ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS

A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010

Written by: Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi K2206029

Submitted to Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Undergraduate Degree of Education

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2010 i

APPROVAL

This thesis is approved by the consultants to be examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University.

Approved by

Consultant 1

Consultant 2

Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005

Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP. 19730205 200604 1 001

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This thesis is examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University and accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for achieving the Undergraduate Degree of Education in English. Place of the test Date of the test : :

The Board of Examiners 1. Chairman Drs. Suparno, M. Pd NIP. 19511127 198601 1 001 2. Secretary Dewi Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd. NIP. 19780818 200312 2 002 3. Consultant 1 Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005 4. Consultant 2 Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP 19730205 200604 1 001 (………………………) (……………………....) (………………………) (………………………)

Legalized by, Teacher Training and Education Faculty Sebelas Maret University The Dean

Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd NIP. 19600727 198702 1 001

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the students could understand. The results of this research show that short texts can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. remember. The results of the observation were in the form of field notes and photographs. At last. Then. observing or monitoring the action. The procedure of the research consisted of identifying the problems. Then. In the quantitative method. Then. and research findings.3% of students. The cycle consisted of four meetings.8% to 94. field notes. In the qualitative method. students iv .” Teacher Training and Education Faculty. pronounce. This study is based on the problem of the low vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Next. The mean score of the pre-test improves from 4. planning the action. implementing the action. The materials used in this research were short text. The results of this research imply that using short texts are good material to improve students’ vocabulary mastery and also improve students’ learning activity during teaching learning process. They can be seen from the aspects of vocabulary mastery and the students’ motivation. It is aimed at knowing whether using short texts can enrich the students’ vocabulary.36 in post-test.ABSTRACT Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi. this research also used descriptive statistics and the t-test of non-independent. write about 75 until 80 % of the words correctly and also use the words in context appropriately. they do not do something useless during teaching learning process. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. The techniques in collecting the data were qualitative and quantitative method. they also like having discussion with their friends. Through short texts. the researcher used tests. They are from 2. The test consisted of the pre-test and post-test. K2206029: “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). the students are more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. photographs. Sebelas Maret University. the improvement of students’ score can be seen from the differences between the pre-test and post-test. The improvement can be seen in the form of students’ achievements. First. reflecting the result of the observation. Besides that. the researcher used observations. the scores of the pre-test and post-test show that there is also an improvement of students who achieve the minimum standard score. It is also aimed at the improvement of the students’ achievement in teaching learning process using short stories. they have more concentration to do the exercises. from the students’ motivation. The research was conducted in one cycle. Second. and document analysis.07 to 7. from the aspect of the vocabulary mastery. grasp. The technique to analyze the test result was by comparing the mean score of pre-test and post-test. Surakarta 2010. that is 60.

were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading, writing and pronouncing correctly.

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MOTTO
“Mantapkan hati dan niat seraya berucap Bismillahirrahmanirrahim”

"No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross, no crown." (William Penn)

"Criticism should not be querulous and wasting, all knife and rootpuller, but guiding, instructive, inspiring." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

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DEDICATION

With deep profound love, this research is devoted to: 1. Her beloved father and mother, thank you. Nothing compares to what they have done for her. 2. Her beloved “eyang uti” and sisters “dek sha”, who always pray and encourage her. 3. Her best friends “pam, sopal, dee, lucy, jhono, anggit, riph, tika” who give her unbroken support, prayer, and cares. 4. Her all friends, who always support her. 5. Herself and her beautiful future.

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Teguh Sarosa. encouragement. The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University who had given his permission to write this thesis. S. for all his valuable guidance. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. The Headmaster of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo for the permission and advices for doing the research in SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. Hum. 5. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. The Head of the English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty for his advice. who helped and given her a chance to do the research. for all his valuable guidance. Abdul Asib. Dr.S..Pd. viii . the English teacher of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. 2. encouragement... advice. Praise be to ALLAH SWT who has given His blessing to the writer so that she can complete the writing of this thesis as a partial requirement for achieving the undergraduate degree of education in English Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University. the second consultant and academic consultant. Sugiyati. 4. M. advice. 3. the first consultant. The writer is also fully aware that her thesis can never be finished without the help of others during the process of writing. Mrs. M.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillahirabbil’alamin. Therefore. 6. in this occasion she would like to express her deepest gratitude and appreciation to the following: 1.

The second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo who participated well in the research. Her friends in the English Department of the year 2006 for their everlasting friendship. 2010  Rea  ix . Muthya. Didit Hermawan. 8. her sister. Lucy. Surakarta. and Aji. 11. for their supports. 10. Hopefully. her father. Yoyok Sandi Wibowo. Dewi. Her “best friends”. caring. 9. her grandmother. Everyone who helped the writer to conduct the research for his or her participation in writing this thesis. this thesis will be useful for the readers. Her incredible support. Pamrih. She hopes and accepts gratefully every comment and suggestion. Riana. The researcher realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect. Ariph and Atika for their supports and suggestions. June. and prayer.7. Anggi. 12. for his motivation to make the writer keep move on. her mother. Her beloved family.

..................... 11 d.................................................................. Background of the Study .......................................................... 9 A............ 1 B......................................................................... 1 A........ 10 c...... 7 E.................................................................... v DEDICATION ................................ The Benefits of the Study ................................................................... The Objectives of the Research ...... i APPROVAL........ xiii LIST OF TABLE ................................................ 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE.................. 19 x . vii TABLE OF CONTENT ........... ix LIST OF APPENDIXES ................. The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery ............... The Problems Statement ............. The Limitation of the Problem ................................................................... RATIONALE AND HYPHOTHESIS ........ 6 D................................................................................................................2005-2008 For Evaluation Only........................................................................................................................................... xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ..................................................................... Review on Related Literature ................................ vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ....... ii ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company...... General Concept of Vocabulary ......................... 13 e. 9 1............................ 9 b....................................................... Notion of Vocabulary ...... Vocabulary Mastery ....................................................................................................................................................... The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery ................................................................................................................. 6 C.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 a........................ The Importance of Vocabulary ........................................................................................................................................... TABLE OF CONTENT TITLE PAGE .. xiv LIST OF FIGURE .......................................................... iv MOTTO.......................................

.................................................................... The Characteristic of Children ............ 66 xi .................................. 34 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ..... 47 A.... 41 F............................... The Types of Motivation .................... Method of the Research ............................................................................... 30 a........................ 35 B.................................... The Notion of Young Learners ... The Characteristic of Motivated Students ................. Introduction ............... 49 1. Validity of the Instrument................................. The Concept of Text .................................................................... 25 3... Reliability of the Instrument ............................................................................... Technique of Collecting Data ........................... Research Implementation .................... The Notion of Folktales ........................... Essences of Short Text ........................................................ 47 B........ 45 I.......................................... 44 G....... 36 C........... The Concept of Story . Rationale .............................................. 28 b.............. 23 a............................................................................................................................................................ The General Concept of Young Learners .......................................................... 28 a........................... The Notion of Motivation .............................................................................................. Observing and Monitoring the Action ........................................................................... 31 c....2.............................. The Definition of Motivation . The Model of Action Research ...... The Criteria of Successful Action ........... 23 b................ Planning the Action ................................ 50 2.. 46 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION .................................................................... 33 C...... 30 b.............................................................................................. 51 3........................... 24 c................... Setting and Subject of the Research ...... 32 B......... 35 A..................... Technique of Data Analysis ....................................................... Hypothesis ............................. 37 D.................................................................. 28 4................................... 45 H. The Procedures of Action research. The Description of the Research ........................................... 39 E..

................. 79 C......................... 77 A.......... 77 B.................................. Implication .................................. 81 4.................. 69 5........................... SUGGESTION .... 81 3..........................................4............................. English Teacher......... 80 1..................................................... 80 2.................... 74 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION............................... 81 BYBLIOGRAPHY xii ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... Other Researcher ................................................ Discussion ..................................... Reflecting the Result of the Observation ........................................................ Research Finding.................................................. IMPLICATION.............................................. School.............................. Conclusion .............................. 72 C........... Students ........... Suggestion .

................................. 153 Appendix 12 : The Students’ Pre-test and Post Test Score ...................................... 82 Appendix 2 : The Photographs . 159 Appendix 15 : The Students’ Test and Worksheet done by the Students .............................. 118 Appendix 6 : Blue Print of Vocabulary Test .................................. 85 Appendix 3 : Lesson Plans ............................................ 155 Appendix 13 : The Computation of Validity and Reliability ....................... 102 Appendix 5 : Field Notes ..................................................................................................... 157 Appendix 14 : The Computation of T-Test ....................................... 160 Appendix 16 : Key Answer of Worksheet ................................................................... 150 Appendix 11 : Students Score before the Action ..................................................................................................... 236 Appendix 17 : Letters of Permission ................................................................................ 145 Appendix 8 : Key Answer of the Test ................................................ 90 Appendix 4 : Students’ Worksheet ....... 148 Appendix 9 : The Research Schedule ............................ 149 Appendix 10 : Syllabus of KTSP ......................... 144 Appendix 7 : Pre and Post Test Items ..................................................... 244 xiii ..............................................................................................LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix 1 : Description of location SMP N 5 Sukoharjo ..............................................................................................................

..................................................................................LIST OF TABLE Table 1 Table 2 : The Steps in Action Research.. 43 : Improvement of the Students’ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts ..................................... 70 xiv ....................

.... 38 xv ...............................LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1.. An Illustration of Action Research Spiral ..............

and culture. Background of the Study Mastering of a foreign language is one of the important things that is needed in modern society and globalization era. The importance can be seen from some sides of life. both of in spoken and written form. English is one of the native languages used to improve students‟ ability. It has a function as a bridge for all aspects of human life. society. it can be said that mastering foreign language is very important for surviving life. technology. That is the most important reason why English is learned in school. such as trade. education.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. So. In education. so does English. there are so many kinds of foreign language. science. As it is known. for example is job requirement. It has been discussed before that foreign language has many functions. one of the requirements is language competence. Then. It is because language is one of instruments which has important functions in communication. . communication. English is one of the important foreign languages. there are many education books that are written in foreign languages. As quoted in Undang-Undang Sisdiknas (2003: 15) “bahasa asing dapat digunakan sebagai bahasa pengantar pada satuan pendidikan tertentu untuk mendukung kemampuan berbahasa asing peserta didik”.

especially English language. 3. and Girard (1992: 23-24) define some reasons for starting to learn a foreign language earlier. teaching English at junior high school is extremely important because it is still the basis for the higher level. 2. The need to link communication to understanding of view concepts. The advantage of starting with early second language instruction so that later the language can be used as a medium of teaching. It also maximizes . Ellis. First. Second. Singleton in Brumfit (1997: 7) also defines some reasons for teaching English at primary level. at junior high school is very important. Brewster. Third. The need to expose children from an early age to understanding of foreign cultures so that they grow up tolerant and sympathetic to others. 4. it prepares young learners to make a link of communication to understand concept of communication it self. The need for maximum learning time for important languages. they are: 1. the indisputable fact those young learners have a greater facility for understanding and imitating what they hear than adult. teaching English to young learner is aimed to increase the total number of years spent learning language. the aim of early foreign language learning is to prepare young learner linguistically. and culturally for language learning. By learning foreign language earlier. the earlier you start the more time you get. psychologically.2 Actually. it can be concluded that studying foreign language. From some statements above.

writing. here are the junior high students. it is not easy to teach English for the young learners. It should not be neglected by anyone who learns a language. a teacher has many problems to develop the students‟ vocabulary mastery. For beginners. Coady and Huckin (1998: 5) say that vocabulary is the central to language and of critical importance to language learning for the young learners. It makes them know and understand a lot of vocabularies. the earlier they start the more time they get. The words here means as vocabulary. They will more understand what they have learned. speaking. There are many kinds of students‟ characteristic. One of the problems that are faced is the characteristics of the students as young learners. the students need something to do. vocabulary mastery is the basic knowledge in learning English. Firstly. and reading). For enhancing all aspects in foreign language. the students need to understand the meaning of words. Vocabulary supports all of the English skills. Therefore. it will make other person understand or make ourselves understood easily. First. especially English skills (listening. Sometimes. knowing words is the key for understanding and being understood. Considering the importance of vocabulary competence. Knowing more words in English language. So it can be concluded that vocabulary takes the important aspect to master English well as a foreign language. Then. They will forget some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat . it is better to introduce new vocabulary earlier to the students. young learners forget something quickly.3 learning time for learning foreign language.

or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. especially in vocabulary mastery.4 the words many times. the researcher finds out that the students‟ vocabulary mastery is still low. Here. technique. young learners still like playing. magazine. young learners get bored easily. so the . It may be caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate and attractive. Most of materials come from the teachers. it is important to find out the appropriate. They always discuss about something in their around while playing. By using the appropriate method. It is clear that repetition is needed. So. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. There are no materials from other sources like internet. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. it makes the students less interested and do not be active in teaching learning process. technique. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students‟ acts as follows: firstly. Second. The method. They prefer playing than studying. So. etc. Third. the teachers have to find out the appropriate. The teaching learning process uses teacher centre in delivering the lessons. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. technique or and material. After having pre research by interviewing the teacher and observing teaching learning process of mastering vocabulary at the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. there are no interesting technique that used by the teacher. The materials used in teaching learning process only from books and students worksheet. In teaching learning process. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery.

She wants to make the students interested by using the teaching material of short texts. Beside that the students will be easy to write down the correct words or group words.5 students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. The correct arrangement is “winter” but students rearrange them become “writen”. Most of the students forget to write down the second letter. The other difficulties that the students faced when they do an exercise on jumble word. the students write the word only “sudenly”. . It can be seen when they find some words that have double letters. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. It is because there are no appropriate learning sources that used to help the students for remembering the materials that are given. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words. Thirdly. The students usually get mistake to rearrange into the correct word. Due to the facts above. Example is the word “n-t-w-i-r-e”. She uses short texts because short texts will help to solve the problems that are faced by the students. Secondly. students‟ marks are still lower than the passing grade. the researcher tries to enrich vocabulary mastery of the students using short texts. From the indicators that are mentioned above. Short text is one of an interesting material that helps the students to find out the keys to remember and grasp many new vocabularies. For example the word “suddenly”. The students also get difficulties when they have to translate the words. It is because all words or group word are inside of the short texts.

the researcher wants to prove whether or not the short texts can improve students‟ vocabulary mastery in learning English at the junior high school. The Problems Statement Based on the background of study. C. The problems of the study can be formulated as follows: 1. How is the students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? . The Limitation of the Problem The research has a broad scope and it is impossible for the researcher to handle the study consisting of so many complicated problems. the researcher would like to conduct a research to solve the problem and also enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery by using short stories entitled “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS” (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). B.6 Based on the description above. Therefore. Can short texts enrich vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? 2. the researcher limits the problem on how to enrich the students‟ vocabulary mastery using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010.

. in this case is short texts. It will help the teacher to identify the students‟ difficulties in learning vocabulary and also find the students who need more guiding. the data of the research are also very useful for the teacher.7 D. The Objectives of the Research Based on the formulation of the problem. Then. Whether using short texts can enrich the students‟ vocabulary of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. So the teacher hoped to create an interesting teaching learning process by using this teaching material. The Benefits of the Study It is expected that this research contributes some significant progresses in teaching vocabulary for several sides. Particularly. the general objective of this research is to improve students‟ vocabulary by using short texts. they are: 1. E. this research is aimed to find out: 1. Then. The students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. 2. the teacher can take some correct problems solving from those problems. Teacher It is expected that the teacher will get more information about one of the appropriate teaching materials.

Students It is expected that the result will give motivation to the students to be better in vocabulary mastery.8 2. students are expected to have good enrichment in vocabulary and also the changes of behavior during teaching learning process. . Through short texts. School It is expected that the information of the result will be very useful for getting success in teaching learning process. 3. The result of the research is also hoped to improve students‟ achievement in English lesson standard. so the quality of teaching learning process can be increased.

General Concept of Vocabulary a. for example post office.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) state that vocabulary is a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. the only system involved is alphabetical order in dictionaries. 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE (RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESIS) A. vocabulary is written in alphabetical order in dictionaries based on system or rule of foreign language. Furthermore. Notion of Vocabulary There are some definitions of vocabulary proposed by linguist experts. Ur (1998: 60) defines that vocabulary can be mean as the words we teach in foreign language. if someone learns new words in foreign language. McWhorter (1989: 311) says that vocabulary means the ability to recognize individual words and to associate . Review On Related Literature 1. It means vocabulary is written or spoken unit of language as symbol of idea in foreign language for the learners.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. mother-in-law. Since vocabulary is a list. which expressing a single idea. Here. it means that someone learns vocabulary. For example. The items in vocabulary may be more than a single word.

The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary is an important aspect in our life. Ur adds that vocabulary deals with word taught in foreign language.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. groups of letter that stand for. the word love on the other hand. Meanwhile. and used to for sitting. usually supported by four legs. vocabulary deals with a series of words in particular language. Words are symbols. vocabulary is the competence or skill in recognizing words and its meaning. McWhorter states that vocabulary deals with the competence in recognizing words and its meaning. the word chair in our minds a physical reality. either a physical object or an idea. It is because people need vocabulary in expressing their ideas both of in mother . an object with a flat surface. vocabulary can be constructed as a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Then. 10 meaning with the particular combination of letters that form a word. Then. or represent. Based on Hatch and Brown. For example. Based on three definitions above. In the other word. It symbolizes the feeling of one person toward another. does not represent a physical object. recognizing words means knowing its meaning or idea and how they are formed by a combination of letters. b. The words here are the symbols in form of groups of letter represent either a physical object or an idea. It can be formed from a single or more than one word.

Vocabulary always becomes the essential part of English as a foreign language. Edge (1993: 27) states that knowing a lot of words in foreign language are very important. and a feeling. learning a language becomes a very hard thing to do and communication in second language cannot happen in any meaningful way. or knowledge. use. it will be difficult to accept the existence of an object.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Without a name. A strong vocabulary can be a valuable asset. c. Tailor (1991: 1) says that in order to live in the world. both in college and later in our career. While Hornby (1984:523) says that mastery is the complete control or . Every person who learns a language must learn the vocabulary of the language in order to make the learning process easier. 11 tongue and foreign language. In language learning. According to the statement above. Names are essential for the construction of reality.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Without vocabulary mastery. It means mastery is the ability to use one of knowledge. it can be concluded that vocabulary is very important in learning language and mastering vocabulary will facilitate someone in using language in communication. vocabulary plays an important role. Vocabulary Mastery Coulson et al (1987: 1050) define that mastery is skill. Cross (1995: 14) states that a good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication. an event. we must name objects.

adult period. this term the vocabulary are used more and more intensive because they make more communication each other. So. The vocabulary mastery can not be done spontaneous but step by step. mastery is the whole power or ability to direct knowledge. children period. vocabulary mastery can be constructed as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. this term children are able to define concept vocabulary to say their concrete idea. First. Here.12 knowledge. either a physical object or an idea and it also can be formed from a single or more than one word. adolescent period. It is usually arranged by a standard of curriculum and syllabus in every aspect whether the topic or the test. The process of vocabulary mastery is not simple. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. from both of definitions above. . in case of the physical object or idea. It means mastery is the ability to combine skill and knowledge in one certain area. While vocabulary is a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning in form of symbols of groups of letter. Third. Second. Keraf (1989: 6566) defines the step in processing vocabulary mastery. The certain area in teaching means a lesson taught. this term is the adolescent start to use the language and make it more extensive directly in simple communication.

prose. The success of teaching learning process depends on not only the teachers‟ and students‟ competence but also the technique of teaching. means a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. The teachers may have some techniques to teach it. They are direct and indirect techniques. and science lesson. Then indirect technique uses the other source of lesson like mathematic. d. The techniques are the unplanned vocabulary teaching and planned vocabulary teaching. There are some techniques of teaching vocabulary. social lesson. in case of the physical object or idea. While vocabulary. The technique here refers to the way of teaching. There are two techniques in improving vocabulary mastery. Then vocabulary mastery define as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. Unplanned vocabulary teaching is . mastery may be defined as the ability to use skill or knowledge in one subject area based on recognized standard. The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery There are various ways to improve vocabulary mastery. poetry and games.13 From the definition above. Direct technique is usually used through the language book. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. there are so many techniques proposed by some experts. Dealing with the technique of vocabulary teaching.

They are: 1) Demonstrate Demonstration is the way of teaching vocabulary by doing physical demonstration together verbal explanation. stagger. The demonstration helps to make the meaning clearer and to fix the word in the students‟ minds. etc. The objects of the real things can be in the class or probably through the window.14 extemporaneous teaching of vocabulary items that come up without planning in course of lesson. 2) Use the real thing In this way. Sometimes the explanation is no more complicated than pointing. For examples. Beside that it also helps students to memorize both of visual and aural memories. the teachers present vocabulary items by bringing the real things into classroom. While Lewis and Hill (1992: 102-103) mention some ways to teach vocabulary. chuckle. . The planned vocabulary teaching can be described as “the vocabulary lesson” since the primary objective of the teaching activities is the presentation and practice of the lexical item themselves. while planned vocabulary teaching where the teacher goes into classroom with an item or a set of vocabulary items that the teacher has decided before hand.

Here. orange (color). For example: light bag >< heavy bag light word >< strong word rough area >< quite area poor >< rich dirty >< clean happy >< sad red orange yellow certainly / definitely probably / possibly .15 3) Draw or sketch Teachers do not need to be artists to make simple sketches which illustrate meaning. the learners have to be aware that a word may have different opposite in difficult context. It is worth that the explanations given here are not exact definitions of the word. 4) Use the blackboard to show scales or grades Words like cool. or probably may be explained by presenting them with groups of related words: Hot warm cool cold 5) Antonyms This is the way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites or antonyms of the word. the level of the explanation must be suitable to the students‟ level of English at the time so that dictionary. For example the meaning of bush was explained by two very simple sketches. like accuracy can often be counter-productive.

using the former phrase also helps to build up in the students‟ mind ides that language consists of choice. 8) Verbal explanation Verbal explanation refers to the way of teaching vocabulary by explaining the meaning of vocabulary items in students‟ own language.16 rough texture >< smooth texture 6) Synonyms high >< low Synonyms are the way of teaching vocabulary by giving same meaning of two or more words. Beside that. asking one or more students to look the word up in a dictionary. 9) Translation It is a way of teaching vocabulary by translating some words or individual words from the target language into other language. that words do not mean the same as each other. 7) The dictionary This is the way of teaching vocabulary by using dictionary to know vocabulary items. It is . One technique for explaining these which teachers too frequently overlook is asking the class whether anybody knows the word and. or not. their connotation meanings often differ. Though words may have similar denotation meaning. A bilingual dictionary can be used at low levels and monolingual dictionary at the high levels.

and certain areas of vocabulary such as places. making use of blackboard and gesture to reinforce the concept. In this technique. a teacher might build a situation to illustrate it.17 seen as boring and traditional. if the class consists of different nationalities. They are: 1) Visual techniques a) Visual These include flashcards. Furthermore. To ensure that students understand. When teaching an item such as “to swerve”. photographs. descriptions of people. 2) Verbal Techniques a) Use illustrative situation (oral or written) This is most helpful when items become more abstract.e. b) Mime and gesture These are often used to supplement other ways of conveying meaning. wallcharts. They are extensively used for conveying meaning and particularly useful for teaching concrete items of vocabulary such as furniture. blackboard drawings. Gairns (1991: 73-75) says that there are some techniques used in presenting new vocabulary. professions. teachers often make use of . and realia (i. and activities. actions. objects themselves). the teacher will find difficulty to translate the word(s) into all languages.

c) Contrast and opposites Contrast and opposites are they way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites of the words.18 more than one situation or context to check that students have grasped the concept. b) Use of synonymy and definition Definition here is the way of teaching vocabulary by defining or describing objects. this can be a useful way of revising and feeding in new items. d) Scales Once students have learnt two contrasting or related gradable items. it is vital to illustrate the contexts in which this is true. Synonymy is also the way of teaching by giving more than one meaning for a word. However. This is the example of adverbs of frequency: never hardly ever occasionally I sometimes often always go to cinema on Sundays .

It can save valuable time in teaching process but it seen as boring and traditional. verbal explanation and translation techniques to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery. Some of these can of course also be dealt with through visual aids. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. synonyms. it can be defined as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that is used to express meaning. The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery Dealing with the vocabulary mastery. the researcher uses definition. In this paper. the students can understand and grasp the vocabulary easily. sofa. bed. dictionary. chair. 3) Translation Translation can be very effective way of conveying meaning. it is also hoped that by using these techniques. antonyms. It is because the techniques that are mentioned are usually used in school. The example of “furniture” is “table. Then. e. The teacher will find difficulties if the students come from different nationalities. mime and gesture.19 e) Examples of type This is the way of teaching vocabulary by exemplifying things it self. in case of the physical object or idea. . etc”.

20 Thornbury (2002: 27) declares some factors why learning vocabulary is rather difficult for second language learner. and range. The example is when an Indonesian student has an English subject at school and it is the second language for her or him. Those six aspects above will be defined briefly here. such as strength or crisp or breakfast. how to spell. what‟s the meaning. Thornbury says that the factors come from the word‟s aspects such pronunciation. Here. and can contribute to a . 2) Spelling Sound. are also problematic. Potentially difficult words will typically be those that contain sounds that are unfamiliar to some groups of learners. It is because she or he should know the appropriate word. She or he can not understand the lesson easily.spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors. 1) Pronunciation Research shows that words that are difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn. either of pronunciation or of spelling.such as regular and lorry for Japanese speakers. meaning. etc to express the idea of the subject. If those factors are fulfilled. grammar. connotation and idiomatic are the indicators in vocabulary mastery. how to pronunce. length and complexity. Many learners find that words with clusters of consonants. someone can be said that he or she has achieved the vocabulary mastery. spelling.

. Spanish learners of English. While most English spelling is fairly law-abiding. for example. cupboard. headache. there are also some glaring irregularities. muscle. Furthermore. Remembering whether a verb like enjoy. a factor favoring their „learn ability‟. and therefore the learner is likely to meet them more often. high frequency words tend to be short in English. variable stress in polysyllabic words. as a rule of thumb. tend to assume that explain follows the same pattern as both Spanish explicar and English tell. Then the grammar of phrasal verbs is particularly troublesome: some phrasal verbs are separable (she looked the word up) but others are not (she looked after the children). However. and say he explained me the lesson. bored.21 word‟s difficulty. love. listen. necessity and necessarily can add to their difficulty.such as in word families like necessary. etc. especially if this differs from that of its L 1 equivalent. 3) Length and complexity Long words seem to be no more difficult to learn than short ones. Words that contain silent letters are particularly problematic: foreign. 4) Grammar It is problematic when grammar associated with the word. climbing. or hope is followed by an infinitive (to swim) or an –ing form (swimming) can add to its difficulty. honest.

. and still. learners are likely to confuse them. culture specific items such as words and expressions associated with the game cricket (a sticky wicket. Make and do are a case in point: you make breakfast and make an appointment. Thus. swap for exchange) may cause problems. Thus. totally different. slim. Thus put is a very wide-ranging verb. 6) Range. a hat trick. can also be troublesome for learners. they may be reluctant to accept a second. slender. thin is a safer bet than skinny. Uncertainly to the connotations of some words may cause problems too. position. propaganda has negative connotations in English. The words with multiple meanings such as since. The words have style constraints. compare to impose.22 5) Meaning When two words overlap in meaning. but its nearest equivalent in other languages may dean deviant. Having learned one meaning of the word. connotation and idiomaticity Words that can be used in a wide range of context will generally be perceived as easier than their synonyms with a narrower range. but you do the housework and do a questionnaire. Likewise. etc. and a good innings) will seem fairly opaque to most learners and are likely to be easily learned. Unfamiliar concepts may make a word difficult to learn. place. such as very informal words (chuck for throw. Finally. meaning.

those three aspects that are learned in junior high school. topic. form. as well as their syntactic complexity that makes phrasal verbs so difficult. It is because. From all those definition above. Willis (1998: 67) says that text in general sense to mean a continuous piece of spoken or written language.23 words or expression that are idiomatic (like make up your mind. graphic features. intended readership. spelling. watch). Arthur Hughes (2003:140) states that texts candidates are expected to be able to deal with can be specified along number of parameters: type. It is their idiomaticity. Essences of Short Text a. . The Concept of Text Brown and Yule (1997: 24) suggest that the term to spoke “text” as well. we conclude that vocabulary mastery is the students‟ awareness of understanding the words and their rules to communicate. 2. keep an eye on…) will generally be more difficult than words whose meaning is transparent (decide. The aspects to be measured are limited to pronunciation of words. where “text” means verbal record communication. They also differentiate the term of those text and discourse dealing with the context. the use of words in meaning and meaning. Texts in this sense are printed texts. length. style.

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readability or difficulty, range of vocabulary and grammatical structure. Text type include: text books, handouts, articles (in newspaper, journals or magazine), poems, encyclopedia, dictionary, novel (extracts) and short stories, etc. He also states that text forms include: description, exposition, argumentation, instruction, and narration. Cross (1995:77-78) states that the text is a major resources; permitting you to vary the learning activities from lesson to lesson. There are four main factors to consider when deciding how to threat a passage; linguistic complexity, length, interest level and aims. From the definition above, it can be concluded that the text is a verbal communication which consists of continuous piece of spoken or written language and its meaning is contextually. b. The Concept of Story Story is account of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events, etc (Hornby: 1995: 94). Taylor (2000: 16) says that story is relating tale to one or more listener through voice and gesture. It is clear that vocabulary in a story should be presented in clear context; the amusing situations can make the vocabulary easy to remember. Ray B. West (1968: v) says that story is something brought into being by application of the skill and workings of the imagination of the author. Its aim is to arouse the emotions and stimulate the imagination of the students.

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Brad Hooper (1992: xi) says that story is different from a novel in that it is short enough to be read in one sitting, with every word leading toward some final, preordained effect. In story, the sentences are generally shorter in order the students easy to follow the story. From the statements above, the writer draw conclusion that story refers to the written or spoken description of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events that can be used to for teaching students which have aims to make the students easier to follow the story and it has different from a novel that is short enough to be read in one sitting. This paper, the writer uses the story as text especially folktale for increasing vocabulary mastery in second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo Academic Year 2009/2010. c. The Notion of Folktales One kind of story that usually heard by child is the folktales. It is type words composition that recites the story of the folklore in a certain region that is popularly and orally told from one generation to other generation in a certain community. (www.classicalfolktale.wikipedia.com) 1) The meaning of Folktales The word folktale is not defined in English usage. Taylor (2000:4) defines the term “folktale” as traditional story that has been

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passed by words of mouth, told from parents to children over many generations or passed on by countless storytellers sitting around countless evening fires. No one knows who the original author was, and there are usually different versions of the same story, he also states that the term “folktale” has also been used to refer to literary retelling of these tales. Another definition of folktales is that “words folktales refer to the many types of traditional narratives know to the “folk” (Coffin and Cohen, 1996:1). Philips (1992) defines folktales as story about telling stories with unverifiable claims and its literary form. From the definition above, we can assume that folktales are traditional stories that have been passed by words of mouth and told from generation to generation. Folktales lasted through a long period of time due to their universality. They are forms of traditional literature which began as attempt to explain and understand the natural and spiritual world. The origin of folktales lies in oral tradition. 2) The type of folktales There are several types of folktales. Taylor (2000) divides folktales as fable, fairy tales, hero stories, myths, legend. Fables are very short folktales with animals as the main characteristic and with very obvious moral lesson, often summon up in single line at the end.

Examples: Tumbelina. Hero stories some of which have some real historical parts and other of which may not. Examples “Johnny Appleased” and “Pail Bunyan”. 3) The Characteristics of Folktales Although there a lot of variations between folktales.27 Legend is stories that are based on real hero and his or her mighty deeds. is religious and deals with the creating and ordering of the universe and with the earlier order in which present world condition were being established. And believed by the teller and served as historical purpose: “The dog and the meat” and “the greedy old spider”. It is told as if they are fact. Fairy tales are fictional and take place in a never-land. and usually involving God. and even between two telling stories of the same tale. Example: “Shakespeare‟s Ghost” and “Paul Bunyan”. certain characteristics typical in folktales contribute to relatively easy reading. Goddesses and supernatural power: “Adam and Eve” and “Noah‟s ark”. Legends are stories that are based on a real hero and his or her mighty deeds and believed by the teller and serve a historical purpose. when strictly defined. Fairy tales are folktales that include some magical elements (not necessity fairies): the German word marchen is sometimes used for this. Taylor . primitive myth.

children have the following characteristics: . The General Concept of Young Learners a. These are the list: time order repetition and redundancy predictability relatively simply grammar concrete ideas illustrations that provide support and context for the texts a unique reader-write relationship 3.28 (2000:9) gives various characteristics of folktales that make them exceptionally good for language teaching. they need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. The Characteristic of Children In general. The Notion of Young Learners Teaching English to children is different from teaching English to and adult. It means that the English teacher should be use the technique for English teaching that can make the students interested in learning English Lesson (House. In relation to the English teaching learning process. 1997: 98) b.

They develop their way of thinking from the concrete to the abstract thing.29 1) They like playing Children like playing. . and ears Children will be understandings about what we talk are using hands. They more like playing than learning. and ears. eyes. 3) Their own understanding comes through hands. They teach subject what school provides for them 3) Children are still developing their common skill such as turn taking and the use of body language. eyes. They tend to resolves around themselves. They learn more slowly. 2) Children have no real linguistic. Hence from that to convey the material of learning we should be able to take both. 4) Young children are very egocentric. that is playing and learning in the same time. So material of teaching that will be teaching is about their surrounding and happened in that time. Clark (1990: 6-8) states the characteristics of the children are as follows: 1) Children are developing conceptually. 2) They talk about “Here and Now” Children always discuss about existing in their around and happened in that time.

Thus. The class activities must be fun and interesting by setting up the interesting activities. 6) Children are at early of their education. Therefore. the teacher in teaching English needs repetition. 8) Children forget quickly. ensuring success and enhancing the children‟s motivation are important factors in promoting the success of early start in foreign language learning. it can be conclude that young learner need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. It is because motivation will influence someone both in process and result. especially in teaching learning process. 4.30 5) Children get bored easily children have no choice to attend school. The Notion of Motivation a. 7) Children are better mimics. It will take them more confident in attempting the sound of foreign language and they delighted in playing the sound. it is very important for teachers to know about motivation. From the definition above. The Definition of Motivation Motivation is needed in every occasion. of course based on their characteristics in teaching learning English lesson. .

. pushes us in particular direction. From the definition above it can be concluded that motivation is an arousal. Biggs and Watkins (1995: 84) state that there are four categories of motivation.31 Some experts define some definition of motivation. Then. While intrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because they are interested in task or activities itself. Extrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because of consequences to obtain a reward and to avoid the punishment. or desire that moves and leads learner to do a particular action in order to meet and needs or to attain a set of goals of teaching learning process. intrinsic motivation. their willingness to engage in teaching learning activities and their reasons for doing this. impulse. b. namely: extrinsic motivation. Weiner (in Elliot et al. and keep us engaged in certain activities. 2000: 332) says that motivation is internal states that arouses us to action. Next. Groccia (1992: 62) states that people learn and study because the consequences of such behavior satisfy certain internal and/or external motives. achievement motivation. social motivation. Brophy (1998: 3) says that motivation refers to the students‟ subjective experiences. The Types of Motivation There are many kinds of learning motivation stated by the experts.

Positive task oriented. 2). The learner has needs to achieve. The learner finds it important to succeed in learning and promote his or her own positive self-image. Then instrumental motivation is to wish to learn the language for purposes of study or carrier. Need for achievement.32 Achievement motivation. Integrative motivation is the desire to identify with and integrate into target language culture. they are those who display certain typical characteristic. high proficiency. They are integrated motivation and instrumental motivation. the students learn in order to compete against the other students. and has confidence in his or her success. those are as follows: 1). to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do. social motivation is defined as the students‟ motivation in order to make the other people feel pleasure. The learner is ambitious. c. goes for demanding challenges. top grades. High aspiration. Ego-involvement. most of them clearly associated with motivation. The learner willing to tackle tasks and challenges. that is winning makes they feel good. in Ur (1996: 275) comes to conclusion that the most successful students are not necessary those to whom a language comes very easily. 3). . Ur (1996: 19) defines some kinds of motivation. The Characteristic of Motivated Students Naiman et al. 4). Then.

It is caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate on their level. Rationale In learning English vocabulary. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students as follows: firstly. and it is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack progress. The learner consistently invests a high level of effort in learning. B. or of specific learning activities. Thirdly. The students‟ vocabulary mastery of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010 is still low. Secondly. They could . and directs his or her effort towards achieving them. Tolerance of ambiguity. The learner is very aware of the goals of learning. 6). 7). there are difficulties that might be faced by the learners especially the young learners. Perseverance.33 5). the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. It can be seen when they do the exercises. The learner is not disturbed or frustrated by situations involving a temporary lack of understanding will come later. Goal orientation. Most of the students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words and then translate them.

By using short texts. the researcher believes that short texts can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery. Short texts are interesting materials in teaching language. One of the teaching materials that can be used is the short texts. especially for the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic Year of 2009/2010.34 not do the exercises perfectly. Most of their marks are still lower than the passing grade. Considering the explanation above. . the teacher helps the students to remember the words and understand the meaning and also the grammatical pattern of the sentences easily. Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research can be formulated as follows: by using short texts. The teaching materials should be suitable with the young learners‟ characteristics. C. the students can improve their vocabulary mastery. the teacher should create an interesting teaching material. So.

The aim was to master vocabulary by using short stories. There are 35 students for class A. and the posttest. 35 CHAPTER III RESEACH METODHOLOGY A. Subject of the Research The subject of this research is the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Setting of place This research was done in SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo. the post-test was done on the sixth meeting. . Sukoharjo Regency. The details are the pre-test. The pre-test was done on the first meeting. Next. It is because there is a problem related with students‟ vocabulary mastery. the treatments. It was done for knowing the students‟ improvement after using short texts in teaching learning process. consist of 11 boys and 24 girls.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Last. It was done for knowing the students‟ basic ability of the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Post test was done on the six meeting. Sukoharjo. 3. 1.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Time of research This research held on a cycle on second semester in the academic year of 2009/2010. Setting and Subject of the Research. This school is located at Bulakan. the treatments were done on the second until five meeting. 2.

though it is often undertaken by individuals and sometimes in cooperation with outsiders. Rapport (1970) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is aimed to contribute both to the practical concern of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of the school science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework. it is necessary to give a definition of action research. Method of the Research This research is a kind of action research. Dewi Rochsantiningsih (2008) defines action research as: “proses sistematis di mana guru dengan sukarela melibatkan diri untuk melakukan refleksi dokumentasi.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. For a starting point. (b) their understanding to these practices. 36 B. dan atau tindakan untuk lebih memahami hakekat dan atau konsekuensi mengajar dengan tujuan untuk melakukan tindakan atau menguabah atau meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dan lebih baik bila dilakukan secara kolaboratif dengan kolega atau teman guru. Ebbutt (1985) in Hopkins (1993: 45) states action research is about the systematic study of attempts to improve educational practice by groups of participants by means of their own practical actions and by means of own reflection upon the effects of those actions. . and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out. It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company.” Kemmis (1983) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices. Meanwhile.

Based on the definition and the aims above.37 Furthermore. Often. Action research is usually less rigorous in term of design and methodology than other educational researches. the implementation of the classroom action research includes four steps in the following: . it is hoped that the researcher will find the solution for developing the students‟ vocabulary mastery. By participating the actions in this research. According to the model. research conducted by a teacher. only a single group or individual is involved in the study. Action research focuses on the solution of day-to-day problems at the local level. it can be concluded that action research is a systematic study and it is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken or carried out by participants in educational situation rather than outside researches to solve the problem in order to improve the students‟ ability. intact groups are used in some cases. this research is done to increase the students‟ vocabulary mastery through short texts. C. From the definition above. administrator. Wiersma (2000: 10) states one type of applied research is action research. The Model of Action Research The model of classroom action research used in this study is based on the model developed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1985). or other educational professionals to aid in decision making in the local school.

Action Act to implement the plan. Planning Develop a plan of critically informed action to improve what is already happening. Reflection Reflecting process on these effects as the basis for further planning. Observation Observe the effects of the critically informed action in the context in which it occurs. 2. 4. 3.38 1. Based on Hopkins‟ point of views (1993: 48) this model can be illustrated as follow. through a succession of a stages. subsequent critically informed and so on. .

Preparing a test. b. interviewing the students. e. It was done to know whether students‟ vocabulary could be improved or not. There are follows: 1. It was obtained by observing the teaching learning process. Identifying the problems The researcher identified the problem before planning the action. Planning the action The researcher prepared everything related to the action as follows: a. . Preparing teaching aids. 2. Preparing the material. c. and conducting a pre-test. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of teaching learning process when the technique is applied). d.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Designing the steps in doing the action. The problem was caused by the technique of delivering material which was not suitable and interesting to the learners. Planning the steps and technique for delivering the material in the form of lesson plan. The Procedures of Action Research In this classroom action research.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. f. each procedure takes five steps in one cycle. 39 D. The problem referred to the students‟ difficulty in learning vocabulary.

the researcher reviewed the material. and drilled the students. The researcher presented the material by giving a worksheet one by one to the students. Implementing the action The researcher implemented the teaching learning activity of vocabulary using short texts. The researcher stimulated the students to try guessing some words related to the stories.40 3. b. The researcher gave the students individual task. After doing the practices. f. The researcher gave explanation about the words. Observing and monitoring the action The researcher observed all activities in the teaching learning process and created a conducive atmosphere in a class. c. d. The researcher gave the students time to make note in their book. The researcher discussed the answer of task with the students i. g. 4. h. . pronounced them correctly. The researcher gave the students oral task by pointing the students one by one to guess and pronounce the words that are related to the stories shown by teacher to check whether the students had understood. The real implementations were generally presented as follows: a. The researcher greeted the students and checked the students‟ attendance at the beginning of class. e.

Evaluating and Reflecting the result of the observation The researcher evaluated all actions in the cycle. as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur. photograph. Qualitative method consists of observation. . observes the teaching learning process done by the teacher and the students. The teacher takes the position behind the class while observing the teaching learning process and makes a note all things about what happen during the teaching learning process. Technique of Collecting Data The techniques of collecting data are qualitative and quantitative method. interview. E. field notes. document analysis.41 5. The researcher observed the actions to find the problems of the activities that had been carried out in using short stories in teaching vocabulary. Based on Burns (1999: 80). observation is a kind of activities in action research that enables researchers to document and reflect systematically upon classroom interactions and events. Observation technique means the researcher comes to the class.

It means that the researcher does not make some questions first. 1999: 101). quantitative method uses test technique. Then. the researcher used essay and pronoun test type for both . Test technique which is used is achievement test. Achievement test is the test that is used to measure students‟ ability after learning something (Arikunto. The researcher made note to all activities during the lesson. The aim of this analysis was to complete the information which had been gotten from observation and interview. Analyzing the document was done toward the Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. In this research.42 Notes or field notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context that are written in relatively factual and objective style (Burns. Photographs are a way of greatly enhancing classroom analysis and providing visual stimuli that can be integrated into reporting and presenting the research to others (Burns. and noted the students‟ reaction and response to the learning. The interview technique is done spontaneously. The vocabulary test is used to measure the students‟ vocabulary mastery. This interview is also done to the students and the teacher before and after teaching learning process. 1996: 21). 1999: 87). which is about English lesson in Junior High School including its Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar. The purpose is to get the information about everything in teaching learning process using short stories. The researcher made notes of each observation done. The test here is a vocabulary test.

43 the pre-test and post-test. The result of the test was analyzed to know the students‟ achievement on vocabulary. The steps in Action Research Step of action Participant  Students Pre action  Researcher  Students  Researcher The action Technique  Interview  Observation  Test (Pre-test)  Planning  Implementing  Observing monitoring  Reflecting Post action  Students  Researcher  Test (Post-test)  Result of post-test and Data  Result of the interview  Result of observation  Result of pre-test  Result of observation  Field notes . The total numbers of test items were 30 items. Table 1. The test consisted of vocabularies that had been taught to the students. Here is the diagram of the steps. There are some steps that should be done by the researcher in this action research.

field notes. and photographs. It makes clearer the data and the characteristic of the data (Nurgiantoro. they are qualitative descriptive analysis and also quantitative descriptive analysis. This step uses a simple formula that is called as t-test of non-independent. (b) classify the data in certain classification. this research uses descriptive statistics.44 F. Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis in this research consists of two kinds. the data are the result of observation. the pre-test is compared with the post-test to know whether teaching vocabulary using short stories can improve the students‟ vocabulary mastery. making the data in the table. interview. 1. It is used to make the data simple and communicative. Quantitative descriptive analysis In quantitative descriptive analysis. The formula of t-test of non-independent is as follows: t= where t is the result of t-test non-independent . The steps are: (a) compare the data from each informant to make easy in classifying the same data. (d) making an inductive conclusion. 2001:8). (c) Making the inference. Making a hypothesis using the classify data. 2. In this formula. Qualitative descriptive In qualitative descriptive analysis.

the reliability can be determined by using the formula: .45 Finally. the effectiveness of using short stories to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery will be known. H. . G. from this. Validity of the Instrument In computing the validity of each item from the instrument. p q n and : the number of correct answer : the number of incorrect answer : the number of respondent The result of the computation of validity will be consulted to t-table distribution. when the difference between the values of t-obtained and the value of t-table is significant. Reliability of the Instrument After the valid items are determined. the researcher uses the formula as follows: where. it will be known whether or not the instrument is valid. where k is the number of valid items.

it will be known whether or not the instrument is reliable. I. and (2) there is an improving average mark of the class based on the criteria in the curriculum that is used in that school. The indicators are: (1) there is an improvement number of students that have minimal criterion at least 75 % from the total number of students.46 The result of the computation of reliability will be consulted to r table of statistics. The Criteria of Successful Action The measurement that is used in checking vocabulary mastery is test. From this. .

and discussion. The discussion deals with the implementations of the actions that are teaching by using short texts based on theories from some experts. Introduction As presented in chapter I. The description of the research contains the implementations of the actions of the research in the field. The difficulties of learning vocabularies were caused by some reasons. Introduction contains the problem faced by the students. and 3) they got difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. It can be seen from the indicators like: 1) they were less interested in teaching learning process. the researcher discusses the implementation of the action. A. Their vocabulary was still low. The structure of the writing contains introduction. 2) they got difficulties to understand and grasp the meaning of words. the students as young learners forget something quickly. First. many problems were found in teaching English for students of the second year of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. the description of the research. They were supported in pre-research that has been done by the researcher.47 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION In this chapter. The main problem faced by the students was the lack of vocabularies. They will forget .

the students as young learners get bored easily. Second. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. Thus. They prefer playing to studying. the researcher wanted to create interesting situation in the classroom. technique. especially in vocabulary mastery. So. Third. the researcher wanted to make the students are able to grasp and remember the . Here. the researcher decided to conduct a research to solve the problems through this study. technique. Secondly. technique or and material. They always talk about something while playing. There were some targets which the researcher expected to achieve by conducting the action for the improvement of students‟ vocabulary. So. the research is concentrated on improving materials of teaching vocabulary through a classroom action research and the use of short texts as the teaching learning source. the teachers have to find out the appropriate method. Firstly. Based on the facts above. The method.48 some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat the words many times. the students as young learners still like playing. One of the problems that is taken in this study is the materials that are not suitable and interesting to the students. By using the appropriate method. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. repetition is needed. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. it is important to find out the appropriate method.

Each meeting took 80 minutes. the researcher hopes that the research can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery and change the situation during the teaching learning process. and revising the plan. the researcher decided to carry out interesting teaching materials. 2010 until April. Based on the problems and the targets that the researcher expected to achieve. Thirdly. the researcher wanted to make the students able to write the words or group of words correctly so the improvement of students‟ vocabulary could be achieved. B. 2010. It was conducted from April. in presenting and practicing new vocabularies. the researcher used short texts as the teaching materials. implementing the action. Through a classroom action research. The Description of the Research The implementation of the action planned in this research was held in a cycle. namely planning the action. observing or monitoring the action. They are explained as follows: .49 meaning of words more easily. evaluating and reflecting the result of the observation. The researcher divided the cycle into four meetings. The cycle in this research also consisted of series of steps. In this cycle. in this case was short texts.

It was to get the students‟ attention and interest. Besides that. By using short text. To overcome those problems. The teacher also planned to drill the students‟ pronunciations using the words that have been prepared.50 1. the students are able to write down the words or group of words correctly. The researcher allocated 60 minutes to give the students a chance to learn the material by doing the worksheet and to practice . So. The researcher also gave a lot of time to drill the students. The students could drill every word until five times. The students could ask questions whenever they found problems. The researcher planned to use 10 minutes to greet the students and stated the topic. The researcher chose short texts as the teaching materials. it was expected that the students are able to grasp the meaning of new vocabulary easily. the indicators of vocabulary mastery can be completed. the researcher planned and chose interesting learning materials to solve the problems and improve students‟ behavior during teaching learning process. The researcher believed that short stories could improve the students‟ vocabulary and attract the students‟ enthusiasm in teaching learning process. Planning the action The action plan was made based on the problems that were mentioned in the introduction above. The researcher told the students that they were going to learn English by using short stories that day. It is because the stories are very funny and give the students a lot of new list of vocabularies. The researcher taught 80 minutes in every meeting.

Each meeting was divided into three terms. students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. The researcher came to the class on time .m. Research Implementation The action plan was implemented by the researcher with the help from the teacher as the observer. April. After implementing the action. 2010. the researcher conducted a post-test. The test started at 2010 to know the 10.51 the pronunciation of the words that they have learned.25 a. The last five up to ten minutes was to review and close the lesson. Before implementing the action. This cycle was conducted in four meetings. 2010. This test was conducted in the beginning to know the students‟ ability about the material that would be given. namely: opening. the researcher prepared the material. Post-test was conducted after the last action on the last meeting of the cycle. Besides preparing the pre-test. main activity. students‟ worksheet that consisted of some tasks and also teaching equipments that are related to the action. and closing. First meeting 1) Opening A pre test was conducted on April. the researcher conducted a pre-test on the first meeting. 2. a. lesson plans as researcher‟s guidance in teaching vocabulary. The pre test was conducted on April. The bell rang.

2) Main activity After getting test worksheet. the researcher gave the information that the students would get the materials in the next meeting and closed the meeting on that day . The test was about understanding the meaning of words. she passed the worksheet test to the students. The test was a pre-test. After greeting the students. the use of words in context and spelling. Then. Then. After that. This test was aimed to know students‟ ability about the new materials that would be given. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. in this case was short stories. the students did the test individually. pronunciation of words. . After that. Next. the researcher asked the students to collect the test worksheet on the desk. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the test that would be done on that day. 3) Closing After the bell rang. the researcher checked the test worksheet whether they were complete or not. the researcher asked about the students‟ feeling. The students were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary.52 and greeted the students.

After introducing the materials that would be used. she asked the students whether they ever read or heard short stories or not. 2) Main Activity To open the lesson. The students answered “yes. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the second meeting. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. They tried to answer the task by looking for the answer on the dictionary. No one was absent that day. . Then. this means that they understood what learning source that would be used. Then. After greeting the students. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance. Some of them mentioned some titles of short stories. the researcher asked the students to mention some short texts that they ever read or heard. 2010.25 am and then greeted the students. Mam”. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. Second meeting 1) Opening The second meeting was conducted on April.53 b. the researcher began the lesson of the day by asking the students to find the meaning of some words.

The researcher advised them that it was only a practice. The researcher pronounced every word once and the students pronounced every word three times.54 Next. Next. the researcher asked the students to write down some words and find the meaning of each word. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the words together. After the students finished doing the task. They obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. The title was “The Flowers from the Moon”. it could be seen that the students still made some mistakes in getting the main point of the story. Next. The researcher also asked them to find out the idea of the story using words that they ever had before. the researcher drilled the students‟ pronunciation with the guiding words on the worksheet. the researcher asked the students to do the next task that is to fill in the blanks in some . the researcher gave a chance to the students to read the story on their own worksheet. They were afraid if they made a mistake. Next. After the students finished reading the short story. All students obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. to check the students understanding about new vocabulary. to know the students‟ understanding. From the students‟ answer. Some students were shy and afraid to speak loudly. the researcher asked three of the students to mention the main idea of the story.

Most students made a mistake in pronouncing the words. 2010. The researcher showed all the words to the students. “very-very interesting”. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 08. Third meeting 1) Opening The third meeting was conducted on April. The story‟s title was “Royal Spaghetti”.05 am. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. the researcher reviewed the material. Next. If they made a mistake. c. Then. the researcher gave the students choice to choose the correct answer. the researcher and the students discussed the answers of the task together. 3) Closing After finishing the task. After finishing the task. then.55 sentences with the words that were mentioned on the worksheet and answered the questions about the story. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words. In the . The researcher asked “how about your feeling today?” The students answered. Some students were very enthusiastic to answer the question of the task. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up.

the learning source used in teaching learning process was the same as before. Then. No one was absent. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that had been given in the second meeting. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. The researcher used this chance to begin the main activity. In this meeting. The students felt easily to grasp the main idea of the text because they have translated some difficult words before.56 second meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. There were some pronunciation mistakes done by the students. The researcher passed a new worksheet for each student and asked the students to do the exercises. all students focused on the lesson. To prepare the class. After five minutes. The title was ”Rainbow”. In this main activity. Then. After that. the researcher asked some of students to read the story. the students and the researcher discussed the story to get the main idea. 2) Main Activity In the beginning of the lesson. the students started the main activity by finding the correct words and their meaning. the researcher checked the answered with the students together. The researcher checked the students‟ pronunciation. .

The title was “The Caliph and the Clown”. After five minutes. In the middle of the activity. After that.57 Next. The students looked very interested in the new task. After checking the answer. . the researcher asked the students to pay attention to some words. The students who had finished discussing the correct arrangement. and then asked them to get the meaning of them. They were very busy to discuss the correct arrangement of the letters with their friends. From the students‟ answer. then they wrote their answer in the whiteboard. it could be seen that students still made mistakes in arranging the words. The researcher used the synonym to introduce the words. Then. they were also asked to find the meaning of the words. Then. the researcher and the students discussed the answer together. the researcher asked the students to arrange the letters into a good word. The researcher and the students checked the answers together. Next. the researcher asked some students to answer the questions and wrote the answers on the whiteboard. The students tried to find the synonymy of the words by using their dictionary. the researcher changed the technique in introducing the new words to the students. the students and the researcher checked the answers together. the researcher asked the students to fill in the blanks in some sentences with the words that were mentioned on the students‟ worksheet.

They were very busy to prepare the answer. Then. The researcher mentioned some difficult words and the students tried to guess the right pronunciation and the right meaning. The reseacher asked “bagaimana pendapat kalian tentang pelajaran pada hari ini?” The students answered.58 After checking the answers. the students tried to grasp the main point of the story with the researcher. 3) Closing In the end section. The students pronounced every word three to four times. Some of them were very busy to remember some of the new words that they heard before and the other discussed with their friends to find the main idea of the story. and then they wrote their answer on the whiteboard and then checked the answer with the researcher. Students who had finished discussing the answers. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. The researcher also asked the other students to pay attention to the text. On the last task of the third meeting. The students were enthusiastic in answering the question from the researcher. the researcher reviewed the material from the beginning. the researcher asked some students to read the story loudly. Next. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of phrases from the story before. .

To prepare the class. No one was absent. Fourth meeting 1) Opening The fourth meeting was conducted on April. The students listened curiously to the researcher‟s story. d. Banyak kosa kata baru dan gampang ingetnya”.59 “menyenangkan bu. In the fourth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. the researcher asked the students to make a pair of discussion. the researcher began the lesson by reading a story. The researcher asked the students to discuss the story . the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the first and second meeting. 2010. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. Then. 2) Main activity Then. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. Then. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the fourth meeting. Then. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. The title was “The Magic Seeds”.25 am. Sometimes they made an underline for some difficult words. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance.

Next. The students pronounced the words three or four times. After that. the researcher addressed some of the . the researcher asked the students‟ ability in writing words. some of students wrote their difficult words on the whiteboard. Then. The researcher also asked the students to find some difficult words on the story. The story‟s title was “The Owl and the Nightingale”. The students worked in pairs. The researcher checked the answers. Then. Then. the researcher asked the students to match the words with their antonyms. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. After five minutes. The researcher and the students discussed the answers together. Then. the students wrote the answers in the whiteboard. the researcher asked some of the students to read the story. The students wrote the answers on their worksheet. they had to find the meaning of the words. The students had to write some words they heard. After that. The researcher continued the lesson by drilling the students‟ pronunciations.60 that they heard. Next. Some of them were busy to remember the story and the other tried to grasp and write the meaning of some words. the researcher also asked the students to find the meaning of the words. The next task. the researcher asked the students to write some words that they found in the story before.

The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. After 5 minutes. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. The students were very busy to find the answers. the researcher reviewed the material. “lumayan. the researcher asked some students to write the students‟ answers and then checked the answers. The students already knew some words so it made the students easy to retell the story. The next task. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. 3) Closing After finishing the task. Bu”. Tau arti katanya. The other students added “senang. The students discussed with their friends. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. . The researcher showed all the words to the students. There are some students discussed the answers with their friends. the students had to find the hyponymy of some words based on the text that they ever read before. Then. Then. the researcher asked the students to answer some questions about the story. Next. bu.61 students to retell the story by their own words. For the last task.

the researcher began to teach the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the third meeting. 2010. To prepare the class. the researcher passed the student‟s worksheet for the fifth meeting to the students. the researcher checked the students‟ answer.25 am. No one was absent. Then. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. the researcher asked the students to write the answers on the white board and discuss the answers together. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. the researcher said “good morning” to the students.62 e. They could find the meaning in the dictionary. . the researcher asked the students to listen what the researcher pronounced and then write the answer on the students‟ worksheet. Fifth meeting 1) Opening The fifth meeting was conducted on April. After five minutes. Then. After that. the researcher asked the student‟s to find the meaning of some words. In the fifth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. 2) Main activity For the first activity. Then.

After that. the researcher addressed some students to pronounce some words that were mentioned by the researcher. After the students read the story. The researcher also asked the students to write the difficult words that they found. Then. Many students raised their hand to write their answer in the whiteboard. the students had to find the synonym of some words by matching the words in the column A to the column B. the researcher asked some students to read the story and the other paid attention to their friends. .63 Next. The students felt happy because the story was very funny. The students pronounced the words three or four times. the researcher guided the students to find the meaning form the difficult words that they found. Some of the students worked with their dictionary and the other tried to get the answer from the short story that they read before. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. the researcher asked the students to write the answer in the whiteboard. Then. Next. They enjoyed this material. The students worked in pairs. The title of the story was “Why Bears Hibernate in the Winter”. After 10 minutes. Some of the students tried to get the answer from the dictionary and the others were discussed. the students tried to grasp the main idea of the story. After 5 minutes. the researcher asked the students to arrange the jumble words into a good arrangement.

the students wrote the answer on the whiteboard. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. Then. Tau arti katanya. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. 3) Closing After finishing the task. They worked in groups. The last task. All of the students were silent and did the instruction well. The other students paid attention to their friend who retold the story. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. After 5 minutes. They had to grasp the main idea of the story individually then retold the story in their own words. “menyenangkan. After 10 minutes. the students were asked to read the story. Bu”.64 For next material. The researcher repeated some difficult words to the students. the researcher discussed with the students about the story that they heard. Next. the researcher asked three of the students to retell the story. the researcher reviewed the material. The other students added “senang. The title was “The Necklace”. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of the phrases from the text. bu. Then. They felt happy with this teaching way. The researcher did not forget to .

2) Main Activity The students did the test individually. They were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. The materials were such as understanding meaning of words. Then.05 a. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the post-test that would be done on that day. 2010. This post-test was aimed to know the students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. Sixth meeting 1) Opening A post-test was conducted on April.m. Then. she passed the test worksheets to the students. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. The researcher came to the class on time and greeted the students. The test was the same with the pre test that was done before. 3) Closing After the test finished. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. After that.65 inform the students that in the next meeting the test would be done. After greeting the students. the researcher discussed the answers of test with the students. the use of words in context and spelling. f. The bell rang at 08. pronunciation of words. All students were very active in discussing the .

and spelling. They were the mastery of . The researcher said thank you to the students for everything during the research. The first and the sixth meeting of the cycle were used for testing. Then. The aspects that should be improved were meaning of words. Observing and Monitoring the Action In monitoring the implementation of this cycle. the researcher used observation to see the effects of conducting the cycle. The observation was conducted simultaneously when teaching learning process took place. In the teaching and learning process. Then the second to fifth meeting was focused on improving vocabulary aspects and students‟ motivation in teaching learning process. No student was busy with his own business. the results of the observation of the teaching and learning process were also supported by the interviews with the students about the use of short texts in teaching vocabulary. Besides the explanation of implementing the actions above. there were six meetings. short texts were used to make the way of grasping the meaning easier. From the observation results. Then. pronunciation of words. the use of words in context. 3. All students paid attention with the discussion.66 answers with the researcher. In this cycle. the researcher asked the students‟ feeling and comment during teaching learning process with the researcher. it was known that there were some improvements on students‟ vocabulary. the researcher closed the discussion because the bell rang.

No students were busy with their own business in the class. All students did the task quite well. the others were quiet. They paid attention to the lesson. Some students were silent when the researcher asked the question to the students. pronunciation. The students also obeyed the researcher instruction. the researcher gave advice to the students that it was only a practice. Beside the students‟ improvements on vocabulary. the students looked happy and enthusiastic to attend the class. In the third meeting. They paid attention to the lesson. most students were shy to speak loudly. and using words in context. Some students were active to answer the questions from the researcher when the researcher gave them some question or asked them to do the exercises. spelling. They were afraid if their answers were wrong. No one was busy with their own business. Beside passive. In the second meeting. . the students‟ motivation was good. Although the students‟ motivation increased. To solve this problem. They also did the task on their worksheet well. some students were still passive. The situation was conducive because there was no noisy outside the class. All of them were seriously listened to the stories. Their responses were good. the observation results explained the students‟ motivation and activities in teaching-learning process and student‟s motivation from the second to the fifth meeting. Some students tried to answer the questions of the task.67 meaning.

the students‟ motivation increased. It seemed that they had already understood about the term. After that.68 In the middle of the third meeting. the students still had problem in pronouncing the word. many students raised their hand. . So. They could do the exercises well because there were some phonetic symbols that helped them to do the exercises. In the fourth meeting. Good atmosphere was created in the class. They were also enthusiastic when discussing with their friends. In middle of the fourth meeting. When the researcher asked the students to read the story and do the task. Before starting the lesson. The students were happy and enthusiastic when the researcher changed the activity in introducing the new words. Sometimes they told each other about something else. the students asked to write some words on their worksheet. the students were asked to fill in the blank sentences with the correct words. In the third meeting. the researcher still used short stories for teaching learning process. They still made mistake to pronounce the right pronunciation. the researcher went around the class to monitor and guide them whether they were active to discuss with their friends or not. It can be seen when the researcher asked the students one by one to check the students‟ understanding. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the word three or four times. the researcher just reviewed all materials from the third meeting. The researcher used synonymy technique in introducing the new words. To solve this problem.

b) the students were able to grasp the meaning of words when the researcher gave them some new vocabularies. Most students were active and all students got attention to the lesson. the researcher reflected the results of the action as follows: a) the students who were still passive were getting more active and interested when they were reading and understanding the story. The mean of the pre-test was 4. They listened what the researcher pronounced. the test score in the first and sixth meeting showed the improvement result. while the mean score of the post-test was 7. d) the students were also able to pronounce the words correctly. It could be seen during the teaching-learning process. the students were very active. In the fifth meeting. Moreover. Reflecting the Result of the Observation Based on the observation results which were gathered in field notes.69 The students felt happy and enthusiastic doing this task because they knew all of the meaning of the difficult words by discussing with their friends and also looking for the dictionary.36. They also could write the correct words that they heard. all students were active to grasp the meaning of every word.07. In reviewing the materials. 4. c) the students were able to write the words correctly and could use the words in context. .

The researcher concluded that teaching vocabulary using short texts attracted students‟ curiosity in knowing new words. They also got difficulties They translated words from when they had to translate Indonesian into English or the words from Indonesian vice versa easily. All of the aspects were completed. Short texts also encouraged the students to be more active during teaching learning process. easily. They became more motivated and enthusiastic in learning English which they did not tend to do something useless and got bored in the middle of teaching learning process. They also words. The students got 1. it could be seen that there were increasing students‟ motivation and also the aspects of vocabulary. Table 2. The students understood difficulties to understand and grasped the meaning of and grasp the meaning of words easily. Improvement of the Students‟ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts Source of the data before implementing the action Vocabulary mastery after implementing the action Vocabulary mastery Observation and Interview 1. Through short texts. The improvement of students‟ achievements in teaching learning process using short stories can be seen in the table 2. . students were encouraged to practice their ability in pronouncing and writing words correctly. They forgot words remembered the words and their meanings easily.70 Based on the result of the observing and the test above. into English or vice versa.

mistakes to pronounce the words. The students had more full concentration during concentration to do the teaching learning process. 4. understand remember. Most of the students also made mistakes when they did the exercises in arranging some letters into a correct word. The students could not 2. They words. The students could only 4. could of the 3. The students liked doing 3. pronounce. Students‟ motivation Students‟ motivation 1. exercises. They still made words correctly. There were no mistakes in Most of the students forgot writing the words to write the second letter. The students were less 1. The students pronounce the words pronounce most correctly. The students still made 3. They started to ask and answer the questions. The students could pronounce. They did not do something something useless during useless during teaching teaching learning process learning process. 2.71 2. For example when also could arrange the the students found a word letters into a correct word. 3. The students were more interested during teaching active and enthusiastic learning process during teaching learning process. which has double letters. grasp and use words in context about 25 words in context about 75% of them. The students could write mistakes when they wrote the words correctly. grasp and use remember. . 80 % of them. The students did not have 2. understand.

sky. chuckled. from 4. The examples were prince. the students understood and grasped the meaning of words easily. from 2. quarrel.3 % of students. different. discussion with their friends.36. From the vocabulary aspects. sea.07 to 7. dream. understand. the students‟ improvement could be seen. reason. daughter. There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test.36 5. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there was an improvement of students who achieved the minimum standard score. Then. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. They could pronounce. purple. remember. Beside that.8 % of students became 94. The students liked having exercises individually. etc. they could pronounce and write the words correctly. Then the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was . captured. grasp and use the words in context about 75 until 80 % of them. the improvement also could be seen on the students‟ scores of test. in this case 60. The students did the 4. The improvements were students‟ vocabulary mastery and also students‟ motivation. Test The mean score of pre-test : The mean score of post-test : 4. freedom. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. Research Findings From the table above.72 4.07 7.

while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. the students‟ motivation also increased.73 3. Meanwhile. it means that there is a significant difference between pre- test and post-test score. Beside the vocabulary mastery. they did not do something useless . They asked more questions than before. The indicators showed that they were more active and enthusiastic during the teaching learning process. There were some reasons for stopping this research only in one cycle. and they also could use the words in context appropriately. They also raised their hands to answer the questions. The students understood and grasped the meaning of the words easily. Next. the students‟ motivation increased when the short text were used.30. they could pronounce the words correctly. Since is . they could write the words correctly.04. the t-table higher than for 35 students is 2. they had more concentration to do the exercises. Next.29. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process and like having discussion with their friends. Considering the facts of some improvements dealing with teaching vocabulary by using short texts above. finally. They were as follows: a) The aspects of vocabulary mastery were completed. They were more active and attractive during teaching learning process. They also had more concentration to the lesson. the researcher decided to stop the cycle.

pronouncing. The school gave two weeks to finish the implementation of the research. spelling. It could be understood since human brain has limit . and remember the meaning easily. c) The researcher only had limited time to conduct the research. from 2. b) There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score.36. grasp. They have their own worksheet that was completed with some short texts. the students could understand. from 4. They also could use and write the words correctly. Discussion The research findings came from the observation and the test scores. the students did more practices and steps by steps in understanding. so they could have more practices for enriching vocabulary mastery using short stories.3 %. The observation that was done showed that there were some improvements in students‟ vocabulary mastery aspects and students‟ motivation. The discussion helped them to understand the lesson and do the tasks well. C. and using the words. Here. From the pre-test and post-test score. They liked having discussion with their friends.74 during teaching learning process.8 % became 94. The students also could pronounce the words correctly. At first from the students‟ vocabulary mastery. grasping.07 to 7. It was because the school would hold a mid term test for all the students. in this case 60.

According to Linse (2005). namely pictures. Next. and game. The students were more active and enthusiastic because the materials used were new materials. teachers of English to young learners. After implementing the action. the students. Young learners like to read and listen interesting stories. and Jensen (1980: 285) also states that teaching English to children needs special techniques. The best way to add breadth and depth to child‟s vocabulary is by providing a variety of opportunities for new and interesting experience. Human also has limit memory to remember all at once (www. such as talking with other students or disturbing their friends. the situation in the class before implementing the action was described as some students were busy with themselves. should know the techniques of teaching practically for example “listen and repeat”. more active and enthusiastic to follow the teaching learning process. the students had more concentration during teaching learning process.ksmumail/human_brain. there were also many kinds of interesting techniques used to teach short texts. story. say. They focused on the materials which were used . read and write”. Then. Second from the students‟ motivation. Petty. Ur (1998) explains that there are three sources of young learners‟ attention in class.75 capacity to absorb new things from surrounding. the class situation became more active and enthusiastic. question and answer”. as the young learners. were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. especially the students at the back. It made the students enjoy. and write”. Beside the new materials. They did some useless activities. “listen. edu).

david399. David also states that one indicator which makes teaching learning process succeed is the active students during teaching learning process. . Maya K.76 through short texts. It matches with Elli‟s theory.htm). vocabulary in story is presented in clear context and the amusing situation. They are active if they are suitable with the teacher‟s technique and they are far from teacher pressure (www. The amusing situation could make students become more enthusiastic. According to Elli (1991:31).

the students could pronounce the words correctly. AND SUGGESTION A. Based on the analysis of the result of the implementation of the actions which had been conducted to improve the students‟ vocabulary. Conclusion Having conducted the research of teaching vocabulary by using short texts in Junior High School. the students could understand and grasp the meaning easily. the students also could write the words correctly. the researcher comes to a conclusion that teaching vocabulary by using short texts can improve the students‟ vocabulary. Second. Fourth. IMPLICATION. Third. For example. in arranging the jumble letters. It could be seen from the aspects of vocabulary which are completed. The first is about the enrichment of the students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. they could rearrange the letters into a correct word. The more detailed results of the action implemented in this research were as follows. They also could remember the meaning of the words easily. the students could pronounce. This is based on the facts found in accordance with the result of the action implemented to find answers to the problem statements. First.77 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION. it can be seen that the implementation of teaching vocabulary by using short texts can effectively improve students‟ vocabulary. .

04. They also liked having discussion with their friends. Most of the students gave more attention than before. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process.8 % became 94. Beside that. Next. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there were more students who achieved the minimum standard score. The difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was 3. Next. there was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. they had more concentration to do the exercises.30. remember. The students were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. there was an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. The researcher found a good atmosphere in the class. from 2. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19.36. . from 4. Meanwhile. it means that there is a significant difference between pre-test and post- test score. Since is higher .3 % of students.78 understand.07 to 7. There were so many students who raised their hands to answer the question on the whiteboard or oral answer. grasp and use the words in context about 75-80 % of them correctly. the t-table than for 35 students is 2. The second is about the students‟ motivation. in this case 60.29.

read and write”. there is a significant improvement of students‟ vocabulary and improvement of students‟ learning activity after teaching used short texts to teach new vocabulary and to train the students in order to write and pronounce correctly. the teacher should choose appropriate techniques. the teacher also can use the visual techniques such as mime and gesture and verbal techniques such as verbal explanation. materials. The teacher could use “listen and repeat”. synonyms and definition. Beside the appropriate techniques. antonyms in teaching vocabulary to the students. Implication Based on the conclusion of the study. question and answer”. the teacher should have to choose the appropriate materials and media to teach vocabulary. and write”. students were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading. It implies that using short texts are good material to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery and also improve students‟ learning activity during teaching learning process. It is conducted by English teacher to make the students‟ more interested and more active in teaching-learning process and to avoid the boredom.79 B. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. Then. The students suggest using dictionary in translating the words. “listen. and media. The material in this case is . The teacher can also conduct an oral test to make the students more motivated and attracted in teaching-learning process. say. writing and pronouncing correctly. Through short texts. In teaching English using short texts.

and for school. Students will be easy in . and then make analyses of the stories by their own words.80 short texts. and materials in improving the students‟ motivation in learning English based on certain condition. there is an improvement of students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. 1. The short texts have to contain new and old information to the students. English teacher The English teachers should learn the characteristics of the students in order to know exactly what they need and what problems they faced on their development. The genre that is used is narrative. techniques. The students can find the difficult words and their meaning. Suggestion After carrying out the researcher and obtaining the conclusion. other researcher. the researcher would like to propose some suggestion directed to the English teacher. C. students. Besides. the English teachers should create an interesting and enjoyable situation of teaching learning process. The materials have to appropriate with the syllabus that used in that school. It makes the students understand the stories well. the teacher could choose the most suitable method. It is suitable with the material that used in the second year of junior high school. By understanding those points. By implementing short texts using appropriate techniques and materials.

School The institution should state a policy in improving the quality of the teaching English for children. It is expected that the finding of this study will be used as a starting point of the future research on similar problems. It also would avoid the boredom. techniques. 4. It should encourage the English teacher to be creative to use various method. . The students have to be more active and motivated to learn English. They can practice English in their daily life. and materials of teaching English of Junior High School students that can be taken as objects of research to find out the effectiveness of teaching. The students not only can study English in the class but also can study everywhere and every time. 2. Other researcher This study is just one of efforts in improving students‟ vocabulary. Students An instructional process will not be successful if students are not maximally involved in it. techniques or materials.81 learning when the situation is interesting for them and the students will more enthusiastic. 3. It should also be facilitated with various media supporting the teaching activity. There are many other method.

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