ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS

A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010

Written by: Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi K2206029

Submitted to Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Undergraduate Degree of Education

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2010 i

APPROVAL

This thesis is approved by the consultants to be examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University.

Approved by

Consultant 1

Consultant 2

Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005

Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP. 19730205 200604 1 001

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This thesis is examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University and accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for achieving the Undergraduate Degree of Education in English. Place of the test Date of the test : :

The Board of Examiners 1. Chairman Drs. Suparno, M. Pd NIP. 19511127 198601 1 001 2. Secretary Dewi Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd. NIP. 19780818 200312 2 002 3. Consultant 1 Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005 4. Consultant 2 Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP 19730205 200604 1 001 (………………………) (……………………....) (………………………) (………………………)

Legalized by, Teacher Training and Education Faculty Sebelas Maret University The Dean

Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd NIP. 19600727 198702 1 001

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the researcher used observations. The materials used in this research were short text. Sebelas Maret University. This study is based on the problem of the low vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. The test consisted of the pre-test and post-test. Second. Then. implementing the action. students iv . The research was conducted in one cycle. The technique to analyze the test result was by comparing the mean score of pre-test and post-test. Besides that. Next. pronounce. from the aspect of the vocabulary mastery. field notes. They can be seen from the aspects of vocabulary mastery and the students’ motivation. the students are more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process.ABSTRACT Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi.8% to 94. The improvement can be seen in the form of students’ achievements.07 to 7. Then. the scores of the pre-test and post-test show that there is also an improvement of students who achieve the minimum standard score.” Teacher Training and Education Faculty. Through short texts. It is aimed at knowing whether using short texts can enrich the students’ vocabulary. reflecting the result of the observation. this research also used descriptive statistics and the t-test of non-independent. the students could understand. the improvement of students’ score can be seen from the differences between the pre-test and post-test. planning the action. The results of this research imply that using short texts are good material to improve students’ vocabulary mastery and also improve students’ learning activity during teaching learning process. In the quantitative method.3% of students. remember. and document analysis. they also like having discussion with their friends. and research findings. The procedure of the research consisted of identifying the problems. write about 75 until 80 % of the words correctly and also use the words in context appropriately. Surakarta 2010. It is also aimed at the improvement of the students’ achievement in teaching learning process using short stories. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. In the qualitative method.36 in post-test. they have more concentration to do the exercises. The mean score of the pre-test improves from 4. that is 60. K2206029: “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). observing or monitoring the action. the researcher used tests. They are from 2. The results of the observation were in the form of field notes and photographs. At last. The techniques in collecting the data were qualitative and quantitative method. photographs. Then. The results of this research show that short texts can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. from the students’ motivation. grasp. First. The cycle consisted of four meetings. they do not do something useless during teaching learning process.

were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading, writing and pronouncing correctly.

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MOTTO
“Mantapkan hati dan niat seraya berucap Bismillahirrahmanirrahim”

"No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross, no crown." (William Penn)

"Criticism should not be querulous and wasting, all knife and rootpuller, but guiding, instructive, inspiring." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

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DEDICATION

With deep profound love, this research is devoted to: 1. Her beloved father and mother, thank you. Nothing compares to what they have done for her. 2. Her beloved “eyang uti” and sisters “dek sha”, who always pray and encourage her. 3. Her best friends “pam, sopal, dee, lucy, jhono, anggit, riph, tika” who give her unbroken support, prayer, and cares. 4. Her all friends, who always support her. 5. Herself and her beautiful future.

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Mrs. 5.Pd. for all his valuable guidance. 6. the English teacher of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. the second consultant and academic consultant. The writer is also fully aware that her thesis can never be finished without the help of others during the process of writing. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. advice. advice.. M. viii . The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University who had given his permission to write this thesis. The Head of the English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty for his advice.. M. in this occasion she would like to express her deepest gratitude and appreciation to the following: 1.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillahirabbil’alamin. who helped and given her a chance to do the research.S. encouragement. 2. Teguh Sarosa. Sugiyati. Praise be to ALLAH SWT who has given His blessing to the writer so that she can complete the writing of this thesis as a partial requirement for achieving the undergraduate degree of education in English Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University. The Headmaster of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo for the permission and advices for doing the research in SMP N 5 Sukoharjo.. Abdul Asib. Hum. 4. for all his valuable guidance. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. 3. the first consultant. encouragement. Therefore. Dr. S.

and Aji. Everyone who helped the writer to conduct the research for his or her participation in writing this thesis. 2010  Rea  ix . her sister. Her beloved family. Dewi. Her friends in the English Department of the year 2006 for their everlasting friendship. for their supports. her grandmother. The researcher realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect. Anggi. June. Didit Hermawan. 9. Yoyok Sandi Wibowo. this thesis will be useful for the readers. The second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo who participated well in the research. She hopes and accepts gratefully every comment and suggestion. and prayer. caring. Ariph and Atika for their supports and suggestions.7. Her “best friends”. Hopefully. Her incredible support. Muthya. 11. her mother. Surakarta. Lucy. 10. her father. Riana. 12. 8. Pamrih. for his motivation to make the writer keep move on.

............................................................... 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE............................ 9 b................ 19 x ..................... 7 E................................................................................................ ii ABSTRACT ................................................................................................. The Benefits of the Study ..................................................................... Notion of Vocabulary .............................................. 13 e......................... i APPROVAL........................................................................................ The Problems Statement ........................................................ The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery ...................... 9 a...................2005-2008 For Evaluation Only....... 1 A......Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company............................................................. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................ iv MOTTO........ RATIONALE AND HYPHOTHESIS ...................................................... 10 c...................... The Importance of Vocabulary ................... The Objectives of the Research ....................... v DEDICATION ......................................................................... 6 D............ 9 1......................................... vii TABLE OF CONTENT ................................... 11 d.......................................................... TABLE OF CONTENT TITLE PAGE ............................................. 6 C........................................................................................................... 9 A................ xiv LIST OF FIGURE ......... xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ..................................................................... Vocabulary Mastery .............................................................................................................................................................. Review on Related Literature ............... ix LIST OF APPENDIXES .............. The Limitation of the Problem ................................................................. The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery .............................................................................................................................................................................................. General Concept of Vocabulary ................................ Background of the Study .................................................. 1 B............................................... xiii LIST OF TABLE ...........................................................

................................................................................... 28 b..... Reliability of the Instrument ...... The Description of the Research ............................ Hypothesis ........................... The Procedures of Action research.................... 47 A........ Method of the Research ........... Rationale ............. 34 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................................................ The Definition of Motivation ............................................. Setting and Subject of the Research ............................ The Model of Action Research ............................... 45 I..................... 49 1.. 50 2......................................... Technique of Data Analysis .......... 28 4........................................ Planning the Action ............ The General Concept of Young Learners ... 47 B............ 36 C.....................2................................. 44 G...................................................................... The Concept of Story ........................................... The Notion of Young Learners ................................. 32 B.............. 33 C.................................................................................. 25 3... 23 a........... 41 F...................... Technique of Collecting Data ................ 37 D...................................................................................... 39 E...... The Notion of Motivation . Observing and Monitoring the Action ............. 46 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION ........... The Types of Motivation .................... 35 A................................... 35 B...................................... The Criteria of Successful Action .......................... 23 b............................... The Notion of Folktales ................................................. 51 3.............. The Concept of Text ...................................................................... The Characteristic of Children ..... 30 b............................................................... The Characteristic of Motivated Students ............ 24 c.......................... Validity of the Instrument........................................................................ 66 xi ...................... Research Implementation ...................................... 28 a........................................................................................... 30 a......... Essences of Short Text ..... 31 c....................................................................................................... Introduction .......................................... 45 H.......................................

.................... 77 B................................ Research Finding................................................................................................... 81 3....... Students ................................... Discussion .....................................................4..................................... IMPLICATION....... 80 2........... English Teacher.............................................................................................. 77 A... 81 4................................... 79 C............. Reflecting the Result of the Observation ................................... 72 C......................... 81 BYBLIOGRAPHY xii ........... 74 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION. School............................................................................................................... 69 5.. Implication ................................................. Conclusion ................................................... Suggestion ............................................................................ Other Researcher .......................... 80 1................ SUGGESTION .....................

.............. 153 Appendix 12 : The Students’ Pre-test and Post Test Score ...... 148 Appendix 9 : The Research Schedule ................................. 236 Appendix 17 : Letters of Permission ...................................................................... 82 Appendix 2 : The Photographs ....................................... 144 Appendix 7 : Pre and Post Test Items ...................................................................... 102 Appendix 5 : Field Notes .............. 160 Appendix 16 : Key Answer of Worksheet ........................................ 118 Appendix 6 : Blue Print of Vocabulary Test ........................................................................................... 244 xiii ....... 90 Appendix 4 : Students’ Worksheet ..........................................................................................................................LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix 1 : Description of location SMP N 5 Sukoharjo ........................ 85 Appendix 3 : Lesson Plans ............ 155 Appendix 13 : The Computation of Validity and Reliability ................................. 149 Appendix 10 : Syllabus of KTSP ................................................................................. 159 Appendix 15 : The Students’ Test and Worksheet done by the Students ..................................................................................................................................... 150 Appendix 11 : Students Score before the Action ................................................ 145 Appendix 8 : Key Answer of the Test ................ 157 Appendix 14 : The Computation of T-Test .......................................................................................................

..........LIST OF TABLE Table 1 Table 2 : The Steps in Action Research................. 70 xiv .............. 43 : Improvement of the Students’ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts ....................................................................................................

..... An Illustration of Action Research Spiral ...................LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1............... 38 xv ............

. In education. English is one of the native languages used to improve students‟ ability. there are so many kinds of foreign language. That is the most important reason why English is learned in school. and culture. so does English. communication. one of the requirements is language competence. It has been discussed before that foreign language has many functions. It is because language is one of instruments which has important functions in communication. As quoted in Undang-Undang Sisdiknas (2003: 15) “bahasa asing dapat digunakan sebagai bahasa pengantar pada satuan pendidikan tertentu untuk mendukung kemampuan berbahasa asing peserta didik”. such as trade. it can be said that mastering foreign language is very important for surviving life. English is one of the important foreign languages.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. It has a function as a bridge for all aspects of human life. As it is known. So. for example is job requirement. The importance can be seen from some sides of life. Background of the Study Mastering of a foreign language is one of the important things that is needed in modern society and globalization era. technology. both of in spoken and written form. education. there are many education books that are written in foreign languages. Then. science. society.

especially English language. it prepares young learners to make a link of communication to understand concept of communication it self. It also maximizes . Second. teaching English at junior high school is extremely important because it is still the basis for the higher level. First. they are: 1. From some statements above. the indisputable fact those young learners have a greater facility for understanding and imitating what they hear than adult.2 Actually. 4. Ellis. Brewster. The need for maximum learning time for important languages. it can be concluded that studying foreign language. Third. and culturally for language learning. and Girard (1992: 23-24) define some reasons for starting to learn a foreign language earlier. Singleton in Brumfit (1997: 7) also defines some reasons for teaching English at primary level. By learning foreign language earlier. psychologically. the aim of early foreign language learning is to prepare young learner linguistically. The advantage of starting with early second language instruction so that later the language can be used as a medium of teaching. at junior high school is very important. 2. teaching English to young learner is aimed to increase the total number of years spent learning language. the earlier you start the more time you get. The need to expose children from an early age to understanding of foreign cultures so that they grow up tolerant and sympathetic to others. The need to link communication to understanding of view concepts. 3.

3 learning time for learning foreign language. For beginners. the earlier they start the more time they get. young learners forget something quickly. especially English skills (listening. First. Knowing more words in English language. It makes them know and understand a lot of vocabularies. Vocabulary supports all of the English skills. There are many kinds of students‟ characteristic. Therefore. vocabulary mastery is the basic knowledge in learning English. Then. One of the problems that are faced is the characteristics of the students as young learners. knowing words is the key for understanding and being understood. Coady and Huckin (1998: 5) say that vocabulary is the central to language and of critical importance to language learning for the young learners. Firstly. They will more understand what they have learned. For enhancing all aspects in foreign language. here are the junior high students. it is not easy to teach English for the young learners. it will make other person understand or make ourselves understood easily. writing. They will forget some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat . The words here means as vocabulary. Sometimes. the students need to understand the meaning of words. Considering the importance of vocabulary competence. So it can be concluded that vocabulary takes the important aspect to master English well as a foreign language. a teacher has many problems to develop the students‟ vocabulary mastery. the students need something to do. It should not be neglected by anyone who learns a language. it is better to introduce new vocabulary earlier to the students. speaking. and reading).

young learners still like playing. the researcher finds out that the students‟ vocabulary mastery is still low. Second. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. The materials used in teaching learning process only from books and students worksheet. It is clear that repetition is needed. technique or and material. young learners get bored easily. etc. there are no interesting technique that used by the teacher. technique. By using the appropriate method. It may be caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate and attractive. They always discuss about something in their around while playing. So. it makes the students less interested and do not be active in teaching learning process. so the . The method. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. technique. In teaching learning process. The teaching learning process uses teacher centre in delivering the lessons. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students‟ acts as follows: firstly. After having pre research by interviewing the teacher and observing teaching learning process of mastering vocabulary at the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. the teachers have to find out the appropriate. Third. So.4 the words many times. especially in vocabulary mastery. They prefer playing than studying. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. There are no materials from other sources like internet. it is important to find out the appropriate. magazine. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. Here. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. Most of materials come from the teachers.

It is because there are no appropriate learning sources that used to help the students for remembering the materials that are given. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words. She uses short texts because short texts will help to solve the problems that are faced by the students. Example is the word “n-t-w-i-r-e”.5 students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. Short text is one of an interesting material that helps the students to find out the keys to remember and grasp many new vocabularies. It is because all words or group word are inside of the short texts. the students write the word only “sudenly”. Beside that the students will be easy to write down the correct words or group words. students‟ marks are still lower than the passing grade. The students also get difficulties when they have to translate the words. It can be seen when they find some words that have double letters. She wants to make the students interested by using the teaching material of short texts. the researcher tries to enrich vocabulary mastery of the students using short texts. The other difficulties that the students faced when they do an exercise on jumble word. Due to the facts above. Secondly. The correct arrangement is “winter” but students rearrange them become “writen”. The students usually get mistake to rearrange into the correct word. Thirdly. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. . From the indicators that are mentioned above. For example the word “suddenly”. Most of the students forget to write down the second letter.

the researcher would like to conduct a research to solve the problem and also enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery by using short stories entitled “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS” (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). The Limitation of the Problem The research has a broad scope and it is impossible for the researcher to handle the study consisting of so many complicated problems. B. the researcher limits the problem on how to enrich the students‟ vocabulary mastery using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. The problems of the study can be formulated as follows: 1. How is the students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? . The Problems Statement Based on the background of study. the researcher wants to prove whether or not the short texts can improve students‟ vocabulary mastery in learning English at the junior high school.6 Based on the description above. Therefore. C. Can short texts enrich vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? 2.

Particularly. the general objective of this research is to improve students‟ vocabulary by using short texts. The Benefits of the Study It is expected that this research contributes some significant progresses in teaching vocabulary for several sides. E. this research is aimed to find out: 1. The students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Then. Then. The Objectives of the Research Based on the formulation of the problem. It will help the teacher to identify the students‟ difficulties in learning vocabulary and also find the students who need more guiding. Whether using short texts can enrich the students‟ vocabulary of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. So the teacher hoped to create an interesting teaching learning process by using this teaching material. 2. in this case is short texts. they are: 1. the teacher can take some correct problems solving from those problems. the data of the research are also very useful for the teacher. Teacher It is expected that the teacher will get more information about one of the appropriate teaching materials.7 D. .

Students It is expected that the result will give motivation to the students to be better in vocabulary mastery. .8 2. Through short texts. so the quality of teaching learning process can be increased. The result of the research is also hoped to improve students‟ achievement in English lesson standard. School It is expected that the information of the result will be very useful for getting success in teaching learning process. students are expected to have good enrichment in vocabulary and also the changes of behavior during teaching learning process. 3.

the only system involved is alphabetical order in dictionaries. if someone learns new words in foreign language.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Since vocabulary is a list. General Concept of Vocabulary a. 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE (RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESIS) A. It means vocabulary is written or spoken unit of language as symbol of idea in foreign language for the learners. For example. Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) state that vocabulary is a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. vocabulary is written in alphabetical order in dictionaries based on system or rule of foreign language. McWhorter (1989: 311) says that vocabulary means the ability to recognize individual words and to associate . it means that someone learns vocabulary. Furthermore. which expressing a single idea. The items in vocabulary may be more than a single word.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. for example post office. Ur (1998: 60) defines that vocabulary can be mean as the words we teach in foreign language. mother-in-law. Review On Related Literature 1. Here. Notion of Vocabulary There are some definitions of vocabulary proposed by linguist experts.

It can be formed from a single or more than one word. recognizing words means knowing its meaning or idea and how they are formed by a combination of letters. b. The words here are the symbols in form of groups of letter represent either a physical object or an idea. vocabulary is the competence or skill in recognizing words and its meaning. It is because people need vocabulary in expressing their ideas both of in mother . vocabulary can be constructed as a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. Then. vocabulary deals with a series of words in particular language. the word love on the other hand. an object with a flat surface. the word chair in our minds a physical reality.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. 10 meaning with the particular combination of letters that form a word.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. groups of letter that stand for. Then. It symbolizes the feeling of one person toward another. In the other word. For example. The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary is an important aspect in our life. Based on three definitions above. Based on Hatch and Brown. or represent. Ur adds that vocabulary deals with word taught in foreign language. and used to for sitting. usually supported by four legs. Meanwhile. McWhorter states that vocabulary deals with the competence in recognizing words and its meaning. either a physical object or an idea. does not represent a physical object. Words are symbols.

or knowledge. Cross (1995: 14) states that a good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication. we must name objects. it can be concluded that vocabulary is very important in learning language and mastering vocabulary will facilitate someone in using language in communication. an event. It means mastery is the ability to use one of knowledge. c. 11 tongue and foreign language. Tailor (1991: 1) says that in order to live in the world. A strong vocabulary can be a valuable asset. Every person who learns a language must learn the vocabulary of the language in order to make the learning process easier. Vocabulary Mastery Coulson et al (1987: 1050) define that mastery is skill. In language learning. Vocabulary always becomes the essential part of English as a foreign language. use. Names are essential for the construction of reality. According to the statement above. both in college and later in our career. Without a name. vocabulary plays an important role. Without vocabulary mastery. it will be difficult to accept the existence of an object. and a feeling.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. While Hornby (1984:523) says that mastery is the complete control or . Edge (1993: 27) states that knowing a lot of words in foreign language are very important.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. learning a language becomes a very hard thing to do and communication in second language cannot happen in any meaningful way.

12 knowledge. Third. The certain area in teaching means a lesson taught. from both of definitions above. this term is the adolescent start to use the language and make it more extensive directly in simple communication. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. . either a physical object or an idea and it also can be formed from a single or more than one word. First. While vocabulary is a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning in form of symbols of groups of letter. vocabulary mastery can be constructed as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. It is usually arranged by a standard of curriculum and syllabus in every aspect whether the topic or the test. mastery is the whole power or ability to direct knowledge. children period. this term children are able to define concept vocabulary to say their concrete idea. Here. The process of vocabulary mastery is not simple. Second. So. Keraf (1989: 6566) defines the step in processing vocabulary mastery. It means mastery is the ability to combine skill and knowledge in one certain area. The vocabulary mastery can not be done spontaneous but step by step. adult period. adolescent period. in case of the physical object or idea. this term the vocabulary are used more and more intensive because they make more communication each other.

The success of teaching learning process depends on not only the teachers‟ and students‟ competence but also the technique of teaching. means a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. There are two techniques in improving vocabulary mastery. The technique here refers to the way of teaching. While vocabulary. There are some techniques of teaching vocabulary. d. there are so many techniques proposed by some experts. poetry and games. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word.13 From the definition above. social lesson. in case of the physical object or idea. The teachers may have some techniques to teach it. Direct technique is usually used through the language book. prose. Then vocabulary mastery define as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. Dealing with the technique of vocabulary teaching. Then indirect technique uses the other source of lesson like mathematic. and science lesson. The techniques are the unplanned vocabulary teaching and planned vocabulary teaching. The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery There are various ways to improve vocabulary mastery. They are direct and indirect techniques. mastery may be defined as the ability to use skill or knowledge in one subject area based on recognized standard. Unplanned vocabulary teaching is .

The planned vocabulary teaching can be described as “the vocabulary lesson” since the primary objective of the teaching activities is the presentation and practice of the lexical item themselves. etc. 2) Use the real thing In this way. while planned vocabulary teaching where the teacher goes into classroom with an item or a set of vocabulary items that the teacher has decided before hand. While Lewis and Hill (1992: 102-103) mention some ways to teach vocabulary.14 extemporaneous teaching of vocabulary items that come up without planning in course of lesson. . The demonstration helps to make the meaning clearer and to fix the word in the students‟ minds. Beside that it also helps students to memorize both of visual and aural memories. chuckle. They are: 1) Demonstrate Demonstration is the way of teaching vocabulary by doing physical demonstration together verbal explanation. Sometimes the explanation is no more complicated than pointing. the teachers present vocabulary items by bringing the real things into classroom. For examples. The objects of the real things can be in the class or probably through the window. stagger.

For example the meaning of bush was explained by two very simple sketches. orange (color). 4) Use the blackboard to show scales or grades Words like cool. like accuracy can often be counter-productive.15 3) Draw or sketch Teachers do not need to be artists to make simple sketches which illustrate meaning. the learners have to be aware that a word may have different opposite in difficult context. For example: light bag >< heavy bag light word >< strong word rough area >< quite area poor >< rich dirty >< clean happy >< sad red orange yellow certainly / definitely probably / possibly . the level of the explanation must be suitable to the students‟ level of English at the time so that dictionary. It is worth that the explanations given here are not exact definitions of the word. or probably may be explained by presenting them with groups of related words: Hot warm cool cold 5) Antonyms This is the way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites or antonyms of the word. Here.

asking one or more students to look the word up in a dictionary. or not. 7) The dictionary This is the way of teaching vocabulary by using dictionary to know vocabulary items. their connotation meanings often differ. that words do not mean the same as each other. 9) Translation It is a way of teaching vocabulary by translating some words or individual words from the target language into other language.16 rough texture >< smooth texture 6) Synonyms high >< low Synonyms are the way of teaching vocabulary by giving same meaning of two or more words. Beside that. 8) Verbal explanation Verbal explanation refers to the way of teaching vocabulary by explaining the meaning of vocabulary items in students‟ own language. One technique for explaining these which teachers too frequently overlook is asking the class whether anybody knows the word and. A bilingual dictionary can be used at low levels and monolingual dictionary at the high levels. Though words may have similar denotation meaning. using the former phrase also helps to build up in the students‟ mind ides that language consists of choice. It is .

professions. a teacher might build a situation to illustrate it. if the class consists of different nationalities. b) Mime and gesture These are often used to supplement other ways of conveying meaning. wallcharts. Gairns (1991: 73-75) says that there are some techniques used in presenting new vocabulary. 2) Verbal Techniques a) Use illustrative situation (oral or written) This is most helpful when items become more abstract.17 seen as boring and traditional. the teacher will find difficulty to translate the word(s) into all languages. When teaching an item such as “to swerve”. They are extensively used for conveying meaning and particularly useful for teaching concrete items of vocabulary such as furniture.e. photographs. and realia (i. and certain areas of vocabulary such as places. Furthermore. In this technique. and activities. To ensure that students understand. actions. objects themselves). teachers often make use of . They are: 1) Visual techniques a) Visual These include flashcards. making use of blackboard and gesture to reinforce the concept. descriptions of people. blackboard drawings.

it is vital to illustrate the contexts in which this is true. However. c) Contrast and opposites Contrast and opposites are they way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites of the words.18 more than one situation or context to check that students have grasped the concept. This is the example of adverbs of frequency: never hardly ever occasionally I sometimes often always go to cinema on Sundays . Synonymy is also the way of teaching by giving more than one meaning for a word. d) Scales Once students have learnt two contrasting or related gradable items. this can be a useful way of revising and feeding in new items. b) Use of synonymy and definition Definition here is the way of teaching vocabulary by defining or describing objects.

The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery Dealing with the vocabulary mastery. verbal explanation and translation techniques to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery. The example of “furniture” is “table. sofa. chair. . dictionary. etc”. it is also hoped that by using these techniques. In this paper. bed. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. The teacher will find difficulties if the students come from different nationalities. Some of these can of course also be dealt with through visual aids. Then. synonyms. 3) Translation Translation can be very effective way of conveying meaning. e. mime and gesture. the students can understand and grasp the vocabulary easily. It is because the techniques that are mentioned are usually used in school. antonyms. it can be defined as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that is used to express meaning. in case of the physical object or idea. It can save valuable time in teaching process but it seen as boring and traditional.19 e) Examples of type This is the way of teaching vocabulary by exemplifying things it self. the researcher uses definition.

If those factors are fulfilled.such as regular and lorry for Japanese speakers. and range. Potentially difficult words will typically be those that contain sounds that are unfamiliar to some groups of learners. 1) Pronunciation Research shows that words that are difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn.20 Thornbury (2002: 27) declares some factors why learning vocabulary is rather difficult for second language learner. grammar. Those six aspects above will be defined briefly here. Here. It is because she or he should know the appropriate word. someone can be said that he or she has achieved the vocabulary mastery. what‟s the meaning. The example is when an Indonesian student has an English subject at school and it is the second language for her or him.spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors. how to pronunce. Many learners find that words with clusters of consonants. meaning. such as strength or crisp or breakfast. Thornbury says that the factors come from the word‟s aspects such pronunciation. 2) Spelling Sound. connotation and idiomatic are the indicators in vocabulary mastery. spelling. how to spell. etc to express the idea of the subject. and can contribute to a . are also problematic. She or he can not understand the lesson easily. length and complexity. either of pronunciation or of spelling.

Then the grammar of phrasal verbs is particularly troublesome: some phrasal verbs are separable (she looked the word up) but others are not (she looked after the children). headache. climbing.such as in word families like necessary. muscle. Furthermore. and say he explained me the lesson. Remembering whether a verb like enjoy. bored. variable stress in polysyllabic words. honest. high frequency words tend to be short in English.21 word‟s difficulty. . necessity and necessarily can add to their difficulty. as a rule of thumb. especially if this differs from that of its L 1 equivalent. cupboard. Spanish learners of English. listen. a factor favoring their „learn ability‟. 4) Grammar It is problematic when grammar associated with the word. for example. etc. there are also some glaring irregularities. Words that contain silent letters are particularly problematic: foreign. or hope is followed by an infinitive (to swim) or an –ing form (swimming) can add to its difficulty. 3) Length and complexity Long words seem to be no more difficult to learn than short ones. However. tend to assume that explain follows the same pattern as both Spanish explicar and English tell. While most English spelling is fairly law-abiding. love. and therefore the learner is likely to meet them more often.

but its nearest equivalent in other languages may dean deviant. . they may be reluctant to accept a second. Make and do are a case in point: you make breakfast and make an appointment.22 5) Meaning When two words overlap in meaning. and still. slender. Thus put is a very wide-ranging verb. 6) Range. Thus. compare to impose. The words have style constraints. swap for exchange) may cause problems. Uncertainly to the connotations of some words may cause problems too. propaganda has negative connotations in English. Thus. but you do the housework and do a questionnaire. etc. and a good innings) will seem fairly opaque to most learners and are likely to be easily learned. Finally. Unfamiliar concepts may make a word difficult to learn. learners are likely to confuse them. totally different. place. position. such as very informal words (chuck for throw. connotation and idiomaticity Words that can be used in a wide range of context will generally be perceived as easier than their synonyms with a narrower range. slim. meaning. Having learned one meaning of the word. can also be troublesome for learners. culture specific items such as words and expressions associated with the game cricket (a sticky wicket. The words with multiple meanings such as since. Likewise. thin is a safer bet than skinny. a hat trick.

23 words or expression that are idiomatic (like make up your mind. It is because. 2. spelling. From all those definition above. form. where “text” means verbal record communication. Texts in this sense are printed texts. style. length. topic. The Concept of Text Brown and Yule (1997: 24) suggest that the term to spoke “text” as well. as well as their syntactic complexity that makes phrasal verbs so difficult. Willis (1998: 67) says that text in general sense to mean a continuous piece of spoken or written language. It is their idiomaticity. we conclude that vocabulary mastery is the students‟ awareness of understanding the words and their rules to communicate. Essences of Short Text a. Arthur Hughes (2003:140) states that texts candidates are expected to be able to deal with can be specified along number of parameters: type. They also differentiate the term of those text and discourse dealing with the context. intended readership. keep an eye on…) will generally be more difficult than words whose meaning is transparent (decide. the use of words in meaning and meaning. The aspects to be measured are limited to pronunciation of words. those three aspects that are learned in junior high school. . graphic features. watch).

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readability or difficulty, range of vocabulary and grammatical structure. Text type include: text books, handouts, articles (in newspaper, journals or magazine), poems, encyclopedia, dictionary, novel (extracts) and short stories, etc. He also states that text forms include: description, exposition, argumentation, instruction, and narration. Cross (1995:77-78) states that the text is a major resources; permitting you to vary the learning activities from lesson to lesson. There are four main factors to consider when deciding how to threat a passage; linguistic complexity, length, interest level and aims. From the definition above, it can be concluded that the text is a verbal communication which consists of continuous piece of spoken or written language and its meaning is contextually. b. The Concept of Story Story is account of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events, etc (Hornby: 1995: 94). Taylor (2000: 16) says that story is relating tale to one or more listener through voice and gesture. It is clear that vocabulary in a story should be presented in clear context; the amusing situations can make the vocabulary easy to remember. Ray B. West (1968: v) says that story is something brought into being by application of the skill and workings of the imagination of the author. Its aim is to arouse the emotions and stimulate the imagination of the students.

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Brad Hooper (1992: xi) says that story is different from a novel in that it is short enough to be read in one sitting, with every word leading toward some final, preordained effect. In story, the sentences are generally shorter in order the students easy to follow the story. From the statements above, the writer draw conclusion that story refers to the written or spoken description of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events that can be used to for teaching students which have aims to make the students easier to follow the story and it has different from a novel that is short enough to be read in one sitting. This paper, the writer uses the story as text especially folktale for increasing vocabulary mastery in second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo Academic Year 2009/2010. c. The Notion of Folktales One kind of story that usually heard by child is the folktales. It is type words composition that recites the story of the folklore in a certain region that is popularly and orally told from one generation to other generation in a certain community. (www.classicalfolktale.wikipedia.com) 1) The meaning of Folktales The word folktale is not defined in English usage. Taylor (2000:4) defines the term “folktale” as traditional story that has been

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passed by words of mouth, told from parents to children over many generations or passed on by countless storytellers sitting around countless evening fires. No one knows who the original author was, and there are usually different versions of the same story, he also states that the term “folktale” has also been used to refer to literary retelling of these tales. Another definition of folktales is that “words folktales refer to the many types of traditional narratives know to the “folk” (Coffin and Cohen, 1996:1). Philips (1992) defines folktales as story about telling stories with unverifiable claims and its literary form. From the definition above, we can assume that folktales are traditional stories that have been passed by words of mouth and told from generation to generation. Folktales lasted through a long period of time due to their universality. They are forms of traditional literature which began as attempt to explain and understand the natural and spiritual world. The origin of folktales lies in oral tradition. 2) The type of folktales There are several types of folktales. Taylor (2000) divides folktales as fable, fairy tales, hero stories, myths, legend. Fables are very short folktales with animals as the main characteristic and with very obvious moral lesson, often summon up in single line at the end.

certain characteristics typical in folktales contribute to relatively easy reading. Taylor . Examples “Johnny Appleased” and “Pail Bunyan”. Example: “Shakespeare‟s Ghost” and “Paul Bunyan”. Fairy tales are folktales that include some magical elements (not necessity fairies): the German word marchen is sometimes used for this. Hero stories some of which have some real historical parts and other of which may not. Fairy tales are fictional and take place in a never-land. Legends are stories that are based on a real hero and his or her mighty deeds and believed by the teller and serve a historical purpose. It is told as if they are fact. primitive myth. Examples: Tumbelina. Goddesses and supernatural power: “Adam and Eve” and “Noah‟s ark”. when strictly defined. And believed by the teller and served as historical purpose: “The dog and the meat” and “the greedy old spider”. and even between two telling stories of the same tale. 3) The Characteristics of Folktales Although there a lot of variations between folktales. is religious and deals with the creating and ordering of the universe and with the earlier order in which present world condition were being established. and usually involving God.27 Legend is stories that are based on real hero and his or her mighty deeds.

28 (2000:9) gives various characteristics of folktales that make them exceptionally good for language teaching. children have the following characteristics: . These are the list: time order repetition and redundancy predictability relatively simply grammar concrete ideas illustrations that provide support and context for the texts a unique reader-write relationship 3. they need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. It means that the English teacher should be use the technique for English teaching that can make the students interested in learning English Lesson (House. The Notion of Young Learners Teaching English to children is different from teaching English to and adult. In relation to the English teaching learning process. The Characteristic of Children In general. The General Concept of Young Learners a. 1997: 98) b.

and ears. eyes. Clark (1990: 6-8) states the characteristics of the children are as follows: 1) Children are developing conceptually. eyes. So material of teaching that will be teaching is about their surrounding and happened in that time. They tend to resolves around themselves. 3) Their own understanding comes through hands. They learn more slowly.29 1) They like playing Children like playing. Hence from that to convey the material of learning we should be able to take both. and ears Children will be understandings about what we talk are using hands. They teach subject what school provides for them 3) Children are still developing their common skill such as turn taking and the use of body language. 2) They talk about “Here and Now” Children always discuss about existing in their around and happened in that time. They more like playing than learning. They develop their way of thinking from the concrete to the abstract thing. 4) Young children are very egocentric. that is playing and learning in the same time. 2) Children have no real linguistic. .

especially in teaching learning process. The class activities must be fun and interesting by setting up the interesting activities. 4. the teacher in teaching English needs repetition. 6) Children are at early of their education. .30 5) Children get bored easily children have no choice to attend school. The Notion of Motivation a. it is very important for teachers to know about motivation. it can be conclude that young learner need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. 8) Children forget quickly. The Definition of Motivation Motivation is needed in every occasion. ensuring success and enhancing the children‟s motivation are important factors in promoting the success of early start in foreign language learning. of course based on their characteristics in teaching learning English lesson. Thus. 7) Children are better mimics. It is because motivation will influence someone both in process and result. Therefore. From the definition above. It will take them more confident in attempting the sound of foreign language and they delighted in playing the sound.

their willingness to engage in teaching learning activities and their reasons for doing this. namely: extrinsic motivation.31 Some experts define some definition of motivation. . or desire that moves and leads learner to do a particular action in order to meet and needs or to attain a set of goals of teaching learning process. pushes us in particular direction. Weiner (in Elliot et al. achievement motivation. and keep us engaged in certain activities. The Types of Motivation There are many kinds of learning motivation stated by the experts. Next. Groccia (1992: 62) states that people learn and study because the consequences of such behavior satisfy certain internal and/or external motives. Brophy (1998: 3) says that motivation refers to the students‟ subjective experiences. intrinsic motivation. social motivation. Extrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because of consequences to obtain a reward and to avoid the punishment. Then. impulse. From the definition above it can be concluded that motivation is an arousal. b. While intrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because they are interested in task or activities itself. Biggs and Watkins (1995: 84) state that there are four categories of motivation. 2000: 332) says that motivation is internal states that arouses us to action.

The learner willing to tackle tasks and challenges. Positive task oriented. High aspiration. Then instrumental motivation is to wish to learn the language for purposes of study or carrier. . Then. The learner finds it important to succeed in learning and promote his or her own positive self-image. Integrative motivation is the desire to identify with and integrate into target language culture. Ego-involvement. social motivation is defined as the students‟ motivation in order to make the other people feel pleasure.32 Achievement motivation. 2). They are integrated motivation and instrumental motivation. 3). top grades. to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do. The Characteristic of Motivated Students Naiman et al. high proficiency. c. those are as follows: 1). they are those who display certain typical characteristic. Ur (1996: 19) defines some kinds of motivation. 4). goes for demanding challenges. The learner has needs to achieve. Need for achievement. in Ur (1996: 275) comes to conclusion that the most successful students are not necessary those to whom a language comes very easily. the students learn in order to compete against the other students. most of them clearly associated with motivation. that is winning makes they feel good. and has confidence in his or her success. The learner is ambitious.

The students‟ vocabulary mastery of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010 is still low. or of specific learning activities. Secondly. The learner consistently invests a high level of effort in learning. and it is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack progress. Tolerance of ambiguity. Perseverance. They could . It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students as follows: firstly. Rationale In learning English vocabulary. 6). 7). It is caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate on their level. there are difficulties that might be faced by the learners especially the young learners. Goal orientation. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. The learner is very aware of the goals of learning. The learner is not disturbed or frustrated by situations involving a temporary lack of understanding will come later. B. Most of the students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. It can be seen when they do the exercises.33 5). the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words and then translate them. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. Thirdly. and directs his or her effort towards achieving them.

Considering the explanation above. C. Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research can be formulated as follows: by using short texts. the researcher believes that short texts can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery. the teacher should create an interesting teaching material.34 not do the exercises perfectly. the teacher helps the students to remember the words and understand the meaning and also the grammatical pattern of the sentences easily. The teaching materials should be suitable with the young learners‟ characteristics. Most of their marks are still lower than the passing grade. . the students can improve their vocabulary mastery. especially for the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic Year of 2009/2010. Short texts are interesting materials in teaching language. By using short texts. One of the teaching materials that can be used is the short texts. So.

the post-test was done on the sixth meeting. The pre-test was done on the first meeting. The aim was to master vocabulary by using short stories. Setting of place This research was done in SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo. It was done for knowing the students‟ basic ability of the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. It was done for knowing the students‟ improvement after using short texts in teaching learning process. the treatments. This school is located at Bulakan. 3. 1. Last. Subject of the Research The subject of this research is the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. 35 CHAPTER III RESEACH METODHOLOGY A.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Setting and Subject of the Research. .2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. and the posttest. Sukoharjo. There are 35 students for class A. It is because there is a problem related with students‟ vocabulary mastery. consist of 11 boys and 24 girls. Next. Post test was done on the six meeting. The details are the pre-test. Sukoharjo Regency. 2. the treatments were done on the second until five meeting. Time of research This research held on a cycle on second semester in the academic year of 2009/2010.

it is necessary to give a definition of action research. (b) their understanding to these practices. dan atau tindakan untuk lebih memahami hakekat dan atau konsekuensi mengajar dengan tujuan untuk melakukan tindakan atau menguabah atau meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dan lebih baik bila dilakukan secara kolaboratif dengan kolega atau teman guru. For a starting point.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Ebbutt (1985) in Hopkins (1993: 45) states action research is about the systematic study of attempts to improve educational practice by groups of participants by means of their own practical actions and by means of own reflection upon the effects of those actions. Rapport (1970) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is aimed to contribute both to the practical concern of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of the school science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Method of the Research This research is a kind of action research. It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively. . Dewi Rochsantiningsih (2008) defines action research as: “proses sistematis di mana guru dengan sukarela melibatkan diri untuk melakukan refleksi dokumentasi. 36 B. and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out.” Kemmis (1983) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices. though it is often undertaken by individuals and sometimes in cooperation with outsiders. Meanwhile.

Often. or other educational professionals to aid in decision making in the local school. Based on the definition and the aims above.37 Furthermore. C. administrator. only a single group or individual is involved in the study. the implementation of the classroom action research includes four steps in the following: . According to the model. Action research is usually less rigorous in term of design and methodology than other educational researches. The Model of Action Research The model of classroom action research used in this study is based on the model developed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1985). research conducted by a teacher. Action research focuses on the solution of day-to-day problems at the local level. this research is done to increase the students‟ vocabulary mastery through short texts. By participating the actions in this research. From the definition above. it is hoped that the researcher will find the solution for developing the students‟ vocabulary mastery. Wiersma (2000: 10) states one type of applied research is action research. intact groups are used in some cases. it can be concluded that action research is a systematic study and it is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken or carried out by participants in educational situation rather than outside researches to solve the problem in order to improve the students‟ ability.

through a succession of a stages. Planning Develop a plan of critically informed action to improve what is already happening. 4. 2. subsequent critically informed and so on. Action Act to implement the plan. Observation Observe the effects of the critically informed action in the context in which it occurs. 3. .38 1. Reflection Reflecting process on these effects as the basis for further planning. Based on Hopkins‟ point of views (1993: 48) this model can be illustrated as follow.

Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of teaching learning process when the technique is applied). The problem was caused by the technique of delivering material which was not suitable and interesting to the learners. Preparing a test. interviewing the students. e. c. . f. The Procedures of Action Research In this classroom action research. b. and conducting a pre-test. Identifying the problems The researcher identified the problem before planning the action. It was done to know whether students‟ vocabulary could be improved or not. 2. each procedure takes five steps in one cycle. d. Planning the action The researcher prepared everything related to the action as follows: a. Designing the steps in doing the action. Planning the steps and technique for delivering the material in the form of lesson plan. It was obtained by observing the teaching learning process.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Preparing the material. The problem referred to the students‟ difficulty in learning vocabulary. Preparing teaching aids. 39 D. There are follows: 1.

40 3. Implementing the action The researcher implemented the teaching learning activity of vocabulary using short texts. and drilled the students. The researcher discussed the answer of task with the students i. f. After doing the practices. The researcher stimulated the students to try guessing some words related to the stories. The real implementations were generally presented as follows: a. The researcher gave the students individual task. The researcher greeted the students and checked the students‟ attendance at the beginning of class. . The researcher gave the students time to make note in their book. h. the researcher reviewed the material. The researcher gave the students oral task by pointing the students one by one to guess and pronounce the words that are related to the stories shown by teacher to check whether the students had understood. d. The researcher gave explanation about the words. g. Observing and monitoring the action The researcher observed all activities in the teaching learning process and created a conducive atmosphere in a class. 4. b. e. The researcher presented the material by giving a worksheet one by one to the students. pronounced them correctly. c.

field notes. . Qualitative method consists of observation. The teacher takes the position behind the class while observing the teaching learning process and makes a note all things about what happen during the teaching learning process. observes the teaching learning process done by the teacher and the students. observation is a kind of activities in action research that enables researchers to document and reflect systematically upon classroom interactions and events. photograph. Technique of Collecting Data The techniques of collecting data are qualitative and quantitative method. Evaluating and Reflecting the result of the observation The researcher evaluated all actions in the cycle. The researcher observed the actions to find the problems of the activities that had been carried out in using short stories in teaching vocabulary. Observation technique means the researcher comes to the class. as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur. Based on Burns (1999: 80).41 5. E. document analysis. interview.

Test technique which is used is achievement test. The researcher made note to all activities during the lesson. The interview technique is done spontaneously. The aim of this analysis was to complete the information which had been gotten from observation and interview. Analyzing the document was done toward the Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. The researcher made notes of each observation done. The vocabulary test is used to measure the students‟ vocabulary mastery.42 Notes or field notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context that are written in relatively factual and objective style (Burns. This interview is also done to the students and the teacher before and after teaching learning process. Achievement test is the test that is used to measure students‟ ability after learning something (Arikunto. The test here is a vocabulary test. 1996: 21). The purpose is to get the information about everything in teaching learning process using short stories. which is about English lesson in Junior High School including its Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar. Photographs are a way of greatly enhancing classroom analysis and providing visual stimuli that can be integrated into reporting and presenting the research to others (Burns. and noted the students‟ reaction and response to the learning. In this research. 1999: 87). It means that the researcher does not make some questions first. Then. quantitative method uses test technique. 1999: 101). the researcher used essay and pronoun test type for both .

The steps in Action Research Step of action Participant  Students Pre action  Researcher  Students  Researcher The action Technique  Interview  Observation  Test (Pre-test)  Planning  Implementing  Observing monitoring  Reflecting Post action  Students  Researcher  Test (Post-test)  Result of post-test and Data  Result of the interview  Result of observation  Result of pre-test  Result of observation  Field notes . There are some steps that should be done by the researcher in this action research. The total numbers of test items were 30 items. The result of the test was analyzed to know the students‟ achievement on vocabulary.43 the pre-test and post-test. Table 1. Here is the diagram of the steps. The test consisted of vocabularies that had been taught to the students.

(b) classify the data in certain classification. this research uses descriptive statistics. they are qualitative descriptive analysis and also quantitative descriptive analysis. and photographs. (d) making an inductive conclusion. It makes clearer the data and the characteristic of the data (Nurgiantoro. It is used to make the data simple and communicative. This step uses a simple formula that is called as t-test of non-independent. making the data in the table. field notes. 1. interview. Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis in this research consists of two kinds. (c) Making the inference. In this formula. Qualitative descriptive In qualitative descriptive analysis. The formula of t-test of non-independent is as follows: t= where t is the result of t-test non-independent . The steps are: (a) compare the data from each informant to make easy in classifying the same data. Making a hypothesis using the classify data. the pre-test is compared with the post-test to know whether teaching vocabulary using short stories can improve the students‟ vocabulary mastery. 2001:8). Quantitative descriptive analysis In quantitative descriptive analysis.44 F. the data are the result of observation. 2.

. G. it will be known whether or not the instrument is valid. the effectiveness of using short stories to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery will be known. p q n and : the number of correct answer : the number of incorrect answer : the number of respondent The result of the computation of validity will be consulted to t-table distribution. when the difference between the values of t-obtained and the value of t-table is significant. Reliability of the Instrument After the valid items are determined. from this. the reliability can be determined by using the formula: . Validity of the Instrument In computing the validity of each item from the instrument. where k is the number of valid items. the researcher uses the formula as follows: where. H.45 Finally.

From this. The Criteria of Successful Action The measurement that is used in checking vocabulary mastery is test.46 The result of the computation of reliability will be consulted to r table of statistics. it will be known whether or not the instrument is reliable. . and (2) there is an improving average mark of the class based on the criteria in the curriculum that is used in that school. The indicators are: (1) there is an improvement number of students that have minimal criterion at least 75 % from the total number of students. I.

It can be seen from the indicators like: 1) they were less interested in teaching learning process. the description of the research. and discussion. The structure of the writing contains introduction. many problems were found in teaching English for students of the second year of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. A. Introduction As presented in chapter I. The description of the research contains the implementations of the actions of the research in the field.47 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION In this chapter. The difficulties of learning vocabularies were caused by some reasons. the students as young learners forget something quickly. Introduction contains the problem faced by the students. The discussion deals with the implementations of the actions that are teaching by using short texts based on theories from some experts. and 3) they got difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. First. The main problem faced by the students was the lack of vocabularies. They were supported in pre-research that has been done by the researcher. the researcher discusses the implementation of the action. They will forget . 2) they got difficulties to understand and grasp the meaning of words. Their vocabulary was still low.

the researcher decided to conduct a research to solve the problems through this study. They always talk about something while playing. Secondly. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. So. By using the appropriate method. the teachers have to find out the appropriate method. So. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. They prefer playing to studying.48 some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat the words many times. the researcher wanted to create interesting situation in the classroom. the researcher wanted to make the students are able to grasp and remember the . There were some targets which the researcher expected to achieve by conducting the action for the improvement of students‟ vocabulary. the students as young learners get bored easily. Thus. the students as young learners still like playing. repetition is needed. One of the problems that is taken in this study is the materials that are not suitable and interesting to the students. technique or and material. The method. technique. Based on the facts above. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. Here. Second. Firstly. especially in vocabulary mastery. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. it is important to find out the appropriate method. technique. the research is concentrated on improving materials of teaching vocabulary through a classroom action research and the use of short texts as the teaching learning source. Third.

Each meeting took 80 minutes.49 meaning of words more easily. The cycle in this research also consisted of series of steps. The researcher divided the cycle into four meetings. The Description of the Research The implementation of the action planned in this research was held in a cycle. namely planning the action. 2010 until April. They are explained as follows: . the researcher wanted to make the students able to write the words or group of words correctly so the improvement of students‟ vocabulary could be achieved. Thirdly. the researcher decided to carry out interesting teaching materials. Based on the problems and the targets that the researcher expected to achieve. in this case was short texts. observing or monitoring the action. evaluating and reflecting the result of the observation. in presenting and practicing new vocabularies. 2010. and revising the plan. the researcher used short texts as the teaching materials. implementing the action. the researcher hopes that the research can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery and change the situation during the teaching learning process. Through a classroom action research. In this cycle. B. It was conducted from April.

The students could ask questions whenever they found problems. The researcher told the students that they were going to learn English by using short stories that day. the indicators of vocabulary mastery can be completed. It is because the stories are very funny and give the students a lot of new list of vocabularies. The researcher chose short texts as the teaching materials. The teacher also planned to drill the students‟ pronunciations using the words that have been prepared. the students are able to write down the words or group of words correctly. The researcher planned to use 10 minutes to greet the students and stated the topic.50 1. Planning the action The action plan was made based on the problems that were mentioned in the introduction above. It was to get the students‟ attention and interest. The researcher also gave a lot of time to drill the students. The researcher believed that short stories could improve the students‟ vocabulary and attract the students‟ enthusiasm in teaching learning process. The researcher allocated 60 minutes to give the students a chance to learn the material by doing the worksheet and to practice . So. the researcher planned and chose interesting learning materials to solve the problems and improve students‟ behavior during teaching learning process. By using short text. The researcher taught 80 minutes in every meeting. Besides that. it was expected that the students are able to grasp the meaning of new vocabulary easily. The students could drill every word until five times. To overcome those problems.

51 the pronunciation of the words that they have learned.25 a. The test started at 2010 to know the 10. the researcher prepared the material. students‟ worksheet that consisted of some tasks and also teaching equipments that are related to the action. Each meeting was divided into three terms. main activity. First meeting 1) Opening A pre test was conducted on April. The researcher came to the class on time . the researcher conducted a post-test.m. Besides preparing the pre-test. The last five up to ten minutes was to review and close the lesson. This cycle was conducted in four meetings. Post-test was conducted after the last action on the last meeting of the cycle. April. the researcher conducted a pre-test on the first meeting. lesson plans as researcher‟s guidance in teaching vocabulary. Before implementing the action. and closing. After implementing the action. 2010. This test was conducted in the beginning to know the students‟ ability about the material that would be given. Research Implementation The action plan was implemented by the researcher with the help from the teacher as the observer. namely: opening. a. The pre test was conducted on April. The bell rang. 2. 2010. students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery.

Next. pronunciation of words. she passed the worksheet test to the students. 2) Main activity After getting test worksheet. the use of words in context and spelling. After greeting the students. Then. Then. After that. The students were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. This test was aimed to know students‟ ability about the new materials that would be given. the students did the test individually.52 and greeted the students. the researcher checked the test worksheet whether they were complete or not. After that. the researcher asked about the students‟ feeling. The test was about understanding the meaning of words. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. . the researcher explained about the rules of the test. The test was a pre-test. in this case was short stories. the researcher gave the information that the students would get the materials in the next meeting and closed the meeting on that day . the researcher asked the students to collect the test worksheet on the desk. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the test that would be done on that day. 3) Closing After the bell rang.

The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the second meeting. this means that they understood what learning source that would be used. No one was absent that day. The students answered “yes. After greeting the students. the researcher asked the students to mention some short texts that they ever read or heard. Then. the researcher began the lesson of the day by asking the students to find the meaning of some words. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance. Second meeting 1) Opening The second meeting was conducted on April. Mam”. . 2010. Then. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10.53 b. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. she asked the students whether they ever read or heard short stories or not.25 am and then greeted the students. After introducing the materials that would be used. 2) Main Activity To open the lesson. They tried to answer the task by looking for the answer on the dictionary. Some of them mentioned some titles of short stories.

the researcher asked three of the students to mention the main idea of the story. to check the students understanding about new vocabulary. After the students finished doing the task. From the students‟ answer. Next. Some students were shy and afraid to speak loudly. it could be seen that the students still made some mistakes in getting the main point of the story. the researcher drilled the students‟ pronunciation with the guiding words on the worksheet.54 Next. They were afraid if they made a mistake. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the words together. The title was “The Flowers from the Moon”. After the students finished reading the short story. The researcher advised them that it was only a practice. the researcher asked the students to write down some words and find the meaning of each word. They obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. the researcher gave a chance to the students to read the story on their own worksheet. All students obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. to know the students‟ understanding. The researcher also asked them to find out the idea of the story using words that they ever had before. The researcher pronounced every word once and the students pronounced every word three times. Next. Next. the researcher asked the students to do the next task that is to fill in the blanks in some .

55 sentences with the words that were mentioned on the worksheet and answered the questions about the story. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 08. the researcher and the students discussed the answers of the task together. The researcher asked “how about your feeling today?” The students answered. the researcher gave the students choice to choose the correct answer. 2010. Some students were very enthusiastic to answer the question of the task. Most students made a mistake in pronouncing the words. “very-very interesting”. Third meeting 1) Opening The third meeting was conducted on April. then. The story‟s title was “Royal Spaghetti”.05 am. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. Next. The researcher showed all the words to the students. the researcher reviewed the material. In the . 3) Closing After finishing the task. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words. c. After finishing the task. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. Then. If they made a mistake.

No one was absent. all students focused on the lesson. To prepare the class.56 second meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. the learning source used in teaching learning process was the same as before. the students started the main activity by finding the correct words and their meaning. After that. Then. . the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that had been given in the second meeting. After five minutes. the students and the researcher discussed the story to get the main idea. In this meeting. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. 2) Main Activity In the beginning of the lesson. The students felt easily to grasp the main idea of the text because they have translated some difficult words before. Then. The title was ”Rainbow”. The researcher checked the students‟ pronunciation. the researcher asked some of students to read the story. The researcher used this chance to begin the main activity. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. There were some pronunciation mistakes done by the students. In this main activity. the researcher checked the answered with the students together. The researcher passed a new worksheet for each student and asked the students to do the exercises.

the researcher asked the students to arrange the letters into a good word.57 Next. the students and the researcher checked the answers together. . The students tried to find the synonymy of the words by using their dictionary. the researcher and the students discussed the answer together. it could be seen that students still made mistakes in arranging the words. They were very busy to discuss the correct arrangement of the letters with their friends. The title was “The Caliph and the Clown”. then they wrote their answer in the whiteboard. Then. Next. The students looked very interested in the new task. The researcher used the synonym to introduce the words. After five minutes. After checking the answer. the researcher asked some students to answer the questions and wrote the answers on the whiteboard. After that. In the middle of the activity. the researcher asked the students to pay attention to some words. The students who had finished discussing the correct arrangement. Then. the researcher changed the technique in introducing the new words to the students. they were also asked to find the meaning of the words. The researcher and the students checked the answers together. and then asked them to get the meaning of them. the researcher asked the students to fill in the blanks in some sentences with the words that were mentioned on the students‟ worksheet. From the students‟ answer.

They were very busy to prepare the answer. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of phrases from the story before. the students tried to grasp the main point of the story with the researcher. The students were enthusiastic in answering the question from the researcher. Students who had finished discussing the answers. . Then. the researcher asked some students to read the story loudly. The researcher mentioned some difficult words and the students tried to guess the right pronunciation and the right meaning. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. 3) Closing In the end section. On the last task of the third meeting. The researcher also asked the other students to pay attention to the text. Some of them were very busy to remember some of the new words that they heard before and the other discussed with their friends to find the main idea of the story. The reseacher asked “bagaimana pendapat kalian tentang pelajaran pada hari ini?” The students answered. The students pronounced every word three to four times.58 After checking the answers. the researcher reviewed the material from the beginning. and then they wrote their answer on the whiteboard and then checked the answer with the researcher. Next.

The title was “The Magic Seeds”. Then. Fourth meeting 1) Opening The fourth meeting was conducted on April. Then. the researcher asked the students to make a pair of discussion. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up.59 “menyenangkan bu. 2010. The students listened curiously to the researcher‟s story.25 am. Banyak kosa kata baru dan gampang ingetnya”. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the fourth meeting. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. No one was absent. The researcher asked the students to discuss the story . 2) Main activity Then. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the first and second meeting. the researcher began the lesson by reading a story. In the fourth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. Then. d. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. Sometimes they made an underline for some difficult words. To prepare the class. the researcher said “good morning” to the students.

Then. the researcher also asked the students to find the meaning of the words. The students had to write some words they heard. The researcher continued the lesson by drilling the students‟ pronunciations. Some of them were busy to remember the story and the other tried to grasp and write the meaning of some words. Then. The researcher and the students discussed the answers together. the researcher asked the students to write some words that they found in the story before. Then. the researcher asked the students to match the words with their antonyms. the students wrote the answers in the whiteboard. the researcher asked some of the students to read the story. The story‟s title was “The Owl and the Nightingale”. The students pronounced the words three or four times. After that. The students worked in pairs. The next task. After that. The students wrote the answers on their worksheet. Next. The researcher checked the answers. the researcher addressed some of the . the researcher asked the students‟ ability in writing words. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. some of students wrote their difficult words on the whiteboard. After five minutes. Next. Then.60 that they heard. The researcher also asked the students to find some difficult words on the story. they had to find the meaning of the words.

jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. The other students added “senang. . For the last task. The students were very busy to find the answers. Then. After 5 minutes. The next task. Bu”. There are some students discussed the answers with their friends. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. bu. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. the researcher asked the students to answer some questions about the story. the researcher asked some students to write the students‟ answers and then checked the answers. the researcher reviewed the material. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. The students already knew some words so it made the students easy to retell the story. Then. Tau arti katanya. The students discussed with their friends. Next.61 students to retell the story by their own words. the students had to find the hyponymy of some words based on the text that they ever read before. 3) Closing After finishing the task. The researcher showed all the words to the students. “lumayan.

They could find the meaning in the dictionary. 2) Main activity For the first activity. the researcher passed the student‟s worksheet for the fifth meeting to the students.62 e. Then. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. the researcher checked the students‟ answer. Fifth meeting 1) Opening The fifth meeting was conducted on April. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. Then. the researcher asked the students to listen what the researcher pronounced and then write the answer on the students‟ worksheet. 2010. . the researcher asked the student‟s to find the meaning of some words. the researcher asked the students to write the answers on the white board and discuss the answers together. After five minutes. To prepare the class. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. the researcher began to teach the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the third meeting. After that.25 am. No one was absent. Then. In the fifth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories.

Then. The students felt happy because the story was very funny. They enjoyed this material. The students worked in pairs. the students had to find the synonym of some words by matching the words in the column A to the column B. Many students raised their hand to write their answer in the whiteboard. Then. Some of the students worked with their dictionary and the other tried to get the answer from the short story that they read before. The students pronounced the words three or four times. After that. After 10 minutes. Next. . the researcher addressed some students to pronounce some words that were mentioned by the researcher. The title of the story was “Why Bears Hibernate in the Winter”. Some of the students tried to get the answer from the dictionary and the others were discussed.63 Next. The researcher also asked the students to write the difficult words that they found. the researcher asked some students to read the story and the other paid attention to their friends. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. the researcher guided the students to find the meaning form the difficult words that they found. the researcher asked the students to write the answer in the whiteboard. After the students read the story. the researcher asked the students to arrange the jumble words into a good arrangement. the students tried to grasp the main idea of the story. After 5 minutes.

The other students added “senang. After 10 minutes. Next. The researcher repeated some difficult words to the students. the researcher reviewed the material. They had to grasp the main idea of the story individually then retold the story in their own words. The last task. They felt happy with this teaching way. Then. The title was “The Necklace”. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of the phrases from the text. bu. Bu”. the students were asked to read the story. Then. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment.64 For next material. “menyenangkan. the researcher asked three of the students to retell the story. the researcher discussed with the students about the story that they heard. All of the students were silent and did the instruction well. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. 3) Closing After finishing the task. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. After 5 minutes. They worked in groups. the students wrote the answer on the whiteboard. The other students paid attention to their friend who retold the story. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. Tau arti katanya. The researcher did not forget to .

2) Main Activity The students did the test individually. They were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary.05 a. Then. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. she passed the test worksheets to the students. The test was the same with the pre test that was done before. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. After greeting the students. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the post-test that would be done on that day.m. The materials were such as understanding meaning of words. The researcher came to the class on time and greeted the students. the use of words in context and spelling. This post-test was aimed to know the students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. All students were very active in discussing the .65 inform the students that in the next meeting the test would be done. After that. Sixth meeting 1) Opening A post-test was conducted on April. 3) Closing After the test finished. Then. pronunciation of words. f. the researcher discussed the answers of test with the students. 2010. The bell rang at 08.

the results of the observation of the teaching and learning process were also supported by the interviews with the students about the use of short texts in teaching vocabulary.66 answers with the researcher. Then. In this cycle. Then. The observation was conducted simultaneously when teaching learning process took place. the researcher used observation to see the effects of conducting the cycle. No student was busy with his own business. The aspects that should be improved were meaning of words. They were the mastery of . All students paid attention with the discussion. The first and the sixth meeting of the cycle were used for testing. short texts were used to make the way of grasping the meaning easier. Observing and Monitoring the Action In monitoring the implementation of this cycle. In the teaching and learning process. there were six meetings. From the observation results. the researcher closed the discussion because the bell rang. and spelling. 3. the researcher asked the students‟ feeling and comment during teaching learning process with the researcher. Then the second to fifth meeting was focused on improving vocabulary aspects and students‟ motivation in teaching learning process. the use of words in context. The researcher said thank you to the students for everything during the research. pronunciation of words. Besides the explanation of implementing the actions above. it was known that there were some improvements on students‟ vocabulary.

. All of them were seriously listened to the stories. Beside the students‟ improvements on vocabulary. Beside passive. In the third meeting. Some students tried to answer the questions of the task. They paid attention to the lesson. some students were still passive. No one was busy with their own business. The situation was conducive because there was no noisy outside the class. They also did the task on their worksheet well. Their responses were good. They were afraid if their answers were wrong. Some students were silent when the researcher asked the question to the students. the students looked happy and enthusiastic to attend the class. The students also obeyed the researcher instruction. To solve this problem. and using words in context. the students‟ motivation was good. pronunciation. the researcher gave advice to the students that it was only a practice. Some students were active to answer the questions from the researcher when the researcher gave them some question or asked them to do the exercises. the observation results explained the students‟ motivation and activities in teaching-learning process and student‟s motivation from the second to the fifth meeting. Although the students‟ motivation increased. They paid attention to the lesson. spelling. the others were quiet. most students were shy to speak loudly. No students were busy with their own business in the class. All students did the task quite well.67 meaning. In the second meeting.

the students still had problem in pronouncing the word. When the researcher asked the students to read the story and do the task. They still made mistake to pronounce the right pronunciation. They were also enthusiastic when discussing with their friends. the students asked to write some words on their worksheet. The students were happy and enthusiastic when the researcher changed the activity in introducing the new words. It can be seen when the researcher asked the students one by one to check the students‟ understanding. . the students‟ motivation increased. the students were asked to fill in the blank sentences with the correct words. In the fourth meeting. many students raised their hand. So. It seemed that they had already understood about the term. After that. Sometimes they told each other about something else. In middle of the fourth meeting. In the third meeting. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the word three or four times. the researcher just reviewed all materials from the third meeting. the researcher went around the class to monitor and guide them whether they were active to discuss with their friends or not. They could do the exercises well because there were some phonetic symbols that helped them to do the exercises. Before starting the lesson.68 In the middle of the third meeting. The researcher used synonymy technique in introducing the new words. To solve this problem. the researcher still used short stories for teaching learning process. Good atmosphere was created in the class.

They listened what the researcher pronounced.36. Reflecting the Result of the Observation Based on the observation results which were gathered in field notes. They also could write the correct words that they heard. b) the students were able to grasp the meaning of words when the researcher gave them some new vocabularies. while the mean score of the post-test was 7. c) the students were able to write the words correctly and could use the words in context. the test score in the first and sixth meeting showed the improvement result. In the fifth meeting. The mean of the pre-test was 4.69 The students felt happy and enthusiastic doing this task because they knew all of the meaning of the difficult words by discussing with their friends and also looking for the dictionary. 4. Most students were active and all students got attention to the lesson. d) the students were also able to pronounce the words correctly. the students were very active. . the researcher reflected the results of the action as follows: a) the students who were still passive were getting more active and interested when they were reading and understanding the story. In reviewing the materials. all students were active to grasp the meaning of every word.07. It could be seen during the teaching-learning process. Moreover.

The students understood difficulties to understand and grasped the meaning of and grasp the meaning of words easily. All of the aspects were completed. The students got 1. They forgot words remembered the words and their meanings easily. The improvement of students‟ achievements in teaching learning process using short stories can be seen in the table 2. Improvement of the Students‟ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts Source of the data before implementing the action Vocabulary mastery after implementing the action Vocabulary mastery Observation and Interview 1. easily. .70 Based on the result of the observing and the test above. into English or vice versa. They also words. Short texts also encouraged the students to be more active during teaching learning process. students were encouraged to practice their ability in pronouncing and writing words correctly. They also got difficulties They translated words from when they had to translate Indonesian into English or the words from Indonesian vice versa easily. Table 2. Through short texts. They became more motivated and enthusiastic in learning English which they did not tend to do something useless and got bored in the middle of teaching learning process. it could be seen that there were increasing students‟ motivation and also the aspects of vocabulary. The researcher concluded that teaching vocabulary using short texts attracted students‟ curiosity in knowing new words.

The students still made 3. The students were more interested during teaching active and enthusiastic learning process during teaching learning process. The students could not 2. The students could only 4. which has double letters. For example when also could arrange the the students found a word letters into a correct word. They started to ask and answer the questions. The students were less 1. pronounce. 3. Students‟ motivation Students‟ motivation 1. They did not do something something useless during useless during teaching teaching learning process learning process. The students had more full concentration during concentration to do the teaching learning process. understand remember. The students liked doing 3. The students did not have 2. The students could write mistakes when they wrote the words correctly. could of the 3. Most of the students also made mistakes when they did the exercises in arranging some letters into a correct word. grasp and use words in context about 25 words in context about 75% of them. The students could pronounce. There were no mistakes in Most of the students forgot writing the words to write the second letter. The students pronounce the words pronounce most correctly. 80 % of them. understand. They still made words correctly. exercises. They words. grasp and use remember. . 2. 4. mistakes to pronounce the words.71 2.

quarrel. remember. Research Findings From the table above.07 to 7. freedom. Then the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was . there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score.8 % of students became 94. in this case 60. the improvement also could be seen on the students‟ scores of test.3 % of students.72 4. They could pronounce.36. daughter. from 2. etc. chuckled. The improvements were students‟ vocabulary mastery and also students‟ motivation. dream. The students liked having exercises individually. captured. they could pronounce and write the words correctly. sea. understand. purple. Test The mean score of pre-test : The mean score of post-test : 4. Beside that. discussion with their friends. from 4. the students‟ improvement could be seen. different. the students understood and grasped the meaning of words easily. From the vocabulary aspects. Then. The examples were prince. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. The students did the 4. sky. There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there was an improvement of students who achieved the minimum standard score.36 5.07 7. reason. grasp and use the words in context about 75 until 80 % of them.

the students‟ motivation increased when the short text were used. Considering the facts of some improvements dealing with teaching vocabulary by using short texts above. they could pronounce the words correctly. they did not do something useless .73 3.04. it means that there is a significant difference between pre- test and post-test score. and they also could use the words in context appropriately. They also raised their hands to answer the questions. Since is . finally. There were some reasons for stopping this research only in one cycle. Next. They were as follows: a) The aspects of vocabulary mastery were completed. Beside the vocabulary mastery. They asked more questions than before. The students understood and grasped the meaning of the words easily. They were more active and attractive during teaching learning process. the researcher decided to stop the cycle. Next.29. they had more concentration to do the exercises. The indicators showed that they were more active and enthusiastic during the teaching learning process. they could write the words correctly. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process and like having discussion with their friends. Meanwhile.30. They also had more concentration to the lesson. the students‟ motivation also increased. the t-table higher than for 35 students is 2. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19.

It was because the school would hold a mid term test for all the students.07 to 7. and remember the meaning easily. grasping. b) There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. Here.36. grasp. The discussion helped them to understand the lesson and do the tasks well. c) The researcher only had limited time to conduct the research. At first from the students‟ vocabulary mastery. so they could have more practices for enriching vocabulary mastery using short stories. The students also could pronounce the words correctly. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. They liked having discussion with their friends. The observation that was done showed that there were some improvements in students‟ vocabulary mastery aspects and students‟ motivation. the students could understand. They also could use and write the words correctly. and using the words.8 % became 94. It could be understood since human brain has limit . from 2. They have their own worksheet that was completed with some short texts. the students did more practices and steps by steps in understanding. The school gave two weeks to finish the implementation of the research. From the pre-test and post-test score. spelling. in this case 60. Discussion The research findings came from the observation and the test scores. pronouncing.74 during teaching learning process. C. from 4.3 %.

should know the techniques of teaching practically for example “listen and repeat”. and game. Ur (1998) explains that there are three sources of young learners‟ attention in class. After implementing the action.ksmumail/human_brain.75 capacity to absorb new things from surrounding. Young learners like to read and listen interesting stories. and write”. teachers of English to young learners. Beside the new materials. question and answer”. Second from the students‟ motivation. there were also many kinds of interesting techniques used to teach short texts. especially the students at the back. such as talking with other students or disturbing their friends. the students. the class situation became more active and enthusiastic. story. Petty. read and write”. Human also has limit memory to remember all at once (www. They did some useless activities. and Jensen (1980: 285) also states that teaching English to children needs special techniques. were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. more active and enthusiastic to follow the teaching learning process. Next. It made the students enjoy. “listen. The best way to add breadth and depth to child‟s vocabulary is by providing a variety of opportunities for new and interesting experience. the students had more concentration during teaching learning process. the situation in the class before implementing the action was described as some students were busy with themselves. as the young learners. The students were more active and enthusiastic because the materials used were new materials. Then. According to Linse (2005). They focused on the materials which were used . say. edu). namely pictures.

htm).76 through short texts. vocabulary in story is presented in clear context and the amusing situation. David also states that one indicator which makes teaching learning process succeed is the active students during teaching learning process. .david399. The amusing situation could make students become more enthusiastic. According to Elli (1991:31). They are active if they are suitable with the teacher‟s technique and they are far from teacher pressure (www. Maya K. It matches with Elli‟s theory.

the researcher comes to a conclusion that teaching vocabulary by using short texts can improve the students‟ vocabulary. Fourth. the students could pronounce. The first is about the enrichment of the students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. They also could remember the meaning of the words easily.77 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION. Second. they could rearrange the letters into a correct word. For example. The more detailed results of the action implemented in this research were as follows. in arranging the jumble letters. Third. Conclusion Having conducted the research of teaching vocabulary by using short texts in Junior High School. IMPLICATION. It could be seen from the aspects of vocabulary which are completed. AND SUGGESTION A. it can be seen that the implementation of teaching vocabulary by using short texts can effectively improve students‟ vocabulary. the students could pronounce the words correctly. Based on the analysis of the result of the implementation of the actions which had been conducted to improve the students‟ vocabulary. First. . the students could understand and grasp the meaning easily. the students also could write the words correctly. This is based on the facts found in accordance with the result of the action implemented to find answers to the problem statements.

8 % became 94. There were so many students who raised their hands to answer the question on the whiteboard or oral answer. The second is about the students‟ motivation. in this case 60.78 understand. Beside that. from 2.3 % of students. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19.29. there was an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. they had more concentration to do the exercises. Meanwhile.04. there was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. They also liked having discussion with their friends. Next.30. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process. the t-table than for 35 students is 2. from 4. The students were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. Since is higher .07 to 7. remember. it means that there is a significant difference between pre-test and post- test score. Next. The difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was 3. Most of the students gave more attention than before. .36. The researcher found a good atmosphere in the class. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there were more students who achieved the minimum standard score. grasp and use the words in context about 75-80 % of them correctly. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores.

and write”. Beside the appropriate techniques. It is conducted by English teacher to make the students‟ more interested and more active in teaching-learning process and to avoid the boredom. In teaching English using short texts. and media. synonyms and definition. the teacher also can use the visual techniques such as mime and gesture and verbal techniques such as verbal explanation. antonyms in teaching vocabulary to the students. say. writing and pronouncing correctly. students were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading. The teacher could use “listen and repeat”. Then. Implication Based on the conclusion of the study. The students suggest using dictionary in translating the words. It implies that using short texts are good material to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery and also improve students‟ learning activity during teaching learning process. Through short texts. The teacher can also conduct an oral test to make the students more motivated and attracted in teaching-learning process. materials. read and write”. the teacher should choose appropriate techniques. “listen. there is a significant improvement of students‟ vocabulary and improvement of students‟ learning activity after teaching used short texts to teach new vocabulary and to train the students in order to write and pronounce correctly. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. the teacher should have to choose the appropriate materials and media to teach vocabulary. question and answer”.79 B. The material in this case is .

and materials in improving the students‟ motivation in learning English based on certain condition. The short texts have to contain new and old information to the students. the researcher would like to propose some suggestion directed to the English teacher. students. C. Suggestion After carrying out the researcher and obtaining the conclusion. techniques. 1. The materials have to appropriate with the syllabus that used in that school. the teacher could choose the most suitable method.80 short texts. other researcher. the English teachers should create an interesting and enjoyable situation of teaching learning process. and for school. English teacher The English teachers should learn the characteristics of the students in order to know exactly what they need and what problems they faced on their development. By understanding those points. Students will be easy in . Besides. By implementing short texts using appropriate techniques and materials. The genre that is used is narrative. It is suitable with the material that used in the second year of junior high school. It makes the students understand the stories well. there is an improvement of students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. The students can find the difficult words and their meaning. and then make analyses of the stories by their own words.

School The institution should state a policy in improving the quality of the teaching English for children. The students not only can study English in the class but also can study everywhere and every time. It also would avoid the boredom. 3. 4.81 learning when the situation is interesting for them and the students will more enthusiastic. and materials of teaching English of Junior High School students that can be taken as objects of research to find out the effectiveness of teaching. Students An instructional process will not be successful if students are not maximally involved in it. The students have to be more active and motivated to learn English. 2. There are many other method. . It should encourage the English teacher to be creative to use various method. It is expected that the finding of this study will be used as a starting point of the future research on similar problems. Other researcher This study is just one of efforts in improving students‟ vocabulary. techniques. They can practice English in their daily life. techniques or materials. It should also be facilitated with various media supporting the teaching activity.

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