. in this case is short texts. The Benefits of the Study It is expected that this research contributes some significant progresses in teaching vocabulary for several sides. E. they are: 1. Then. So the teacher hoped to create an interesting teaching learning process by using this teaching material. this research is aimed to find out: 1. It will help the teacher to identify the students‟ difficulties in learning vocabulary and also find the students who need more guiding. Teacher It is expected that the teacher will get more information about one of the appropriate teaching materials. The students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010.

8 2. Students It is expected that the result will give motivation to the students to be better in vocabulary mastery. students are expected to have good enrichment in vocabulary and also the changes of behavior during teaching learning process. . so the quality of teaching learning process can be increased. School It is expected that the information of the result will be very useful for getting success in teaching learning process. 3. The result of the research is also hoped to improve students‟ achievement in English lesson standard. Through short texts.

9 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE (RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESIS) A. For example. Ur (1998: 60) defines that vocabulary can be mean as the words we teach in foreign language. vocabulary is written in alphabetical order in dictionaries based on system or rule of foreign language. The items in vocabulary may be more than a single word. which expressing a single idea. if someone learns new words in foreign language. McWhorter (1989: 311) says that vocabulary means the ability to recognize individual words and to associate . Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) state that vocabulary is a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. for example post office. Furthermore. General Concept of Vocabulary a. Here. Notion of Vocabulary There are some definitions of vocabulary proposed by linguist experts. Review On Related Literature 1. Since vocabulary is a list.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. the only system involved is alphabetical order in dictionaries. It means vocabulary is written or spoken unit of language as symbol of idea in foreign language for the learners. mother-in-law.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. it means that someone learns vocabulary.

Based on Hatch and Brown.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. groups of letter that stand for. The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary is an important aspect in our life. vocabulary can be constructed as a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. Meanwhile. In the other word. 10 meaning with the particular combination of letters that form a word. either a physical object or an idea. an object with a flat surface. the word chair in our minds a physical reality. vocabulary is the competence or skill in recognizing words and its meaning. It can be formed from a single or more than one word. recognizing words means knowing its meaning or idea and how they are formed by a combination of letters. Words are symbols. The words here are the symbols in form of groups of letter represent either a physical object or an idea. does not represent a physical object. For example. It is because people need vocabulary in expressing their ideas both of in mother . Based on three definitions above.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. and used to for sitting. Then. vocabulary deals with a series of words in particular language. It symbolizes the feeling of one person toward another. usually supported by four legs. b. Then. or represent. Ur adds that vocabulary deals with word taught in foreign language. McWhorter states that vocabulary deals with the competence in recognizing words and its meaning. the word love on the other hand.

use. both in college and later in our career. A strong vocabulary can be a valuable asset.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Edge (1993: 27) states that knowing a lot of words in foreign language are very important. Every person who learns a language must learn the vocabulary of the language in order to make the learning process easier. an event.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. or knowledge. Cross (1995: 14) states that a good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication. Vocabulary always becomes the essential part of English as a foreign language. vocabulary plays an important role. it can be concluded that vocabulary is very important in learning language and mastering vocabulary will facilitate someone in using language in communication. In language learning. While Hornby (1984:523) says that mastery is the complete control or . Without a name. and a feeling. we must name objects. Without vocabulary mastery. Vocabulary Mastery Coulson et al (1987: 1050) define that mastery is skill. learning a language becomes a very hard thing to do and communication in second language cannot happen in any meaningful way. 11 tongue and foreign language. Tailor (1991: 1) says that in order to live in the world. It means mastery is the ability to use one of knowledge. Names are essential for the construction of reality. it will be difficult to accept the existence of an object. According to the statement above. c.

So. adolescent period. vocabulary mastery can be constructed as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. in case of the physical object or idea. First. . either a physical object or an idea and it also can be formed from a single or more than one word. The process of vocabulary mastery is not simple. The vocabulary mastery can not be done spontaneous but step by step. this term is the adolescent start to use the language and make it more extensive directly in simple communication. mastery is the whole power or ability to direct knowledge. this term children are able to define concept vocabulary to say their concrete idea. Third.12 knowledge. While vocabulary is a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning in form of symbols of groups of letter. Keraf (1989: 6566) defines the step in processing vocabulary mastery. adult period. It means mastery is the ability to combine skill and knowledge in one certain area. from both of definitions above. children period. It is usually arranged by a standard of curriculum and syllabus in every aspect whether the topic or the test. Second. The certain area in teaching means a lesson taught. this term the vocabulary are used more and more intensive because they make more communication each other. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. Here.

Direct technique is usually used through the language book. They are direct and indirect techniques. and science lesson. d.13 From the definition above. The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery There are various ways to improve vocabulary mastery. means a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. in case of the physical object or idea. Then indirect technique uses the other source of lesson like mathematic. The technique here refers to the way of teaching. The success of teaching learning process depends on not only the teachers‟ and students‟ competence but also the technique of teaching. There are some techniques of teaching vocabulary. The teachers may have some techniques to teach it. There are two techniques in improving vocabulary mastery. social lesson. prose. The techniques are the unplanned vocabulary teaching and planned vocabulary teaching. While vocabulary. Then vocabulary mastery define as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. mastery may be defined as the ability to use skill or knowledge in one subject area based on recognized standard. Dealing with the technique of vocabulary teaching. Unplanned vocabulary teaching is . poetry and games. there are so many techniques proposed by some experts.

chuckle. Sometimes the explanation is no more complicated than pointing. etc. For examples. The objects of the real things can be in the class or probably through the window. The demonstration helps to make the meaning clearer and to fix the word in the students‟ minds. The planned vocabulary teaching can be described as “the vocabulary lesson” since the primary objective of the teaching activities is the presentation and practice of the lexical item themselves. while planned vocabulary teaching where the teacher goes into classroom with an item or a set of vocabulary items that the teacher has decided before hand.14 extemporaneous teaching of vocabulary items that come up without planning in course of lesson. . Beside that it also helps students to memorize both of visual and aural memories. 2) Use the real thing In this way. While Lewis and Hill (1992: 102-103) mention some ways to teach vocabulary. stagger. the teachers present vocabulary items by bringing the real things into classroom. They are: 1) Demonstrate Demonstration is the way of teaching vocabulary by doing physical demonstration together verbal explanation.

4) Use the blackboard to show scales or grades Words like cool. or probably may be explained by presenting them with groups of related words: Hot warm cool cold 5) Antonyms This is the way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites or antonyms of the word. Here. For example the meaning of bush was explained by two very simple sketches.15 3) Draw or sketch Teachers do not need to be artists to make simple sketches which illustrate meaning. It is worth that the explanations given here are not exact definitions of the word. like accuracy can often be counter-productive. orange (color). the learners have to be aware that a word may have different opposite in difficult context. the level of the explanation must be suitable to the students‟ level of English at the time so that dictionary. For example: light bag >< heavy bag light word >< strong word rough area >< quite area poor >< rich dirty >< clean happy >< sad red orange yellow certainly / definitely probably / possibly .

asking one or more students to look the word up in a dictionary. Beside that. It is . their connotation meanings often differ. 7) The dictionary This is the way of teaching vocabulary by using dictionary to know vocabulary items. or not. A bilingual dictionary can be used at low levels and monolingual dictionary at the high levels. Though words may have similar denotation meaning. that words do not mean the same as each other.16 rough texture >< smooth texture 6) Synonyms high >< low Synonyms are the way of teaching vocabulary by giving same meaning of two or more words. using the former phrase also helps to build up in the students‟ mind ides that language consists of choice. 8) Verbal explanation Verbal explanation refers to the way of teaching vocabulary by explaining the meaning of vocabulary items in students‟ own language. 9) Translation It is a way of teaching vocabulary by translating some words or individual words from the target language into other language. One technique for explaining these which teachers too frequently overlook is asking the class whether anybody knows the word and.

e. professions.17 seen as boring and traditional. teachers often make use of . making use of blackboard and gesture to reinforce the concept. 2) Verbal Techniques a) Use illustrative situation (oral or written) This is most helpful when items become more abstract. objects themselves). blackboard drawings. a teacher might build a situation to illustrate it. In this technique. They are: 1) Visual techniques a) Visual These include flashcards. They are extensively used for conveying meaning and particularly useful for teaching concrete items of vocabulary such as furniture. actions. and realia (i. and certain areas of vocabulary such as places. b) Mime and gesture These are often used to supplement other ways of conveying meaning. Gairns (1991: 73-75) says that there are some techniques used in presenting new vocabulary. photographs. if the class consists of different nationalities. and activities. To ensure that students understand. When teaching an item such as “to swerve”. descriptions of people. wallcharts. Furthermore. the teacher will find difficulty to translate the word(s) into all languages.

This is the example of adverbs of frequency: never hardly ever occasionally I sometimes often always go to cinema on Sundays . Synonymy is also the way of teaching by giving more than one meaning for a word.18 more than one situation or context to check that students have grasped the concept. However. this can be a useful way of revising and feeding in new items. b) Use of synonymy and definition Definition here is the way of teaching vocabulary by defining or describing objects. d) Scales Once students have learnt two contrasting or related gradable items. c) Contrast and opposites Contrast and opposites are they way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites of the words. it is vital to illustrate the contexts in which this is true.

etc”. verbal explanation and translation techniques to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery. antonyms. The example of “furniture” is “table. in case of the physical object or idea. the students can understand and grasp the vocabulary easily. . The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery Dealing with the vocabulary mastery. mime and gesture. In this paper. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. dictionary. 3) Translation Translation can be very effective way of conveying meaning. it is also hoped that by using these techniques. e.19 e) Examples of type This is the way of teaching vocabulary by exemplifying things it self. Then. The teacher will find difficulties if the students come from different nationalities. It is because the techniques that are mentioned are usually used in school. the researcher uses definition. bed. It can save valuable time in teaching process but it seen as boring and traditional. Some of these can of course also be dealt with through visual aids. synonyms. it can be defined as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that is used to express meaning. sofa. chair.

are also problematic.such as regular and lorry for Japanese speakers. If those factors are fulfilled. how to spell. spelling. 1) Pronunciation Research shows that words that are difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn. Thornbury says that the factors come from the word‟s aspects such pronunciation. It is because she or he should know the appropriate word. such as strength or crisp or breakfast. Many learners find that words with clusters of consonants. connotation and idiomatic are the indicators in vocabulary mastery. meaning. etc to express the idea of the subject. what‟s the meaning. how to pronunce.spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors. She or he can not understand the lesson easily. and range. Potentially difficult words will typically be those that contain sounds that are unfamiliar to some groups of learners. either of pronunciation or of spelling. Here. and can contribute to a .20 Thornbury (2002: 27) declares some factors why learning vocabulary is rather difficult for second language learner. 2) Spelling Sound. length and complexity. The example is when an Indonesian student has an English subject at school and it is the second language for her or him. grammar. someone can be said that he or she has achieved the vocabulary mastery. Those six aspects above will be defined briefly here.

tend to assume that explain follows the same pattern as both Spanish explicar and English tell. honest. listen. bored. necessity and necessarily can add to their difficulty.21 word‟s difficulty. a factor favoring their „learn ability‟. etc. cupboard. Furthermore. and say he explained me the lesson. Then the grammar of phrasal verbs is particularly troublesome: some phrasal verbs are separable (she looked the word up) but others are not (she looked after the children). for example. headache. While most English spelling is fairly law-abiding. or hope is followed by an infinitive (to swim) or an –ing form (swimming) can add to its difficulty. Spanish learners of English. . and therefore the learner is likely to meet them more often. 4) Grammar It is problematic when grammar associated with the word. However. Words that contain silent letters are particularly problematic: foreign. as a rule of thumb. love. climbing. high frequency words tend to be short in English. especially if this differs from that of its L 1 equivalent. Remembering whether a verb like enjoy. there are also some glaring irregularities. 3) Length and complexity Long words seem to be no more difficult to learn than short ones. variable stress in polysyllabic words.such as in word families like necessary. muscle.

slender. can also be troublesome for learners. meaning. Having learned one meaning of the word. they may be reluctant to accept a second. and a good innings) will seem fairly opaque to most learners and are likely to be easily learned. learners are likely to confuse them. such as very informal words (chuck for throw. Finally. propaganda has negative connotations in English. etc. thin is a safer bet than skinny. culture specific items such as words and expressions associated with the game cricket (a sticky wicket. a hat trick. The words have style constraints. Uncertainly to the connotations of some words may cause problems too. Unfamiliar concepts may make a word difficult to learn. but its nearest equivalent in other languages may dean deviant. slim. Make and do are a case in point: you make breakfast and make an appointment. swap for exchange) may cause problems. Thus put is a very wide-ranging verb. position. but you do the housework and do a questionnaire. compare to impose. Thus. The words with multiple meanings such as since. totally different. Likewise. and still. place. . Thus.22 5) Meaning When two words overlap in meaning. 6) Range. connotation and idiomaticity Words that can be used in a wide range of context will generally be perceived as easier than their synonyms with a narrower range.

. spelling. the use of words in meaning and meaning. where “text” means verbal record communication. watch). those three aspects that are learned in junior high school. 2. Willis (1998: 67) says that text in general sense to mean a continuous piece of spoken or written language. Arthur Hughes (2003:140) states that texts candidates are expected to be able to deal with can be specified along number of parameters: type. They also differentiate the term of those text and discourse dealing with the context. It is because. It is their idiomaticity. intended readership. The Concept of Text Brown and Yule (1997: 24) suggest that the term to spoke “text” as well.23 words or expression that are idiomatic (like make up your mind. as well as their syntactic complexity that makes phrasal verbs so difficult. topic. graphic features. From all those definition above. style. length. Texts in this sense are printed texts. Essences of Short Text a. we conclude that vocabulary mastery is the students‟ awareness of understanding the words and their rules to communicate. keep an eye on…) will generally be more difficult than words whose meaning is transparent (decide. form. The aspects to be measured are limited to pronunciation of words.

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readability or difficulty, range of vocabulary and grammatical structure. Text type include: text books, handouts, articles (in newspaper, journals or magazine), poems, encyclopedia, dictionary, novel (extracts) and short stories, etc. He also states that text forms include: description, exposition, argumentation, instruction, and narration. Cross (1995:77-78) states that the text is a major resources; permitting you to vary the learning activities from lesson to lesson. There are four main factors to consider when deciding how to threat a passage; linguistic complexity, length, interest level and aims. From the definition above, it can be concluded that the text is a verbal communication which consists of continuous piece of spoken or written language and its meaning is contextually. b. The Concept of Story Story is account of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events, etc (Hornby: 1995: 94). Taylor (2000: 16) says that story is relating tale to one or more listener through voice and gesture. It is clear that vocabulary in a story should be presented in clear context; the amusing situations can make the vocabulary easy to remember. Ray B. West (1968: v) says that story is something brought into being by application of the skill and workings of the imagination of the author. Its aim is to arouse the emotions and stimulate the imagination of the students.

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Brad Hooper (1992: xi) says that story is different from a novel in that it is short enough to be read in one sitting, with every word leading toward some final, preordained effect. In story, the sentences are generally shorter in order the students easy to follow the story. From the statements above, the writer draw conclusion that story refers to the written or spoken description of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events that can be used to for teaching students which have aims to make the students easier to follow the story and it has different from a novel that is short enough to be read in one sitting. This paper, the writer uses the story as text especially folktale for increasing vocabulary mastery in second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo Academic Year 2009/2010. c. The Notion of Folktales One kind of story that usually heard by child is the folktales. It is type words composition that recites the story of the folklore in a certain region that is popularly and orally told from one generation to other generation in a certain community. (www.classicalfolktale.wikipedia.com) 1) The meaning of Folktales The word folktale is not defined in English usage. Taylor (2000:4) defines the term “folktale” as traditional story that has been

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passed by words of mouth, told from parents to children over many generations or passed on by countless storytellers sitting around countless evening fires. No one knows who the original author was, and there are usually different versions of the same story, he also states that the term “folktale” has also been used to refer to literary retelling of these tales. Another definition of folktales is that “words folktales refer to the many types of traditional narratives know to the “folk” (Coffin and Cohen, 1996:1). Philips (1992) defines folktales as story about telling stories with unverifiable claims and its literary form. From the definition above, we can assume that folktales are traditional stories that have been passed by words of mouth and told from generation to generation. Folktales lasted through a long period of time due to their universality. They are forms of traditional literature which began as attempt to explain and understand the natural and spiritual world. The origin of folktales lies in oral tradition. 2) The type of folktales There are several types of folktales. Taylor (2000) divides folktales as fable, fairy tales, hero stories, myths, legend. Fables are very short folktales with animals as the main characteristic and with very obvious moral lesson, often summon up in single line at the end.

is religious and deals with the creating and ordering of the universe and with the earlier order in which present world condition were being established. and even between two telling stories of the same tale. Examples “Johnny Appleased” and “Pail Bunyan”. primitive myth. Fairy tales are folktales that include some magical elements (not necessity fairies): the German word marchen is sometimes used for this. Hero stories some of which have some real historical parts and other of which may not. Taylor . Examples: Tumbelina. Fairy tales are fictional and take place in a never-land. when strictly defined. Example: “Shakespeare‟s Ghost” and “Paul Bunyan”. 3) The Characteristics of Folktales Although there a lot of variations between folktales. Legends are stories that are based on a real hero and his or her mighty deeds and believed by the teller and serve a historical purpose. It is told as if they are fact. and usually involving God. Goddesses and supernatural power: “Adam and Eve” and “Noah‟s ark”.27 Legend is stories that are based on real hero and his or her mighty deeds. certain characteristics typical in folktales contribute to relatively easy reading. And believed by the teller and served as historical purpose: “The dog and the meat” and “the greedy old spider”.

The Characteristic of Children In general. The General Concept of Young Learners a. children have the following characteristics: . In relation to the English teaching learning process. These are the list: time order repetition and redundancy predictability relatively simply grammar concrete ideas illustrations that provide support and context for the texts a unique reader-write relationship 3.28 (2000:9) gives various characteristics of folktales that make them exceptionally good for language teaching. The Notion of Young Learners Teaching English to children is different from teaching English to and adult. It means that the English teacher should be use the technique for English teaching that can make the students interested in learning English Lesson (House. they need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. 1997: 98) b.

So material of teaching that will be teaching is about their surrounding and happened in that time. eyes. Hence from that to convey the material of learning we should be able to take both. and ears. They tend to resolves around themselves. eyes. that is playing and learning in the same time. . 3) Their own understanding comes through hands. and ears Children will be understandings about what we talk are using hands. 4) Young children are very egocentric. Clark (1990: 6-8) states the characteristics of the children are as follows: 1) Children are developing conceptually. 2) Children have no real linguistic. 2) They talk about “Here and Now” Children always discuss about existing in their around and happened in that time. They learn more slowly. They develop their way of thinking from the concrete to the abstract thing. They more like playing than learning.29 1) They like playing Children like playing. They teach subject what school provides for them 3) Children are still developing their common skill such as turn taking and the use of body language.

The class activities must be fun and interesting by setting up the interesting activities. especially in teaching learning process. It is because motivation will influence someone both in process and result. It will take them more confident in attempting the sound of foreign language and they delighted in playing the sound. Thus. the teacher in teaching English needs repetition. From the definition above. The Notion of Motivation a. ensuring success and enhancing the children‟s motivation are important factors in promoting the success of early start in foreign language learning. The Definition of Motivation Motivation is needed in every occasion. Therefore. . 8) Children forget quickly. 4. it can be conclude that young learner need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. 7) Children are better mimics.30 5) Children get bored easily children have no choice to attend school. it is very important for teachers to know about motivation. of course based on their characteristics in teaching learning English lesson. 6) Children are at early of their education.

their willingness to engage in teaching learning activities and their reasons for doing this. achievement motivation. Groccia (1992: 62) states that people learn and study because the consequences of such behavior satisfy certain internal and/or external motives. Then. or desire that moves and leads learner to do a particular action in order to meet and needs or to attain a set of goals of teaching learning process. social motivation. The Types of Motivation There are many kinds of learning motivation stated by the experts. and keep us engaged in certain activities. Next. From the definition above it can be concluded that motivation is an arousal. 2000: 332) says that motivation is internal states that arouses us to action. . b. Brophy (1998: 3) says that motivation refers to the students‟ subjective experiences.31 Some experts define some definition of motivation. intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because of consequences to obtain a reward and to avoid the punishment. While intrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because they are interested in task or activities itself. pushes us in particular direction. impulse. Biggs and Watkins (1995: 84) state that there are four categories of motivation. namely: extrinsic motivation. Weiner (in Elliot et al.

and has confidence in his or her success. The Characteristic of Motivated Students Naiman et al. Ur (1996: 19) defines some kinds of motivation. The learner willing to tackle tasks and challenges. Then. High aspiration. The learner finds it important to succeed in learning and promote his or her own positive self-image. they are those who display certain typical characteristic. that is winning makes they feel good. 3). the students learn in order to compete against the other students.32 Achievement motivation. Integrative motivation is the desire to identify with and integrate into target language culture. to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do. c. social motivation is defined as the students‟ motivation in order to make the other people feel pleasure. The learner has needs to achieve. most of them clearly associated with motivation. top grades. Positive task oriented. high proficiency. They are integrated motivation and instrumental motivation. . The learner is ambitious. in Ur (1996: 275) comes to conclusion that the most successful students are not necessary those to whom a language comes very easily. those are as follows: 1). goes for demanding challenges. Need for achievement. Then instrumental motivation is to wish to learn the language for purposes of study or carrier. 2). Ego-involvement. 4).

It can be seen when they do the exercises. and directs his or her effort towards achieving them. Goal orientation. Tolerance of ambiguity. and it is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack progress. The learner consistently invests a high level of effort in learning. 7). It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students as follows: firstly. The learner is not disturbed or frustrated by situations involving a temporary lack of understanding will come later. Perseverance. or of specific learning activities. The learner is very aware of the goals of learning. It is caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate on their level. there are difficulties that might be faced by the learners especially the young learners. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. Thirdly. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. Rationale In learning English vocabulary.33 5). They could . 6). B. Most of the students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. Secondly. The students‟ vocabulary mastery of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010 is still low. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words and then translate them.

Short texts are interesting materials in teaching language. the teacher should create an interesting teaching material. So. Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research can be formulated as follows: by using short texts. the researcher believes that short texts can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery. . the teacher helps the students to remember the words and understand the meaning and also the grammatical pattern of the sentences easily. By using short texts. The teaching materials should be suitable with the young learners‟ characteristics. Most of their marks are still lower than the passing grade. Considering the explanation above. One of the teaching materials that can be used is the short texts. the students can improve their vocabulary mastery. especially for the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic Year of 2009/2010.34 not do the exercises perfectly. C.

Setting and Subject of the Research. Next. the treatments were done on the second until five meeting. Post test was done on the six meeting. Sukoharjo. 2. There are 35 students for class A. It was done for knowing the students‟ improvement after using short texts in teaching learning process. Sukoharjo Regency. Subject of the Research The subject of this research is the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Setting of place This research was done in SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo. The details are the pre-test. The pre-test was done on the first meeting. It was done for knowing the students‟ basic ability of the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. 35 CHAPTER III RESEACH METODHOLOGY A. Last. and the posttest. Time of research This research held on a cycle on second semester in the academic year of 2009/2010. the post-test was done on the sixth meeting.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. 1. The aim was to master vocabulary by using short stories. consist of 11 boys and 24 girls. It is because there is a problem related with students‟ vocabulary mastery.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. This school is located at Bulakan. . 3. the treatments.

It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively. For a starting point. Meanwhile. Rapport (1970) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is aimed to contribute both to the practical concern of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of the school science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework. . (b) their understanding to these practices. it is necessary to give a definition of action research. though it is often undertaken by individuals and sometimes in cooperation with outsiders.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Dewi Rochsantiningsih (2008) defines action research as: “proses sistematis di mana guru dengan sukarela melibatkan diri untuk melakukan refleksi dokumentasi. and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out. Method of the Research This research is a kind of action research. 36 B.” Kemmis (1983) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices. dan atau tindakan untuk lebih memahami hakekat dan atau konsekuensi mengajar dengan tujuan untuk melakukan tindakan atau menguabah atau meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dan lebih baik bila dilakukan secara kolaboratif dengan kolega atau teman guru. Ebbutt (1985) in Hopkins (1993: 45) states action research is about the systematic study of attempts to improve educational practice by groups of participants by means of their own practical actions and by means of own reflection upon the effects of those actions.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company.

C. or other educational professionals to aid in decision making in the local school. Wiersma (2000: 10) states one type of applied research is action research. By participating the actions in this research. Based on the definition and the aims above. intact groups are used in some cases. The Model of Action Research The model of classroom action research used in this study is based on the model developed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1985). the implementation of the classroom action research includes four steps in the following: . only a single group or individual is involved in the study. Action research focuses on the solution of day-to-day problems at the local level. Action research is usually less rigorous in term of design and methodology than other educational researches. From the definition above. it is hoped that the researcher will find the solution for developing the students‟ vocabulary mastery. research conducted by a teacher. this research is done to increase the students‟ vocabulary mastery through short texts. Often. it can be concluded that action research is a systematic study and it is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken or carried out by participants in educational situation rather than outside researches to solve the problem in order to improve the students‟ ability. administrator.37 Furthermore. According to the model.

Based on Hopkins‟ point of views (1993: 48) this model can be illustrated as follow. 2. 3. Observation Observe the effects of the critically informed action in the context in which it occurs. . 4. through a succession of a stages. Action Act to implement the plan. subsequent critically informed and so on. Planning Develop a plan of critically informed action to improve what is already happening. Reflection Reflecting process on these effects as the basis for further planning.38 1.

2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. f. Preparing a test. 2. Identifying the problems The researcher identified the problem before planning the action. The problem referred to the students‟ difficulty in learning vocabulary. Preparing the material. and conducting a pre-test. There are follows: 1. d. 39 D. The Procedures of Action Research In this classroom action research. Designing the steps in doing the action. . It was done to know whether students‟ vocabulary could be improved or not. Planning the steps and technique for delivering the material in the form of lesson plan. Preparing teaching aids. Planning the action The researcher prepared everything related to the action as follows: a.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. It was obtained by observing the teaching learning process. The problem was caused by the technique of delivering material which was not suitable and interesting to the learners. each procedure takes five steps in one cycle. c. e. b. interviewing the students. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of teaching learning process when the technique is applied).

. g. the researcher reviewed the material. The researcher presented the material by giving a worksheet one by one to the students. and drilled the students. b. After doing the practices. pronounced them correctly. The researcher gave explanation about the words. f. The real implementations were generally presented as follows: a. The researcher gave the students time to make note in their book. The researcher discussed the answer of task with the students i. h. The researcher gave the students oral task by pointing the students one by one to guess and pronounce the words that are related to the stories shown by teacher to check whether the students had understood. The researcher greeted the students and checked the students‟ attendance at the beginning of class.40 3. e. The researcher stimulated the students to try guessing some words related to the stories. c. Implementing the action The researcher implemented the teaching learning activity of vocabulary using short texts. d. Observing and monitoring the action The researcher observed all activities in the teaching learning process and created a conducive atmosphere in a class. The researcher gave the students individual task. 4.

Technique of Collecting Data The techniques of collecting data are qualitative and quantitative method. observes the teaching learning process done by the teacher and the students. Based on Burns (1999: 80). The researcher observed the actions to find the problems of the activities that had been carried out in using short stories in teaching vocabulary. . document analysis. Qualitative method consists of observation. field notes.41 5. as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur. Evaluating and Reflecting the result of the observation The researcher evaluated all actions in the cycle. Observation technique means the researcher comes to the class. E. photograph. observation is a kind of activities in action research that enables researchers to document and reflect systematically upon classroom interactions and events. interview. The teacher takes the position behind the class while observing the teaching learning process and makes a note all things about what happen during the teaching learning process.

1999: 87). the researcher used essay and pronoun test type for both . 1999: 101). 1996: 21). Then. This interview is also done to the students and the teacher before and after teaching learning process. The interview technique is done spontaneously. The purpose is to get the information about everything in teaching learning process using short stories.42 Notes or field notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context that are written in relatively factual and objective style (Burns. It means that the researcher does not make some questions first. Achievement test is the test that is used to measure students‟ ability after learning something (Arikunto. The test here is a vocabulary test. The researcher made note to all activities during the lesson. The researcher made notes of each observation done. and noted the students‟ reaction and response to the learning. Photographs are a way of greatly enhancing classroom analysis and providing visual stimuli that can be integrated into reporting and presenting the research to others (Burns. The aim of this analysis was to complete the information which had been gotten from observation and interview. which is about English lesson in Junior High School including its Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar. quantitative method uses test technique. In this research. Analyzing the document was done toward the Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. Test technique which is used is achievement test. The vocabulary test is used to measure the students‟ vocabulary mastery.

The total numbers of test items were 30 items. There are some steps that should be done by the researcher in this action research. The result of the test was analyzed to know the students‟ achievement on vocabulary. The steps in Action Research Step of action Participant  Students Pre action  Researcher  Students  Researcher The action Technique  Interview  Observation  Test (Pre-test)  Planning  Implementing  Observing monitoring  Reflecting Post action  Students  Researcher  Test (Post-test)  Result of post-test and Data  Result of the interview  Result of observation  Result of pre-test  Result of observation  Field notes . Here is the diagram of the steps. The test consisted of vocabularies that had been taught to the students. Table 1.43 the pre-test and post-test.

the data are the result of observation. interview.44 F. (d) making an inductive conclusion. Quantitative descriptive analysis In quantitative descriptive analysis. making the data in the table. Qualitative descriptive In qualitative descriptive analysis. they are qualitative descriptive analysis and also quantitative descriptive analysis. (b) classify the data in certain classification. Making a hypothesis using the classify data. 1. It is used to make the data simple and communicative. field notes. In this formula. and photographs. the pre-test is compared with the post-test to know whether teaching vocabulary using short stories can improve the students‟ vocabulary mastery. This step uses a simple formula that is called as t-test of non-independent. 2001:8). The steps are: (a) compare the data from each informant to make easy in classifying the same data. It makes clearer the data and the characteristic of the data (Nurgiantoro. 2. this research uses descriptive statistics. Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis in this research consists of two kinds. (c) Making the inference. The formula of t-test of non-independent is as follows: t= where t is the result of t-test non-independent .

G. the researcher uses the formula as follows: where. p q n and : the number of correct answer : the number of incorrect answer : the number of respondent The result of the computation of validity will be consulted to t-table distribution. H. when the difference between the values of t-obtained and the value of t-table is significant. Validity of the Instrument In computing the validity of each item from the instrument. it will be known whether or not the instrument is valid. Reliability of the Instrument After the valid items are determined. where k is the number of valid items. the effectiveness of using short stories to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery will be known. .45 Finally. from this. the reliability can be determined by using the formula: .

and (2) there is an improving average mark of the class based on the criteria in the curriculum that is used in that school.46 The result of the computation of reliability will be consulted to r table of statistics. From this. . it will be known whether or not the instrument is reliable. I. The Criteria of Successful Action The measurement that is used in checking vocabulary mastery is test. The indicators are: (1) there is an improvement number of students that have minimal criterion at least 75 % from the total number of students.

The description of the research contains the implementations of the actions of the research in the field. It can be seen from the indicators like: 1) they were less interested in teaching learning process. many problems were found in teaching English for students of the second year of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. the students as young learners forget something quickly. First. Their vocabulary was still low. A.47 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION In this chapter. Introduction contains the problem faced by the students. The main problem faced by the students was the lack of vocabularies. They were supported in pre-research that has been done by the researcher. They will forget . the researcher discusses the implementation of the action. and 3) they got difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. 2) they got difficulties to understand and grasp the meaning of words. The structure of the writing contains introduction. and discussion. The discussion deals with the implementations of the actions that are teaching by using short texts based on theories from some experts. The difficulties of learning vocabularies were caused by some reasons. the description of the research. Introduction As presented in chapter I.

technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. Secondly. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. By using the appropriate method. They prefer playing to studying. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. Firstly. They always talk about something while playing. Second. the students as young learners get bored easily. So. One of the problems that is taken in this study is the materials that are not suitable and interesting to the students. technique. technique. Based on the facts above. The method.48 some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat the words many times. Third. repetition is needed. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. technique or and material. the researcher decided to conduct a research to solve the problems through this study. Thus. the researcher wanted to create interesting situation in the classroom. the researcher wanted to make the students are able to grasp and remember the . So. There were some targets which the researcher expected to achieve by conducting the action for the improvement of students‟ vocabulary. especially in vocabulary mastery. it is important to find out the appropriate method. the teachers have to find out the appropriate method. Here. the students as young learners still like playing. the research is concentrated on improving materials of teaching vocabulary through a classroom action research and the use of short texts as the teaching learning source.

the researcher decided to carry out interesting teaching materials. implementing the action.49 meaning of words more easily. They are explained as follows: . Through a classroom action research. in this case was short texts. Thirdly. and revising the plan. in presenting and practicing new vocabularies. Each meeting took 80 minutes. In this cycle. observing or monitoring the action. 2010. the researcher hopes that the research can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery and change the situation during the teaching learning process. namely planning the action. It was conducted from April. Based on the problems and the targets that the researcher expected to achieve. the researcher used short texts as the teaching materials. The researcher divided the cycle into four meetings. evaluating and reflecting the result of the observation. the researcher wanted to make the students able to write the words or group of words correctly so the improvement of students‟ vocabulary could be achieved. The cycle in this research also consisted of series of steps. The Description of the Research The implementation of the action planned in this research was held in a cycle. B. 2010 until April.

It was to get the students‟ attention and interest. The students could drill every word until five times. The researcher believed that short stories could improve the students‟ vocabulary and attract the students‟ enthusiasm in teaching learning process. By using short text. The students could ask questions whenever they found problems. The researcher told the students that they were going to learn English by using short stories that day. So. Besides that. it was expected that the students are able to grasp the meaning of new vocabulary easily. The researcher allocated 60 minutes to give the students a chance to learn the material by doing the worksheet and to practice . Planning the action The action plan was made based on the problems that were mentioned in the introduction above. the researcher planned and chose interesting learning materials to solve the problems and improve students‟ behavior during teaching learning process. the students are able to write down the words or group of words correctly. the indicators of vocabulary mastery can be completed. The researcher planned to use 10 minutes to greet the students and stated the topic. To overcome those problems. The teacher also planned to drill the students‟ pronunciations using the words that have been prepared.50 1. The researcher taught 80 minutes in every meeting. It is because the stories are very funny and give the students a lot of new list of vocabularies. The researcher chose short texts as the teaching materials. The researcher also gave a lot of time to drill the students.

First meeting 1) Opening A pre test was conducted on April. Research Implementation The action plan was implemented by the researcher with the help from the teacher as the observer. 2. namely: opening. students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery.m. The researcher came to the class on time . 2010. and closing. After implementing the action. the researcher prepared the material. This cycle was conducted in four meetings. Each meeting was divided into three terms. a. students‟ worksheet that consisted of some tasks and also teaching equipments that are related to the action. The last five up to ten minutes was to review and close the lesson. Before implementing the action. main activity. The bell rang.51 the pronunciation of the words that they have learned. the researcher conducted a pre-test on the first meeting. This test was conducted in the beginning to know the students‟ ability about the material that would be given. Post-test was conducted after the last action on the last meeting of the cycle. The test started at 2010 to know the 10. The pre test was conducted on April.25 a. April. Besides preparing the pre-test. the researcher conducted a post-test. lesson plans as researcher‟s guidance in teaching vocabulary. 2010.

The students were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. After that. This test was aimed to know students‟ ability about the new materials that would be given. in this case was short stories. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. After that. pronunciation of words. the researcher checked the test worksheet whether they were complete or not. Then. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the test that would be done on that day. The test was about understanding the meaning of words. the students did the test individually. 3) Closing After the bell rang. the researcher gave the information that the students would get the materials in the next meeting and closed the meeting on that day . Next. After greeting the students. the use of words in context and spelling. she passed the worksheet test to the students. the researcher asked the students to collect the test worksheet on the desk. 2) Main activity After getting test worksheet. Then. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. The test was a pre-test. .52 and greeted the students. the researcher asked about the students‟ feeling.

. Then. After greeting the students. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. Some of them mentioned some titles of short stories.25 am and then greeted the students. 2010. the researcher asked the students to mention some short texts that they ever read or heard. she asked the students whether they ever read or heard short stories or not.53 b. Then. the researcher began the lesson of the day by asking the students to find the meaning of some words. Mam”. 2) Main Activity To open the lesson. Second meeting 1) Opening The second meeting was conducted on April. No one was absent that day. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the second meeting. The students answered “yes. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. They tried to answer the task by looking for the answer on the dictionary. After introducing the materials that would be used. this means that they understood what learning source that would be used. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance.

Next. From the students‟ answer. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the words together. The researcher also asked them to find out the idea of the story using words that they ever had before. the researcher asked the students to do the next task that is to fill in the blanks in some . to know the students‟ understanding. Some students were shy and afraid to speak loudly.54 Next. to check the students understanding about new vocabulary. They were afraid if they made a mistake. The researcher pronounced every word once and the students pronounced every word three times. Next. All students obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. the researcher asked the students to write down some words and find the meaning of each word. The researcher advised them that it was only a practice. the researcher asked three of the students to mention the main idea of the story. The title was “The Flowers from the Moon”. After the students finished doing the task. After the students finished reading the short story. it could be seen that the students still made some mistakes in getting the main point of the story. the researcher drilled the students‟ pronunciation with the guiding words on the worksheet. Next. the researcher gave a chance to the students to read the story on their own worksheet. They obeyed the researcher‟s instruction.

then. “very-very interesting”. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up.55 sentences with the words that were mentioned on the worksheet and answered the questions about the story. the researcher gave the students choice to choose the correct answer. c. 3) Closing After finishing the task. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 08. The story‟s title was “Royal Spaghetti”. In the . After finishing the task. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. Some students were very enthusiastic to answer the question of the task. Next. The researcher showed all the words to the students. If they made a mistake. 2010. the researcher and the students discussed the answers of the task together. the researcher reviewed the material. Most students made a mistake in pronouncing the words. Then. The researcher asked “how about your feeling today?” The students answered. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words. Third meeting 1) Opening The third meeting was conducted on April.05 am.

The researcher passed a new worksheet for each student and asked the students to do the exercises. The researcher used this chance to begin the main activity. the students started the main activity by finding the correct words and their meaning. the researcher asked some of students to read the story. the researcher checked the answered with the students together. The researcher checked the students‟ pronunciation. In this main activity. Then. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that had been given in the second meeting. the students and the researcher discussed the story to get the main idea. 2) Main Activity In the beginning of the lesson. The title was ”Rainbow”. In this meeting. Then.56 second meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. . To prepare the class. After five minutes. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. the learning source used in teaching learning process was the same as before. all students focused on the lesson. There were some pronunciation mistakes done by the students. The students felt easily to grasp the main idea of the text because they have translated some difficult words before. No one was absent. After that.

and then asked them to get the meaning of them. the researcher asked some students to answer the questions and wrote the answers on the whiteboard. The researcher used the synonym to introduce the words. The researcher and the students checked the answers together. After checking the answer. Then. Then. the researcher asked the students to arrange the letters into a good word. They were very busy to discuss the correct arrangement of the letters with their friends. The students looked very interested in the new task. After five minutes. the researcher changed the technique in introducing the new words to the students. From the students‟ answer.57 Next. the researcher and the students discussed the answer together. After that. The title was “The Caliph and the Clown”. they were also asked to find the meaning of the words. the students and the researcher checked the answers together. the researcher asked the students to pay attention to some words. it could be seen that students still made mistakes in arranging the words. the researcher asked the students to fill in the blanks in some sentences with the words that were mentioned on the students‟ worksheet. In the middle of the activity. The students who had finished discussing the correct arrangement. Next. then they wrote their answer in the whiteboard. . The students tried to find the synonymy of the words by using their dictionary.

Some of them were very busy to remember some of the new words that they heard before and the other discussed with their friends to find the main idea of the story. The researcher mentioned some difficult words and the students tried to guess the right pronunciation and the right meaning. Students who had finished discussing the answers. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. The students were enthusiastic in answering the question from the researcher. the researcher asked some students to read the story loudly. 3) Closing In the end section. and then they wrote their answer on the whiteboard and then checked the answer with the researcher. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of phrases from the story before.58 After checking the answers. The reseacher asked “bagaimana pendapat kalian tentang pelajaran pada hari ini?” The students answered. Next. The researcher also asked the other students to pay attention to the text. the researcher reviewed the material from the beginning. The students pronounced every word three to four times. They were very busy to prepare the answer. Then. . the students tried to grasp the main point of the story with the researcher. On the last task of the third meeting.

To prepare the class. Banyak kosa kata baru dan gampang ingetnya”. the researcher began the lesson by reading a story. 2010. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the first and second meeting. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. Then. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the fourth meeting. Then.59 “menyenangkan bu. The title was “The Magic Seeds”. In the fourth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories.25 am. No one was absent. the researcher asked the students to make a pair of discussion. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. 2) Main activity Then. d. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. The students listened curiously to the researcher‟s story. Fourth meeting 1) Opening The fourth meeting was conducted on April. Sometimes they made an underline for some difficult words. The researcher asked the students to discuss the story . Then. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up.

After five minutes. the researcher asked the students to write some words that they found in the story before. some of students wrote their difficult words on the whiteboard. After that. The story‟s title was “The Owl and the Nightingale”. The students pronounced the words three or four times.60 that they heard. The researcher continued the lesson by drilling the students‟ pronunciations. Some of them were busy to remember the story and the other tried to grasp and write the meaning of some words. Then. the students wrote the answers in the whiteboard. Then. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. the researcher also asked the students to find the meaning of the words. The students wrote the answers on their worksheet. they had to find the meaning of the words. the researcher asked some of the students to read the story. The students had to write some words they heard. The next task. The researcher and the students discussed the answers together. The researcher checked the answers. After that. Then. the researcher addressed some of the . Then. Next. The researcher also asked the students to find some difficult words on the story. Next. the researcher asked the students to match the words with their antonyms. The students worked in pairs. the researcher asked the students‟ ability in writing words.

After 5 minutes. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. the researcher reviewed the material. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. the researcher asked the students to answer some questions about the story. The other students added “senang. The students already knew some words so it made the students easy to retell the story. the researcher asked some students to write the students‟ answers and then checked the answers. The students discussed with their friends. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times.61 students to retell the story by their own words. Then. bu. . the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. Then. Next. The researcher showed all the words to the students. Bu”. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. For the last task. “lumayan. The students were very busy to find the answers. The next task. There are some students discussed the answers with their friends. Tau arti katanya. the students had to find the hyponymy of some words based on the text that they ever read before. 3) Closing After finishing the task.

25 am. After that. 2010. To prepare the class. the researcher asked the students to write the answers on the white board and discuss the answers together. In the fifth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. Then. They could find the meaning in the dictionary. Then. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. the researcher passed the student‟s worksheet for the fifth meeting to the students. . the researcher asked the student‟s to find the meaning of some words. the researcher began to teach the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the third meeting. Then. the researcher checked the students‟ answer. Fifth meeting 1) Opening The fifth meeting was conducted on April. No one was absent. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. 2) Main activity For the first activity. After five minutes.62 e. the researcher asked the students to listen what the researcher pronounced and then write the answer on the students‟ worksheet.

the researcher asked the students to write the answer in the whiteboard. After that. the researcher guided the students to find the meaning form the difficult words that they found. Some of the students tried to get the answer from the dictionary and the others were discussed. Many students raised their hand to write their answer in the whiteboard. the researcher asked some students to read the story and the other paid attention to their friends. the researcher asked the students to arrange the jumble words into a good arrangement. The students felt happy because the story was very funny. The students worked in pairs. After the students read the story. the students tried to grasp the main idea of the story. Next. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. Some of the students worked with their dictionary and the other tried to get the answer from the short story that they read before. The students pronounced the words three or four times. the researcher addressed some students to pronounce some words that were mentioned by the researcher. After 10 minutes. Then.63 Next. . the students had to find the synonym of some words by matching the words in the column A to the column B. After 5 minutes. The researcher also asked the students to write the difficult words that they found. The title of the story was “Why Bears Hibernate in the Winter”. They enjoyed this material. Then.

They felt happy with this teaching way. bu. The last task. the researcher reviewed the material. Then. After 10 minutes. They worked in groups. After 5 minutes. the students were asked to read the story. the students wrote the answer on the whiteboard. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. Tau arti katanya. The title was “The Necklace”. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. the researcher discussed with the students about the story that they heard. Next. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. Then. Bu”. The other students paid attention to their friend who retold the story. They had to grasp the main idea of the story individually then retold the story in their own words.64 For next material. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of the phrases from the text. All of the students were silent and did the instruction well. The researcher repeated some difficult words to the students. The other students added “senang. the researcher asked three of the students to retell the story. “menyenangkan. The researcher did not forget to . The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. 3) Closing After finishing the task.

Sixth meeting 1) Opening A post-test was conducted on April. Then. The test was the same with the pre test that was done before. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the post-test that would be done on that day. 2) Main Activity The students did the test individually. This post-test was aimed to know the students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. Then. 2010. she passed the test worksheets to the students.m. After greeting the students. The researcher came to the class on time and greeted the students. After that. They were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. All students were very active in discussing the .05 a.65 inform the students that in the next meeting the test would be done. 3) Closing After the test finished. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. The materials were such as understanding meaning of words. the use of words in context and spelling. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. the researcher discussed the answers of test with the students. f. The bell rang at 08. pronunciation of words.

Then the second to fifth meeting was focused on improving vocabulary aspects and students‟ motivation in teaching learning process. In this cycle. The observation was conducted simultaneously when teaching learning process took place. the researcher asked the students‟ feeling and comment during teaching learning process with the researcher. the researcher closed the discussion because the bell rang. there were six meetings. From the observation results. Then. The researcher said thank you to the students for everything during the research.66 answers with the researcher. 3. All students paid attention with the discussion. The first and the sixth meeting of the cycle were used for testing. In the teaching and learning process. Observing and Monitoring the Action In monitoring the implementation of this cycle. pronunciation of words. the researcher used observation to see the effects of conducting the cycle. the use of words in context. The aspects that should be improved were meaning of words. Besides the explanation of implementing the actions above. No student was busy with his own business. Then. and spelling. They were the mastery of . short texts were used to make the way of grasping the meaning easier. it was known that there were some improvements on students‟ vocabulary. the results of the observation of the teaching and learning process were also supported by the interviews with the students about the use of short texts in teaching vocabulary.

The students also obeyed the researcher instruction. The situation was conducive because there was no noisy outside the class. Their responses were good. All of them were seriously listened to the stories. To solve this problem. They were afraid if their answers were wrong.67 meaning. the researcher gave advice to the students that it was only a practice. They paid attention to the lesson. All students did the task quite well. In the second meeting. They also did the task on their worksheet well. the students‟ motivation was good. They paid attention to the lesson. Although the students‟ motivation increased. No students were busy with their own business in the class. the students looked happy and enthusiastic to attend the class. . Some students were silent when the researcher asked the question to the students. pronunciation. Beside the students‟ improvements on vocabulary. In the third meeting. Some students were active to answer the questions from the researcher when the researcher gave them some question or asked them to do the exercises. Beside passive. No one was busy with their own business. and using words in context. the others were quiet. some students were still passive. spelling. the observation results explained the students‟ motivation and activities in teaching-learning process and student‟s motivation from the second to the fifth meeting. most students were shy to speak loudly. Some students tried to answer the questions of the task.

After that. many students raised their hand. They still made mistake to pronounce the right pronunciation. the researcher still used short stories for teaching learning process. the students still had problem in pronouncing the word. the researcher just reviewed all materials from the third meeting. the students were asked to fill in the blank sentences with the correct words. Before starting the lesson. In the fourth meeting. So. To solve this problem. In the third meeting. the students asked to write some words on their worksheet. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the word three or four times. It seemed that they had already understood about the term. the students‟ motivation increased. They were also enthusiastic when discussing with their friends. They could do the exercises well because there were some phonetic symbols that helped them to do the exercises. When the researcher asked the students to read the story and do the task. It can be seen when the researcher asked the students one by one to check the students‟ understanding. Good atmosphere was created in the class.68 In the middle of the third meeting. the researcher went around the class to monitor and guide them whether they were active to discuss with their friends or not. Sometimes they told each other about something else. The students were happy and enthusiastic when the researcher changed the activity in introducing the new words. . In middle of the fourth meeting. The researcher used synonymy technique in introducing the new words.

the test score in the first and sixth meeting showed the improvement result. In reviewing the materials.69 The students felt happy and enthusiastic doing this task because they knew all of the meaning of the difficult words by discussing with their friends and also looking for the dictionary. The mean of the pre-test was 4. the researcher reflected the results of the action as follows: a) the students who were still passive were getting more active and interested when they were reading and understanding the story. Reflecting the Result of the Observation Based on the observation results which were gathered in field notes. They listened what the researcher pronounced.36.07. b) the students were able to grasp the meaning of words when the researcher gave them some new vocabularies. d) the students were also able to pronounce the words correctly. all students were active to grasp the meaning of every word. They also could write the correct words that they heard. c) the students were able to write the words correctly and could use the words in context. Most students were active and all students got attention to the lesson. In the fifth meeting. while the mean score of the post-test was 7. . Moreover. It could be seen during the teaching-learning process. 4. the students were very active.

They forgot words remembered the words and their meanings easily. Table 2. it could be seen that there were increasing students‟ motivation and also the aspects of vocabulary. The students got 1.70 Based on the result of the observing and the test above. All of the aspects were completed. Short texts also encouraged the students to be more active during teaching learning process. easily. Improvement of the Students‟ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts Source of the data before implementing the action Vocabulary mastery after implementing the action Vocabulary mastery Observation and Interview 1. . students were encouraged to practice their ability in pronouncing and writing words correctly. They also words. They became more motivated and enthusiastic in learning English which they did not tend to do something useless and got bored in the middle of teaching learning process. The improvement of students‟ achievements in teaching learning process using short stories can be seen in the table 2. The researcher concluded that teaching vocabulary using short texts attracted students‟ curiosity in knowing new words. into English or vice versa. They also got difficulties They translated words from when they had to translate Indonesian into English or the words from Indonesian vice versa easily. The students understood difficulties to understand and grasped the meaning of and grasp the meaning of words easily. Through short texts.

71 2. The students still made 3. They did not do something something useless during useless during teaching teaching learning process learning process. 80 % of them. . Most of the students also made mistakes when they did the exercises in arranging some letters into a correct word. The students liked doing 3. grasp and use remember. The students could not 2. pronounce. 4. understand. They still made words correctly. which has double letters. mistakes to pronounce the words. There were no mistakes in Most of the students forgot writing the words to write the second letter. The students had more full concentration during concentration to do the teaching learning process. The students could write mistakes when they wrote the words correctly. The students were less 1. The students were more interested during teaching active and enthusiastic learning process during teaching learning process. They started to ask and answer the questions. The students pronounce the words pronounce most correctly. grasp and use words in context about 25 words in context about 75% of them. Students‟ motivation Students‟ motivation 1. For example when also could arrange the the students found a word letters into a correct word. The students could pronounce. exercises. could of the 3. 2. understand remember. The students could only 4. 3. They words. The students did not have 2.

discussion with their friends. The improvements were students‟ vocabulary mastery and also students‟ motivation. remember. from 2. purple. grasp and use the words in context about 75 until 80 % of them. chuckled. from 4.07 to 7.8 % of students became 94. Test The mean score of pre-test : The mean score of post-test : 4.36 5. dream. sea. the students understood and grasped the meaning of words easily. understand. the students‟ improvement could be seen. There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test.36. The students liked having exercises individually. They could pronounce.07 7. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. etc. in this case 60. the improvement also could be seen on the students‟ scores of test. quarrel. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. sky.72 4. daughter.3 % of students. captured. From the vocabulary aspects. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there was an improvement of students who achieved the minimum standard score. freedom. The examples were prince. reason. Beside that. they could pronounce and write the words correctly. Then the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was . different. Then. The students did the 4. Research Findings From the table above.

the students‟ motivation increased when the short text were used. They were more active and attractive during teaching learning process. Beside the vocabulary mastery. they could pronounce the words correctly. They also had more concentration to the lesson. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process and like having discussion with their friends. finally. There were some reasons for stopping this research only in one cycle. Next.30. The indicators showed that they were more active and enthusiastic during the teaching learning process. and they also could use the words in context appropriately. They also raised their hands to answer the questions.29.04. they could write the words correctly. They were as follows: a) The aspects of vocabulary mastery were completed. Meanwhile. it means that there is a significant difference between pre- test and post-test score. Since is . The students understood and grasped the meaning of the words easily. they had more concentration to do the exercises. the researcher decided to stop the cycle. the students‟ motivation also increased. Considering the facts of some improvements dealing with teaching vocabulary by using short texts above.73 3. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. Next. they did not do something useless . They asked more questions than before. the t-table higher than for 35 students is 2.

in this case 60. They also could use and write the words correctly.8 % became 94. and remember the meaning easily. The observation that was done showed that there were some improvements in students‟ vocabulary mastery aspects and students‟ motivation. grasping. The school gave two weeks to finish the implementation of the research. The discussion helped them to understand the lesson and do the tasks well. At first from the students‟ vocabulary mastery. so they could have more practices for enriching vocabulary mastery using short stories. spelling. It could be understood since human brain has limit . grasp. and using the words. from 4. pronouncing.36. c) The researcher only had limited time to conduct the research.07 to 7. b) There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test.74 during teaching learning process. C. the students could understand. Here. They have their own worksheet that was completed with some short texts. Discussion The research findings came from the observation and the test scores. It was because the school would hold a mid term test for all the students. From the pre-test and post-test score. They liked having discussion with their friends. from 2. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. The students also could pronounce the words correctly.3 %. the students did more practices and steps by steps in understanding.

were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. the students. Beside the new materials. the situation in the class before implementing the action was described as some students were busy with themselves. as the young learners.ksmumail/human_brain. more active and enthusiastic to follow the teaching learning process. Second from the students‟ motivation. should know the techniques of teaching practically for example “listen and repeat”. Young learners like to read and listen interesting stories. read and write”. It made the students enjoy. question and answer”. such as talking with other students or disturbing their friends. teachers of English to young learners. story. Ur (1998) explains that there are three sources of young learners‟ attention in class. the class situation became more active and enthusiastic. They did some useless activities. After implementing the action. Petty. The students were more active and enthusiastic because the materials used were new materials.75 capacity to absorb new things from surrounding. According to Linse (2005). the students had more concentration during teaching learning process. They focused on the materials which were used . edu). Human also has limit memory to remember all at once (www. especially the students at the back. Next. namely pictures. “listen. and game. and write”. The best way to add breadth and depth to child‟s vocabulary is by providing a variety of opportunities for new and interesting experience. there were also many kinds of interesting techniques used to teach short texts. Then. say. and Jensen (1980: 285) also states that teaching English to children needs special techniques.

According to Elli (1991:31).htm). They are active if they are suitable with the teacher‟s technique and they are far from teacher pressure (www. . The amusing situation could make students become more enthusiastic. Maya K. David also states that one indicator which makes teaching learning process succeed is the active students during teaching learning process. It matches with Elli‟s theory.david399.76 through short texts. vocabulary in story is presented in clear context and the amusing situation.

They also could remember the meaning of the words easily. the students could pronounce. It could be seen from the aspects of vocabulary which are completed. the students could pronounce the words correctly. Fourth. the students could understand and grasp the meaning easily. the students also could write the words correctly. Third. Second. IMPLICATION. The more detailed results of the action implemented in this research were as follows. This is based on the facts found in accordance with the result of the action implemented to find answers to the problem statements. First. For example. The first is about the enrichment of the students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. . in arranging the jumble letters. the researcher comes to a conclusion that teaching vocabulary by using short texts can improve the students‟ vocabulary.77 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION. it can be seen that the implementation of teaching vocabulary by using short texts can effectively improve students‟ vocabulary. Based on the analysis of the result of the implementation of the actions which had been conducted to improve the students‟ vocabulary. Conclusion Having conducted the research of teaching vocabulary by using short texts in Junior High School. they could rearrange the letters into a correct word. AND SUGGESTION A.

There were so many students who raised their hands to answer the question on the whiteboard or oral answer.04.8 % became 94. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. from 4. The difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was 3. Beside that. They also liked having discussion with their friends. . the t-table than for 35 students is 2. there was an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. in this case 60.07 to 7.3 % of students. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process.78 understand. there was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. from 2. Next. Next. grasp and use the words in context about 75-80 % of them correctly. Meanwhile.30. they had more concentration to do the exercises. The researcher found a good atmosphere in the class. remember. The second is about the students‟ motivation. Most of the students gave more attention than before.29. The students were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores.36. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there were more students who achieved the minimum standard score. it means that there is a significant difference between pre-test and post- test score. Since is higher .

the teacher should have to choose the appropriate materials and media to teach vocabulary. antonyms in teaching vocabulary to the students. and write”. It implies that using short texts are good material to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery and also improve students‟ learning activity during teaching learning process. students were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading. “listen. the teacher should choose appropriate techniques. The teacher can also conduct an oral test to make the students more motivated and attracted in teaching-learning process. Implication Based on the conclusion of the study. The material in this case is . and media. there is a significant improvement of students‟ vocabulary and improvement of students‟ learning activity after teaching used short texts to teach new vocabulary and to train the students in order to write and pronounce correctly. The students suggest using dictionary in translating the words. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. read and write”. In teaching English using short texts.79 B. The teacher could use “listen and repeat”. writing and pronouncing correctly. It is conducted by English teacher to make the students‟ more interested and more active in teaching-learning process and to avoid the boredom. synonyms and definition. materials. Beside the appropriate techniques. Then. Through short texts. question and answer”. say. the teacher also can use the visual techniques such as mime and gesture and verbal techniques such as verbal explanation.

Students will be easy in . C. It makes the students understand the stories well. there is an improvement of students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. techniques. Besides. English teacher The English teachers should learn the characteristics of the students in order to know exactly what they need and what problems they faced on their development. and then make analyses of the stories by their own words. 1. It is suitable with the material that used in the second year of junior high school. The materials have to appropriate with the syllabus that used in that school. other researcher. By understanding those points.80 short texts. the teacher could choose the most suitable method. The short texts have to contain new and old information to the students. students. By implementing short texts using appropriate techniques and materials. Suggestion After carrying out the researcher and obtaining the conclusion. the English teachers should create an interesting and enjoyable situation of teaching learning process. the researcher would like to propose some suggestion directed to the English teacher. The students can find the difficult words and their meaning. The genre that is used is narrative. and for school. and materials in improving the students‟ motivation in learning English based on certain condition.

. It is expected that the finding of this study will be used as a starting point of the future research on similar problems.81 learning when the situation is interesting for them and the students will more enthusiastic. They can practice English in their daily life. School The institution should state a policy in improving the quality of the teaching English for children. The students not only can study English in the class but also can study everywhere and every time. techniques or materials. techniques. and materials of teaching English of Junior High School students that can be taken as objects of research to find out the effectiveness of teaching. 3. Students An instructional process will not be successful if students are not maximally involved in it. Other researcher This study is just one of efforts in improving students‟ vocabulary. It should encourage the English teacher to be creative to use various method. There are many other method. 2. It should also be facilitated with various media supporting the teaching activity. It also would avoid the boredom. The students have to be more active and motivated to learn English. 4.

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