ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS

A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010

Written by: Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi K2206029

Submitted to Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Undergraduate Degree of Education

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2010 i

APPROVAL

This thesis is approved by the consultants to be examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University.

Approved by

Consultant 1

Consultant 2

Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005

Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP. 19730205 200604 1 001

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This thesis is examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University and accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for achieving the Undergraduate Degree of Education in English. Place of the test Date of the test : :

The Board of Examiners 1. Chairman Drs. Suparno, M. Pd NIP. 19511127 198601 1 001 2. Secretary Dewi Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd. NIP. 19780818 200312 2 002 3. Consultant 1 Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005 4. Consultant 2 Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP 19730205 200604 1 001 (………………………) (……………………....) (………………………) (………………………)

Legalized by, Teacher Training and Education Faculty Sebelas Maret University The Dean

Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd NIP. 19600727 198702 1 001

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K2206029: “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). Sebelas Maret University. Second. Next.ABSTRACT Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi.” Teacher Training and Education Faculty. they also like having discussion with their friends. In the quantitative method. This study is based on the problem of the low vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. the students could understand. The results of the observation were in the form of field notes and photographs. The techniques in collecting the data were qualitative and quantitative method. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. In the qualitative method. Then. The materials used in this research were short text. The research was conducted in one cycle. and research findings.3% of students. photographs. They can be seen from the aspects of vocabulary mastery and the students’ motivation. The technique to analyze the test result was by comparing the mean score of pre-test and post-test. They are from 2.8% to 94. and document analysis. The results of this research show that short texts can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. implementing the action.07 to 7. grasp. At last. reflecting the result of the observation. the improvement of students’ score can be seen from the differences between the pre-test and post-test. First. It is also aimed at the improvement of the students’ achievement in teaching learning process using short stories. write about 75 until 80 % of the words correctly and also use the words in context appropriately. planning the action. The improvement can be seen in the form of students’ achievements. Then. Besides that. from the students’ motivation. from the aspect of the vocabulary mastery. field notes. students iv . It is aimed at knowing whether using short texts can enrich the students’ vocabulary. The mean score of the pre-test improves from 4. Then. the scores of the pre-test and post-test show that there is also an improvement of students who achieve the minimum standard score. Through short texts. that is 60. the researcher used observations.36 in post-test. pronounce. they do not do something useless during teaching learning process. The procedure of the research consisted of identifying the problems. the students are more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. The test consisted of the pre-test and post-test. Surakarta 2010. this research also used descriptive statistics and the t-test of non-independent. The results of this research imply that using short texts are good material to improve students’ vocabulary mastery and also improve students’ learning activity during teaching learning process. The cycle consisted of four meetings. they have more concentration to do the exercises. observing or monitoring the action. the researcher used tests. remember.

were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading, writing and pronouncing correctly.

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MOTTO
“Mantapkan hati dan niat seraya berucap Bismillahirrahmanirrahim”

"No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross, no crown." (William Penn)

"Criticism should not be querulous and wasting, all knife and rootpuller, but guiding, instructive, inspiring." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

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DEDICATION

With deep profound love, this research is devoted to: 1. Her beloved father and mother, thank you. Nothing compares to what they have done for her. 2. Her beloved “eyang uti” and sisters “dek sha”, who always pray and encourage her. 3. Her best friends “pam, sopal, dee, lucy, jhono, anggit, riph, tika” who give her unbroken support, prayer, and cares. 4. Her all friends, who always support her. 5. Herself and her beautiful future.

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the English teacher of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. The writer is also fully aware that her thesis can never be finished without the help of others during the process of writing. in this occasion she would like to express her deepest gratitude and appreciation to the following: 1. viii . for all his valuable guidance. advice. 6. who helped and given her a chance to do the research. the second consultant and academic consultant. encouragement. 5.. Mrs. advice. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. S. M. the first consultant. The Head of the English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty for his advice. Sugiyati.. Abdul Asib.Pd. The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University who had given his permission to write this thesis. for all his valuable guidance.. Therefore. Dr. 4. Praise be to ALLAH SWT who has given His blessing to the writer so that she can complete the writing of this thesis as a partial requirement for achieving the undergraduate degree of education in English Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University. The Headmaster of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo for the permission and advices for doing the research in SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. and patience during the writing process of this thesis.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillahirabbil’alamin. encouragement.S. Hum. M. 3. Teguh Sarosa. 2.

Pamrih.7. Yoyok Sandi Wibowo. Her beloved family. Ariph and Atika for their supports and suggestions. her father. Everyone who helped the writer to conduct the research for his or her participation in writing this thesis. Her friends in the English Department of the year 2006 for their everlasting friendship. 12. Muthya. Her incredible support. 8. and Aji. Riana. Hopefully. 11. Dewi. The second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo who participated well in the research. Surakarta. for his motivation to make the writer keep move on. Didit Hermawan. Lucy. Her “best friends”. She hopes and accepts gratefully every comment and suggestion. this thesis will be useful for the readers. caring. 10. her mother. The researcher realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect. and prayer. 9. Anggi. her sister. June. her grandmother. 2010  Rea  ix . for their supports.

................................... 9 a.............. iv MOTTO. 19 x .................................................................... xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION .................................. Notion of Vocabulary ................................ The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery ........ vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ....................................................................... General Concept of Vocabulary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... RATIONALE AND HYPHOTHESIS ....................... 6 C.................................................... i APPROVAL.......... Vocabulary Mastery ........ The Problems Statement ............ ix LIST OF APPENDIXES ............ xiv LIST OF FIGURE ........ 9 A........................ 9 1........................................................................................................................................................ 10 c............................................................ 13 e........................................................... ii ABSTRACT ..................................................................... Background of the Study ............................................................................ xiii LIST OF TABLE ................................................................................................ v DEDICATION ........... 1 A...................... 7 E..................... The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery .................................................... TABLE OF CONTENT TITLE PAGE .................. 9 b..................................................................2005-2008 For Evaluation Only......................................... The Objectives of the Research ................... The Benefits of the Study ....................................................................................... The Limitation of the Problem .....................................................................................................................Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company...... 1 B............. 11 d.......... vii TABLE OF CONTENT ..................................... 6 D.......................................................................................................................................... The Importance of Vocabulary ................ 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE............................ Review on Related Literature ............

................. The Characteristic of Motivated Students ....... Reliability of the Instrument ................... The Notion of Motivation ...................................... The Description of the Research ................................................................. The Concept of Text ............................................ The Notion of Young Learners ........................ 32 B.............................. 31 c........................................................................................ Technique of Collecting Data .............. 33 C..................... The Model of Action Research .............. 45 I............... 47 B........................................................................................ The Concept of Story .......................... 23 a......................................................................... 24 c...................... 35 B....................................................................... The General Concept of Young Learners . The Notion of Folktales ................ Validity of the Instrument................ The Types of Motivation ... Technique of Data Analysis .............. 50 2................................................... Setting and Subject of the Research ....... 28 4.................. The Characteristic of Children ....... 47 A............. 25 3...................................................... Hypothesis .............. 49 1...................... 23 b................................................................ Research Implementation ........................................................................................ 39 E. 30 b........................................2................ 46 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION ......................... The Definition of Motivation ........................... 51 3.............................. Essences of Short Text ............................................... 36 C............................ 28 b.................................... 45 H. 44 G................. 41 F.......................... 35 A.... Method of the Research ............................................................. The Procedures of Action research............. 28 a............................................ Rationale ..................... 34 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............. The Criteria of Successful Action ................................................................................................ 66 xi .... Observing and Monitoring the Action .............. Introduction .................................................................................. Planning the Action .................... 30 a........................................ 37 D...............

........ Discussion ......... 81 BYBLIOGRAPHY xii . 72 C................................................................................................................................................. Other Researcher ........................................................... Implication .... 81 4.... English Teacher.... SUGGESTION .............................. Reflecting the Result of the Observation .......................................................................... Suggestion ..................4......... 74 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION....................... School....................................... 69 5........................................................... 77 A....................................................................................... IMPLICATION... Research Finding........................................................................ 80 2.................... Conclusion ............. 80 1........................ 81 3...... Students ........... 79 C......................................................................................................................................... 77 B...........

........ 90 Appendix 4 : Students’ Worksheet ...................... 82 Appendix 2 : The Photographs ............................................................................... 102 Appendix 5 : Field Notes . 150 Appendix 11 : Students Score before the Action ................................................................................. 145 Appendix 8 : Key Answer of the Test .................. 118 Appendix 6 : Blue Print of Vocabulary Test ....................... 149 Appendix 10 : Syllabus of KTSP ............................................................................. 159 Appendix 15 : The Students’ Test and Worksheet done by the Students ...... 144 Appendix 7 : Pre and Post Test Items ............... 157 Appendix 14 : The Computation of T-Test ............................ 160 Appendix 16 : Key Answer of Worksheet ................................................................................................................... 155 Appendix 13 : The Computation of Validity and Reliability ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 236 Appendix 17 : Letters of Permission .............................................. 148 Appendix 9 : The Research Schedule ........... 244 xiii ..................................................... 153 Appendix 12 : The Students’ Pre-test and Post Test Score ........... 85 Appendix 3 : Lesson Plans .........................................................................................................................LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix 1 : Description of location SMP N 5 Sukoharjo ..................

................................................. 43 : Improvement of the Students’ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts ............................................................................ 70 xiv ..LIST OF TABLE Table 1 Table 2 : The Steps in Action Research..............

.......... 38 xv ......... An Illustration of Action Research Spiral ...LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1.............................

So. That is the most important reason why English is learned in school. English is one of the native languages used to improve students‟ ability. one of the requirements is language competence. It has a function as a bridge for all aspects of human life. so does English. Then. there are so many kinds of foreign language. It is because language is one of instruments which has important functions in communication. As quoted in Undang-Undang Sisdiknas (2003: 15) “bahasa asing dapat digunakan sebagai bahasa pengantar pada satuan pendidikan tertentu untuk mendukung kemampuan berbahasa asing peserta didik”. Background of the Study Mastering of a foreign language is one of the important things that is needed in modern society and globalization era. communication.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. It has been discussed before that foreign language has many functions. such as trade. both of in spoken and written form. English is one of the important foreign languages. there are many education books that are written in foreign languages. science. As it is known. it can be said that mastering foreign language is very important for surviving life. The importance can be seen from some sides of life. and culture. society. technology. In education. for example is job requirement. . education.

Singleton in Brumfit (1997: 7) also defines some reasons for teaching English at primary level. The advantage of starting with early second language instruction so that later the language can be used as a medium of teaching. the earlier you start the more time you get. and culturally for language learning. 3. at junior high school is very important.2 Actually. it prepares young learners to make a link of communication to understand concept of communication it self. teaching English to young learner is aimed to increase the total number of years spent learning language. 4. the indisputable fact those young learners have a greater facility for understanding and imitating what they hear than adult. It also maximizes . By learning foreign language earlier. especially English language. First. Third. From some statements above. The need to expose children from an early age to understanding of foreign cultures so that they grow up tolerant and sympathetic to others. the aim of early foreign language learning is to prepare young learner linguistically. The need for maximum learning time for important languages. The need to link communication to understanding of view concepts. and Girard (1992: 23-24) define some reasons for starting to learn a foreign language earlier. Brewster. it can be concluded that studying foreign language. Second. teaching English at junior high school is extremely important because it is still the basis for the higher level. Ellis. 2. they are: 1. psychologically.

It makes them know and understand a lot of vocabularies. writing. the students need to understand the meaning of words. the earlier they start the more time they get. So it can be concluded that vocabulary takes the important aspect to master English well as a foreign language. a teacher has many problems to develop the students‟ vocabulary mastery.3 learning time for learning foreign language. Knowing more words in English language. especially English skills (listening. There are many kinds of students‟ characteristic. vocabulary mastery is the basic knowledge in learning English. the students need something to do. it is not easy to teach English for the young learners. The words here means as vocabulary. Firstly. and reading). Therefore. it is better to introduce new vocabulary earlier to the students. They will more understand what they have learned. here are the junior high students. They will forget some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat . Then. knowing words is the key for understanding and being understood. Vocabulary supports all of the English skills. it will make other person understand or make ourselves understood easily. Coady and Huckin (1998: 5) say that vocabulary is the central to language and of critical importance to language learning for the young learners. speaking. It should not be neglected by anyone who learns a language. One of the problems that are faced is the characteristics of the students as young learners. Sometimes. For beginners. For enhancing all aspects in foreign language. young learners forget something quickly. First. Considering the importance of vocabulary competence.

The materials used in teaching learning process only from books and students worksheet. It may be caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate and attractive. The teaching learning process uses teacher centre in delivering the lessons. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. technique. there are no interesting technique that used by the teacher. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students‟ acts as follows: firstly. Third. There are no materials from other sources like internet. The method. technique or and material. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. It is clear that repetition is needed. magazine. it is important to find out the appropriate. They prefer playing than studying. In teaching learning process. So. By using the appropriate method. So. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. young learners still like playing. technique. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. so the . Second. it makes the students less interested and do not be active in teaching learning process. young learners get bored easily. After having pre research by interviewing the teacher and observing teaching learning process of mastering vocabulary at the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo.4 the words many times. Here. especially in vocabulary mastery. They always discuss about something in their around while playing. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. the teachers have to find out the appropriate. the researcher finds out that the students‟ vocabulary mastery is still low. Most of materials come from the teachers. etc.

The other difficulties that the students faced when they do an exercise on jumble word. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. . From the indicators that are mentioned above. Beside that the students will be easy to write down the correct words or group words. Due to the facts above. It is because all words or group word are inside of the short texts. Most of the students forget to write down the second letter. The students also get difficulties when they have to translate the words. It is because there are no appropriate learning sources that used to help the students for remembering the materials that are given. Short text is one of an interesting material that helps the students to find out the keys to remember and grasp many new vocabularies. It can be seen when they find some words that have double letters. The correct arrangement is “winter” but students rearrange them become “writen”.5 students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. The students usually get mistake to rearrange into the correct word. students‟ marks are still lower than the passing grade. the students write the word only “sudenly”. She wants to make the students interested by using the teaching material of short texts. She uses short texts because short texts will help to solve the problems that are faced by the students. Thirdly. Secondly. For example the word “suddenly”. the researcher tries to enrich vocabulary mastery of the students using short texts. Example is the word “n-t-w-i-r-e”. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words.

Therefore. C. How is the students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? .6 Based on the description above. The Limitation of the Problem The research has a broad scope and it is impossible for the researcher to handle the study consisting of so many complicated problems. Can short texts enrich vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? 2. the researcher wants to prove whether or not the short texts can improve students‟ vocabulary mastery in learning English at the junior high school. The problems of the study can be formulated as follows: 1. The Problems Statement Based on the background of study. B. the researcher would like to conduct a research to solve the problem and also enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery by using short stories entitled “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS” (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). the researcher limits the problem on how to enrich the students‟ vocabulary mastery using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010.

the data of the research are also very useful for the teacher. . this research is aimed to find out: 1. The Objectives of the Research Based on the formulation of the problem. So the teacher hoped to create an interesting teaching learning process by using this teaching material. the teacher can take some correct problems solving from those problems. in this case is short texts. Whether using short texts can enrich the students‟ vocabulary of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Teacher It is expected that the teacher will get more information about one of the appropriate teaching materials. 2. they are: 1. Particularly. The Benefits of the Study It is expected that this research contributes some significant progresses in teaching vocabulary for several sides. Then.7 D. Then. the general objective of this research is to improve students‟ vocabulary by using short texts. The students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. E. It will help the teacher to identify the students‟ difficulties in learning vocabulary and also find the students who need more guiding.

8 2. . Students It is expected that the result will give motivation to the students to be better in vocabulary mastery. The result of the research is also hoped to improve students‟ achievement in English lesson standard. Through short texts. School It is expected that the information of the result will be very useful for getting success in teaching learning process. 3. students are expected to have good enrichment in vocabulary and also the changes of behavior during teaching learning process. so the quality of teaching learning process can be increased.

McWhorter (1989: 311) says that vocabulary means the ability to recognize individual words and to associate . which expressing a single idea. mother-in-law. it means that someone learns vocabulary.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Notion of Vocabulary There are some definitions of vocabulary proposed by linguist experts. Ur (1998: 60) defines that vocabulary can be mean as the words we teach in foreign language. Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) state that vocabulary is a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. if someone learns new words in foreign language. for example post office. Here. It means vocabulary is written or spoken unit of language as symbol of idea in foreign language for the learners. For example. 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE (RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESIS) A. vocabulary is written in alphabetical order in dictionaries based on system or rule of foreign language. the only system involved is alphabetical order in dictionaries. The items in vocabulary may be more than a single word. General Concept of Vocabulary a. Since vocabulary is a list. Furthermore. Review On Related Literature 1.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only.

Based on three definitions above. It is because people need vocabulary in expressing their ideas both of in mother . b. groups of letter that stand for. The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary is an important aspect in our life. does not represent a physical object. the word love on the other hand. vocabulary deals with a series of words in particular language. or represent. recognizing words means knowing its meaning or idea and how they are formed by a combination of letters. 10 meaning with the particular combination of letters that form a word. vocabulary can be constructed as a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. an object with a flat surface. Words are symbols. For example. Based on Hatch and Brown. the word chair in our minds a physical reality. It can be formed from a single or more than one word. Meanwhile. either a physical object or an idea. Ur adds that vocabulary deals with word taught in foreign language. Then. usually supported by four legs. and used to for sitting. It symbolizes the feeling of one person toward another.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. The words here are the symbols in form of groups of letter represent either a physical object or an idea.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Then. McWhorter states that vocabulary deals with the competence in recognizing words and its meaning. vocabulary is the competence or skill in recognizing words and its meaning. In the other word.

learning a language becomes a very hard thing to do and communication in second language cannot happen in any meaningful way. Vocabulary always becomes the essential part of English as a foreign language. Cross (1995: 14) states that a good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication. it will be difficult to accept the existence of an object. Without vocabulary mastery. 11 tongue and foreign language. Every person who learns a language must learn the vocabulary of the language in order to make the learning process easier. Names are essential for the construction of reality. Without a name. Tailor (1991: 1) says that in order to live in the world. Vocabulary Mastery Coulson et al (1987: 1050) define that mastery is skill. While Hornby (1984:523) says that mastery is the complete control or . it can be concluded that vocabulary is very important in learning language and mastering vocabulary will facilitate someone in using language in communication. or knowledge. vocabulary plays an important role. and a feeling. c.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. both in college and later in our career. Edge (1993: 27) states that knowing a lot of words in foreign language are very important. we must name objects. A strong vocabulary can be a valuable asset. use. According to the statement above. In language learning. It means mastery is the ability to use one of knowledge. an event.

in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word.12 knowledge. adolescent period. The process of vocabulary mastery is not simple. So. adult period. this term is the adolescent start to use the language and make it more extensive directly in simple communication. It is usually arranged by a standard of curriculum and syllabus in every aspect whether the topic or the test. While vocabulary is a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning in form of symbols of groups of letter. Here. . First. It means mastery is the ability to combine skill and knowledge in one certain area. from both of definitions above. children period. Third. Second. Keraf (1989: 6566) defines the step in processing vocabulary mastery. vocabulary mastery can be constructed as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. The certain area in teaching means a lesson taught. The vocabulary mastery can not be done spontaneous but step by step. mastery is the whole power or ability to direct knowledge. in case of the physical object or idea. this term children are able to define concept vocabulary to say their concrete idea. this term the vocabulary are used more and more intensive because they make more communication each other. either a physical object or an idea and it also can be formed from a single or more than one word.

There are some techniques of teaching vocabulary. Dealing with the technique of vocabulary teaching. mastery may be defined as the ability to use skill or knowledge in one subject area based on recognized standard. and science lesson. means a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning.13 From the definition above. d. social lesson. there are so many techniques proposed by some experts. While vocabulary. The teachers may have some techniques to teach it. prose. The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery There are various ways to improve vocabulary mastery. They are direct and indirect techniques. Then vocabulary mastery define as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. The success of teaching learning process depends on not only the teachers‟ and students‟ competence but also the technique of teaching. poetry and games. Unplanned vocabulary teaching is . Then indirect technique uses the other source of lesson like mathematic. The techniques are the unplanned vocabulary teaching and planned vocabulary teaching. There are two techniques in improving vocabulary mastery. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. The technique here refers to the way of teaching. Direct technique is usually used through the language book. in case of the physical object or idea.

Sometimes the explanation is no more complicated than pointing. the teachers present vocabulary items by bringing the real things into classroom. chuckle. The demonstration helps to make the meaning clearer and to fix the word in the students‟ minds. while planned vocabulary teaching where the teacher goes into classroom with an item or a set of vocabulary items that the teacher has decided before hand. etc. They are: 1) Demonstrate Demonstration is the way of teaching vocabulary by doing physical demonstration together verbal explanation.14 extemporaneous teaching of vocabulary items that come up without planning in course of lesson. The objects of the real things can be in the class or probably through the window. For examples. stagger. 2) Use the real thing In this way. The planned vocabulary teaching can be described as “the vocabulary lesson” since the primary objective of the teaching activities is the presentation and practice of the lexical item themselves. While Lewis and Hill (1992: 102-103) mention some ways to teach vocabulary. Beside that it also helps students to memorize both of visual and aural memories. .

orange (color). the level of the explanation must be suitable to the students‟ level of English at the time so that dictionary. It is worth that the explanations given here are not exact definitions of the word. Here.15 3) Draw or sketch Teachers do not need to be artists to make simple sketches which illustrate meaning. For example the meaning of bush was explained by two very simple sketches. or probably may be explained by presenting them with groups of related words: Hot warm cool cold 5) Antonyms This is the way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites or antonyms of the word. like accuracy can often be counter-productive. the learners have to be aware that a word may have different opposite in difficult context. 4) Use the blackboard to show scales or grades Words like cool. For example: light bag >< heavy bag light word >< strong word rough area >< quite area poor >< rich dirty >< clean happy >< sad red orange yellow certainly / definitely probably / possibly .

using the former phrase also helps to build up in the students‟ mind ides that language consists of choice. 8) Verbal explanation Verbal explanation refers to the way of teaching vocabulary by explaining the meaning of vocabulary items in students‟ own language. 9) Translation It is a way of teaching vocabulary by translating some words or individual words from the target language into other language. A bilingual dictionary can be used at low levels and monolingual dictionary at the high levels. their connotation meanings often differ. 7) The dictionary This is the way of teaching vocabulary by using dictionary to know vocabulary items. It is . One technique for explaining these which teachers too frequently overlook is asking the class whether anybody knows the word and. that words do not mean the same as each other. asking one or more students to look the word up in a dictionary.16 rough texture >< smooth texture 6) Synonyms high >< low Synonyms are the way of teaching vocabulary by giving same meaning of two or more words. or not. Though words may have similar denotation meaning. Beside that.

actions. professions. Gairns (1991: 73-75) says that there are some techniques used in presenting new vocabulary. the teacher will find difficulty to translate the word(s) into all languages. b) Mime and gesture These are often used to supplement other ways of conveying meaning.17 seen as boring and traditional. To ensure that students understand.e. if the class consists of different nationalities. Furthermore. They are: 1) Visual techniques a) Visual These include flashcards. photographs. making use of blackboard and gesture to reinforce the concept. They are extensively used for conveying meaning and particularly useful for teaching concrete items of vocabulary such as furniture. and certain areas of vocabulary such as places. a teacher might build a situation to illustrate it. When teaching an item such as “to swerve”. and realia (i. objects themselves). blackboard drawings. descriptions of people. wallcharts. teachers often make use of . 2) Verbal Techniques a) Use illustrative situation (oral or written) This is most helpful when items become more abstract. In this technique. and activities.

18 more than one situation or context to check that students have grasped the concept. c) Contrast and opposites Contrast and opposites are they way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites of the words. This is the example of adverbs of frequency: never hardly ever occasionally I sometimes often always go to cinema on Sundays . However. d) Scales Once students have learnt two contrasting or related gradable items. Synonymy is also the way of teaching by giving more than one meaning for a word. it is vital to illustrate the contexts in which this is true. this can be a useful way of revising and feeding in new items. b) Use of synonymy and definition Definition here is the way of teaching vocabulary by defining or describing objects.

sofa. In this paper. e. Then. bed. the researcher uses definition. . The teacher will find difficulties if the students come from different nationalities. it can be defined as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that is used to express meaning. verbal explanation and translation techniques to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. antonyms. synonyms. It can save valuable time in teaching process but it seen as boring and traditional.19 e) Examples of type This is the way of teaching vocabulary by exemplifying things it self. mime and gesture. the students can understand and grasp the vocabulary easily. chair. 3) Translation Translation can be very effective way of conveying meaning. in case of the physical object or idea. The example of “furniture” is “table. it is also hoped that by using these techniques. The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery Dealing with the vocabulary mastery. etc”. dictionary. Some of these can of course also be dealt with through visual aids. It is because the techniques that are mentioned are usually used in school.

grammar. connotation and idiomatic are the indicators in vocabulary mastery. It is because she or he should know the appropriate word. how to pronunce.spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors. Many learners find that words with clusters of consonants. spelling. what‟s the meaning. Here. 2) Spelling Sound. Those six aspects above will be defined briefly here. The example is when an Indonesian student has an English subject at school and it is the second language for her or him. and range. 1) Pronunciation Research shows that words that are difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn. meaning. Thornbury says that the factors come from the word‟s aspects such pronunciation.20 Thornbury (2002: 27) declares some factors why learning vocabulary is rather difficult for second language learner. etc to express the idea of the subject. such as strength or crisp or breakfast.such as regular and lorry for Japanese speakers. length and complexity. and can contribute to a . If those factors are fulfilled. someone can be said that he or she has achieved the vocabulary mastery. Potentially difficult words will typically be those that contain sounds that are unfamiliar to some groups of learners. She or he can not understand the lesson easily. are also problematic. either of pronunciation or of spelling. how to spell.

3) Length and complexity Long words seem to be no more difficult to learn than short ones. etc. high frequency words tend to be short in English. muscle. and say he explained me the lesson. there are also some glaring irregularities. especially if this differs from that of its L 1 equivalent. a factor favoring their „learn ability‟. for example. Spanish learners of English. While most English spelling is fairly law-abiding. Remembering whether a verb like enjoy.21 word‟s difficulty. or hope is followed by an infinitive (to swim) or an –ing form (swimming) can add to its difficulty. listen. Furthermore. Then the grammar of phrasal verbs is particularly troublesome: some phrasal verbs are separable (she looked the word up) but others are not (she looked after the children). love. Words that contain silent letters are particularly problematic: foreign. headache.such as in word families like necessary. However. climbing. tend to assume that explain follows the same pattern as both Spanish explicar and English tell. . bored. cupboard. and therefore the learner is likely to meet them more often. variable stress in polysyllabic words. honest. as a rule of thumb. necessity and necessarily can add to their difficulty. 4) Grammar It is problematic when grammar associated with the word.

Unfamiliar concepts may make a word difficult to learn. connotation and idiomaticity Words that can be used in a wide range of context will generally be perceived as easier than their synonyms with a narrower range. compare to impose. Having learned one meaning of the word. Uncertainly to the connotations of some words may cause problems too. and still. Make and do are a case in point: you make breakfast and make an appointment. they may be reluctant to accept a second.22 5) Meaning When two words overlap in meaning. but you do the housework and do a questionnaire. Thus. Thus put is a very wide-ranging verb. totally different. propaganda has negative connotations in English. slender. Thus. learners are likely to confuse them. The words with multiple meanings such as since. The words have style constraints. such as very informal words (chuck for throw. can also be troublesome for learners. Likewise. swap for exchange) may cause problems. . a hat trick. etc. place. 6) Range. meaning. position. culture specific items such as words and expressions associated with the game cricket (a sticky wicket. thin is a safer bet than skinny. slim. and a good innings) will seem fairly opaque to most learners and are likely to be easily learned. Finally. but its nearest equivalent in other languages may dean deviant.

Arthur Hughes (2003:140) states that texts candidates are expected to be able to deal with can be specified along number of parameters: type. They also differentiate the term of those text and discourse dealing with the context. intended readership. graphic features. spelling. Essences of Short Text a. style. we conclude that vocabulary mastery is the students‟ awareness of understanding the words and their rules to communicate. as well as their syntactic complexity that makes phrasal verbs so difficult.23 words or expression that are idiomatic (like make up your mind. . From all those definition above. The Concept of Text Brown and Yule (1997: 24) suggest that the term to spoke “text” as well. 2. the use of words in meaning and meaning. length. Texts in this sense are printed texts. It is because. those three aspects that are learned in junior high school. topic. keep an eye on…) will generally be more difficult than words whose meaning is transparent (decide. The aspects to be measured are limited to pronunciation of words. where “text” means verbal record communication. watch). form. It is their idiomaticity. Willis (1998: 67) says that text in general sense to mean a continuous piece of spoken or written language.

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readability or difficulty, range of vocabulary and grammatical structure. Text type include: text books, handouts, articles (in newspaper, journals or magazine), poems, encyclopedia, dictionary, novel (extracts) and short stories, etc. He also states that text forms include: description, exposition, argumentation, instruction, and narration. Cross (1995:77-78) states that the text is a major resources; permitting you to vary the learning activities from lesson to lesson. There are four main factors to consider when deciding how to threat a passage; linguistic complexity, length, interest level and aims. From the definition above, it can be concluded that the text is a verbal communication which consists of continuous piece of spoken or written language and its meaning is contextually. b. The Concept of Story Story is account of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events, etc (Hornby: 1995: 94). Taylor (2000: 16) says that story is relating tale to one or more listener through voice and gesture. It is clear that vocabulary in a story should be presented in clear context; the amusing situations can make the vocabulary easy to remember. Ray B. West (1968: v) says that story is something brought into being by application of the skill and workings of the imagination of the author. Its aim is to arouse the emotions and stimulate the imagination of the students.

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Brad Hooper (1992: xi) says that story is different from a novel in that it is short enough to be read in one sitting, with every word leading toward some final, preordained effect. In story, the sentences are generally shorter in order the students easy to follow the story. From the statements above, the writer draw conclusion that story refers to the written or spoken description of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events that can be used to for teaching students which have aims to make the students easier to follow the story and it has different from a novel that is short enough to be read in one sitting. This paper, the writer uses the story as text especially folktale for increasing vocabulary mastery in second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo Academic Year 2009/2010. c. The Notion of Folktales One kind of story that usually heard by child is the folktales. It is type words composition that recites the story of the folklore in a certain region that is popularly and orally told from one generation to other generation in a certain community. (www.classicalfolktale.wikipedia.com) 1) The meaning of Folktales The word folktale is not defined in English usage. Taylor (2000:4) defines the term “folktale” as traditional story that has been

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passed by words of mouth, told from parents to children over many generations or passed on by countless storytellers sitting around countless evening fires. No one knows who the original author was, and there are usually different versions of the same story, he also states that the term “folktale” has also been used to refer to literary retelling of these tales. Another definition of folktales is that “words folktales refer to the many types of traditional narratives know to the “folk” (Coffin and Cohen, 1996:1). Philips (1992) defines folktales as story about telling stories with unverifiable claims and its literary form. From the definition above, we can assume that folktales are traditional stories that have been passed by words of mouth and told from generation to generation. Folktales lasted through a long period of time due to their universality. They are forms of traditional literature which began as attempt to explain and understand the natural and spiritual world. The origin of folktales lies in oral tradition. 2) The type of folktales There are several types of folktales. Taylor (2000) divides folktales as fable, fairy tales, hero stories, myths, legend. Fables are very short folktales with animals as the main characteristic and with very obvious moral lesson, often summon up in single line at the end.

Legends are stories that are based on a real hero and his or her mighty deeds and believed by the teller and serve a historical purpose. is religious and deals with the creating and ordering of the universe and with the earlier order in which present world condition were being established. Taylor . when strictly defined. Examples “Johnny Appleased” and “Pail Bunyan”. Fairy tales are fictional and take place in a never-land. primitive myth. and usually involving God. Examples: Tumbelina. It is told as if they are fact. Fairy tales are folktales that include some magical elements (not necessity fairies): the German word marchen is sometimes used for this. Hero stories some of which have some real historical parts and other of which may not. Example: “Shakespeare‟s Ghost” and “Paul Bunyan”. and even between two telling stories of the same tale. Goddesses and supernatural power: “Adam and Eve” and “Noah‟s ark”. certain characteristics typical in folktales contribute to relatively easy reading.27 Legend is stories that are based on real hero and his or her mighty deeds. 3) The Characteristics of Folktales Although there a lot of variations between folktales. And believed by the teller and served as historical purpose: “The dog and the meat” and “the greedy old spider”.

In relation to the English teaching learning process. children have the following characteristics: . The Notion of Young Learners Teaching English to children is different from teaching English to and adult. The Characteristic of Children In general. they need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity.28 (2000:9) gives various characteristics of folktales that make them exceptionally good for language teaching. The General Concept of Young Learners a. 1997: 98) b. It means that the English teacher should be use the technique for English teaching that can make the students interested in learning English Lesson (House. These are the list: time order repetition and redundancy predictability relatively simply grammar concrete ideas illustrations that provide support and context for the texts a unique reader-write relationship 3.

So material of teaching that will be teaching is about their surrounding and happened in that time. and ears Children will be understandings about what we talk are using hands. They teach subject what school provides for them 3) Children are still developing their common skill such as turn taking and the use of body language. 2) Children have no real linguistic. 3) Their own understanding comes through hands.29 1) They like playing Children like playing. They more like playing than learning. They tend to resolves around themselves. Clark (1990: 6-8) states the characteristics of the children are as follows: 1) Children are developing conceptually. eyes. that is playing and learning in the same time. They learn more slowly. 2) They talk about “Here and Now” Children always discuss about existing in their around and happened in that time. 4) Young children are very egocentric. They develop their way of thinking from the concrete to the abstract thing. eyes. . Hence from that to convey the material of learning we should be able to take both. and ears.

It is because motivation will influence someone both in process and result. of course based on their characteristics in teaching learning English lesson.30 5) Children get bored easily children have no choice to attend school. The Notion of Motivation a. The class activities must be fun and interesting by setting up the interesting activities. 7) Children are better mimics. . The Definition of Motivation Motivation is needed in every occasion. the teacher in teaching English needs repetition. 4. 8) Children forget quickly. it can be conclude that young learner need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. it is very important for teachers to know about motivation. especially in teaching learning process. From the definition above. It will take them more confident in attempting the sound of foreign language and they delighted in playing the sound. Therefore. 6) Children are at early of their education. Thus. ensuring success and enhancing the children‟s motivation are important factors in promoting the success of early start in foreign language learning.

Then. While intrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because they are interested in task or activities itself. Biggs and Watkins (1995: 84) state that there are four categories of motivation. The Types of Motivation There are many kinds of learning motivation stated by the experts. . social motivation. pushes us in particular direction. b. Weiner (in Elliot et al. namely: extrinsic motivation.31 Some experts define some definition of motivation. 2000: 332) says that motivation is internal states that arouses us to action. or desire that moves and leads learner to do a particular action in order to meet and needs or to attain a set of goals of teaching learning process. Next. intrinsic motivation. From the definition above it can be concluded that motivation is an arousal. impulse. Extrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because of consequences to obtain a reward and to avoid the punishment. achievement motivation. their willingness to engage in teaching learning activities and their reasons for doing this. Groccia (1992: 62) states that people learn and study because the consequences of such behavior satisfy certain internal and/or external motives. Brophy (1998: 3) says that motivation refers to the students‟ subjective experiences. and keep us engaged in certain activities.

. The learner is ambitious. the students learn in order to compete against the other students. Integrative motivation is the desire to identify with and integrate into target language culture. The Characteristic of Motivated Students Naiman et al. The learner finds it important to succeed in learning and promote his or her own positive self-image. goes for demanding challenges. top grades. high proficiency. c. 3). Then. They are integrated motivation and instrumental motivation. Need for achievement. social motivation is defined as the students‟ motivation in order to make the other people feel pleasure. to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do. 4). Ur (1996: 19) defines some kinds of motivation. High aspiration. 2). that is winning makes they feel good. The learner has needs to achieve. most of them clearly associated with motivation. in Ur (1996: 275) comes to conclusion that the most successful students are not necessary those to whom a language comes very easily. Ego-involvement.32 Achievement motivation. Then instrumental motivation is to wish to learn the language for purposes of study or carrier. they are those who display certain typical characteristic. those are as follows: 1). The learner willing to tackle tasks and challenges. and has confidence in his or her success. Positive task oriented.

It is caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate on their level. It can be seen when they do the exercises. 7). The learner consistently invests a high level of effort in learning. Tolerance of ambiguity. Secondly. The students‟ vocabulary mastery of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010 is still low. Goal orientation. Most of the students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students as follows: firstly. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words and then translate them. and directs his or her effort towards achieving them. 6). Thirdly. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. The learner is not disturbed or frustrated by situations involving a temporary lack of understanding will come later. They could . B. there are difficulties that might be faced by the learners especially the young learners. or of specific learning activities. Rationale In learning English vocabulary. Perseverance. and it is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack progress. The learner is very aware of the goals of learning. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly.33 5).

By using short texts. . Most of their marks are still lower than the passing grade. C. So. Short texts are interesting materials in teaching language. the students can improve their vocabulary mastery. the teacher helps the students to remember the words and understand the meaning and also the grammatical pattern of the sentences easily. especially for the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic Year of 2009/2010. One of the teaching materials that can be used is the short texts. Considering the explanation above. the teacher should create an interesting teaching material. Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research can be formulated as follows: by using short texts.34 not do the exercises perfectly. the researcher believes that short texts can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery. The teaching materials should be suitable with the young learners‟ characteristics.

This school is located at Bulakan. There are 35 students for class A. 35 CHAPTER III RESEACH METODHOLOGY A. 2. consist of 11 boys and 24 girls. 3. The aim was to master vocabulary by using short stories. Sukoharjo. It is because there is a problem related with students‟ vocabulary mastery. It was done for knowing the students‟ basic ability of the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Next. the post-test was done on the sixth meeting. Time of research This research held on a cycle on second semester in the academic year of 2009/2010. Setting of place This research was done in SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo. the treatments were done on the second until five meeting.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Last. Subject of the Research The subject of this research is the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. . the treatments. and the posttest. The details are the pre-test. It was done for knowing the students‟ improvement after using short texts in teaching learning process. 1.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Post test was done on the six meeting. Setting and Subject of the Research. The pre-test was done on the first meeting. Sukoharjo Regency.

It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively. and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. (b) their understanding to these practices. . dan atau tindakan untuk lebih memahami hakekat dan atau konsekuensi mengajar dengan tujuan untuk melakukan tindakan atau menguabah atau meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dan lebih baik bila dilakukan secara kolaboratif dengan kolega atau teman guru.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. though it is often undertaken by individuals and sometimes in cooperation with outsiders.” Kemmis (1983) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices. 36 B. Dewi Rochsantiningsih (2008) defines action research as: “proses sistematis di mana guru dengan sukarela melibatkan diri untuk melakukan refleksi dokumentasi. For a starting point. Rapport (1970) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is aimed to contribute both to the practical concern of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of the school science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework. Meanwhile. Method of the Research This research is a kind of action research. Ebbutt (1985) in Hopkins (1993: 45) states action research is about the systematic study of attempts to improve educational practice by groups of participants by means of their own practical actions and by means of own reflection upon the effects of those actions. it is necessary to give a definition of action research.

Action research focuses on the solution of day-to-day problems at the local level. According to the model. Based on the definition and the aims above. Often. administrator. The Model of Action Research The model of classroom action research used in this study is based on the model developed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1985). C. From the definition above. only a single group or individual is involved in the study. research conducted by a teacher. or other educational professionals to aid in decision making in the local school. Wiersma (2000: 10) states one type of applied research is action research. By participating the actions in this research. this research is done to increase the students‟ vocabulary mastery through short texts. intact groups are used in some cases. it can be concluded that action research is a systematic study and it is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken or carried out by participants in educational situation rather than outside researches to solve the problem in order to improve the students‟ ability. Action research is usually less rigorous in term of design and methodology than other educational researches. it is hoped that the researcher will find the solution for developing the students‟ vocabulary mastery. the implementation of the classroom action research includes four steps in the following: .37 Furthermore.

Planning Develop a plan of critically informed action to improve what is already happening.38 1. Observation Observe the effects of the critically informed action in the context in which it occurs. through a succession of a stages. subsequent critically informed and so on. Reflection Reflecting process on these effects as the basis for further planning. 3. Based on Hopkins‟ point of views (1993: 48) this model can be illustrated as follow. . 2. Action Act to implement the plan. 4.

c. Preparing a test. interviewing the students. The problem referred to the students‟ difficulty in learning vocabulary. It was done to know whether students‟ vocabulary could be improved or not. e. 39 D. b. The Procedures of Action Research In this classroom action research. 2. . Planning the steps and technique for delivering the material in the form of lesson plan. f. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of teaching learning process when the technique is applied). Planning the action The researcher prepared everything related to the action as follows: a. The problem was caused by the technique of delivering material which was not suitable and interesting to the learners. There are follows: 1.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. each procedure takes five steps in one cycle. and conducting a pre-test. It was obtained by observing the teaching learning process. Preparing teaching aids. d. Preparing the material.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Identifying the problems The researcher identified the problem before planning the action. Designing the steps in doing the action.

Observing and monitoring the action The researcher observed all activities in the teaching learning process and created a conducive atmosphere in a class. The real implementations were generally presented as follows: a. The researcher gave the students individual task. g. the researcher reviewed the material. Implementing the action The researcher implemented the teaching learning activity of vocabulary using short texts. d. c. pronounced them correctly. b. h. The researcher discussed the answer of task with the students i. 4. The researcher gave explanation about the words. The researcher greeted the students and checked the students‟ attendance at the beginning of class. and drilled the students.40 3. e. After doing the practices. . The researcher gave the students time to make note in their book. The researcher presented the material by giving a worksheet one by one to the students. f. The researcher gave the students oral task by pointing the students one by one to guess and pronounce the words that are related to the stories shown by teacher to check whether the students had understood. The researcher stimulated the students to try guessing some words related to the stories.

Evaluating and Reflecting the result of the observation The researcher evaluated all actions in the cycle. interview. observes the teaching learning process done by the teacher and the students. observation is a kind of activities in action research that enables researchers to document and reflect systematically upon classroom interactions and events. document analysis. The teacher takes the position behind the class while observing the teaching learning process and makes a note all things about what happen during the teaching learning process. as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur. field notes. Observation technique means the researcher comes to the class. . The researcher observed the actions to find the problems of the activities that had been carried out in using short stories in teaching vocabulary. photograph. Technique of Collecting Data The techniques of collecting data are qualitative and quantitative method. E.41 5. Based on Burns (1999: 80). Qualitative method consists of observation.

The test here is a vocabulary test. The researcher made note to all activities during the lesson. In this research. which is about English lesson in Junior High School including its Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar. Analyzing the document was done toward the Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. 1999: 101). the researcher used essay and pronoun test type for both . The vocabulary test is used to measure the students‟ vocabulary mastery. The researcher made notes of each observation done. 1999: 87). It means that the researcher does not make some questions first. The interview technique is done spontaneously.42 Notes or field notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context that are written in relatively factual and objective style (Burns. Test technique which is used is achievement test. The purpose is to get the information about everything in teaching learning process using short stories. Achievement test is the test that is used to measure students‟ ability after learning something (Arikunto. and noted the students‟ reaction and response to the learning. Then. This interview is also done to the students and the teacher before and after teaching learning process. 1996: 21). quantitative method uses test technique. Photographs are a way of greatly enhancing classroom analysis and providing visual stimuli that can be integrated into reporting and presenting the research to others (Burns. The aim of this analysis was to complete the information which had been gotten from observation and interview.

Table 1. Here is the diagram of the steps. The test consisted of vocabularies that had been taught to the students. There are some steps that should be done by the researcher in this action research. The steps in Action Research Step of action Participant  Students Pre action  Researcher  Students  Researcher The action Technique  Interview  Observation  Test (Pre-test)  Planning  Implementing  Observing monitoring  Reflecting Post action  Students  Researcher  Test (Post-test)  Result of post-test and Data  Result of the interview  Result of observation  Result of pre-test  Result of observation  Field notes . The result of the test was analyzed to know the students‟ achievement on vocabulary. The total numbers of test items were 30 items.43 the pre-test and post-test.

2. field notes. (b) classify the data in certain classification. interview. This step uses a simple formula that is called as t-test of non-independent. this research uses descriptive statistics. the data are the result of observation.44 F. they are qualitative descriptive analysis and also quantitative descriptive analysis. and photographs. (d) making an inductive conclusion. Quantitative descriptive analysis In quantitative descriptive analysis. (c) Making the inference. Qualitative descriptive In qualitative descriptive analysis. making the data in the table. 1. Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis in this research consists of two kinds. It makes clearer the data and the characteristic of the data (Nurgiantoro. The steps are: (a) compare the data from each informant to make easy in classifying the same data. 2001:8). Making a hypothesis using the classify data. The formula of t-test of non-independent is as follows: t= where t is the result of t-test non-independent . It is used to make the data simple and communicative. In this formula. the pre-test is compared with the post-test to know whether teaching vocabulary using short stories can improve the students‟ vocabulary mastery.

it will be known whether or not the instrument is valid.45 Finally. the effectiveness of using short stories to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery will be known. when the difference between the values of t-obtained and the value of t-table is significant. the reliability can be determined by using the formula: . p q n and : the number of correct answer : the number of incorrect answer : the number of respondent The result of the computation of validity will be consulted to t-table distribution. the researcher uses the formula as follows: where. Reliability of the Instrument After the valid items are determined. H. . where k is the number of valid items. Validity of the Instrument In computing the validity of each item from the instrument. G. from this.

. I. it will be known whether or not the instrument is reliable. The indicators are: (1) there is an improvement number of students that have minimal criterion at least 75 % from the total number of students. and (2) there is an improving average mark of the class based on the criteria in the curriculum that is used in that school. The Criteria of Successful Action The measurement that is used in checking vocabulary mastery is test.46 The result of the computation of reliability will be consulted to r table of statistics. From this.

The discussion deals with the implementations of the actions that are teaching by using short texts based on theories from some experts. 2) they got difficulties to understand and grasp the meaning of words.47 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION In this chapter. It can be seen from the indicators like: 1) they were less interested in teaching learning process. and 3) they got difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. They were supported in pre-research that has been done by the researcher. the students as young learners forget something quickly. Their vocabulary was still low. The main problem faced by the students was the lack of vocabularies. They will forget . The difficulties of learning vocabularies were caused by some reasons. Introduction As presented in chapter I. The description of the research contains the implementations of the actions of the research in the field. the researcher discusses the implementation of the action. many problems were found in teaching English for students of the second year of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. First. Introduction contains the problem faced by the students. and discussion. A. The structure of the writing contains introduction. the description of the research.

or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. the students as young learners get bored easily. the researcher wanted to make the students are able to grasp and remember the . Firstly. There were some targets which the researcher expected to achieve by conducting the action for the improvement of students‟ vocabulary. Based on the facts above. technique. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. One of the problems that is taken in this study is the materials that are not suitable and interesting to the students. So. So. technique or and material. the researcher decided to conduct a research to solve the problems through this study. They prefer playing to studying. it is important to find out the appropriate method. technique. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed.48 some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat the words many times. the research is concentrated on improving materials of teaching vocabulary through a classroom action research and the use of short texts as the teaching learning source. especially in vocabulary mastery. the researcher wanted to create interesting situation in the classroom. repetition is needed. the teachers have to find out the appropriate method. Third. Thus. Here. Second. The method. Secondly. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. the students as young learners still like playing. They always talk about something while playing. By using the appropriate method.

in this case was short texts. The cycle in this research also consisted of series of steps. and revising the plan. evaluating and reflecting the result of the observation. the researcher hopes that the research can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery and change the situation during the teaching learning process. the researcher used short texts as the teaching materials. in presenting and practicing new vocabularies. 2010 until April. Thirdly. implementing the action. The researcher divided the cycle into four meetings. Through a classroom action research. the researcher wanted to make the students able to write the words or group of words correctly so the improvement of students‟ vocabulary could be achieved. Based on the problems and the targets that the researcher expected to achieve. The Description of the Research The implementation of the action planned in this research was held in a cycle.49 meaning of words more easily. 2010. In this cycle. the researcher decided to carry out interesting teaching materials. B. They are explained as follows: . It was conducted from April. Each meeting took 80 minutes. namely planning the action. observing or monitoring the action.

It is because the stories are very funny and give the students a lot of new list of vocabularies. The students could drill every word until five times. It was to get the students‟ attention and interest. The students could ask questions whenever they found problems. The researcher chose short texts as the teaching materials. The researcher allocated 60 minutes to give the students a chance to learn the material by doing the worksheet and to practice . the indicators of vocabulary mastery can be completed. the students are able to write down the words or group of words correctly. The researcher believed that short stories could improve the students‟ vocabulary and attract the students‟ enthusiasm in teaching learning process. By using short text. The researcher planned to use 10 minutes to greet the students and stated the topic. So. The teacher also planned to drill the students‟ pronunciations using the words that have been prepared.50 1. The researcher told the students that they were going to learn English by using short stories that day. Planning the action The action plan was made based on the problems that were mentioned in the introduction above. the researcher planned and chose interesting learning materials to solve the problems and improve students‟ behavior during teaching learning process. it was expected that the students are able to grasp the meaning of new vocabulary easily. Besides that. To overcome those problems. The researcher taught 80 minutes in every meeting. The researcher also gave a lot of time to drill the students.

a. main activity.25 a. namely: opening.51 the pronunciation of the words that they have learned. The pre test was conducted on April. The bell rang. students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. April. This test was conducted in the beginning to know the students‟ ability about the material that would be given. The test started at 2010 to know the 10. students‟ worksheet that consisted of some tasks and also teaching equipments that are related to the action. This cycle was conducted in four meetings. Each meeting was divided into three terms. 2. the researcher conducted a pre-test on the first meeting. lesson plans as researcher‟s guidance in teaching vocabulary. Post-test was conducted after the last action on the last meeting of the cycle. the researcher conducted a post-test. Research Implementation The action plan was implemented by the researcher with the help from the teacher as the observer. and closing. the researcher prepared the material. The researcher came to the class on time . After implementing the action. First meeting 1) Opening A pre test was conducted on April. The last five up to ten minutes was to review and close the lesson. 2010. 2010.m. Before implementing the action. Besides preparing the pre-test.

the use of words in context and spelling. Then. in this case was short stories. she passed the worksheet test to the students. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. . The test was about understanding the meaning of words. After that. the researcher gave the information that the students would get the materials in the next meeting and closed the meeting on that day . 3) Closing After the bell rang. The students were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. the researcher asked about the students‟ feeling. The test was a pre-test. This test was aimed to know students‟ ability about the new materials that would be given. Then. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. pronunciation of words. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the test that would be done on that day. the researcher checked the test worksheet whether they were complete or not. Next. After greeting the students. the students did the test individually.52 and greeted the students. the researcher asked the students to collect the test worksheet on the desk. After that. 2) Main activity After getting test worksheet.

Second meeting 1) Opening The second meeting was conducted on April. Then. After greeting the students. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. The students answered “yes. the researcher began the lesson of the day by asking the students to find the meaning of some words. They tried to answer the task by looking for the answer on the dictionary. Then. After introducing the materials that would be used. Mam”. 2010. this means that they understood what learning source that would be used.53 b. Some of them mentioned some titles of short stories. . the researcher asked the students to mention some short texts that they ever read or heard. No one was absent that day. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. she asked the students whether they ever read or heard short stories or not. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance.25 am and then greeted the students. 2) Main Activity To open the lesson. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the second meeting.

Next. the researcher drilled the students‟ pronunciation with the guiding words on the worksheet. the researcher gave a chance to the students to read the story on their own worksheet. All students obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. The researcher also asked them to find out the idea of the story using words that they ever had before.54 Next. it could be seen that the students still made some mistakes in getting the main point of the story. to check the students understanding about new vocabulary. The researcher advised them that it was only a practice. to know the students‟ understanding. the researcher asked three of the students to mention the main idea of the story. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the words together. Next. The researcher pronounced every word once and the students pronounced every word three times. After the students finished doing the task. From the students‟ answer. Next. the researcher asked the students to write down some words and find the meaning of each word. The title was “The Flowers from the Moon”. They obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. the researcher asked the students to do the next task that is to fill in the blanks in some . After the students finished reading the short story. They were afraid if they made a mistake. Some students were shy and afraid to speak loudly.

the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. the researcher and the students discussed the answers of the task together. c. Some students were very enthusiastic to answer the question of the task. 3) Closing After finishing the task.55 sentences with the words that were mentioned on the worksheet and answered the questions about the story. In the . then. The researcher asked “how about your feeling today?” The students answered. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment.05 am. the researcher reviewed the material. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words. 2010. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 08. the researcher gave the students choice to choose the correct answer. If they made a mistake. Then. The story‟s title was “Royal Spaghetti”. The researcher showed all the words to the students. “very-very interesting”. Next. Third meeting 1) Opening The third meeting was conducted on April. After finishing the task. Most students made a mistake in pronouncing the words.

the students started the main activity by finding the correct words and their meaning. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that had been given in the second meeting. the researcher checked the answered with the students together. In this main activity.56 second meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. Then. After five minutes. Then. The researcher checked the students‟ pronunciation. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. The title was ”Rainbow”. The students felt easily to grasp the main idea of the text because they have translated some difficult words before. The researcher used this chance to begin the main activity. . There were some pronunciation mistakes done by the students. To prepare the class. 2) Main Activity In the beginning of the lesson. all students focused on the lesson. In this meeting. No one was absent. the students and the researcher discussed the story to get the main idea. The researcher passed a new worksheet for each student and asked the students to do the exercises. the researcher asked some of students to read the story. the learning source used in teaching learning process was the same as before. After that.

the researcher asked the students to pay attention to some words. the researcher asked the students to arrange the letters into a good word. The researcher and the students checked the answers together. it could be seen that students still made mistakes in arranging the words. Then. . After checking the answer. The researcher used the synonym to introduce the words. the researcher changed the technique in introducing the new words to the students. In the middle of the activity.57 Next. the researcher and the students discussed the answer together. and then asked them to get the meaning of them. The students who had finished discussing the correct arrangement. they were also asked to find the meaning of the words. the students and the researcher checked the answers together. Then. After that. Next. the researcher asked the students to fill in the blanks in some sentences with the words that were mentioned on the students‟ worksheet. the researcher asked some students to answer the questions and wrote the answers on the whiteboard. After five minutes. From the students‟ answer. They were very busy to discuss the correct arrangement of the letters with their friends. The students tried to find the synonymy of the words by using their dictionary. The students looked very interested in the new task. The title was “The Caliph and the Clown”. then they wrote their answer in the whiteboard.

Next. the students tried to grasp the main point of the story with the researcher. The students were enthusiastic in answering the question from the researcher. The researcher also asked the other students to pay attention to the text. Some of them were very busy to remember some of the new words that they heard before and the other discussed with their friends to find the main idea of the story. Students who had finished discussing the answers. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. the researcher reviewed the material from the beginning. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of phrases from the story before. . The researcher mentioned some difficult words and the students tried to guess the right pronunciation and the right meaning. On the last task of the third meeting. The students pronounced every word three to four times. The reseacher asked “bagaimana pendapat kalian tentang pelajaran pada hari ini?” The students answered.58 After checking the answers. and then they wrote their answer on the whiteboard and then checked the answer with the researcher. the researcher asked some students to read the story loudly. They were very busy to prepare the answer. 3) Closing In the end section. Then.

the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. 2) Main activity Then. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. d. the researcher asked the students to make a pair of discussion. 2010. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. No one was absent. Then. Sometimes they made an underline for some difficult words. Banyak kosa kata baru dan gampang ingetnya”. The students listened curiously to the researcher‟s story. The title was “The Magic Seeds”.25 am. Fourth meeting 1) Opening The fourth meeting was conducted on April.59 “menyenangkan bu. In the fourth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. To prepare the class. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. the researcher began the lesson by reading a story. Then. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the first and second meeting. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the fourth meeting. Then. The researcher asked the students to discuss the story .

Then. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. the researcher also asked the students to find the meaning of the words. After that. The researcher checked the answers. The researcher also asked the students to find some difficult words on the story. After that. the researcher asked the students to write some words that they found in the story before. Next. Some of them were busy to remember the story and the other tried to grasp and write the meaning of some words. Next.60 that they heard. Then. Then. The next task. some of students wrote their difficult words on the whiteboard. the students wrote the answers in the whiteboard. Then. the researcher addressed some of the . they had to find the meaning of the words. the researcher asked the students‟ ability in writing words. The story‟s title was “The Owl and the Nightingale”. the researcher asked some of the students to read the story. The students pronounced the words three or four times. After five minutes. The researcher and the students discussed the answers together. The researcher continued the lesson by drilling the students‟ pronunciations. The students had to write some words they heard. the researcher asked the students to match the words with their antonyms. The students worked in pairs. The students wrote the answers on their worksheet.

61 students to retell the story by their own words. the researcher reviewed the material. The students were very busy to find the answers. Next. The students discussed with their friends. The next task. bu. 3) Closing After finishing the task. “lumayan. Then. . The researcher showed all the words to the students. Bu”. There are some students discussed the answers with their friends. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. the researcher asked some students to write the students‟ answers and then checked the answers. The students already knew some words so it made the students easy to retell the story. the researcher asked the students to answer some questions about the story. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. The other students added “senang. the students had to find the hyponymy of some words based on the text that they ever read before. For the last task. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. Then. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. After 5 minutes. Tau arti katanya. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment.

Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. 2010. the researcher asked the student‟s to find the meaning of some words. Then.62 e. No one was absent. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. They could find the meaning in the dictionary. . the researcher checked the students‟ answer. the researcher began to teach the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the third meeting. To prepare the class. the researcher passed the student‟s worksheet for the fifth meeting to the students. the researcher asked the students to write the answers on the white board and discuss the answers together. Then. the researcher asked the students to listen what the researcher pronounced and then write the answer on the students‟ worksheet. Then. 2) Main activity For the first activity. In the fifth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. After that. After five minutes.25 am. Fifth meeting 1) Opening The fifth meeting was conducted on April.

They enjoyed this material. the researcher asked some students to read the story and the other paid attention to their friends. The students pronounced the words three or four times. After 10 minutes. The students felt happy because the story was very funny. Next. Then. Some of the students worked with their dictionary and the other tried to get the answer from the short story that they read before. The students worked in pairs. the students had to find the synonym of some words by matching the words in the column A to the column B. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. the researcher addressed some students to pronounce some words that were mentioned by the researcher. . the students tried to grasp the main idea of the story. Many students raised their hand to write their answer in the whiteboard. the researcher asked the students to write the answer in the whiteboard. After that. The researcher also asked the students to write the difficult words that they found.63 Next. the researcher guided the students to find the meaning form the difficult words that they found. Some of the students tried to get the answer from the dictionary and the others were discussed. After 5 minutes. Then. the researcher asked the students to arrange the jumble words into a good arrangement. After the students read the story. The title of the story was “Why Bears Hibernate in the Winter”.

The researcher did not forget to . The title was “The Necklace”. bu. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of the phrases from the text. “menyenangkan. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. Tau arti katanya. Next. The other students paid attention to their friend who retold the story. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. The last task. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. They felt happy with this teaching way. the researcher asked three of the students to retell the story. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. Then. After 10 minutes. the students wrote the answer on the whiteboard. the students were asked to read the story. Bu”. 3) Closing After finishing the task. The other students added “senang. They had to grasp the main idea of the story individually then retold the story in their own words. the researcher discussed with the students about the story that they heard.64 For next material. All of the students were silent and did the instruction well. After 5 minutes. The researcher repeated some difficult words to the students. Then. They worked in groups. the researcher reviewed the material.

Then. Sixth meeting 1) Opening A post-test was conducted on April. the researcher discussed the answers of test with the students. This post-test was aimed to know the students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. 2010. she passed the test worksheets to the students. The materials were such as understanding meaning of words. The bell rang at 08.65 inform the students that in the next meeting the test would be done. The test was the same with the pre test that was done before.05 a. pronunciation of words. f. 2) Main Activity The students did the test individually. They were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the post-test that would be done on that day. Then. The researcher came to the class on time and greeted the students. the use of words in context and spelling. After that. After greeting the students. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. 3) Closing After the test finished. All students were very active in discussing the .m.

pronunciation of words. Observing and Monitoring the Action In monitoring the implementation of this cycle. The aspects that should be improved were meaning of words. The first and the sixth meeting of the cycle were used for testing. the results of the observation of the teaching and learning process were also supported by the interviews with the students about the use of short texts in teaching vocabulary. the researcher used observation to see the effects of conducting the cycle. Then the second to fifth meeting was focused on improving vocabulary aspects and students‟ motivation in teaching learning process. Then. Then. The observation was conducted simultaneously when teaching learning process took place. In this cycle. From the observation results. All students paid attention with the discussion. They were the mastery of . it was known that there were some improvements on students‟ vocabulary. the use of words in context. the researcher asked the students‟ feeling and comment during teaching learning process with the researcher. No student was busy with his own business. short texts were used to make the way of grasping the meaning easier. there were six meetings. In the teaching and learning process. 3. The researcher said thank you to the students for everything during the research. and spelling. Besides the explanation of implementing the actions above.66 answers with the researcher. the researcher closed the discussion because the bell rang.

Beside the students‟ improvements on vocabulary. All students did the task quite well. To solve this problem. some students were still passive. most students were shy to speak loudly. The students also obeyed the researcher instruction. Some students were silent when the researcher asked the question to the students. They were afraid if their answers were wrong. They paid attention to the lesson. pronunciation. The situation was conducive because there was no noisy outside the class. In the second meeting. No students were busy with their own business in the class. Their responses were good. No one was busy with their own business. the students looked happy and enthusiastic to attend the class. and using words in context. All of them were seriously listened to the stories. . the observation results explained the students‟ motivation and activities in teaching-learning process and student‟s motivation from the second to the fifth meeting. the students‟ motivation was good. They paid attention to the lesson. the researcher gave advice to the students that it was only a practice. Some students tried to answer the questions of the task. In the third meeting. They also did the task on their worksheet well. Some students were active to answer the questions from the researcher when the researcher gave them some question or asked them to do the exercises. the others were quiet. spelling.67 meaning. Although the students‟ motivation increased. Beside passive.

68 In the middle of the third meeting. the researcher just reviewed all materials from the third meeting. . Sometimes they told each other about something else. After that. It can be seen when the researcher asked the students one by one to check the students‟ understanding. the students asked to write some words on their worksheet. many students raised their hand. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the word three or four times. Good atmosphere was created in the class. the students‟ motivation increased. In middle of the fourth meeting. They could do the exercises well because there were some phonetic symbols that helped them to do the exercises. Before starting the lesson. They still made mistake to pronounce the right pronunciation. the students were asked to fill in the blank sentences with the correct words. So. To solve this problem. the researcher went around the class to monitor and guide them whether they were active to discuss with their friends or not. The researcher used synonymy technique in introducing the new words. the researcher still used short stories for teaching learning process. In the third meeting. The students were happy and enthusiastic when the researcher changed the activity in introducing the new words. When the researcher asked the students to read the story and do the task. It seemed that they had already understood about the term. They were also enthusiastic when discussing with their friends. the students still had problem in pronouncing the word. In the fourth meeting.

It could be seen during the teaching-learning process. . b) the students were able to grasp the meaning of words when the researcher gave them some new vocabularies. Most students were active and all students got attention to the lesson. Moreover.69 The students felt happy and enthusiastic doing this task because they knew all of the meaning of the difficult words by discussing with their friends and also looking for the dictionary. They listened what the researcher pronounced.36. c) the students were able to write the words correctly and could use the words in context. the students were very active. while the mean score of the post-test was 7. d) the students were also able to pronounce the words correctly. all students were active to grasp the meaning of every word. 4. They also could write the correct words that they heard. the researcher reflected the results of the action as follows: a) the students who were still passive were getting more active and interested when they were reading and understanding the story. Reflecting the Result of the Observation Based on the observation results which were gathered in field notes. In reviewing the materials. The mean of the pre-test was 4. In the fifth meeting. the test score in the first and sixth meeting showed the improvement result.07.

it could be seen that there were increasing students‟ motivation and also the aspects of vocabulary. They also words. The students understood difficulties to understand and grasped the meaning of and grasp the meaning of words easily. into English or vice versa. They became more motivated and enthusiastic in learning English which they did not tend to do something useless and got bored in the middle of teaching learning process. students were encouraged to practice their ability in pronouncing and writing words correctly. The researcher concluded that teaching vocabulary using short texts attracted students‟ curiosity in knowing new words. Improvement of the Students‟ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts Source of the data before implementing the action Vocabulary mastery after implementing the action Vocabulary mastery Observation and Interview 1. easily. Table 2. All of the aspects were completed. The students got 1. Through short texts. . The improvement of students‟ achievements in teaching learning process using short stories can be seen in the table 2. They also got difficulties They translated words from when they had to translate Indonesian into English or the words from Indonesian vice versa easily. Short texts also encouraged the students to be more active during teaching learning process. They forgot words remembered the words and their meanings easily.70 Based on the result of the observing and the test above.

. 4. The students had more full concentration during concentration to do the teaching learning process. The students were less 1. grasp and use words in context about 25 words in context about 75% of them. For example when also could arrange the the students found a word letters into a correct word. Most of the students also made mistakes when they did the exercises in arranging some letters into a correct word. They started to ask and answer the questions. grasp and use remember. The students were more interested during teaching active and enthusiastic learning process during teaching learning process. The students could only 4. which has double letters. pronounce. The students could not 2. They did not do something something useless during useless during teaching teaching learning process learning process. exercises.71 2. 80 % of them. Students‟ motivation Students‟ motivation 1. There were no mistakes in Most of the students forgot writing the words to write the second letter. understand. The students liked doing 3. The students could pronounce. mistakes to pronounce the words. could of the 3. The students did not have 2. 2. The students could write mistakes when they wrote the words correctly. They words. The students pronounce the words pronounce most correctly. The students still made 3. 3. understand remember. They still made words correctly.

in this case 60. The students did the 4.8 % of students became 94. discussion with their friends. Then. They could pronounce. sky. The examples were prince. From the vocabulary aspects. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. dream.07 to 7. the students understood and grasped the meaning of words easily.36 5. grasp and use the words in context about 75 until 80 % of them. daughter. reason.07 7. the students‟ improvement could be seen. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. Then the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was . etc. different.72 4. Research Findings From the table above. remember.3 % of students. The improvements were students‟ vocabulary mastery and also students‟ motivation. quarrel. the improvement also could be seen on the students‟ scores of test. There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. from 4. captured. freedom. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there was an improvement of students who achieved the minimum standard score. sea.36. they could pronounce and write the words correctly. Beside that. understand. Test The mean score of pre-test : The mean score of post-test : 4. purple. The students liked having exercises individually. chuckled. from 2.

They also had more concentration to the lesson. Next. they had more concentration to do the exercises. the t-table higher than for 35 students is 2. Since is . They did not do something useless during teaching learning process and like having discussion with their friends. Beside the vocabulary mastery. the researcher decided to stop the cycle. and they also could use the words in context appropriately. Next. finally.04. the students‟ motivation increased when the short text were used. They asked more questions than before. The students understood and grasped the meaning of the words easily. they could write the words correctly. There were some reasons for stopping this research only in one cycle.73 3. They were more active and attractive during teaching learning process. Considering the facts of some improvements dealing with teaching vocabulary by using short texts above. they did not do something useless . Meanwhile.29. They also raised their hands to answer the questions. they could pronounce the words correctly. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. it means that there is a significant difference between pre- test and post-test score. The indicators showed that they were more active and enthusiastic during the teaching learning process.30. the students‟ motivation also increased. They were as follows: a) The aspects of vocabulary mastery were completed.

It was because the school would hold a mid term test for all the students. At first from the students‟ vocabulary mastery.3 %. pronouncing.07 to 7. C. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. grasp.36. They liked having discussion with their friends.74 during teaching learning process. They also could use and write the words correctly. From the pre-test and post-test score. and using the words. The students also could pronounce the words correctly. Here. b) There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. spelling. and remember the meaning easily. grasping. the students could understand. c) The researcher only had limited time to conduct the research. Discussion The research findings came from the observation and the test scores. The observation that was done showed that there were some improvements in students‟ vocabulary mastery aspects and students‟ motivation. The discussion helped them to understand the lesson and do the tasks well.8 % became 94. from 2. The school gave two weeks to finish the implementation of the research. They have their own worksheet that was completed with some short texts. so they could have more practices for enriching vocabulary mastery using short stories. It could be understood since human brain has limit . the students did more practices and steps by steps in understanding. from 4. in this case 60.

say. It made the students enjoy. the situation in the class before implementing the action was described as some students were busy with themselves. Second from the students‟ motivation. Petty. Then. namely pictures. edu). were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. and write”. They focused on the materials which were used . Young learners like to read and listen interesting stories. the students. Human also has limit memory to remember all at once (www. especially the students at the back. and Jensen (1980: 285) also states that teaching English to children needs special techniques. as the young learners. Next. question and answer”. Beside the new materials.75 capacity to absorb new things from surrounding. According to Linse (2005). “listen. The best way to add breadth and depth to child‟s vocabulary is by providing a variety of opportunities for new and interesting experience. and game. the students had more concentration during teaching learning process. After implementing the action. more active and enthusiastic to follow the teaching learning process. Ur (1998) explains that there are three sources of young learners‟ attention in class.ksmumail/human_brain. such as talking with other students or disturbing their friends. teachers of English to young learners. the class situation became more active and enthusiastic. read and write”. story. should know the techniques of teaching practically for example “listen and repeat”. They did some useless activities. The students were more active and enthusiastic because the materials used were new materials. there were also many kinds of interesting techniques used to teach short texts.

vocabulary in story is presented in clear context and the amusing situation. They are active if they are suitable with the teacher‟s technique and they are far from teacher pressure (www.htm).david399. The amusing situation could make students become more enthusiastic. . Maya K. David also states that one indicator which makes teaching learning process succeed is the active students during teaching learning process. According to Elli (1991:31).76 through short texts. It matches with Elli‟s theory.

Second. IMPLICATION. This is based on the facts found in accordance with the result of the action implemented to find answers to the problem statements. it can be seen that the implementation of teaching vocabulary by using short texts can effectively improve students‟ vocabulary. First. They also could remember the meaning of the words easily. the students could understand and grasp the meaning easily. Based on the analysis of the result of the implementation of the actions which had been conducted to improve the students‟ vocabulary. the researcher comes to a conclusion that teaching vocabulary by using short texts can improve the students‟ vocabulary. they could rearrange the letters into a correct word. the students also could write the words correctly. the students could pronounce the words correctly. The more detailed results of the action implemented in this research were as follows. in arranging the jumble letters. Third. Conclusion Having conducted the research of teaching vocabulary by using short texts in Junior High School. For example. the students could pronounce. It could be seen from the aspects of vocabulary which are completed. . The first is about the enrichment of the students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Fourth.77 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION. AND SUGGESTION A.

30.36.3 % of students. They also liked having discussion with their friends. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there were more students who achieved the minimum standard score.29. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process. Meanwhile. The students were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. Since is higher . Most of the students gave more attention than before. There were so many students who raised their hands to answer the question on the whiteboard or oral answer. remember.07 to 7.8 % became 94.04. The researcher found a good atmosphere in the class. they had more concentration to do the exercises. there was an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. the t-table than for 35 students is 2. there was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. from 2. The second is about the students‟ motivation. Beside that.78 understand. Next. from 4. it means that there is a significant difference between pre-test and post- test score. The difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was 3. grasp and use the words in context about 75-80 % of them correctly. in this case 60. Next. .

synonyms and definition. Implication Based on the conclusion of the study. The teacher could use “listen and repeat”. and media. the teacher also can use the visual techniques such as mime and gesture and verbal techniques such as verbal explanation. The material in this case is . students were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. the teacher should choose appropriate techniques. the teacher should have to choose the appropriate materials and media to teach vocabulary. materials.79 B. read and write”. and write”. antonyms in teaching vocabulary to the students. there is a significant improvement of students‟ vocabulary and improvement of students‟ learning activity after teaching used short texts to teach new vocabulary and to train the students in order to write and pronounce correctly. writing and pronouncing correctly. question and answer”. “listen. The students suggest using dictionary in translating the words. In teaching English using short texts. It implies that using short texts are good material to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery and also improve students‟ learning activity during teaching learning process. Beside the appropriate techniques. say. Through short texts. Then. It is conducted by English teacher to make the students‟ more interested and more active in teaching-learning process and to avoid the boredom. The teacher can also conduct an oral test to make the students more motivated and attracted in teaching-learning process.

techniques. By implementing short texts using appropriate techniques and materials. other researcher. Students will be easy in . It is suitable with the material that used in the second year of junior high school. and materials in improving the students‟ motivation in learning English based on certain condition. 1. the English teachers should create an interesting and enjoyable situation of teaching learning process. By understanding those points. Suggestion After carrying out the researcher and obtaining the conclusion. English teacher The English teachers should learn the characteristics of the students in order to know exactly what they need and what problems they faced on their development. students. Besides. It makes the students understand the stories well. The genre that is used is narrative. The short texts have to contain new and old information to the students. C. the teacher could choose the most suitable method. and for school. The materials have to appropriate with the syllabus that used in that school. The students can find the difficult words and their meaning. there is an improvement of students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010.80 short texts. the researcher would like to propose some suggestion directed to the English teacher. and then make analyses of the stories by their own words.

. There are many other method. techniques or materials.81 learning when the situation is interesting for them and the students will more enthusiastic. It is expected that the finding of this study will be used as a starting point of the future research on similar problems. techniques. It should also be facilitated with various media supporting the teaching activity. They can practice English in their daily life. 2. The students have to be more active and motivated to learn English. Students An instructional process will not be successful if students are not maximally involved in it. and materials of teaching English of Junior High School students that can be taken as objects of research to find out the effectiveness of teaching. Other researcher This study is just one of efforts in improving students‟ vocabulary. It also would avoid the boredom. 4. 3. The students not only can study English in the class but also can study everywhere and every time. It should encourage the English teacher to be creative to use various method. School The institution should state a policy in improving the quality of the teaching English for children.

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