ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS

A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010

Written by: Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi K2206029

Submitted to Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Undergraduate Degree of Education

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2010 i

APPROVAL

This thesis is approved by the consultants to be examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University.

Approved by

Consultant 1

Consultant 2

Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005

Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP. 19730205 200604 1 001

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This thesis is examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University and accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for achieving the Undergraduate Degree of Education in English. Place of the test Date of the test : :

The Board of Examiners 1. Chairman Drs. Suparno, M. Pd NIP. 19511127 198601 1 001 2. Secretary Dewi Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd. NIP. 19780818 200312 2 002 3. Consultant 1 Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005 4. Consultant 2 Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP 19730205 200604 1 001 (………………………) (……………………....) (………………………) (………………………)

Legalized by, Teacher Training and Education Faculty Sebelas Maret University The Dean

Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd NIP. 19600727 198702 1 001

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this research also used descriptive statistics and the t-test of non-independent. Besides that. Through short texts. Second. K2206029: “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). In the quantitative method. Then. the researcher used tests. field notes. The materials used in this research were short text. photographs. Then. It is also aimed at the improvement of the students’ achievement in teaching learning process using short stories. The mean score of the pre-test improves from 4.3% of students. the students are more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. Next. This study is based on the problem of the low vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. They are from 2. grasp. from the aspect of the vocabulary mastery. remember. The results of this research show that short texts can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.” Teacher Training and Education Faculty. planning the action. the students could understand. they have more concentration to do the exercises. It is aimed at knowing whether using short texts can enrich the students’ vocabulary. observing or monitoring the action.36 in post-test. write about 75 until 80 % of the words correctly and also use the words in context appropriately. implementing the action. They can be seen from the aspects of vocabulary mastery and the students’ motivation. At last.8% to 94. reflecting the result of the observation. The technique to analyze the test result was by comparing the mean score of pre-test and post-test. the scores of the pre-test and post-test show that there is also an improvement of students who achieve the minimum standard score. from the students’ motivation. The results of the observation were in the form of field notes and photographs. and document analysis. The research was conducted in one cycle.ABSTRACT Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi. The test consisted of the pre-test and post-test. Surakarta 2010. pronounce. The results of this research imply that using short texts are good material to improve students’ vocabulary mastery and also improve students’ learning activity during teaching learning process. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. the improvement of students’ score can be seen from the differences between the pre-test and post-test. and research findings. they do not do something useless during teaching learning process. The cycle consisted of four meetings. In the qualitative method. First. the researcher used observations. students iv .07 to 7. they also like having discussion with their friends. Sebelas Maret University. Then. The techniques in collecting the data were qualitative and quantitative method. The procedure of the research consisted of identifying the problems. The improvement can be seen in the form of students’ achievements. that is 60.

were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading, writing and pronouncing correctly.

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MOTTO
“Mantapkan hati dan niat seraya berucap Bismillahirrahmanirrahim”

"No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross, no crown." (William Penn)

"Criticism should not be querulous and wasting, all knife and rootpuller, but guiding, instructive, inspiring." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

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DEDICATION

With deep profound love, this research is devoted to: 1. Her beloved father and mother, thank you. Nothing compares to what they have done for her. 2. Her beloved “eyang uti” and sisters “dek sha”, who always pray and encourage her. 3. Her best friends “pam, sopal, dee, lucy, jhono, anggit, riph, tika” who give her unbroken support, prayer, and cares. 4. Her all friends, who always support her. 5. Herself and her beautiful future.

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the first consultant. advice.. the English teacher of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. for all his valuable guidance. 2. Hum. Therefore. who helped and given her a chance to do the research.Pd. in this occasion she would like to express her deepest gratitude and appreciation to the following: 1. viii .. 4. 5. M. advice. Praise be to ALLAH SWT who has given His blessing to the writer so that she can complete the writing of this thesis as a partial requirement for achieving the undergraduate degree of education in English Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University. The Headmaster of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo for the permission and advices for doing the research in SMP N 5 Sukoharjo.S. M. for all his valuable guidance. encouragement. S. The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University who had given his permission to write this thesis. and patience during the writing process of this thesis.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillahirabbil’alamin. Sugiyati. Mrs. 6. 3. Abdul Asib. the second consultant and academic consultant.. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. Teguh Sarosa. Dr. The writer is also fully aware that her thesis can never be finished without the help of others during the process of writing. encouragement. The Head of the English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty for his advice.

She hopes and accepts gratefully every comment and suggestion. Dewi. Pamrih. 11. Hopefully. Her “best friends”. and Aji. for their supports. this thesis will be useful for the readers. for his motivation to make the writer keep move on. Didit Hermawan. Yoyok Sandi Wibowo. her father. 2010  Rea  ix . Her friends in the English Department of the year 2006 for their everlasting friendship. Her incredible support. June. caring. Muthya. Anggi. Ariph and Atika for their supports and suggestions. Riana. her sister. Lucy. her mother.7. Her beloved family. The researcher realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect. and prayer. The second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo who participated well in the research. 10. Surakarta. her grandmother. 12. Everyone who helped the writer to conduct the research for his or her participation in writing this thesis. 8. 9.

.... 19 x .......... xiv LIST OF FIGURE ......................................................................................................... The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery ............................................................ vii TABLE OF CONTENT .... ii ABSTRACT ..................................................................... Notion of Vocabulary ........... Background of the Study . i APPROVAL............................................................................................. Review on Related Literature ....................... 13 e................................................ iv MOTTO.. General Concept of Vocabulary ..... 9 A.............................................................................................................................................................................Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company......................... 1 B...................2005-2008 For Evaluation Only...................... 10 c.............. 6 C......................................................................... The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery ..................... TABLE OF CONTENT TITLE PAGE .......... ix LIST OF APPENDIXES ................................................................................ The Benefits of the Study ................................ 7 E............. The Problems Statement ........................................................ 9 a. The Limitation of the Problem ....................................... 9 1............................................................................ xiii LIST OF TABLE ............... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................. The Objectives of the Research ......... 9 b................................................................................................................................................................................................. v DEDICATION ..................................... 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE.................................................................. 1 A............................................................. xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ........................................................ Vocabulary Mastery ................... 6 D......................... 11 d............................................................................................................. The Importance of Vocabulary ........................................ RATIONALE AND HYPHOTHESIS .........................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................... 36 C................... 33 C......................... The Notion of Folktales ............. 47 A....................................................................... Introduction ......... Hypothesis ............... Rationale ................................................ 28 4....... 25 3.......... 45 I......2.......................... 24 c.................................... Planning the Action ............................... The Notion of Young Learners ....................... 41 F... Observing and Monitoring the Action ... The Notion of Motivation ..................................... 45 H........................................................................................... Setting and Subject of the Research .................................................. The Definition of Motivation .......... The Description of the Research ......................................................................................................... Technique of Data Analysis .... 28 a................ The Concept of Text ................................. Essences of Short Text ................................................................. The Model of Action Research .......................... The General Concept of Young Learners .................................... 30 b.... The Procedures of Action research... 35 A......................... 23 a....................................................... 44 G...................................................................... 23 b...................... The Characteristic of Motivated Students ........................ Technique of Collecting Data .. 50 2.......................................... 49 1........ 46 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION ........ The Concept of Story ... The Characteristic of Children ............. 47 B................. 32 B..................... 66 xi .. Reliability of the Instrument ................................ 35 B........... 31 c............................. 51 3........................................................................................... Validity of the Instrument....... Research Implementation ........................................................................................................................................................................ 39 E....... 30 a..................................................................................... 37 D........................... 34 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .. Method of the Research ... 28 b......... The Types of Motivation .......................................................................................... The Criteria of Successful Action .................................

................................................................................................................ 79 C..... School..................... Conclusion .. IMPLICATION.......................................... 77 A.................................................. 80 1........................................ SUGGESTION ..................... 81 BYBLIOGRAPHY xii ......................................................................... Research Finding........................ 72 C................................. 74 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION................................. Other Researcher ............................................................. Discussion ................................ Implication .......... Reflecting the Result of the Observation ..................................... 81 3................... 80 2............. 81 4.......... 77 B................................................................................. English Teacher....................................................... Students ........ 69 5..........................4..................................... Suggestion .........................

....................................................... 145 Appendix 8 : Key Answer of the Test ................................... 118 Appendix 6 : Blue Print of Vocabulary Test ............................................................................................. 157 Appendix 14 : The Computation of T-Test ...................................... 244 xiii ...................................... 102 Appendix 5 : Field Notes ............ 144 Appendix 7 : Pre and Post Test Items ................................................................................................................. 90 Appendix 4 : Students’ Worksheet ........................... 155 Appendix 13 : The Computation of Validity and Reliability ................................ 236 Appendix 17 : Letters of Permission . 82 Appendix 2 : The Photographs ...................................... 149 Appendix 10 : Syllabus of KTSP ......... 150 Appendix 11 : Students Score before the Action ....................... 85 Appendix 3 : Lesson Plans ..................................................................................................... 159 Appendix 15 : The Students’ Test and Worksheet done by the Students ........................................................................................... 160 Appendix 16 : Key Answer of Worksheet .......................... 148 Appendix 9 : The Research Schedule ...................LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix 1 : Description of location SMP N 5 Sukoharjo ................................................................................................... 153 Appendix 12 : The Students’ Pre-test and Post Test Score ..........................................................................................................

...LIST OF TABLE Table 1 Table 2 : The Steps in Action Research........................................................................................................... 43 : Improvement of the Students’ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts ............... 70 xiv ................

........ 38 xv ................LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1.. An Illustration of Action Research Spiral .........................

it can be said that mastering foreign language is very important for surviving life. That is the most important reason why English is learned in school.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. It is because language is one of instruments which has important functions in communication. Then. communication. As it is known. and culture. English is one of the native languages used to improve students‟ ability. technology. Background of the Study Mastering of a foreign language is one of the important things that is needed in modern society and globalization era. for example is job requirement. society. education. both of in spoken and written form. such as trade. So. As quoted in Undang-Undang Sisdiknas (2003: 15) “bahasa asing dapat digunakan sebagai bahasa pengantar pada satuan pendidikan tertentu untuk mendukung kemampuan berbahasa asing peserta didik”. It has been discussed before that foreign language has many functions. It has a function as a bridge for all aspects of human life. one of the requirements is language competence. In education. there are many education books that are written in foreign languages. The importance can be seen from some sides of life. English is one of the important foreign languages. . science. there are so many kinds of foreign language. so does English.

2. teaching English to young learner is aimed to increase the total number of years spent learning language. and culturally for language learning. The need for maximum learning time for important languages. The need to expose children from an early age to understanding of foreign cultures so that they grow up tolerant and sympathetic to others. at junior high school is very important. The need to link communication to understanding of view concepts. the earlier you start the more time you get. psychologically. they are: 1. It also maximizes . the aim of early foreign language learning is to prepare young learner linguistically. it prepares young learners to make a link of communication to understand concept of communication it self. teaching English at junior high school is extremely important because it is still the basis for the higher level. Ellis. it can be concluded that studying foreign language. especially English language. 3. Brewster. From some statements above. Second. 4. By learning foreign language earlier.2 Actually. and Girard (1992: 23-24) define some reasons for starting to learn a foreign language earlier. the indisputable fact those young learners have a greater facility for understanding and imitating what they hear than adult. Third. The advantage of starting with early second language instruction so that later the language can be used as a medium of teaching. First. Singleton in Brumfit (1997: 7) also defines some reasons for teaching English at primary level.

Firstly. Knowing more words in English language. writing. It should not be neglected by anyone who learns a language. They will more understand what they have learned. For beginners. young learners forget something quickly. knowing words is the key for understanding and being understood. First. Then. One of the problems that are faced is the characteristics of the students as young learners. especially English skills (listening. For enhancing all aspects in foreign language. There are many kinds of students‟ characteristic. Vocabulary supports all of the English skills. the earlier they start the more time they get. They will forget some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat . speaking. Sometimes. the students need to understand the meaning of words. It makes them know and understand a lot of vocabularies. Therefore. So it can be concluded that vocabulary takes the important aspect to master English well as a foreign language. The words here means as vocabulary. Considering the importance of vocabulary competence. here are the junior high students. the students need something to do.3 learning time for learning foreign language. it is better to introduce new vocabulary earlier to the students. and reading). Coady and Huckin (1998: 5) say that vocabulary is the central to language and of critical importance to language learning for the young learners. it will make other person understand or make ourselves understood easily. it is not easy to teach English for the young learners. vocabulary mastery is the basic knowledge in learning English. a teacher has many problems to develop the students‟ vocabulary mastery.

or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. Most of materials come from the teachers. There are no materials from other sources like internet. The method. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. After having pre research by interviewing the teacher and observing teaching learning process of mastering vocabulary at the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. it makes the students less interested and do not be active in teaching learning process. etc. It is clear that repetition is needed. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. technique or and material. In teaching learning process. it is important to find out the appropriate. Second. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. magazine. technique. Here. So. They prefer playing than studying.4 the words many times. Third. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students‟ acts as follows: firstly. technique. young learners get bored easily. So. so the . the teachers have to find out the appropriate. They always discuss about something in their around while playing. the researcher finds out that the students‟ vocabulary mastery is still low. The teaching learning process uses teacher centre in delivering the lessons. young learners still like playing. By using the appropriate method. there are no interesting technique that used by the teacher. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. It may be caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate and attractive. especially in vocabulary mastery. The materials used in teaching learning process only from books and students worksheet.

The other difficulties that the students faced when they do an exercise on jumble word. She wants to make the students interested by using the teaching material of short texts. It is because all words or group word are inside of the short texts. The students usually get mistake to rearrange into the correct word. students‟ marks are still lower than the passing grade. . the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. The correct arrangement is “winter” but students rearrange them become “writen”. It can be seen when they find some words that have double letters. Due to the facts above. Short text is one of an interesting material that helps the students to find out the keys to remember and grasp many new vocabularies. the researcher tries to enrich vocabulary mastery of the students using short texts. Beside that the students will be easy to write down the correct words or group words. Thirdly. Most of the students forget to write down the second letter. From the indicators that are mentioned above. The students also get difficulties when they have to translate the words. Example is the word “n-t-w-i-r-e”. She uses short texts because short texts will help to solve the problems that are faced by the students. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words. Secondly. the students write the word only “sudenly”. For example the word “suddenly”.5 students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. It is because there are no appropriate learning sources that used to help the students for remembering the materials that are given.

The Problems Statement Based on the background of study. How is the students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? .6 Based on the description above. The problems of the study can be formulated as follows: 1. The Limitation of the Problem The research has a broad scope and it is impossible for the researcher to handle the study consisting of so many complicated problems. Therefore. the researcher wants to prove whether or not the short texts can improve students‟ vocabulary mastery in learning English at the junior high school. C. the researcher would like to conduct a research to solve the problem and also enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery by using short stories entitled “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS” (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). B. Can short texts enrich vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? 2. the researcher limits the problem on how to enrich the students‟ vocabulary mastery using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010.

The Benefits of the Study It is expected that this research contributes some significant progresses in teaching vocabulary for several sides. 2. this research is aimed to find out: 1. Then. the teacher can take some correct problems solving from those problems. Then. the general objective of this research is to improve students‟ vocabulary by using short texts. Whether using short texts can enrich the students‟ vocabulary of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Particularly. the data of the research are also very useful for the teacher.7 D. in this case is short texts. they are: 1. The students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. It will help the teacher to identify the students‟ difficulties in learning vocabulary and also find the students who need more guiding. . Teacher It is expected that the teacher will get more information about one of the appropriate teaching materials. E. So the teacher hoped to create an interesting teaching learning process by using this teaching material. The Objectives of the Research Based on the formulation of the problem.

School It is expected that the information of the result will be very useful for getting success in teaching learning process. . students are expected to have good enrichment in vocabulary and also the changes of behavior during teaching learning process. The result of the research is also hoped to improve students‟ achievement in English lesson standard. 3. Students It is expected that the result will give motivation to the students to be better in vocabulary mastery. Through short texts. so the quality of teaching learning process can be increased.8 2.

Here. Furthermore. it means that someone learns vocabulary. which expressing a single idea. McWhorter (1989: 311) says that vocabulary means the ability to recognize individual words and to associate . Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) state that vocabulary is a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. It means vocabulary is written or spoken unit of language as symbol of idea in foreign language for the learners. Since vocabulary is a list. mother-in-law. Ur (1998: 60) defines that vocabulary can be mean as the words we teach in foreign language. The items in vocabulary may be more than a single word. if someone learns new words in foreign language.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. General Concept of Vocabulary a. the only system involved is alphabetical order in dictionaries. 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE (RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESIS) A. vocabulary is written in alphabetical order in dictionaries based on system or rule of foreign language.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. For example. for example post office. Notion of Vocabulary There are some definitions of vocabulary proposed by linguist experts. Review On Related Literature 1.

Then. For example. the word love on the other hand. In the other word.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. It symbolizes the feeling of one person toward another. vocabulary deals with a series of words in particular language. b. recognizing words means knowing its meaning or idea and how they are formed by a combination of letters. It is because people need vocabulary in expressing their ideas both of in mother . and used to for sitting. groups of letter that stand for. Based on three definitions above. The words here are the symbols in form of groups of letter represent either a physical object or an idea. does not represent a physical object. vocabulary is the competence or skill in recognizing words and its meaning. It can be formed from a single or more than one word. either a physical object or an idea. McWhorter states that vocabulary deals with the competence in recognizing words and its meaning. Then. The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary is an important aspect in our life. Ur adds that vocabulary deals with word taught in foreign language. Based on Hatch and Brown. 10 meaning with the particular combination of letters that form a word. an object with a flat surface. usually supported by four legs. vocabulary can be constructed as a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. the word chair in our minds a physical reality.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Meanwhile. Words are symbols. or represent.

A strong vocabulary can be a valuable asset. use. we must name objects. vocabulary plays an important role. Tailor (1991: 1) says that in order to live in the world. c. Vocabulary always becomes the essential part of English as a foreign language. According to the statement above. learning a language becomes a very hard thing to do and communication in second language cannot happen in any meaningful way. It means mastery is the ability to use one of knowledge. it can be concluded that vocabulary is very important in learning language and mastering vocabulary will facilitate someone in using language in communication. 11 tongue and foreign language. Without vocabulary mastery. it will be difficult to accept the existence of an object. Names are essential for the construction of reality. While Hornby (1984:523) says that mastery is the complete control or . Without a name.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Cross (1995: 14) states that a good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication. both in college and later in our career. Vocabulary Mastery Coulson et al (1987: 1050) define that mastery is skill. In language learning. Edge (1993: 27) states that knowing a lot of words in foreign language are very important. an event.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Every person who learns a language must learn the vocabulary of the language in order to make the learning process easier. and a feeling. or knowledge.

children period.12 knowledge. First. in case of the physical object or idea. Keraf (1989: 6566) defines the step in processing vocabulary mastery. . It is usually arranged by a standard of curriculum and syllabus in every aspect whether the topic or the test. It means mastery is the ability to combine skill and knowledge in one certain area. vocabulary mastery can be constructed as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. So. from both of definitions above. either a physical object or an idea and it also can be formed from a single or more than one word. adult period. adolescent period. While vocabulary is a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning in form of symbols of groups of letter. The vocabulary mastery can not be done spontaneous but step by step. this term is the adolescent start to use the language and make it more extensive directly in simple communication. The process of vocabulary mastery is not simple. The certain area in teaching means a lesson taught. this term children are able to define concept vocabulary to say their concrete idea. mastery is the whole power or ability to direct knowledge. this term the vocabulary are used more and more intensive because they make more communication each other. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. Here. Second. Third.

The techniques are the unplanned vocabulary teaching and planned vocabulary teaching. social lesson. poetry and games. d. They are direct and indirect techniques. The technique here refers to the way of teaching. means a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. There are two techniques in improving vocabulary mastery. there are so many techniques proposed by some experts. There are some techniques of teaching vocabulary. Dealing with the technique of vocabulary teaching. The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery There are various ways to improve vocabulary mastery. The success of teaching learning process depends on not only the teachers‟ and students‟ competence but also the technique of teaching. While vocabulary. Unplanned vocabulary teaching is . The teachers may have some techniques to teach it.13 From the definition above. Then vocabulary mastery define as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. mastery may be defined as the ability to use skill or knowledge in one subject area based on recognized standard. in case of the physical object or idea. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. Then indirect technique uses the other source of lesson like mathematic. Direct technique is usually used through the language book. prose. and science lesson.

While Lewis and Hill (1992: 102-103) mention some ways to teach vocabulary. . stagger. Beside that it also helps students to memorize both of visual and aural memories. For examples. while planned vocabulary teaching where the teacher goes into classroom with an item or a set of vocabulary items that the teacher has decided before hand. Sometimes the explanation is no more complicated than pointing. They are: 1) Demonstrate Demonstration is the way of teaching vocabulary by doing physical demonstration together verbal explanation. chuckle. 2) Use the real thing In this way. the teachers present vocabulary items by bringing the real things into classroom. The demonstration helps to make the meaning clearer and to fix the word in the students‟ minds. etc. The planned vocabulary teaching can be described as “the vocabulary lesson” since the primary objective of the teaching activities is the presentation and practice of the lexical item themselves. The objects of the real things can be in the class or probably through the window.14 extemporaneous teaching of vocabulary items that come up without planning in course of lesson.

For example: light bag >< heavy bag light word >< strong word rough area >< quite area poor >< rich dirty >< clean happy >< sad red orange yellow certainly / definitely probably / possibly . For example the meaning of bush was explained by two very simple sketches. It is worth that the explanations given here are not exact definitions of the word. or probably may be explained by presenting them with groups of related words: Hot warm cool cold 5) Antonyms This is the way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites or antonyms of the word.15 3) Draw or sketch Teachers do not need to be artists to make simple sketches which illustrate meaning. 4) Use the blackboard to show scales or grades Words like cool. like accuracy can often be counter-productive. Here. the level of the explanation must be suitable to the students‟ level of English at the time so that dictionary. orange (color). the learners have to be aware that a word may have different opposite in difficult context.

their connotation meanings often differ. 8) Verbal explanation Verbal explanation refers to the way of teaching vocabulary by explaining the meaning of vocabulary items in students‟ own language. asking one or more students to look the word up in a dictionary. Though words may have similar denotation meaning. using the former phrase also helps to build up in the students‟ mind ides that language consists of choice. or not. 9) Translation It is a way of teaching vocabulary by translating some words or individual words from the target language into other language.16 rough texture >< smooth texture 6) Synonyms high >< low Synonyms are the way of teaching vocabulary by giving same meaning of two or more words. 7) The dictionary This is the way of teaching vocabulary by using dictionary to know vocabulary items. It is . One technique for explaining these which teachers too frequently overlook is asking the class whether anybody knows the word and. that words do not mean the same as each other. Beside that. A bilingual dictionary can be used at low levels and monolingual dictionary at the high levels.

professions. 2) Verbal Techniques a) Use illustrative situation (oral or written) This is most helpful when items become more abstract. making use of blackboard and gesture to reinforce the concept. descriptions of people.17 seen as boring and traditional. the teacher will find difficulty to translate the word(s) into all languages. Gairns (1991: 73-75) says that there are some techniques used in presenting new vocabulary. b) Mime and gesture These are often used to supplement other ways of conveying meaning. They are extensively used for conveying meaning and particularly useful for teaching concrete items of vocabulary such as furniture. To ensure that students understand. objects themselves). and activities. wallcharts. photographs. if the class consists of different nationalities. blackboard drawings. In this technique. and realia (i. teachers often make use of . They are: 1) Visual techniques a) Visual These include flashcards. actions. a teacher might build a situation to illustrate it. and certain areas of vocabulary such as places. When teaching an item such as “to swerve”. Furthermore.e.

c) Contrast and opposites Contrast and opposites are they way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites of the words. This is the example of adverbs of frequency: never hardly ever occasionally I sometimes often always go to cinema on Sundays . this can be a useful way of revising and feeding in new items. However. b) Use of synonymy and definition Definition here is the way of teaching vocabulary by defining or describing objects. Synonymy is also the way of teaching by giving more than one meaning for a word. it is vital to illustrate the contexts in which this is true. d) Scales Once students have learnt two contrasting or related gradable items.18 more than one situation or context to check that students have grasped the concept.

3) Translation Translation can be very effective way of conveying meaning. bed. Some of these can of course also be dealt with through visual aids. the researcher uses definition. etc”. in case of the physical object or idea. chair. mime and gesture. it is also hoped that by using these techniques. dictionary. The teacher will find difficulties if the students come from different nationalities. antonyms. synonyms. e. It can save valuable time in teaching process but it seen as boring and traditional. the students can understand and grasp the vocabulary easily. In this paper. it can be defined as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that is used to express meaning. sofa. The example of “furniture” is “table. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. It is because the techniques that are mentioned are usually used in school. The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery Dealing with the vocabulary mastery. . verbal explanation and translation techniques to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery.19 e) Examples of type This is the way of teaching vocabulary by exemplifying things it self. Then.

how to spell. The example is when an Indonesian student has an English subject at school and it is the second language for her or him. spelling. meaning. If those factors are fulfilled. length and complexity. 2) Spelling Sound. either of pronunciation or of spelling. and range. what‟s the meaning. Thornbury says that the factors come from the word‟s aspects such pronunciation. Potentially difficult words will typically be those that contain sounds that are unfamiliar to some groups of learners. such as strength or crisp or breakfast. and can contribute to a .spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors. She or he can not understand the lesson easily.such as regular and lorry for Japanese speakers. Those six aspects above will be defined briefly here.20 Thornbury (2002: 27) declares some factors why learning vocabulary is rather difficult for second language learner. etc to express the idea of the subject. grammar. It is because she or he should know the appropriate word. 1) Pronunciation Research shows that words that are difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn. Here. someone can be said that he or she has achieved the vocabulary mastery. Many learners find that words with clusters of consonants. connotation and idiomatic are the indicators in vocabulary mastery. how to pronunce. are also problematic.

variable stress in polysyllabic words. listen. cupboard. Then the grammar of phrasal verbs is particularly troublesome: some phrasal verbs are separable (she looked the word up) but others are not (she looked after the children). and say he explained me the lesson. Words that contain silent letters are particularly problematic: foreign. bored. Spanish learners of English.21 word‟s difficulty. a factor favoring their „learn ability‟. climbing. and therefore the learner is likely to meet them more often. Furthermore. . necessity and necessarily can add to their difficulty. or hope is followed by an infinitive (to swim) or an –ing form (swimming) can add to its difficulty. etc. as a rule of thumb. However. for example. While most English spelling is fairly law-abiding. muscle. honest. 3) Length and complexity Long words seem to be no more difficult to learn than short ones. high frequency words tend to be short in English. there are also some glaring irregularities. love. headache. especially if this differs from that of its L 1 equivalent. Remembering whether a verb like enjoy.such as in word families like necessary. 4) Grammar It is problematic when grammar associated with the word. tend to assume that explain follows the same pattern as both Spanish explicar and English tell.

slim. connotation and idiomaticity Words that can be used in a wide range of context will generally be perceived as easier than their synonyms with a narrower range. they may be reluctant to accept a second. thin is a safer bet than skinny. a hat trick. place. compare to impose. propaganda has negative connotations in English. Likewise. position. The words have style constraints. Having learned one meaning of the word. and still. culture specific items such as words and expressions associated with the game cricket (a sticky wicket. Thus. 6) Range. totally different. learners are likely to confuse them. but you do the housework and do a questionnaire. slender. Uncertainly to the connotations of some words may cause problems too. meaning. such as very informal words (chuck for throw. etc. Thus. The words with multiple meanings such as since. can also be troublesome for learners. Thus put is a very wide-ranging verb. Make and do are a case in point: you make breakfast and make an appointment. swap for exchange) may cause problems. Unfamiliar concepts may make a word difficult to learn. Finally. but its nearest equivalent in other languages may dean deviant. and a good innings) will seem fairly opaque to most learners and are likely to be easily learned. .22 5) Meaning When two words overlap in meaning.

the use of words in meaning and meaning. The aspects to be measured are limited to pronunciation of words. watch). It is their idiomaticity. It is because. those three aspects that are learned in junior high school. graphic features. Texts in this sense are printed texts. Essences of Short Text a. we conclude that vocabulary mastery is the students‟ awareness of understanding the words and their rules to communicate.23 words or expression that are idiomatic (like make up your mind. 2. From all those definition above. spelling. The Concept of Text Brown and Yule (1997: 24) suggest that the term to spoke “text” as well. intended readership. Willis (1998: 67) says that text in general sense to mean a continuous piece of spoken or written language. Arthur Hughes (2003:140) states that texts candidates are expected to be able to deal with can be specified along number of parameters: type. form. They also differentiate the term of those text and discourse dealing with the context. keep an eye on…) will generally be more difficult than words whose meaning is transparent (decide. topic. where “text” means verbal record communication. . length. as well as their syntactic complexity that makes phrasal verbs so difficult. style.

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readability or difficulty, range of vocabulary and grammatical structure. Text type include: text books, handouts, articles (in newspaper, journals or magazine), poems, encyclopedia, dictionary, novel (extracts) and short stories, etc. He also states that text forms include: description, exposition, argumentation, instruction, and narration. Cross (1995:77-78) states that the text is a major resources; permitting you to vary the learning activities from lesson to lesson. There are four main factors to consider when deciding how to threat a passage; linguistic complexity, length, interest level and aims. From the definition above, it can be concluded that the text is a verbal communication which consists of continuous piece of spoken or written language and its meaning is contextually. b. The Concept of Story Story is account of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events, etc (Hornby: 1995: 94). Taylor (2000: 16) says that story is relating tale to one or more listener through voice and gesture. It is clear that vocabulary in a story should be presented in clear context; the amusing situations can make the vocabulary easy to remember. Ray B. West (1968: v) says that story is something brought into being by application of the skill and workings of the imagination of the author. Its aim is to arouse the emotions and stimulate the imagination of the students.

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Brad Hooper (1992: xi) says that story is different from a novel in that it is short enough to be read in one sitting, with every word leading toward some final, preordained effect. In story, the sentences are generally shorter in order the students easy to follow the story. From the statements above, the writer draw conclusion that story refers to the written or spoken description of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events that can be used to for teaching students which have aims to make the students easier to follow the story and it has different from a novel that is short enough to be read in one sitting. This paper, the writer uses the story as text especially folktale for increasing vocabulary mastery in second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo Academic Year 2009/2010. c. The Notion of Folktales One kind of story that usually heard by child is the folktales. It is type words composition that recites the story of the folklore in a certain region that is popularly and orally told from one generation to other generation in a certain community. (www.classicalfolktale.wikipedia.com) 1) The meaning of Folktales The word folktale is not defined in English usage. Taylor (2000:4) defines the term “folktale” as traditional story that has been

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passed by words of mouth, told from parents to children over many generations or passed on by countless storytellers sitting around countless evening fires. No one knows who the original author was, and there are usually different versions of the same story, he also states that the term “folktale” has also been used to refer to literary retelling of these tales. Another definition of folktales is that “words folktales refer to the many types of traditional narratives know to the “folk” (Coffin and Cohen, 1996:1). Philips (1992) defines folktales as story about telling stories with unverifiable claims and its literary form. From the definition above, we can assume that folktales are traditional stories that have been passed by words of mouth and told from generation to generation. Folktales lasted through a long period of time due to their universality. They are forms of traditional literature which began as attempt to explain and understand the natural and spiritual world. The origin of folktales lies in oral tradition. 2) The type of folktales There are several types of folktales. Taylor (2000) divides folktales as fable, fairy tales, hero stories, myths, legend. Fables are very short folktales with animals as the main characteristic and with very obvious moral lesson, often summon up in single line at the end.

Fairy tales are folktales that include some magical elements (not necessity fairies): the German word marchen is sometimes used for this. Legends are stories that are based on a real hero and his or her mighty deeds and believed by the teller and serve a historical purpose. And believed by the teller and served as historical purpose: “The dog and the meat” and “the greedy old spider”. when strictly defined. Goddesses and supernatural power: “Adam and Eve” and “Noah‟s ark”. Examples: Tumbelina. Examples “Johnny Appleased” and “Pail Bunyan”. Fairy tales are fictional and take place in a never-land. and even between two telling stories of the same tale. primitive myth. Example: “Shakespeare‟s Ghost” and “Paul Bunyan”. and usually involving God. Taylor . It is told as if they are fact. is religious and deals with the creating and ordering of the universe and with the earlier order in which present world condition were being established. Hero stories some of which have some real historical parts and other of which may not. certain characteristics typical in folktales contribute to relatively easy reading.27 Legend is stories that are based on real hero and his or her mighty deeds. 3) The Characteristics of Folktales Although there a lot of variations between folktales.

The Characteristic of Children In general. In relation to the English teaching learning process. they need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. The General Concept of Young Learners a. children have the following characteristics: .28 (2000:9) gives various characteristics of folktales that make them exceptionally good for language teaching. 1997: 98) b. These are the list: time order repetition and redundancy predictability relatively simply grammar concrete ideas illustrations that provide support and context for the texts a unique reader-write relationship 3. The Notion of Young Learners Teaching English to children is different from teaching English to and adult. It means that the English teacher should be use the technique for English teaching that can make the students interested in learning English Lesson (House.

eyes. They learn more slowly. 3) Their own understanding comes through hands. They teach subject what school provides for them 3) Children are still developing their common skill such as turn taking and the use of body language. Hence from that to convey the material of learning we should be able to take both.29 1) They like playing Children like playing. that is playing and learning in the same time. 2) They talk about “Here and Now” Children always discuss about existing in their around and happened in that time. Clark (1990: 6-8) states the characteristics of the children are as follows: 1) Children are developing conceptually. They develop their way of thinking from the concrete to the abstract thing. . They more like playing than learning. eyes. They tend to resolves around themselves. So material of teaching that will be teaching is about their surrounding and happened in that time. and ears. and ears Children will be understandings about what we talk are using hands. 4) Young children are very egocentric. 2) Children have no real linguistic.

It is because motivation will influence someone both in process and result. 7) Children are better mimics. 8) Children forget quickly. the teacher in teaching English needs repetition. Therefore. it is very important for teachers to know about motivation. especially in teaching learning process. The Notion of Motivation a. . The class activities must be fun and interesting by setting up the interesting activities. it can be conclude that young learner need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. The Definition of Motivation Motivation is needed in every occasion. Thus. It will take them more confident in attempting the sound of foreign language and they delighted in playing the sound. of course based on their characteristics in teaching learning English lesson. ensuring success and enhancing the children‟s motivation are important factors in promoting the success of early start in foreign language learning. 6) Children are at early of their education.30 5) Children get bored easily children have no choice to attend school. 4. From the definition above.

2000: 332) says that motivation is internal states that arouses us to action. their willingness to engage in teaching learning activities and their reasons for doing this. Extrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because of consequences to obtain a reward and to avoid the punishment. Biggs and Watkins (1995: 84) state that there are four categories of motivation. While intrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because they are interested in task or activities itself. intrinsic motivation. and keep us engaged in certain activities. . Brophy (1998: 3) says that motivation refers to the students‟ subjective experiences. Then. impulse. b. namely: extrinsic motivation. social motivation.31 Some experts define some definition of motivation. Next. The Types of Motivation There are many kinds of learning motivation stated by the experts. achievement motivation. Groccia (1992: 62) states that people learn and study because the consequences of such behavior satisfy certain internal and/or external motives. or desire that moves and leads learner to do a particular action in order to meet and needs or to attain a set of goals of teaching learning process. Weiner (in Elliot et al. From the definition above it can be concluded that motivation is an arousal. pushes us in particular direction.

goes for demanding challenges. Need for achievement. high proficiency. c. They are integrated motivation and instrumental motivation. 3). Ego-involvement. The learner has needs to achieve. The learner finds it important to succeed in learning and promote his or her own positive self-image. the students learn in order to compete against the other students. Then instrumental motivation is to wish to learn the language for purposes of study or carrier. that is winning makes they feel good. Integrative motivation is the desire to identify with and integrate into target language culture. 4). Then. High aspiration. in Ur (1996: 275) comes to conclusion that the most successful students are not necessary those to whom a language comes very easily. The Characteristic of Motivated Students Naiman et al. Ur (1996: 19) defines some kinds of motivation. they are those who display certain typical characteristic. those are as follows: 1). The learner is ambitious. The learner willing to tackle tasks and challenges. 2). to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do.32 Achievement motivation. social motivation is defined as the students‟ motivation in order to make the other people feel pleasure. . and has confidence in his or her success. most of them clearly associated with motivation. Positive task oriented. top grades.

Most of the students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students as follows: firstly. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words and then translate them. Perseverance. They could . there are difficulties that might be faced by the learners especially the young learners. It is caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate on their level. B. Thirdly. Secondly. The learner is very aware of the goals of learning. The students‟ vocabulary mastery of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010 is still low. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. It can be seen when they do the exercises. Rationale In learning English vocabulary. 6). and it is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack progress. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. The learner consistently invests a high level of effort in learning.33 5). and directs his or her effort towards achieving them. Tolerance of ambiguity. The learner is not disturbed or frustrated by situations involving a temporary lack of understanding will come later. or of specific learning activities. Goal orientation. 7).

The teaching materials should be suitable with the young learners‟ characteristics. the students can improve their vocabulary mastery. So. One of the teaching materials that can be used is the short texts. the researcher believes that short texts can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery. Short texts are interesting materials in teaching language. Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research can be formulated as follows: by using short texts. Most of their marks are still lower than the passing grade. . Considering the explanation above. the teacher should create an interesting teaching material. especially for the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic Year of 2009/2010. the teacher helps the students to remember the words and understand the meaning and also the grammatical pattern of the sentences easily. C. By using short texts.34 not do the exercises perfectly.

. Next. and the posttest. the post-test was done on the sixth meeting. Time of research This research held on a cycle on second semester in the academic year of 2009/2010. Setting and Subject of the Research. This school is located at Bulakan. the treatments were done on the second until five meeting. The pre-test was done on the first meeting. The details are the pre-test. Setting of place This research was done in SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo. 3. 2. Sukoharjo. 35 CHAPTER III RESEACH METODHOLOGY A. Last. 1. consist of 11 boys and 24 girls. Sukoharjo Regency. Subject of the Research The subject of this research is the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. the treatments. The aim was to master vocabulary by using short stories. It was done for knowing the students‟ improvement after using short texts in teaching learning process. Post test was done on the six meeting.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. There are 35 students for class A. It was done for knowing the students‟ basic ability of the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. It is because there is a problem related with students‟ vocabulary mastery.

Rapport (1970) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is aimed to contribute both to the practical concern of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of the school science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company.” Kemmis (1983) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices. dan atau tindakan untuk lebih memahami hakekat dan atau konsekuensi mengajar dengan tujuan untuk melakukan tindakan atau menguabah atau meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dan lebih baik bila dilakukan secara kolaboratif dengan kolega atau teman guru. Meanwhile. 36 B. Dewi Rochsantiningsih (2008) defines action research as: “proses sistematis di mana guru dengan sukarela melibatkan diri untuk melakukan refleksi dokumentasi. (b) their understanding to these practices. . Ebbutt (1985) in Hopkins (1993: 45) states action research is about the systematic study of attempts to improve educational practice by groups of participants by means of their own practical actions and by means of own reflection upon the effects of those actions.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. it is necessary to give a definition of action research. It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively. For a starting point. Method of the Research This research is a kind of action research. though it is often undertaken by individuals and sometimes in cooperation with outsiders. and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out.

this research is done to increase the students‟ vocabulary mastery through short texts. the implementation of the classroom action research includes four steps in the following: . intact groups are used in some cases. research conducted by a teacher. Often. it is hoped that the researcher will find the solution for developing the students‟ vocabulary mastery. According to the model. From the definition above. only a single group or individual is involved in the study. The Model of Action Research The model of classroom action research used in this study is based on the model developed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1985). Action research is usually less rigorous in term of design and methodology than other educational researches. C. administrator. or other educational professionals to aid in decision making in the local school.37 Furthermore. it can be concluded that action research is a systematic study and it is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken or carried out by participants in educational situation rather than outside researches to solve the problem in order to improve the students‟ ability. By participating the actions in this research. Wiersma (2000: 10) states one type of applied research is action research. Action research focuses on the solution of day-to-day problems at the local level. Based on the definition and the aims above.

. Based on Hopkins‟ point of views (1993: 48) this model can be illustrated as follow. 2. Planning Develop a plan of critically informed action to improve what is already happening. Observation Observe the effects of the critically informed action in the context in which it occurs.38 1. Reflection Reflecting process on these effects as the basis for further planning. 4. 3. Action Act to implement the plan. subsequent critically informed and so on. through a succession of a stages.

e. c. The problem was caused by the technique of delivering material which was not suitable and interesting to the learners. Preparing a test. Preparing teaching aids. The problem referred to the students‟ difficulty in learning vocabulary. f. Planning the action The researcher prepared everything related to the action as follows: a. 2. Designing the steps in doing the action. interviewing the students. 39 D.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Preparing the material. Planning the steps and technique for delivering the material in the form of lesson plan. It was done to know whether students‟ vocabulary could be improved or not.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of teaching learning process when the technique is applied). Identifying the problems The researcher identified the problem before planning the action. The Procedures of Action Research In this classroom action research. There are follows: 1. b. and conducting a pre-test. each procedure takes five steps in one cycle. d. . It was obtained by observing the teaching learning process.

The researcher gave explanation about the words. The researcher discussed the answer of task with the students i. b. Implementing the action The researcher implemented the teaching learning activity of vocabulary using short texts. Observing and monitoring the action The researcher observed all activities in the teaching learning process and created a conducive atmosphere in a class. The researcher gave the students oral task by pointing the students one by one to guess and pronounce the words that are related to the stories shown by teacher to check whether the students had understood. The researcher gave the students individual task. After doing the practices. 4. the researcher reviewed the material. The researcher gave the students time to make note in their book. The researcher stimulated the students to try guessing some words related to the stories. c. d. The researcher presented the material by giving a worksheet one by one to the students. e. pronounced them correctly.40 3. f. h. The researcher greeted the students and checked the students‟ attendance at the beginning of class. The real implementations were generally presented as follows: a. . g. and drilled the students.

photograph. Qualitative method consists of observation. Based on Burns (1999: 80). . Technique of Collecting Data The techniques of collecting data are qualitative and quantitative method. Observation technique means the researcher comes to the class. field notes. The teacher takes the position behind the class while observing the teaching learning process and makes a note all things about what happen during the teaching learning process. observes the teaching learning process done by the teacher and the students. observation is a kind of activities in action research that enables researchers to document and reflect systematically upon classroom interactions and events. as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur. document analysis. E. Evaluating and Reflecting the result of the observation The researcher evaluated all actions in the cycle.41 5. The researcher observed the actions to find the problems of the activities that had been carried out in using short stories in teaching vocabulary. interview.

The purpose is to get the information about everything in teaching learning process using short stories. The interview technique is done spontaneously.42 Notes or field notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context that are written in relatively factual and objective style (Burns. It means that the researcher does not make some questions first. and noted the students‟ reaction and response to the learning. Photographs are a way of greatly enhancing classroom analysis and providing visual stimuli that can be integrated into reporting and presenting the research to others (Burns. The aim of this analysis was to complete the information which had been gotten from observation and interview. Analyzing the document was done toward the Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. Then. quantitative method uses test technique. The vocabulary test is used to measure the students‟ vocabulary mastery. The researcher made notes of each observation done. The test here is a vocabulary test. Test technique which is used is achievement test. This interview is also done to the students and the teacher before and after teaching learning process. In this research. which is about English lesson in Junior High School including its Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar. 1999: 101). the researcher used essay and pronoun test type for both . Achievement test is the test that is used to measure students‟ ability after learning something (Arikunto. 1996: 21). The researcher made note to all activities during the lesson. 1999: 87).

There are some steps that should be done by the researcher in this action research. Here is the diagram of the steps. The total numbers of test items were 30 items. The result of the test was analyzed to know the students‟ achievement on vocabulary. Table 1. The steps in Action Research Step of action Participant  Students Pre action  Researcher  Students  Researcher The action Technique  Interview  Observation  Test (Pre-test)  Planning  Implementing  Observing monitoring  Reflecting Post action  Students  Researcher  Test (Post-test)  Result of post-test and Data  Result of the interview  Result of observation  Result of pre-test  Result of observation  Field notes . The test consisted of vocabularies that had been taught to the students.43 the pre-test and post-test.

This step uses a simple formula that is called as t-test of non-independent. It makes clearer the data and the characteristic of the data (Nurgiantoro. The steps are: (a) compare the data from each informant to make easy in classifying the same data. interview. and photographs. (b) classify the data in certain classification. the pre-test is compared with the post-test to know whether teaching vocabulary using short stories can improve the students‟ vocabulary mastery. In this formula. (c) Making the inference. making the data in the table. field notes. Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis in this research consists of two kinds. It is used to make the data simple and communicative. this research uses descriptive statistics. (d) making an inductive conclusion. Quantitative descriptive analysis In quantitative descriptive analysis. 1. Making a hypothesis using the classify data.44 F. 2. 2001:8). The formula of t-test of non-independent is as follows: t= where t is the result of t-test non-independent . they are qualitative descriptive analysis and also quantitative descriptive analysis. Qualitative descriptive In qualitative descriptive analysis. the data are the result of observation.

G. the researcher uses the formula as follows: where.45 Finally. H. where k is the number of valid items. it will be known whether or not the instrument is valid. from this. when the difference between the values of t-obtained and the value of t-table is significant. Reliability of the Instrument After the valid items are determined. Validity of the Instrument In computing the validity of each item from the instrument. the effectiveness of using short stories to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery will be known. p q n and : the number of correct answer : the number of incorrect answer : the number of respondent The result of the computation of validity will be consulted to t-table distribution. the reliability can be determined by using the formula: . .

. From this.46 The result of the computation of reliability will be consulted to r table of statistics. I. and (2) there is an improving average mark of the class based on the criteria in the curriculum that is used in that school. The indicators are: (1) there is an improvement number of students that have minimal criterion at least 75 % from the total number of students. it will be known whether or not the instrument is reliable. The Criteria of Successful Action The measurement that is used in checking vocabulary mastery is test.

47 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION In this chapter. First. The difficulties of learning vocabularies were caused by some reasons. The main problem faced by the students was the lack of vocabularies. many problems were found in teaching English for students of the second year of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Introduction contains the problem faced by the students. and discussion. the students as young learners forget something quickly. The discussion deals with the implementations of the actions that are teaching by using short texts based on theories from some experts. It can be seen from the indicators like: 1) they were less interested in teaching learning process. They will forget . The structure of the writing contains introduction. the description of the research. Their vocabulary was still low. Introduction As presented in chapter I. 2) they got difficulties to understand and grasp the meaning of words. and 3) they got difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. A. They were supported in pre-research that has been done by the researcher. The description of the research contains the implementations of the actions of the research in the field. the researcher discusses the implementation of the action.

Third. So. Thus. Firstly. it is important to find out the appropriate method. They always talk about something while playing. Second. the students as young learners get bored easily. technique or and material. So. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. There were some targets which the researcher expected to achieve by conducting the action for the improvement of students‟ vocabulary. Here. the researcher wanted to create interesting situation in the classroom. especially in vocabulary mastery. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. Secondly. the students as young learners still like playing. the research is concentrated on improving materials of teaching vocabulary through a classroom action research and the use of short texts as the teaching learning source. They prefer playing to studying. the researcher wanted to make the students are able to grasp and remember the . the researcher decided to conduct a research to solve the problems through this study. technique. The method. One of the problems that is taken in this study is the materials that are not suitable and interesting to the students. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. technique. Based on the facts above. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. the teachers have to find out the appropriate method. repetition is needed.48 some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat the words many times. By using the appropriate method.

B. The cycle in this research also consisted of series of steps. The researcher divided the cycle into four meetings. Thirdly. namely planning the action. 2010. and revising the plan. In this cycle. Based on the problems and the targets that the researcher expected to achieve. 2010 until April.49 meaning of words more easily. the researcher hopes that the research can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery and change the situation during the teaching learning process. in this case was short texts. Through a classroom action research. evaluating and reflecting the result of the observation. implementing the action. They are explained as follows: . the researcher decided to carry out interesting teaching materials. the researcher wanted to make the students able to write the words or group of words correctly so the improvement of students‟ vocabulary could be achieved. Each meeting took 80 minutes. It was conducted from April. in presenting and practicing new vocabularies. the researcher used short texts as the teaching materials. The Description of the Research The implementation of the action planned in this research was held in a cycle. observing or monitoring the action.

50 1. So. The researcher taught 80 minutes in every meeting. the indicators of vocabulary mastery can be completed. The students could drill every word until five times. It is because the stories are very funny and give the students a lot of new list of vocabularies. To overcome those problems. Planning the action The action plan was made based on the problems that were mentioned in the introduction above. The researcher also gave a lot of time to drill the students. The teacher also planned to drill the students‟ pronunciations using the words that have been prepared. The researcher believed that short stories could improve the students‟ vocabulary and attract the students‟ enthusiasm in teaching learning process. The researcher told the students that they were going to learn English by using short stories that day. The researcher planned to use 10 minutes to greet the students and stated the topic. The students could ask questions whenever they found problems. The researcher chose short texts as the teaching materials. The researcher allocated 60 minutes to give the students a chance to learn the material by doing the worksheet and to practice . It was to get the students‟ attention and interest. it was expected that the students are able to grasp the meaning of new vocabulary easily. the researcher planned and chose interesting learning materials to solve the problems and improve students‟ behavior during teaching learning process. the students are able to write down the words or group of words correctly. Besides that. By using short text.

a. The bell rang. the researcher conducted a post-test. The last five up to ten minutes was to review and close the lesson. students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. Before implementing the action. The researcher came to the class on time . 2010. lesson plans as researcher‟s guidance in teaching vocabulary. main activity. After implementing the action. This test was conducted in the beginning to know the students‟ ability about the material that would be given. Besides preparing the pre-test. The test started at 2010 to know the 10. the researcher prepared the material. students‟ worksheet that consisted of some tasks and also teaching equipments that are related to the action. 2. April.m. First meeting 1) Opening A pre test was conducted on April. the researcher conducted a pre-test on the first meeting. 2010. This cycle was conducted in four meetings.25 a. namely: opening. and closing. Post-test was conducted after the last action on the last meeting of the cycle.51 the pronunciation of the words that they have learned. Each meeting was divided into three terms. Research Implementation The action plan was implemented by the researcher with the help from the teacher as the observer. The pre test was conducted on April.

52 and greeted the students. After that. This test was aimed to know students‟ ability about the new materials that would be given. The students were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. the use of words in context and spelling. Next. After that. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. After greeting the students. The test was about understanding the meaning of words. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the test that would be done on that day. pronunciation of words. the researcher asked about the students‟ feeling. the students did the test individually. The test was a pre-test. Then. the researcher gave the information that the students would get the materials in the next meeting and closed the meeting on that day . . the researcher checked the test worksheet whether they were complete or not. 3) Closing After the bell rang. in this case was short stories. she passed the worksheet test to the students. the researcher asked the students to collect the test worksheet on the desk. Then. 2) Main activity After getting test worksheet.

The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. the researcher asked the students to mention some short texts that they ever read or heard. No one was absent that day.53 b. 2) Main Activity To open the lesson. Then. the researcher began the lesson of the day by asking the students to find the meaning of some words. . 2010. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance. After greeting the students. Second meeting 1) Opening The second meeting was conducted on April. she asked the students whether they ever read or heard short stories or not.25 am and then greeted the students. They tried to answer the task by looking for the answer on the dictionary. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the second meeting. Some of them mentioned some titles of short stories. Then. The students answered “yes. After introducing the materials that would be used. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. this means that they understood what learning source that would be used. Mam”.

The title was “The Flowers from the Moon”. Some students were shy and afraid to speak loudly. They obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. The researcher also asked them to find out the idea of the story using words that they ever had before. the researcher asked the students to do the next task that is to fill in the blanks in some . the researcher drilled the students‟ pronunciation with the guiding words on the worksheet.54 Next. it could be seen that the students still made some mistakes in getting the main point of the story. Next. Next. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the words together. the researcher gave a chance to the students to read the story on their own worksheet. Next. the researcher asked three of the students to mention the main idea of the story. The researcher advised them that it was only a practice. After the students finished reading the short story. From the students‟ answer. All students obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. After the students finished doing the task. They were afraid if they made a mistake. the researcher asked the students to write down some words and find the meaning of each word. to know the students‟ understanding. The researcher pronounced every word once and the students pronounced every word three times. to check the students understanding about new vocabulary.

the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words. 2010. the researcher and the students discussed the answers of the task together. the researcher gave the students choice to choose the correct answer. If they made a mistake. then. the researcher reviewed the material. Third meeting 1) Opening The third meeting was conducted on April. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 08. c. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. Next. Some students were very enthusiastic to answer the question of the task. In the . the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. Most students made a mistake in pronouncing the words. The story‟s title was “Royal Spaghetti”.05 am. Then. “very-very interesting”.55 sentences with the words that were mentioned on the worksheet and answered the questions about the story. The researcher showed all the words to the students. After finishing the task. The researcher asked “how about your feeling today?” The students answered. 3) Closing After finishing the task.

The title was ”Rainbow”. The researcher checked the students‟ pronunciation. . There were some pronunciation mistakes done by the students. Then.56 second meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. Then. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that had been given in the second meeting. In this main activity. In this meeting. the researcher checked the answered with the students together. No one was absent. 2) Main Activity In the beginning of the lesson. To prepare the class. The researcher passed a new worksheet for each student and asked the students to do the exercises. the students and the researcher discussed the story to get the main idea. the learning source used in teaching learning process was the same as before. all students focused on the lesson. After that. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. the researcher asked some of students to read the story. The students felt easily to grasp the main idea of the text because they have translated some difficult words before. the students started the main activity by finding the correct words and their meaning. The researcher used this chance to begin the main activity. After five minutes.

the researcher asked some students to answer the questions and wrote the answers on the whiteboard. it could be seen that students still made mistakes in arranging the words. they were also asked to find the meaning of the words. After five minutes. They were very busy to discuss the correct arrangement of the letters with their friends. The researcher and the students checked the answers together. and then asked them to get the meaning of them. the researcher asked the students to fill in the blanks in some sentences with the words that were mentioned on the students‟ worksheet. Next. The researcher used the synonym to introduce the words. the researcher asked the students to pay attention to some words. the researcher asked the students to arrange the letters into a good word. The students tried to find the synonymy of the words by using their dictionary. . the researcher changed the technique in introducing the new words to the students. After that. After checking the answer. Then. Then. In the middle of the activity. The title was “The Caliph and the Clown”. The students looked very interested in the new task.57 Next. then they wrote their answer in the whiteboard. From the students‟ answer. The students who had finished discussing the correct arrangement. the students and the researcher checked the answers together. the researcher and the students discussed the answer together.

3) Closing In the end section. Students who had finished discussing the answers. They were very busy to prepare the answer. The students were enthusiastic in answering the question from the researcher.58 After checking the answers. Some of them were very busy to remember some of the new words that they heard before and the other discussed with their friends to find the main idea of the story. the researcher reviewed the material from the beginning. and then they wrote their answer on the whiteboard and then checked the answer with the researcher. The researcher also asked the other students to pay attention to the text. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. the students tried to grasp the main point of the story with the researcher. The students pronounced every word three to four times. The reseacher asked “bagaimana pendapat kalian tentang pelajaran pada hari ini?” The students answered. On the last task of the third meeting. . Then. Next. the researcher asked some students to read the story loudly. The researcher mentioned some difficult words and the students tried to guess the right pronunciation and the right meaning. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of phrases from the story before.

The students listened curiously to the researcher‟s story. Fourth meeting 1) Opening The fourth meeting was conducted on April. d. the researcher began the lesson by reading a story. Banyak kosa kata baru dan gampang ingetnya”. Then. The researcher asked the students to discuss the story . 2) Main activity Then.25 am. To prepare the class. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. The title was “The Magic Seeds”. Then. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the fourth meeting. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. In the fourth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. Then. No one was absent. the researcher asked the students to make a pair of discussion. Sometimes they made an underline for some difficult words. 2010. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the first and second meeting. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10.59 “menyenangkan bu.

the researcher asked the students to match the words with their antonyms. the researcher asked the students‟ ability in writing words. Some of them were busy to remember the story and the other tried to grasp and write the meaning of some words. After that. The next task. The students wrote the answers on their worksheet. Then. The students pronounced the words three or four times.60 that they heard. Next. After that. the students wrote the answers in the whiteboard. After five minutes. Then. the researcher asked some of the students to read the story. some of students wrote their difficult words on the whiteboard. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. they had to find the meaning of the words. The researcher also asked the students to find some difficult words on the story. the researcher also asked the students to find the meaning of the words. Then. Next. The students worked in pairs. The researcher continued the lesson by drilling the students‟ pronunciations. the researcher asked the students to write some words that they found in the story before. the researcher addressed some of the . The researcher checked the answers. The researcher and the students discussed the answers together. Then. The students had to write some words they heard. The story‟s title was “The Owl and the Nightingale”.

the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. the researcher asked the students to answer some questions about the story. the students had to find the hyponymy of some words based on the text that they ever read before. The students discussed with their friends. Then.61 students to retell the story by their own words. The other students added “senang. bu. Tau arti katanya. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. the researcher asked some students to write the students‟ answers and then checked the answers. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. Bu”. Then. the researcher reviewed the material. There are some students discussed the answers with their friends. After 5 minutes. The students already knew some words so it made the students easy to retell the story. The researcher showed all the words to the students. The next task. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. 3) Closing After finishing the task. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. . Next. For the last task. The students were very busy to find the answers. “lumayan.

2010. Then. Then. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. After five minutes. 2) Main activity For the first activity.25 am. They could find the meaning in the dictionary. the researcher passed the student‟s worksheet for the fifth meeting to the students. the researcher checked the students‟ answer. the researcher asked the students to write the answers on the white board and discuss the answers together. Fifth meeting 1) Opening The fifth meeting was conducted on April. In the fifth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. Then. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. the researcher asked the students to listen what the researcher pronounced and then write the answer on the students‟ worksheet. After that.62 e. To prepare the class. . the researcher asked the student‟s to find the meaning of some words. No one was absent. the researcher began to teach the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the third meeting.

the researcher guided the students to find the meaning form the difficult words that they found. They enjoyed this material. After that. The students felt happy because the story was very funny. the researcher asked the students to write the answer in the whiteboard. . the students tried to grasp the main idea of the story. the researcher asked the students to arrange the jumble words into a good arrangement. After 10 minutes.63 Next. The researcher also asked the students to write the difficult words that they found. Then. the researcher asked some students to read the story and the other paid attention to their friends. The students pronounced the words three or four times. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. The students worked in pairs. After 5 minutes. Next. After the students read the story. The title of the story was “Why Bears Hibernate in the Winter”. the students had to find the synonym of some words by matching the words in the column A to the column B. the researcher addressed some students to pronounce some words that were mentioned by the researcher. Then. Some of the students worked with their dictionary and the other tried to get the answer from the short story that they read before. Many students raised their hand to write their answer in the whiteboard. Some of the students tried to get the answer from the dictionary and the others were discussed.

the researcher reviewed the material. Tau arti katanya. The title was “The Necklace”. The other students added “senang. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. Then. All of the students were silent and did the instruction well. Next. “menyenangkan. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of the phrases from the text. The researcher did not forget to . They worked in groups. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. They felt happy with this teaching way.64 For next material. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. bu. The other students paid attention to their friend who retold the story. the students were asked to read the story. the researcher discussed with the students about the story that they heard. the students wrote the answer on the whiteboard. After 10 minutes. 3) Closing After finishing the task. Then. The researcher repeated some difficult words to the students. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. Bu”. The last task. the researcher asked three of the students to retell the story. They had to grasp the main idea of the story individually then retold the story in their own words. After 5 minutes.

Then. the researcher discussed the answers of test with the students. All students were very active in discussing the . Then.m. she passed the test worksheets to the students. the use of words in context and spelling.05 a. The test was the same with the pre test that was done before. The bell rang at 08. They were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. 3) Closing After the test finished. After greeting the students. Sixth meeting 1) Opening A post-test was conducted on April.65 inform the students that in the next meeting the test would be done. The materials were such as understanding meaning of words. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the post-test that would be done on that day. After that. This post-test was aimed to know the students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. pronunciation of words. 2010. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. f. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. 2) Main Activity The students did the test individually. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. The researcher came to the class on time and greeted the students.

66 answers with the researcher. They were the mastery of . In the teaching and learning process. The observation was conducted simultaneously when teaching learning process took place. No student was busy with his own business. the use of words in context. From the observation results. The researcher said thank you to the students for everything during the research. pronunciation of words. the researcher closed the discussion because the bell rang. there were six meetings. the results of the observation of the teaching and learning process were also supported by the interviews with the students about the use of short texts in teaching vocabulary. short texts were used to make the way of grasping the meaning easier. Then. The aspects that should be improved were meaning of words. 3. In this cycle. Then the second to fifth meeting was focused on improving vocabulary aspects and students‟ motivation in teaching learning process. Besides the explanation of implementing the actions above. the researcher asked the students‟ feeling and comment during teaching learning process with the researcher. it was known that there were some improvements on students‟ vocabulary. the researcher used observation to see the effects of conducting the cycle. All students paid attention with the discussion. Then. The first and the sixth meeting of the cycle were used for testing. and spelling. Observing and Monitoring the Action In monitoring the implementation of this cycle.

67 meaning. In the third meeting. the students‟ motivation was good. No students were busy with their own business in the class. Their responses were good. Although the students‟ motivation increased. All of them were seriously listened to the stories. the researcher gave advice to the students that it was only a practice. In the second meeting. Some students were active to answer the questions from the researcher when the researcher gave them some question or asked them to do the exercises. No one was busy with their own business. the others were quiet. They also did the task on their worksheet well. . most students were shy to speak loudly. All students did the task quite well. Some students were silent when the researcher asked the question to the students. To solve this problem. The students also obeyed the researcher instruction. some students were still passive. Beside the students‟ improvements on vocabulary. Some students tried to answer the questions of the task. The situation was conducive because there was no noisy outside the class. Beside passive. spelling. the observation results explained the students‟ motivation and activities in teaching-learning process and student‟s motivation from the second to the fifth meeting. and using words in context. They paid attention to the lesson. pronunciation. They paid attention to the lesson. the students looked happy and enthusiastic to attend the class. They were afraid if their answers were wrong.

It can be seen when the researcher asked the students one by one to check the students‟ understanding. Sometimes they told each other about something else. the students‟ motivation increased. When the researcher asked the students to read the story and do the task. The researcher used synonymy technique in introducing the new words. They could do the exercises well because there were some phonetic symbols that helped them to do the exercises. In the fourth meeting. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the word three or four times. After that. . the students were asked to fill in the blank sentences with the correct words. Good atmosphere was created in the class. many students raised their hand. To solve this problem. The students were happy and enthusiastic when the researcher changed the activity in introducing the new words.68 In the middle of the third meeting. It seemed that they had already understood about the term. So. In the third meeting. the researcher went around the class to monitor and guide them whether they were active to discuss with their friends or not. Before starting the lesson. the researcher still used short stories for teaching learning process. They were also enthusiastic when discussing with their friends. They still made mistake to pronounce the right pronunciation. the students asked to write some words on their worksheet. In middle of the fourth meeting. the researcher just reviewed all materials from the third meeting. the students still had problem in pronouncing the word.

Reflecting the Result of the Observation Based on the observation results which were gathered in field notes. d) the students were also able to pronounce the words correctly. Most students were active and all students got attention to the lesson. . They listened what the researcher pronounced. It could be seen during the teaching-learning process. c) the students were able to write the words correctly and could use the words in context. They also could write the correct words that they heard. all students were active to grasp the meaning of every word.07. 4. The mean of the pre-test was 4. while the mean score of the post-test was 7. the researcher reflected the results of the action as follows: a) the students who were still passive were getting more active and interested when they were reading and understanding the story. b) the students were able to grasp the meaning of words when the researcher gave them some new vocabularies. Moreover. In the fifth meeting. the test score in the first and sixth meeting showed the improvement result. In reviewing the materials.69 The students felt happy and enthusiastic doing this task because they knew all of the meaning of the difficult words by discussing with their friends and also looking for the dictionary. the students were very active.36.

students were encouraged to practice their ability in pronouncing and writing words correctly. All of the aspects were completed. into English or vice versa. it could be seen that there were increasing students‟ motivation and also the aspects of vocabulary. The improvement of students‟ achievements in teaching learning process using short stories can be seen in the table 2. They became more motivated and enthusiastic in learning English which they did not tend to do something useless and got bored in the middle of teaching learning process. They also got difficulties They translated words from when they had to translate Indonesian into English or the words from Indonesian vice versa easily. Short texts also encouraged the students to be more active during teaching learning process. Through short texts.70 Based on the result of the observing and the test above. The researcher concluded that teaching vocabulary using short texts attracted students‟ curiosity in knowing new words. . Table 2. easily. They forgot words remembered the words and their meanings easily. The students understood difficulties to understand and grasped the meaning of and grasp the meaning of words easily. They also words. Improvement of the Students‟ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts Source of the data before implementing the action Vocabulary mastery after implementing the action Vocabulary mastery Observation and Interview 1. The students got 1.

The students pronounce the words pronounce most correctly. understand remember. which has double letters. The students could pronounce. The students were more interested during teaching active and enthusiastic learning process during teaching learning process. Students‟ motivation Students‟ motivation 1. The students could not 2. They started to ask and answer the questions. exercises. The students did not have 2. . grasp and use remember. 4. pronounce. The students liked doing 3. could of the 3. The students could only 4.71 2. They words. The students could write mistakes when they wrote the words correctly. The students were less 1. Most of the students also made mistakes when they did the exercises in arranging some letters into a correct word. The students still made 3. 80 % of them. mistakes to pronounce the words. The students had more full concentration during concentration to do the teaching learning process. There were no mistakes in Most of the students forgot writing the words to write the second letter. 3. They did not do something something useless during useless during teaching teaching learning process learning process. They still made words correctly. 2. For example when also could arrange the the students found a word letters into a correct word. understand. grasp and use words in context about 25 words in context about 75% of them.

dream. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there was an improvement of students who achieved the minimum standard score. freedom.72 4. from 4. reason. Then. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores.07 to 7. from 2. understand. From the vocabulary aspects. sky. Then the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was . The improvements were students‟ vocabulary mastery and also students‟ motivation. the students understood and grasped the meaning of words easily. purple. Research Findings From the table above.36. Beside that. in this case 60. quarrel. daughter. Test The mean score of pre-test : The mean score of post-test : 4. discussion with their friends. different. etc. The students did the 4. they could pronounce and write the words correctly.3 % of students. chuckled. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. The examples were prince. the improvement also could be seen on the students‟ scores of test.36 5. the students‟ improvement could be seen. grasp and use the words in context about 75 until 80 % of them. There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. They could pronounce.8 % of students became 94.07 7. remember. sea. captured. The students liked having exercises individually.

finally.29. the t-table higher than for 35 students is 2. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process and like having discussion with their friends. Next. They asked more questions than before. There were some reasons for stopping this research only in one cycle. it means that there is a significant difference between pre- test and post-test score. They were more active and attractive during teaching learning process. They were as follows: a) The aspects of vocabulary mastery were completed. The indicators showed that they were more active and enthusiastic during the teaching learning process. The students understood and grasped the meaning of the words easily.04. they had more concentration to do the exercises. the students‟ motivation increased when the short text were used. and they also could use the words in context appropriately. they did not do something useless . the researcher decided to stop the cycle. Meanwhile.73 3. They also raised their hands to answer the questions. they could write the words correctly. They also had more concentration to the lesson. Next. they could pronounce the words correctly.30. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. Considering the facts of some improvements dealing with teaching vocabulary by using short texts above. Since is . the students‟ motivation also increased. Beside the vocabulary mastery.

b) There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. At first from the students‟ vocabulary mastery.07 to 7.8 % became 94. in this case 60. The discussion helped them to understand the lesson and do the tasks well. From the pre-test and post-test score. and using the words. c) The researcher only had limited time to conduct the research. It was because the school would hold a mid term test for all the students. Here. grasp.36. They have their own worksheet that was completed with some short texts.74 during teaching learning process. The observation that was done showed that there were some improvements in students‟ vocabulary mastery aspects and students‟ motivation. spelling. They liked having discussion with their friends. the students could understand. so they could have more practices for enriching vocabulary mastery using short stories. The school gave two weeks to finish the implementation of the research. pronouncing. The students also could pronounce the words correctly. from 4. It could be understood since human brain has limit . the students did more practices and steps by steps in understanding. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score.3 %. and remember the meaning easily. grasping. Discussion The research findings came from the observation and the test scores. from 2. C. They also could use and write the words correctly.

and Jensen (1980: 285) also states that teaching English to children needs special techniques. “listen. Then. Young learners like to read and listen interesting stories. should know the techniques of teaching practically for example “listen and repeat”. Beside the new materials. After implementing the action. Second from the students‟ motivation. The students were more active and enthusiastic because the materials used were new materials. read and write”. especially the students at the back. Ur (1998) explains that there are three sources of young learners‟ attention in class. edu). teachers of English to young learners. say. They did some useless activities. as the young learners. and write”. question and answer”. The best way to add breadth and depth to child‟s vocabulary is by providing a variety of opportunities for new and interesting experience. there were also many kinds of interesting techniques used to teach short texts. story. Human also has limit memory to remember all at once (www. According to Linse (2005). the class situation became more active and enthusiastic. Next. They focused on the materials which were used . the students. were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. It made the students enjoy. more active and enthusiastic to follow the teaching learning process. namely pictures.75 capacity to absorb new things from surrounding. the students had more concentration during teaching learning process. such as talking with other students or disturbing their friends. and game. the situation in the class before implementing the action was described as some students were busy with themselves. Petty.ksmumail/human_brain.

They are active if they are suitable with the teacher‟s technique and they are far from teacher pressure (www.david399.76 through short texts. The amusing situation could make students become more enthusiastic.htm). vocabulary in story is presented in clear context and the amusing situation. According to Elli (1991:31). . Maya K. It matches with Elli‟s theory. David also states that one indicator which makes teaching learning process succeed is the active students during teaching learning process.

It could be seen from the aspects of vocabulary which are completed. they could rearrange the letters into a correct word. the students also could write the words correctly. . the students could understand and grasp the meaning easily. Conclusion Having conducted the research of teaching vocabulary by using short texts in Junior High School. the students could pronounce. First. IMPLICATION. Third. the researcher comes to a conclusion that teaching vocabulary by using short texts can improve the students‟ vocabulary. it can be seen that the implementation of teaching vocabulary by using short texts can effectively improve students‟ vocabulary. Based on the analysis of the result of the implementation of the actions which had been conducted to improve the students‟ vocabulary. They also could remember the meaning of the words easily. For example. in arranging the jumble letters. This is based on the facts found in accordance with the result of the action implemented to find answers to the problem statements. the students could pronounce the words correctly. The first is about the enrichment of the students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Second.77 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION. Fourth. AND SUGGESTION A. The more detailed results of the action implemented in this research were as follows.

they had more concentration to do the exercises. there was an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there were more students who achieved the minimum standard score. Beside that.04. from 4.29. from 2. .36.3 % of students. There were so many students who raised their hands to answer the question on the whiteboard or oral answer. The second is about the students‟ motivation. there was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. Meanwhile. The students were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process.8 % became 94. The difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was 3. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process.30. Next. Next. it means that there is a significant difference between pre-test and post- test score. They also liked having discussion with their friends. Most of the students gave more attention than before.78 understand. the t-table than for 35 students is 2. remember. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. grasp and use the words in context about 75-80 % of them correctly. Since is higher . The researcher found a good atmosphere in the class. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. in this case 60.07 to 7.

there is a significant improvement of students‟ vocabulary and improvement of students‟ learning activity after teaching used short texts to teach new vocabulary and to train the students in order to write and pronounce correctly. and media. The teacher can also conduct an oral test to make the students more motivated and attracted in teaching-learning process. materials. Through short texts. The teacher could use “listen and repeat”. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. In teaching English using short texts. say. read and write”. synonyms and definition. the teacher also can use the visual techniques such as mime and gesture and verbal techniques such as verbal explanation. antonyms in teaching vocabulary to the students.79 B. It implies that using short texts are good material to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery and also improve students‟ learning activity during teaching learning process. The students suggest using dictionary in translating the words. Implication Based on the conclusion of the study. students were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading. Beside the appropriate techniques. It is conducted by English teacher to make the students‟ more interested and more active in teaching-learning process and to avoid the boredom. question and answer”. Then. and write”. the teacher should choose appropriate techniques. “listen. The material in this case is . the teacher should have to choose the appropriate materials and media to teach vocabulary. writing and pronouncing correctly.

Students will be easy in . there is an improvement of students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. English teacher The English teachers should learn the characteristics of the students in order to know exactly what they need and what problems they faced on their development. and for school. 1. students. Besides. It is suitable with the material that used in the second year of junior high school. Suggestion After carrying out the researcher and obtaining the conclusion. By understanding those points. other researcher. The students can find the difficult words and their meaning. and then make analyses of the stories by their own words. The genre that is used is narrative. the English teachers should create an interesting and enjoyable situation of teaching learning process. The short texts have to contain new and old information to the students.80 short texts. the researcher would like to propose some suggestion directed to the English teacher. techniques. The materials have to appropriate with the syllabus that used in that school. and materials in improving the students‟ motivation in learning English based on certain condition. By implementing short texts using appropriate techniques and materials. It makes the students understand the stories well. C. the teacher could choose the most suitable method.

School The institution should state a policy in improving the quality of the teaching English for children. It also would avoid the boredom. It should also be facilitated with various media supporting the teaching activity. There are many other method.81 learning when the situation is interesting for them and the students will more enthusiastic. and materials of teaching English of Junior High School students that can be taken as objects of research to find out the effectiveness of teaching. 3. techniques. They can practice English in their daily life. Other researcher This study is just one of efforts in improving students‟ vocabulary. The students have to be more active and motivated to learn English. . It is expected that the finding of this study will be used as a starting point of the future research on similar problems. Students An instructional process will not be successful if students are not maximally involved in it. 2. techniques or materials. The students not only can study English in the class but also can study everywhere and every time. It should encourage the English teacher to be creative to use various method. 4.

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