ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS

A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010

Written by: Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi K2206029

Submitted to Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Undergraduate Degree of Education

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2010 i

APPROVAL

This thesis is approved by the consultants to be examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University.

Approved by

Consultant 1

Consultant 2

Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005

Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP. 19730205 200604 1 001

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This thesis is examined by the Board of Examiners of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University and accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for achieving the Undergraduate Degree of Education in English. Place of the test Date of the test : :

The Board of Examiners 1. Chairman Drs. Suparno, M. Pd NIP. 19511127 198601 1 001 2. Secretary Dewi Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd. NIP. 19780818 200312 2 002 3. Consultant 1 Dr. Abdul Asib, M.Pd. NIP. 19520307 198003 1 005 4. Consultant 2 Teguh Sarosa, S.S., M.Hum. NIP 19730205 200604 1 001 (………………………) (……………………....) (………………………) (………………………)

Legalized by, Teacher Training and Education Faculty Sebelas Maret University The Dean

Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd NIP. 19600727 198702 1 001

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It is also aimed at the improvement of the students’ achievement in teaching learning process using short stories. this research also used descriptive statistics and the t-test of non-independent. The cycle consisted of four meetings. Next. they have more concentration to do the exercises. observing or monitoring the action. The test consisted of the pre-test and post-test. they also like having discussion with their friends. They are from 2. pronounce.8% to 94. that is 60.36 in post-test.3% of students. First. The materials used in this research were short text. The results of this research imply that using short texts are good material to improve students’ vocabulary mastery and also improve students’ learning activity during teaching learning process. the researcher used observations. The techniques in collecting the data were qualitative and quantitative method. The mean score of the pre-test improves from 4. reflecting the result of the observation. write about 75 until 80 % of the words correctly and also use the words in context appropriately. This study is based on the problem of the low vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. photographs. Surakarta 2010. students iv . from the aspect of the vocabulary mastery. they do not do something useless during teaching learning process. remember. At last. The improvement can be seen in the form of students’ achievements. Then. the scores of the pre-test and post-test show that there is also an improvement of students who achieve the minimum standard score. implementing the action. field notes. Then. The research was conducted in one cycle. The technique to analyze the test result was by comparing the mean score of pre-test and post-test. The procedure of the research consisted of identifying the problems. the researcher used tests. planning the action.ABSTRACT Risqi Ekanti Ayuningtyas Palupi. the improvement of students’ score can be seen from the differences between the pre-test and post-test. Through short texts. Then. grasp. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words.07 to 7. It is aimed at knowing whether using short texts can enrich the students’ vocabulary. and document analysis. They can be seen from the aspects of vocabulary mastery and the students’ motivation. K2206029: “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010).” Teacher Training and Education Faculty. In the qualitative method. In the quantitative method. the students are more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. from the students’ motivation. the students could understand. Second. Sebelas Maret University. and research findings. Besides that. The results of the observation were in the form of field notes and photographs. The results of this research show that short texts can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.

were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading, writing and pronouncing correctly.

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MOTTO
“Mantapkan hati dan niat seraya berucap Bismillahirrahmanirrahim”

"No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross, no crown." (William Penn)

"Criticism should not be querulous and wasting, all knife and rootpuller, but guiding, instructive, inspiring." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

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DEDICATION

With deep profound love, this research is devoted to: 1. Her beloved father and mother, thank you. Nothing compares to what they have done for her. 2. Her beloved “eyang uti” and sisters “dek sha”, who always pray and encourage her. 3. Her best friends “pam, sopal, dee, lucy, jhono, anggit, riph, tika” who give her unbroken support, prayer, and cares. 4. Her all friends, who always support her. 5. Herself and her beautiful future.

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The Headmaster of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo for the permission and advices for doing the research in SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. Sugiyati. Mrs. Praise be to ALLAH SWT who has given His blessing to the writer so that she can complete the writing of this thesis as a partial requirement for achieving the undergraduate degree of education in English Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University. Dr. the second consultant and academic consultant. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. 2. for all his valuable guidance. and patience during the writing process of this thesis. viii . M. The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University who had given his permission to write this thesis. encouragement.. advice. Hum. for all his valuable guidance. 5. The writer is also fully aware that her thesis can never be finished without the help of others during the process of writing. M.Pd.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillahirabbil’alamin. Abdul Asib. 4. 3.. the English teacher of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. encouragement. who helped and given her a chance to do the research. advice. in this occasion she would like to express her deepest gratitude and appreciation to the following: 1..S. 6. Teguh Sarosa. The Head of the English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty for his advice. Therefore. the first consultant. S.

caring. Ariph and Atika for their supports and suggestions. The second year students of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo who participated well in the research.7. her mother. Riana. 8. Her beloved family. 9. Her friends in the English Department of the year 2006 for their everlasting friendship. Anggi. 11. Pamrih. The researcher realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect. for his motivation to make the writer keep move on. Muthya. her grandmother. Surakarta. Her “best friends”. Didit Hermawan. 10. She hopes and accepts gratefully every comment and suggestion. 12. this thesis will be useful for the readers. her sister. Lucy. June. and Aji. her father. Dewi. Her incredible support. Yoyok Sandi Wibowo. Everyone who helped the writer to conduct the research for his or her participation in writing this thesis. 2010  Rea  ix . for their supports. Hopefully. and prayer.

.......... The Importance of Vocabulary .......................................................... The Benefits of the Study .................................................................... The Problems Statement ........... 6 C....... iv MOTTO......................................... 1 B........ 7 E........ 1 A.................... RATIONALE AND HYPHOTHESIS .................................................................................................................. Background of the Study .......................................... 9 A............................................................................................. 6 D...... Review on Related Literature .................... TABLE OF CONTENT TITLE PAGE .......................................................................................... 19 x .......... xiii LIST OF TABLE ........................................ vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........ xiv LIST OF FIGURE ................................................................................................................................ ii ABSTRACT ............................................................................................Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company......................................................................2005-2008 For Evaluation Only............................ v DEDICATION ..................................................................................... 9 b.......................................................................................... i APPROVAL........................ The Objectives of the Research ......................................... ix LIST OF APPENDIXES .................................................................................................................... Vocabulary Mastery ..................................... xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION .......................... 11 d............................................................ 10 c........................ The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery ........................................... General Concept of Vocabulary ....................................................................................................................... The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery ................................................................................... 9 a............ The Limitation of the Problem . 9 1.................... 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE.................................................. 13 e........................ Notion of Vocabulary ............................................................................................................................................ vii TABLE OF CONTENT ..................

............................................................ 24 c................ The Concept of Story ............................................................... Technique of Collecting Data ...................................................................... Setting and Subject of the Research .................................. The Notion of Young Learners ...................................................................................................................... 36 C.. 49 1............. 28 4......... Method of the Research ............................................ The Definition of Motivation ................................. The Procedures of Action research.................................................................... Reliability of the Instrument ..... The General Concept of Young Learners ............................................... 35 A.......... Validity of the Instrument............ 47 B......................... The Characteristic of Children ... 46 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION ........................ Planning the Action .... Research Implementation ........................................ Observing and Monitoring the Action .................................... 41 F........................................ The Criteria of Successful Action ..................... 28 a................ 31 c.............................................. 50 2............... Essences of Short Text ............................... The Notion of Motivation ..................................... Rationale ......................................... 39 E................. The Types of Motivation .... 25 3................................ The Model of Action Research ........................................................................................... 30 b.......2....... 33 C....................... The Concept of Text ........................... The Description of the Research ............. 28 b....................... 45 I..................................... 23 a........................................ Hypothesis ................ 37 D.. 51 3.. 45 H........ 30 a............................................... 34 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ........................................................................... Technique of Data Analysis ........... 23 b...... Introduction ............................................................................ 32 B.. 35 B............................ The Characteristic of Motivated Students .. 66 xi .............. The Notion of Folktales ........ 44 G............................................................................................................... 47 A.........................................................................

................ Implication ... 81 3................... 72 C.............................. 81 4.............. 77 A......................... 69 5...................... 79 C.... 77 B................................................................... English Teacher.............................................................................. Discussion ........................................................................ Other Researcher .......................................................... Research Finding................................... Conclusion ............................... 74 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION...................... 81 BYBLIOGRAPHY xii ....... Suggestion ................. School.......... Students ................................................................................................................................................. 80 2...... IMPLICATION................................................................. SUGGESTION ............ Reflecting the Result of the Observation .............................4.................................................................. 80 1.................

.................................................................. 236 Appendix 17 : Letters of Permission .................. 118 Appendix 6 : Blue Print of Vocabulary Test .................. 153 Appendix 12 : The Students’ Pre-test and Post Test Score ............................ 90 Appendix 4 : Students’ Worksheet ..................... 155 Appendix 13 : The Computation of Validity and Reliability . 145 Appendix 8 : Key Answer of the Test ................................................................................................................................................. 102 Appendix 5 : Field Notes ................................................................................... 244 xiii ..............................................LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix 1 : Description of location SMP N 5 Sukoharjo ............................ 85 Appendix 3 : Lesson Plans ...... 159 Appendix 15 : The Students’ Test and Worksheet done by the Students ................................................................................................................................................ 82 Appendix 2 : The Photographs ........................................................... 149 Appendix 10 : Syllabus of KTSP ............................................ 157 Appendix 14 : The Computation of T-Test ............................ 148 Appendix 9 : The Research Schedule .... 144 Appendix 7 : Pre and Post Test Items .................................................................................................. 160 Appendix 16 : Key Answer of Worksheet ....................................................................... 150 Appendix 11 : Students Score before the Action ................................................

.............. 70 xiv ......LIST OF TABLE Table 1 Table 2 : The Steps in Action Research........................ 43 : Improvement of the Students’ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts .................................................................................................

................. 38 xv .......... An Illustration of Action Research Spiral .LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1.......................

In education. It has been discussed before that foreign language has many functions.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. It is because language is one of instruments which has important functions in communication. one of the requirements is language competence. It has a function as a bridge for all aspects of human life. and culture. such as trade. both of in spoken and written form. society. it can be said that mastering foreign language is very important for surviving life. . English is one of the important foreign languages. As quoted in Undang-Undang Sisdiknas (2003: 15) “bahasa asing dapat digunakan sebagai bahasa pengantar pada satuan pendidikan tertentu untuk mendukung kemampuan berbahasa asing peserta didik”. communication. science. English is one of the native languages used to improve students‟ ability. there are many education books that are written in foreign languages. education. The importance can be seen from some sides of life. So. Then. Background of the Study Mastering of a foreign language is one of the important things that is needed in modern society and globalization era. As it is known. for example is job requirement. That is the most important reason why English is learned in school. there are so many kinds of foreign language. so does English. technology.

Third. Singleton in Brumfit (1997: 7) also defines some reasons for teaching English at primary level. 3. the earlier you start the more time you get. The advantage of starting with early second language instruction so that later the language can be used as a medium of teaching. teaching English at junior high school is extremely important because it is still the basis for the higher level. they are: 1. By learning foreign language earlier. teaching English to young learner is aimed to increase the total number of years spent learning language. 4. From some statements above. and culturally for language learning. the indisputable fact those young learners have a greater facility for understanding and imitating what they hear than adult. Ellis. The need to link communication to understanding of view concepts. at junior high school is very important. Brewster. it prepares young learners to make a link of communication to understand concept of communication it self. the aim of early foreign language learning is to prepare young learner linguistically. 2. and Girard (1992: 23-24) define some reasons for starting to learn a foreign language earlier. psychologically.2 Actually. The need to expose children from an early age to understanding of foreign cultures so that they grow up tolerant and sympathetic to others. Second. First. especially English language. The need for maximum learning time for important languages. It also maximizes . it can be concluded that studying foreign language.

First. Therefore. here are the junior high students. knowing words is the key for understanding and being understood. There are many kinds of students‟ characteristic. it will make other person understand or make ourselves understood easily. a teacher has many problems to develop the students‟ vocabulary mastery. it is not easy to teach English for the young learners.3 learning time for learning foreign language. Firstly. vocabulary mastery is the basic knowledge in learning English. young learners forget something quickly. One of the problems that are faced is the characteristics of the students as young learners. writing. Knowing more words in English language. Coady and Huckin (1998: 5) say that vocabulary is the central to language and of critical importance to language learning for the young learners. the earlier they start the more time they get. and reading). Sometimes. Considering the importance of vocabulary competence. They will forget some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat . The words here means as vocabulary. Vocabulary supports all of the English skills. Then. It makes them know and understand a lot of vocabularies. For enhancing all aspects in foreign language. it is better to introduce new vocabulary earlier to the students. They will more understand what they have learned. the students need to understand the meaning of words. speaking. So it can be concluded that vocabulary takes the important aspect to master English well as a foreign language. For beginners. the students need something to do. It should not be neglected by anyone who learns a language. especially English skills (listening.

technique. The materials used in teaching learning process only from books and students worksheet. Most of materials come from the teachers. young learners get bored easily. So.4 the words many times. In teaching learning process. it is important to find out the appropriate. magazine. etc. the teachers have to find out the appropriate. Second. The method. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. It may be caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate and attractive. there are no interesting technique that used by the teacher. technique or and material. They prefer playing than studying. Third. After having pre research by interviewing the teacher and observing teaching learning process of mastering vocabulary at the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo. By using the appropriate method. It is clear that repetition is needed. There are no materials from other sources like internet. So. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. the researcher finds out that the students‟ vocabulary mastery is still low. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students‟ acts as follows: firstly. especially in vocabulary mastery. They always discuss about something in their around while playing. young learners still like playing. it makes the students less interested and do not be active in teaching learning process. Here. The teaching learning process uses teacher centre in delivering the lessons. technique. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. so the .

Due to the facts above. the researcher tries to enrich vocabulary mastery of the students using short texts. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words. Short text is one of an interesting material that helps the students to find out the keys to remember and grasp many new vocabularies. students‟ marks are still lower than the passing grade. . The correct arrangement is “winter” but students rearrange them become “writen”. She uses short texts because short texts will help to solve the problems that are faced by the students. the students write the word only “sudenly”. Most of the students forget to write down the second letter. Example is the word “n-t-w-i-r-e”. Beside that the students will be easy to write down the correct words or group words. It is because there are no appropriate learning sources that used to help the students for remembering the materials that are given. From the indicators that are mentioned above. Secondly. The other difficulties that the students faced when they do an exercise on jumble word. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. For example the word “suddenly”. The students usually get mistake to rearrange into the correct word. It is because all words or group word are inside of the short texts. She wants to make the students interested by using the teaching material of short texts. The students also get difficulties when they have to translate the words. Thirdly. It can be seen when they find some words that have double letters.5 students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning.

C. The Limitation of the Problem The research has a broad scope and it is impossible for the researcher to handle the study consisting of so many complicated problems.6 Based on the description above. the researcher wants to prove whether or not the short texts can improve students‟ vocabulary mastery in learning English at the junior high school. the researcher limits the problem on how to enrich the students‟ vocabulary mastery using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. How is the students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? . The Problems Statement Based on the background of study. the researcher would like to conduct a research to solve the problem and also enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery by using short stories entitled “ENRICHING VOCABULARY MASTERY USING SHORT TEXTS” (A Classroom Action Research in the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the Academic Year of 2009/2010). Can short texts enrich vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010? 2. Therefore. The problems of the study can be formulated as follows: 1. B.

It will help the teacher to identify the students‟ difficulties in learning vocabulary and also find the students who need more guiding. Teacher It is expected that the teacher will get more information about one of the appropriate teaching materials. Whether using short texts can enrich the students‟ vocabulary of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. The Benefits of the Study It is expected that this research contributes some significant progresses in teaching vocabulary for several sides. The students‟ motivation in teaching learning process using short texts of the second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. in this case is short texts. they are: 1. the teacher can take some correct problems solving from those problems. Then. this research is aimed to find out: 1. The Objectives of the Research Based on the formulation of the problem. the data of the research are also very useful for the teacher. E. Then. Particularly. . the general objective of this research is to improve students‟ vocabulary by using short texts. 2.7 D. So the teacher hoped to create an interesting teaching learning process by using this teaching material.

3. Students It is expected that the result will give motivation to the students to be better in vocabulary mastery. students are expected to have good enrichment in vocabulary and also the changes of behavior during teaching learning process. Through short texts. so the quality of teaching learning process can be increased. . School It is expected that the information of the result will be very useful for getting success in teaching learning process. The result of the research is also hoped to improve students‟ achievement in English lesson standard.8 2.

General Concept of Vocabulary a. For example. for example post office. Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) state that vocabulary is a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. Furthermore.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. Here. it means that someone learns vocabulary. Review On Related Literature 1. The items in vocabulary may be more than a single word. the only system involved is alphabetical order in dictionaries. mother-in-law. It means vocabulary is written or spoken unit of language as symbol of idea in foreign language for the learners. Notion of Vocabulary There are some definitions of vocabulary proposed by linguist experts. 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE (RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESIS) A. which expressing a single idea. if someone learns new words in foreign language. Since vocabulary is a list.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Ur (1998: 60) defines that vocabulary can be mean as the words we teach in foreign language. McWhorter (1989: 311) says that vocabulary means the ability to recognize individual words and to associate . vocabulary is written in alphabetical order in dictionaries based on system or rule of foreign language.

vocabulary is the competence or skill in recognizing words and its meaning. Words are symbols. either a physical object or an idea. The words here are the symbols in form of groups of letter represent either a physical object or an idea. b. the word love on the other hand. does not represent a physical object. the word chair in our minds a physical reality. McWhorter states that vocabulary deals with the competence in recognizing words and its meaning. Based on three definitions above. groups of letter that stand for. Meanwhile. and used to for sitting. Ur adds that vocabulary deals with word taught in foreign language. It is because people need vocabulary in expressing their ideas both of in mother . Based on Hatch and Brown. It symbolizes the feeling of one person toward another. Then. an object with a flat surface. vocabulary deals with a series of words in particular language. In the other word. 10 meaning with the particular combination of letters that form a word. It can be formed from a single or more than one word. recognizing words means knowing its meaning or idea and how they are formed by a combination of letters.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Then. vocabulary can be constructed as a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning. or represent. The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary is an important aspect in our life. usually supported by four legs.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. For example.

Tailor (1991: 1) says that in order to live in the world. Every person who learns a language must learn the vocabulary of the language in order to make the learning process easier. an event. it will be difficult to accept the existence of an object.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. While Hornby (1984:523) says that mastery is the complete control or . it can be concluded that vocabulary is very important in learning language and mastering vocabulary will facilitate someone in using language in communication. and a feeling. 11 tongue and foreign language. use. Vocabulary Mastery Coulson et al (1987: 1050) define that mastery is skill. A strong vocabulary can be a valuable asset. learning a language becomes a very hard thing to do and communication in second language cannot happen in any meaningful way. Without vocabulary mastery. In language learning. Edge (1993: 27) states that knowing a lot of words in foreign language are very important. Vocabulary always becomes the essential part of English as a foreign language. Without a name. According to the statement above. we must name objects. both in college and later in our career. Cross (1995: 14) states that a good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication. or knowledge. Names are essential for the construction of reality. It means mastery is the ability to use one of knowledge. vocabulary plays an important role. c.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only.

12 knowledge. Keraf (1989: 6566) defines the step in processing vocabulary mastery. First. The process of vocabulary mastery is not simple. this term children are able to define concept vocabulary to say their concrete idea. adolescent period. Third. adult period. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. While vocabulary is a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning in form of symbols of groups of letter. Here. mastery is the whole power or ability to direct knowledge. . Second. this term the vocabulary are used more and more intensive because they make more communication each other. in case of the physical object or idea. The certain area in teaching means a lesson taught. either a physical object or an idea and it also can be formed from a single or more than one word. children period. So. vocabulary mastery can be constructed as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. from both of definitions above. The vocabulary mastery can not be done spontaneous but step by step. It means mastery is the ability to combine skill and knowledge in one certain area. this term is the adolescent start to use the language and make it more extensive directly in simple communication. It is usually arranged by a standard of curriculum and syllabus in every aspect whether the topic or the test.

social lesson. mastery may be defined as the ability to use skill or knowledge in one subject area based on recognized standard. The technique here refers to the way of teaching. in case of the physical object or idea. Unplanned vocabulary teaching is . There are some techniques of teaching vocabulary. The techniques are the unplanned vocabulary teaching and planned vocabulary teaching. there are so many techniques proposed by some experts. They are direct and indirect techniques. prose. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. and science lesson. Then vocabulary mastery define as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that used to express meaning. Then indirect technique uses the other source of lesson like mathematic. The Way How to Improve Vocabulary Mastery There are various ways to improve vocabulary mastery. The success of teaching learning process depends on not only the teachers‟ and students‟ competence but also the technique of teaching. While vocabulary. There are two techniques in improving vocabulary mastery. The teachers may have some techniques to teach it.13 From the definition above. d. Dealing with the technique of vocabulary teaching. Direct technique is usually used through the language book. poetry and games. means a series of words in foreign language used to express meaning.

while planned vocabulary teaching where the teacher goes into classroom with an item or a set of vocabulary items that the teacher has decided before hand. They are: 1) Demonstrate Demonstration is the way of teaching vocabulary by doing physical demonstration together verbal explanation. the teachers present vocabulary items by bringing the real things into classroom. Beside that it also helps students to memorize both of visual and aural memories. . For examples. Sometimes the explanation is no more complicated than pointing. The demonstration helps to make the meaning clearer and to fix the word in the students‟ minds. The planned vocabulary teaching can be described as “the vocabulary lesson” since the primary objective of the teaching activities is the presentation and practice of the lexical item themselves. chuckle. etc. While Lewis and Hill (1992: 102-103) mention some ways to teach vocabulary. The objects of the real things can be in the class or probably through the window. 2) Use the real thing In this way.14 extemporaneous teaching of vocabulary items that come up without planning in course of lesson. stagger.

the level of the explanation must be suitable to the students‟ level of English at the time so that dictionary. For example the meaning of bush was explained by two very simple sketches. or probably may be explained by presenting them with groups of related words: Hot warm cool cold 5) Antonyms This is the way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites or antonyms of the word. orange (color). like accuracy can often be counter-productive.15 3) Draw or sketch Teachers do not need to be artists to make simple sketches which illustrate meaning. Here. 4) Use the blackboard to show scales or grades Words like cool. It is worth that the explanations given here are not exact definitions of the word. For example: light bag >< heavy bag light word >< strong word rough area >< quite area poor >< rich dirty >< clean happy >< sad red orange yellow certainly / definitely probably / possibly . the learners have to be aware that a word may have different opposite in difficult context.

asking one or more students to look the word up in a dictionary. One technique for explaining these which teachers too frequently overlook is asking the class whether anybody knows the word and.16 rough texture >< smooth texture 6) Synonyms high >< low Synonyms are the way of teaching vocabulary by giving same meaning of two or more words. Beside that. 8) Verbal explanation Verbal explanation refers to the way of teaching vocabulary by explaining the meaning of vocabulary items in students‟ own language. It is . their connotation meanings often differ. that words do not mean the same as each other. Though words may have similar denotation meaning. 7) The dictionary This is the way of teaching vocabulary by using dictionary to know vocabulary items. 9) Translation It is a way of teaching vocabulary by translating some words or individual words from the target language into other language. or not. A bilingual dictionary can be used at low levels and monolingual dictionary at the high levels. using the former phrase also helps to build up in the students‟ mind ides that language consists of choice.

When teaching an item such as “to swerve”. To ensure that students understand. objects themselves). and realia (i. the teacher will find difficulty to translate the word(s) into all languages.17 seen as boring and traditional. In this technique. a teacher might build a situation to illustrate it. They are: 1) Visual techniques a) Visual These include flashcards. actions. photographs.e. and activities. Gairns (1991: 73-75) says that there are some techniques used in presenting new vocabulary. wallcharts. Furthermore. teachers often make use of . if the class consists of different nationalities. 2) Verbal Techniques a) Use illustrative situation (oral or written) This is most helpful when items become more abstract. professions. and certain areas of vocabulary such as places. blackboard drawings. They are extensively used for conveying meaning and particularly useful for teaching concrete items of vocabulary such as furniture. descriptions of people. making use of blackboard and gesture to reinforce the concept. b) Mime and gesture These are often used to supplement other ways of conveying meaning.

this can be a useful way of revising and feeding in new items. c) Contrast and opposites Contrast and opposites are they way of teaching vocabulary by giving the opposites of the words. However. it is vital to illustrate the contexts in which this is true. d) Scales Once students have learnt two contrasting or related gradable items.18 more than one situation or context to check that students have grasped the concept. Synonymy is also the way of teaching by giving more than one meaning for a word. This is the example of adverbs of frequency: never hardly ever occasionally I sometimes often always go to cinema on Sundays . b) Use of synonymy and definition Definition here is the way of teaching vocabulary by defining or describing objects.

It can save valuable time in teaching process but it seen as boring and traditional. it is also hoped that by using these techniques. Then. e. antonyms. dictionary. In this paper. verbal explanation and translation techniques to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery. etc”. The Construct of Vocabulary Mastery Dealing with the vocabulary mastery. The teacher will find difficulties if the students come from different nationalities. synonyms.19 e) Examples of type This is the way of teaching vocabulary by exemplifying things it self. bed. The example of “furniture” is “table. 3) Translation Translation can be very effective way of conveying meaning. the students can understand and grasp the vocabulary easily. in form of symbols of group of letter in a single or more one word. chair. sofa. it can be defined as an ability to combine skill or knowledge of words that is used to express meaning. mime and gesture. . in case of the physical object or idea. the researcher uses definition. It is because the techniques that are mentioned are usually used in school. Some of these can of course also be dealt with through visual aids.

someone can be said that he or she has achieved the vocabulary mastery. and range. spelling. The example is when an Indonesian student has an English subject at school and it is the second language for her or him. Thornbury says that the factors come from the word‟s aspects such pronunciation. what‟s the meaning. Many learners find that words with clusters of consonants. Those six aspects above will be defined briefly here.20 Thornbury (2002: 27) declares some factors why learning vocabulary is rather difficult for second language learner. are also problematic. either of pronunciation or of spelling. 2) Spelling Sound.spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors. connotation and idiomatic are the indicators in vocabulary mastery. how to pronunce. and can contribute to a . She or he can not understand the lesson easily. etc to express the idea of the subject.such as regular and lorry for Japanese speakers. such as strength or crisp or breakfast. Here. length and complexity. Potentially difficult words will typically be those that contain sounds that are unfamiliar to some groups of learners. It is because she or he should know the appropriate word. how to spell. meaning. If those factors are fulfilled. 1) Pronunciation Research shows that words that are difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn. grammar.

4) Grammar It is problematic when grammar associated with the word. Words that contain silent letters are particularly problematic: foreign. Spanish learners of English. bored. listen. Furthermore. Then the grammar of phrasal verbs is particularly troublesome: some phrasal verbs are separable (she looked the word up) but others are not (she looked after the children). or hope is followed by an infinitive (to swim) or an –ing form (swimming) can add to its difficulty. especially if this differs from that of its L 1 equivalent. honest.21 word‟s difficulty. and say he explained me the lesson. high frequency words tend to be short in English. muscle. While most English spelling is fairly law-abiding. tend to assume that explain follows the same pattern as both Spanish explicar and English tell. variable stress in polysyllabic words. for example. 3) Length and complexity Long words seem to be no more difficult to learn than short ones. climbing. necessity and necessarily can add to their difficulty. headache. love. However. Remembering whether a verb like enjoy. a factor favoring their „learn ability‟. cupboard. as a rule of thumb. and therefore the learner is likely to meet them more often. . there are also some glaring irregularities.such as in word families like necessary. etc.

Thus. learners are likely to confuse them. swap for exchange) may cause problems. Finally. Thus. The words have style constraints. propaganda has negative connotations in English. thin is a safer bet than skinny. can also be troublesome for learners. 6) Range. slim. totally different. position. and a good innings) will seem fairly opaque to most learners and are likely to be easily learned. etc. culture specific items such as words and expressions associated with the game cricket (a sticky wicket. Uncertainly to the connotations of some words may cause problems too. place. compare to impose. a hat trick. Unfamiliar concepts may make a word difficult to learn.22 5) Meaning When two words overlap in meaning. The words with multiple meanings such as since. but you do the housework and do a questionnaire. but its nearest equivalent in other languages may dean deviant. Make and do are a case in point: you make breakfast and make an appointment. connotation and idiomaticity Words that can be used in a wide range of context will generally be perceived as easier than their synonyms with a narrower range. and still. slender. meaning. Thus put is a very wide-ranging verb. Likewise. Having learned one meaning of the word. such as very informal words (chuck for throw. . they may be reluctant to accept a second.

spelling. From all those definition above. intended readership. graphic features. The aspects to be measured are limited to pronunciation of words. length. as well as their syntactic complexity that makes phrasal verbs so difficult. It is their idiomaticity. It is because. keep an eye on…) will generally be more difficult than words whose meaning is transparent (decide. Texts in this sense are printed texts. The Concept of Text Brown and Yule (1997: 24) suggest that the term to spoke “text” as well. those three aspects that are learned in junior high school. where “text” means verbal record communication. Essences of Short Text a. They also differentiate the term of those text and discourse dealing with the context. we conclude that vocabulary mastery is the students‟ awareness of understanding the words and their rules to communicate. style. the use of words in meaning and meaning.23 words or expression that are idiomatic (like make up your mind. topic. 2. Willis (1998: 67) says that text in general sense to mean a continuous piece of spoken or written language. Arthur Hughes (2003:140) states that texts candidates are expected to be able to deal with can be specified along number of parameters: type. watch). form. .

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readability or difficulty, range of vocabulary and grammatical structure. Text type include: text books, handouts, articles (in newspaper, journals or magazine), poems, encyclopedia, dictionary, novel (extracts) and short stories, etc. He also states that text forms include: description, exposition, argumentation, instruction, and narration. Cross (1995:77-78) states that the text is a major resources; permitting you to vary the learning activities from lesson to lesson. There are four main factors to consider when deciding how to threat a passage; linguistic complexity, length, interest level and aims. From the definition above, it can be concluded that the text is a verbal communication which consists of continuous piece of spoken or written language and its meaning is contextually. b. The Concept of Story Story is account of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events, etc (Hornby: 1995: 94). Taylor (2000: 16) says that story is relating tale to one or more listener through voice and gesture. It is clear that vocabulary in a story should be presented in clear context; the amusing situations can make the vocabulary easy to remember. Ray B. West (1968: v) says that story is something brought into being by application of the skill and workings of the imagination of the author. Its aim is to arouse the emotions and stimulate the imagination of the students.

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Brad Hooper (1992: xi) says that story is different from a novel in that it is short enough to be read in one sitting, with every word leading toward some final, preordained effect. In story, the sentences are generally shorter in order the students easy to follow the story. From the statements above, the writer draw conclusion that story refers to the written or spoken description of past events, incidents, or account of invented or imagined events that can be used to for teaching students which have aims to make the students easier to follow the story and it has different from a novel that is short enough to be read in one sitting. This paper, the writer uses the story as text especially folktale for increasing vocabulary mastery in second year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo Academic Year 2009/2010. c. The Notion of Folktales One kind of story that usually heard by child is the folktales. It is type words composition that recites the story of the folklore in a certain region that is popularly and orally told from one generation to other generation in a certain community. (www.classicalfolktale.wikipedia.com) 1) The meaning of Folktales The word folktale is not defined in English usage. Taylor (2000:4) defines the term “folktale” as traditional story that has been

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passed by words of mouth, told from parents to children over many generations or passed on by countless storytellers sitting around countless evening fires. No one knows who the original author was, and there are usually different versions of the same story, he also states that the term “folktale” has also been used to refer to literary retelling of these tales. Another definition of folktales is that “words folktales refer to the many types of traditional narratives know to the “folk” (Coffin and Cohen, 1996:1). Philips (1992) defines folktales as story about telling stories with unverifiable claims and its literary form. From the definition above, we can assume that folktales are traditional stories that have been passed by words of mouth and told from generation to generation. Folktales lasted through a long period of time due to their universality. They are forms of traditional literature which began as attempt to explain and understand the natural and spiritual world. The origin of folktales lies in oral tradition. 2) The type of folktales There are several types of folktales. Taylor (2000) divides folktales as fable, fairy tales, hero stories, myths, legend. Fables are very short folktales with animals as the main characteristic and with very obvious moral lesson, often summon up in single line at the end.

Fairy tales are folktales that include some magical elements (not necessity fairies): the German word marchen is sometimes used for this. Fairy tales are fictional and take place in a never-land. Hero stories some of which have some real historical parts and other of which may not. Example: “Shakespeare‟s Ghost” and “Paul Bunyan”. and usually involving God. It is told as if they are fact.27 Legend is stories that are based on real hero and his or her mighty deeds. Legends are stories that are based on a real hero and his or her mighty deeds and believed by the teller and serve a historical purpose. is religious and deals with the creating and ordering of the universe and with the earlier order in which present world condition were being established. certain characteristics typical in folktales contribute to relatively easy reading. 3) The Characteristics of Folktales Although there a lot of variations between folktales. Examples “Johnny Appleased” and “Pail Bunyan”. when strictly defined. Taylor . And believed by the teller and served as historical purpose: “The dog and the meat” and “the greedy old spider”. primitive myth. and even between two telling stories of the same tale. Goddesses and supernatural power: “Adam and Eve” and “Noah‟s ark”. Examples: Tumbelina.

These are the list: time order repetition and redundancy predictability relatively simply grammar concrete ideas illustrations that provide support and context for the texts a unique reader-write relationship 3. The Notion of Young Learners Teaching English to children is different from teaching English to and adult. they need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. The Characteristic of Children In general. In relation to the English teaching learning process. children have the following characteristics: . The General Concept of Young Learners a. It means that the English teacher should be use the technique for English teaching that can make the students interested in learning English Lesson (House. 1997: 98) b.28 (2000:9) gives various characteristics of folktales that make them exceptionally good for language teaching.

that is playing and learning in the same time. Clark (1990: 6-8) states the characteristics of the children are as follows: 1) Children are developing conceptually. Hence from that to convey the material of learning we should be able to take both. They learn more slowly. 3) Their own understanding comes through hands.29 1) They like playing Children like playing. and ears. . They tend to resolves around themselves. They develop their way of thinking from the concrete to the abstract thing. They teach subject what school provides for them 3) Children are still developing their common skill such as turn taking and the use of body language. eyes. So material of teaching that will be teaching is about their surrounding and happened in that time. 2) Children have no real linguistic. 4) Young children are very egocentric. 2) They talk about “Here and Now” Children always discuss about existing in their around and happened in that time. They more like playing than learning. and ears Children will be understandings about what we talk are using hands. eyes.

It will take them more confident in attempting the sound of foreign language and they delighted in playing the sound. . ensuring success and enhancing the children‟s motivation are important factors in promoting the success of early start in foreign language learning. 8) Children forget quickly. The class activities must be fun and interesting by setting up the interesting activities. Thus. 6) Children are at early of their education. the teacher in teaching English needs repetition.30 5) Children get bored easily children have no choice to attend school. The Notion of Motivation a. From the definition above. 4. of course based on their characteristics in teaching learning English lesson. It is because motivation will influence someone both in process and result. it can be conclude that young learner need activities which are exiting and can stimulate their curiosity. The Definition of Motivation Motivation is needed in every occasion. Therefore. especially in teaching learning process. it is very important for teachers to know about motivation. 7) Children are better mimics.

Extrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because of consequences to obtain a reward and to avoid the punishment. Groccia (1992: 62) states that people learn and study because the consequences of such behavior satisfy certain internal and/or external motives. achievement motivation. Then. While intrinsic motivation is motivation where the students learn because they are interested in task or activities itself. 2000: 332) says that motivation is internal states that arouses us to action. namely: extrinsic motivation. b. pushes us in particular direction. their willingness to engage in teaching learning activities and their reasons for doing this. and keep us engaged in certain activities. impulse.31 Some experts define some definition of motivation. From the definition above it can be concluded that motivation is an arousal. social motivation. Next. intrinsic motivation. Biggs and Watkins (1995: 84) state that there are four categories of motivation. The Types of Motivation There are many kinds of learning motivation stated by the experts. . or desire that moves and leads learner to do a particular action in order to meet and needs or to attain a set of goals of teaching learning process. Brophy (1998: 3) says that motivation refers to the students‟ subjective experiences. Weiner (in Elliot et al.

and has confidence in his or her success. . They are integrated motivation and instrumental motivation. Ur (1996: 19) defines some kinds of motivation. Integrative motivation is the desire to identify with and integrate into target language culture. to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do. High aspiration. Then. those are as follows: 1). c. The learner is ambitious. most of them clearly associated with motivation. The learner finds it important to succeed in learning and promote his or her own positive self-image. The learner has needs to achieve. The Characteristic of Motivated Students Naiman et al. 2). Ego-involvement. the students learn in order to compete against the other students. they are those who display certain typical characteristic. in Ur (1996: 275) comes to conclusion that the most successful students are not necessary those to whom a language comes very easily. 4). high proficiency. 3).32 Achievement motivation. goes for demanding challenges. social motivation is defined as the students‟ motivation in order to make the other people feel pleasure. Positive task oriented. Need for achievement. that is winning makes they feel good. Then instrumental motivation is to wish to learn the language for purposes of study or carrier. top grades. The learner willing to tackle tasks and challenges.

there are difficulties that might be faced by the learners especially the young learners. It can be seen when they do the exercises. The learner consistently invests a high level of effort in learning. Rationale In learning English vocabulary. the students get difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. or of specific learning activities. the students get difficulties to remember and grasp the meaning of words when the teacher gives them some English words and then translate them. Thirdly. Secondly. They could . B. It is caused by the teacher‟s material which is not appropriate on their level. Tolerance of ambiguity. It can be seen from some indicators that are shown by the students as follows: firstly. the students are less interested in teaching learning process. The students‟ vocabulary mastery of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010 is still low. 7). and it is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack progress.33 5). Perseverance. The learner is not disturbed or frustrated by situations involving a temporary lack of understanding will come later. and directs his or her effort towards achieving them. 6). Goal orientation. Most of the students do not have full concentration on the lesson and doing something useless during the process of teaching learning. The learner is very aware of the goals of learning.

Short texts are interesting materials in teaching language. Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research can be formulated as follows: by using short texts. the students can improve their vocabulary mastery.34 not do the exercises perfectly. Most of their marks are still lower than the passing grade. Considering the explanation above. . especially for the Second Year of SMP N 5 Sukoharjo in the academic Year of 2009/2010. the researcher believes that short texts can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery. By using short texts. the teacher should create an interesting teaching material. So. the teacher helps the students to remember the words and understand the meaning and also the grammatical pattern of the sentences easily. One of the teaching materials that can be used is the short texts. The teaching materials should be suitable with the young learners‟ characteristics. C.

2. consist of 11 boys and 24 girls. The aim was to master vocabulary by using short stories. The pre-test was done on the first meeting. It was done for knowing the students‟ basic ability of the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Setting of place This research was done in SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo. It was done for knowing the students‟ improvement after using short texts in teaching learning process. 35 CHAPTER III RESEACH METODHOLOGY A. Setting and Subject of the Research.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. The details are the pre-test. 3. the treatments were done on the second until five meeting. Last. the post-test was done on the sixth meeting. Time of research This research held on a cycle on second semester in the academic year of 2009/2010. and the posttest. 1. Sukoharjo. the treatments. Sukoharjo Regency. Next. Subject of the Research The subject of this research is the second grade class of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. This school is located at Bulakan. Post test was done on the six meeting. There are 35 students for class A.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. It is because there is a problem related with students‟ vocabulary mastery. .

. 36 B. For a starting point. Ebbutt (1985) in Hopkins (1993: 45) states action research is about the systematic study of attempts to improve educational practice by groups of participants by means of their own practical actions and by means of own reflection upon the effects of those actions. (b) their understanding to these practices. Method of the Research This research is a kind of action research.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. though it is often undertaken by individuals and sometimes in cooperation with outsiders.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out. It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively. it is necessary to give a definition of action research.” Kemmis (1983) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices. Meanwhile. Dewi Rochsantiningsih (2008) defines action research as: “proses sistematis di mana guru dengan sukarela melibatkan diri untuk melakukan refleksi dokumentasi. Rapport (1970) in Hopkins (1993: 44) says that action research is aimed to contribute both to the practical concern of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of the school science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework. dan atau tindakan untuk lebih memahami hakekat dan atau konsekuensi mengajar dengan tujuan untuk melakukan tindakan atau menguabah atau meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dan lebih baik bila dilakukan secara kolaboratif dengan kolega atau teman guru.

Based on the definition and the aims above.37 Furthermore. this research is done to increase the students‟ vocabulary mastery through short texts. intact groups are used in some cases. only a single group or individual is involved in the study. administrator. it is hoped that the researcher will find the solution for developing the students‟ vocabulary mastery. Often. From the definition above. By participating the actions in this research. C. or other educational professionals to aid in decision making in the local school. the implementation of the classroom action research includes four steps in the following: . According to the model. Wiersma (2000: 10) states one type of applied research is action research. The Model of Action Research The model of classroom action research used in this study is based on the model developed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1985). Action research focuses on the solution of day-to-day problems at the local level. research conducted by a teacher. Action research is usually less rigorous in term of design and methodology than other educational researches. it can be concluded that action research is a systematic study and it is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken or carried out by participants in educational situation rather than outside researches to solve the problem in order to improve the students‟ ability.

Planning Develop a plan of critically informed action to improve what is already happening. Observation Observe the effects of the critically informed action in the context in which it occurs.38 1. 4. subsequent critically informed and so on. 3. Action Act to implement the plan. Based on Hopkins‟ point of views (1993: 48) this model can be illustrated as follow. 2. . through a succession of a stages. Reflection Reflecting process on these effects as the basis for further planning.

each procedure takes five steps in one cycle. d. The problem was caused by the technique of delivering material which was not suitable and interesting to the learners. . 39 D. Planning the action The researcher prepared everything related to the action as follows: a. Preparing the material. There are follows: 1.2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. Preparing teaching aids. f. Planning the steps and technique for delivering the material in the form of lesson plan. 2. Designing the steps in doing the action. b. and conducting a pre-test. The Procedures of Action Research In this classroom action research. The problem referred to the students‟ difficulty in learning vocabulary. Preparing a test. It was done to know whether students‟ vocabulary could be improved or not.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company. c. It was obtained by observing the teaching learning process. e. Identifying the problems The researcher identified the problem before planning the action. interviewing the students. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of teaching learning process when the technique is applied).

The researcher presented the material by giving a worksheet one by one to the students. f. The researcher discussed the answer of task with the students i. The researcher gave the students oral task by pointing the students one by one to guess and pronounce the words that are related to the stories shown by teacher to check whether the students had understood. and drilled the students. . The researcher stimulated the students to try guessing some words related to the stories. g. h. the researcher reviewed the material. d. The researcher gave explanation about the words. e. 4. The real implementations were generally presented as follows: a. The researcher gave the students individual task. After doing the practices. Implementing the action The researcher implemented the teaching learning activity of vocabulary using short texts. The researcher greeted the students and checked the students‟ attendance at the beginning of class. b.40 3. c. The researcher gave the students time to make note in their book. pronounced them correctly. Observing and monitoring the action The researcher observed all activities in the teaching learning process and created a conducive atmosphere in a class.

interview.41 5. The teacher takes the position behind the class while observing the teaching learning process and makes a note all things about what happen during the teaching learning process. document analysis. Based on Burns (1999: 80). observation is a kind of activities in action research that enables researchers to document and reflect systematically upon classroom interactions and events. E. photograph. field notes. Qualitative method consists of observation. Observation technique means the researcher comes to the class. The researcher observed the actions to find the problems of the activities that had been carried out in using short stories in teaching vocabulary. . Technique of Collecting Data The techniques of collecting data are qualitative and quantitative method. Evaluating and Reflecting the result of the observation The researcher evaluated all actions in the cycle. observes the teaching learning process done by the teacher and the students. as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur.

1996: 21). The aim of this analysis was to complete the information which had been gotten from observation and interview. The vocabulary test is used to measure the students‟ vocabulary mastery. The purpose is to get the information about everything in teaching learning process using short stories. 1999: 101). Then. and noted the students‟ reaction and response to the learning. This interview is also done to the students and the teacher before and after teaching learning process.42 Notes or field notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context that are written in relatively factual and objective style (Burns. quantitative method uses test technique. Photographs are a way of greatly enhancing classroom analysis and providing visual stimuli that can be integrated into reporting and presenting the research to others (Burns. Test technique which is used is achievement test. 1999: 87). The interview technique is done spontaneously. Achievement test is the test that is used to measure students‟ ability after learning something (Arikunto. The researcher made notes of each observation done. the researcher used essay and pronoun test type for both . It means that the researcher does not make some questions first. The test here is a vocabulary test. In this research. which is about English lesson in Junior High School including its Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar. The researcher made note to all activities during the lesson. Analyzing the document was done toward the Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan.

The test consisted of vocabularies that had been taught to the students. The total numbers of test items were 30 items. Table 1. The result of the test was analyzed to know the students‟ achievement on vocabulary. The steps in Action Research Step of action Participant  Students Pre action  Researcher  Students  Researcher The action Technique  Interview  Observation  Test (Pre-test)  Planning  Implementing  Observing monitoring  Reflecting Post action  Students  Researcher  Test (Post-test)  Result of post-test and Data  Result of the interview  Result of observation  Result of pre-test  Result of observation  Field notes . Here is the diagram of the steps.43 the pre-test and post-test. There are some steps that should be done by the researcher in this action research.

they are qualitative descriptive analysis and also quantitative descriptive analysis. 1. and photographs. field notes. Qualitative descriptive In qualitative descriptive analysis. It makes clearer the data and the characteristic of the data (Nurgiantoro.44 F. 2001:8). this research uses descriptive statistics. Making a hypothesis using the classify data. the pre-test is compared with the post-test to know whether teaching vocabulary using short stories can improve the students‟ vocabulary mastery. It is used to make the data simple and communicative. (c) Making the inference. the data are the result of observation. (b) classify the data in certain classification. In this formula. Quantitative descriptive analysis In quantitative descriptive analysis. The formula of t-test of non-independent is as follows: t= where t is the result of t-test non-independent . (d) making an inductive conclusion. interview. The steps are: (a) compare the data from each informant to make easy in classifying the same data. This step uses a simple formula that is called as t-test of non-independent. Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis in this research consists of two kinds. 2. making the data in the table.

p q n and : the number of correct answer : the number of incorrect answer : the number of respondent The result of the computation of validity will be consulted to t-table distribution. from this. Validity of the Instrument In computing the validity of each item from the instrument. H. the effectiveness of using short stories to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery will be known. where k is the number of valid items. G. the researcher uses the formula as follows: where. when the difference between the values of t-obtained and the value of t-table is significant.45 Finally. it will be known whether or not the instrument is valid. . the reliability can be determined by using the formula: . Reliability of the Instrument After the valid items are determined.

46 The result of the computation of reliability will be consulted to r table of statistics. From this. The indicators are: (1) there is an improvement number of students that have minimal criterion at least 75 % from the total number of students. I. The Criteria of Successful Action The measurement that is used in checking vocabulary mastery is test. and (2) there is an improving average mark of the class based on the criteria in the curriculum that is used in that school. it will be known whether or not the instrument is reliable. .

It can be seen from the indicators like: 1) they were less interested in teaching learning process. Introduction contains the problem faced by the students. The main problem faced by the students was the lack of vocabularies. the researcher discusses the implementation of the action. The difficulties of learning vocabularies were caused by some reasons. They were supported in pre-research that has been done by the researcher.47 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION In this chapter. Their vocabulary was still low. Introduction As presented in chapter I. and 3) they got difficulties in writing words or group of words correctly. 2) they got difficulties to understand and grasp the meaning of words. First. They will forget . the description of the research. The discussion deals with the implementations of the actions that are teaching by using short texts based on theories from some experts. A. the students as young learners forget something quickly. many problems were found in teaching English for students of the second year of SMP Negeri 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. and discussion. The structure of the writing contains introduction. The description of the research contains the implementations of the actions of the research in the field.

technique or and material. So. Third. the research is concentrated on improving materials of teaching vocabulary through a classroom action research and the use of short texts as the teaching learning source. They prefer playing to studying. Secondly. They always talk about something while playing. it is hoped the students feel amused and then get the best result in learning English. it is important to find out the appropriate method. the researcher wanted to make the students are able to grasp and remember the . the students as young learners still like playing. or and material of teaching vocabulary for their students. the students as young learners get bored easily. the researcher decided to conduct a research to solve the problems through this study. the researcher wanted to create interesting situation in the classroom. the teachers have to find out the appropriate method. There were some targets which the researcher expected to achieve by conducting the action for the improvement of students‟ vocabulary. Here. The method. and or material to enrich young learners‟ vocabulary mastery. especially in vocabulary mastery. technique. Thus. By using the appropriate method. Second. One of the problems that is taken in this study is the materials that are not suitable and interesting to the students. technique or the material is not only fun but should also contain the appropriate topic to be discussed. repetition is needed. So. technique.48 some words that are learned easily if the teachers do not repeat the words many times. Firstly. Based on the facts above.

observing or monitoring the action. the researcher hopes that the research can enrich students‟ vocabulary mastery and change the situation during the teaching learning process. The Description of the Research The implementation of the action planned in this research was held in a cycle. They are explained as follows: . B.49 meaning of words more easily. The cycle in this research also consisted of series of steps. 2010 until April. Each meeting took 80 minutes. namely planning the action. in presenting and practicing new vocabularies. the researcher wanted to make the students able to write the words or group of words correctly so the improvement of students‟ vocabulary could be achieved. In this cycle. Through a classroom action research. the researcher used short texts as the teaching materials. The researcher divided the cycle into four meetings. Based on the problems and the targets that the researcher expected to achieve. It was conducted from April. evaluating and reflecting the result of the observation. the researcher decided to carry out interesting teaching materials. 2010. Thirdly. and revising the plan. in this case was short texts. implementing the action.

The students could ask questions whenever they found problems. It was to get the students‟ attention and interest. The researcher told the students that they were going to learn English by using short stories that day. the researcher planned and chose interesting learning materials to solve the problems and improve students‟ behavior during teaching learning process. Besides that. So.50 1. the indicators of vocabulary mastery can be completed. the students are able to write down the words or group of words correctly. By using short text. The students could drill every word until five times. Planning the action The action plan was made based on the problems that were mentioned in the introduction above. it was expected that the students are able to grasp the meaning of new vocabulary easily. The researcher planned to use 10 minutes to greet the students and stated the topic. The researcher taught 80 minutes in every meeting. The researcher chose short texts as the teaching materials. The researcher also gave a lot of time to drill the students. The teacher also planned to drill the students‟ pronunciations using the words that have been prepared. The researcher allocated 60 minutes to give the students a chance to learn the material by doing the worksheet and to practice . It is because the stories are very funny and give the students a lot of new list of vocabularies. The researcher believed that short stories could improve the students‟ vocabulary and attract the students‟ enthusiasm in teaching learning process. To overcome those problems.

m. Research Implementation The action plan was implemented by the researcher with the help from the teacher as the observer. a. the researcher conducted a post-test. The researcher came to the class on time . The test started at 2010 to know the 10. 2. and closing. This cycle was conducted in four meetings. main activity. After implementing the action. students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. First meeting 1) Opening A pre test was conducted on April. Before implementing the action. The bell rang. namely: opening. 2010. Each meeting was divided into three terms. This test was conducted in the beginning to know the students‟ ability about the material that would be given. April. 2010. students‟ worksheet that consisted of some tasks and also teaching equipments that are related to the action.25 a. the researcher prepared the material. Post-test was conducted after the last action on the last meeting of the cycle. lesson plans as researcher‟s guidance in teaching vocabulary. Besides preparing the pre-test. the researcher conducted a pre-test on the first meeting. The pre test was conducted on April. The last five up to ten minutes was to review and close the lesson.51 the pronunciation of the words that they have learned.

the researcher gave the information that the students would get the materials in the next meeting and closed the meeting on that day . 2) Main activity After getting test worksheet. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the test that would be done on that day. the researcher asked about the students‟ feeling. The test was about understanding the meaning of words. in this case was short stories.52 and greeted the students. After that. the use of words in context and spelling. After that. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list. Then. The test was a pre-test. pronunciation of words. After greeting the students. The students were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. the students did the test individually. she passed the worksheet test to the students. 3) Closing After the bell rang. the researcher checked the test worksheet whether they were complete or not. Then. Next. This test was aimed to know students‟ ability about the new materials that would be given. . the researcher explained about the rules of the test. the researcher asked the students to collect the test worksheet on the desk.

Some of them mentioned some titles of short stories. Then. 2010. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. After introducing the materials that would be used. the researcher asked the students to mention some short texts that they ever read or heard. No one was absent that day. The students answered “yes. After greeting the students. the researcher began the lesson of the day by asking the students to find the meaning of some words. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the second meeting. Mam”. this means that they understood what learning source that would be used. They tried to answer the task by looking for the answer on the dictionary. 2) Main Activity To open the lesson.53 b. Second meeting 1) Opening The second meeting was conducted on April. she asked the students whether they ever read or heard short stories or not. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. . Then.25 am and then greeted the students.

the researcher drilled the students‟ pronunciation with the guiding words on the worksheet. All students obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. Next. The researcher advised them that it was only a practice. From the students‟ answer. They were afraid if they made a mistake. The researcher also asked them to find out the idea of the story using words that they ever had before.54 Next. The title was “The Flowers from the Moon”. Some students were shy and afraid to speak loudly. The researcher pronounced every word once and the students pronounced every word three times. to know the students‟ understanding. to check the students understanding about new vocabulary. Next. it could be seen that the students still made some mistakes in getting the main point of the story. the researcher asked the students to write down some words and find the meaning of each word. the researcher gave a chance to the students to read the story on their own worksheet. the researcher asked three of the students to mention the main idea of the story. They obeyed the researcher‟s instruction. Next. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the words together. After the students finished doing the task. After the students finished reading the short story. the researcher asked the students to do the next task that is to fill in the blanks in some .

The researcher showed all the words to the students. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment.05 am. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 08. After finishing the task. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words. Most students made a mistake in pronouncing the words. the researcher and the students discussed the answers of the task together. Next. the researcher reviewed the material. then. “very-very interesting”. Some students were very enthusiastic to answer the question of the task. c. 2010. If they made a mistake. The researcher asked “how about your feeling today?” The students answered. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. the researcher gave the students choice to choose the correct answer. 3) Closing After finishing the task. Then. Third meeting 1) Opening The third meeting was conducted on April.55 sentences with the words that were mentioned on the worksheet and answered the questions about the story. The story‟s title was “Royal Spaghetti”. In the .

the researcher checked the answered with the students together. Then.56 second meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. After five minutes. 2) Main Activity In the beginning of the lesson. To prepare the class. Then. The researcher used this chance to begin the main activity. No one was absent. The researcher passed a new worksheet for each student and asked the students to do the exercises. . The students felt easily to grasp the main idea of the text because they have translated some difficult words before. In this meeting. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. The title was ”Rainbow”. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that had been given in the second meeting. the students started the main activity by finding the correct words and their meaning. the learning source used in teaching learning process was the same as before. the researcher asked some of students to read the story. There were some pronunciation mistakes done by the students. In this main activity. all students focused on the lesson. The researcher checked the students‟ pronunciation. the students and the researcher discussed the story to get the main idea. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. After that.

the researcher and the students discussed the answer together. the researcher asked the students to fill in the blanks in some sentences with the words that were mentioned on the students‟ worksheet. In the middle of the activity. and then asked them to get the meaning of them. The researcher and the students checked the answers together. The researcher used the synonym to introduce the words. the researcher asked some students to answer the questions and wrote the answers on the whiteboard. After five minutes. the researcher changed the technique in introducing the new words to the students. Then. The students who had finished discussing the correct arrangement. They were very busy to discuss the correct arrangement of the letters with their friends. then they wrote their answer in the whiteboard. After that. the researcher asked the students to pay attention to some words.57 Next. After checking the answer. it could be seen that students still made mistakes in arranging the words. From the students‟ answer. The students tried to find the synonymy of the words by using their dictionary. . the researcher asked the students to arrange the letters into a good word. Next. Then. they were also asked to find the meaning of the words. The students looked very interested in the new task. The title was “The Caliph and the Clown”. the students and the researcher checked the answers together.

58 After checking the answers. On the last task of the third meeting. 3) Closing In the end section. The students pronounced every word three to four times. the researcher asked some students to read the story loudly. The reseacher asked “bagaimana pendapat kalian tentang pelajaran pada hari ini?” The students answered. Students who had finished discussing the answers. Some of them were very busy to remember some of the new words that they heard before and the other discussed with their friends to find the main idea of the story. . the researcher reviewed the material from the beginning. The researcher mentioned some difficult words and the students tried to guess the right pronunciation and the right meaning. Next. The researcher also asked the other students to pay attention to the text. the students tried to grasp the main point of the story with the researcher. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of phrases from the story before. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. Then. The students were enthusiastic in answering the question from the researcher. They were very busy to prepare the answer. and then they wrote their answer on the whiteboard and then checked the answer with the researcher.

the researcher asked the students to make a pair of discussion. d. Then. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10. The researcher distributed students‟ worksheet to the students for the fourth meeting. No one was absent. In the fourth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. the researcher began the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the first and second meeting. Sometimes they made an underline for some difficult words. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. To prepare the class. Then. Then. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. The researcher asked the students to discuss the story . The title was “The Magic Seeds”. The students listened curiously to the researcher‟s story. 2) Main activity Then.59 “menyenangkan bu. Fourth meeting 1) Opening The fourth meeting was conducted on April. the researcher began the lesson by reading a story. Banyak kosa kata baru dan gampang ingetnya”. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. 2010.25 am.

the researcher and the students checked the answer together. After that. After five minutes. Then. Next. they had to find the meaning of the words. Then. the researcher asked some of the students to read the story. the researcher addressed some of the . Then. the researcher asked the students‟ ability in writing words. Some of them were busy to remember the story and the other tried to grasp and write the meaning of some words. some of students wrote their difficult words on the whiteboard. The story‟s title was “The Owl and the Nightingale”. The students wrote the answers on their worksheet. the researcher asked the students to match the words with their antonyms. the researcher asked the students to write some words that they found in the story before. The next task. The researcher also asked the students to find some difficult words on the story. The students pronounced the words three or four times. After that. The students had to write some words they heard. The researcher and the students discussed the answers together. The researcher checked the answers. the researcher also asked the students to find the meaning of the words. Next.60 that they heard. The students worked in pairs. the students wrote the answers in the whiteboard. The researcher continued the lesson by drilling the students‟ pronunciations. Then.

the researcher reviewed the material. There are some students discussed the answers with their friends. Then. Tau arti katanya. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. After 5 minutes. bu. The other students added “senang.61 students to retell the story by their own words. Next. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. the researcher asked the students to answer some questions about the story. For the last task. The students were very busy to find the answers. The students already knew some words so it made the students easy to retell the story. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. Then. The researcher showed all the words to the students. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. . The next task. “lumayan. Bu”. 3) Closing After finishing the task. the researcher asked some students to write the students‟ answers and then checked the answers. the students had to find the hyponymy of some words based on the text that they ever read before. The students discussed with their friends.

the researcher passed the student‟s worksheet for the fifth meeting to the students. They could find the meaning in the dictionary. Then the teacher checked the students‟ attendance. Then.62 e. 2) Main activity For the first activity. the researcher said “good morning” to the students. After five minutes. Then. In the fifth meeting the researcher continued teaching the material by using short stories. No one was absent. the researcher asked the student‟s to find the meaning of some words. 2010. . the researcher began to teach the material by reviewing the last lesson and asked the students some questions dealing with the material that was given in the third meeting. Then. the researcher asked the students to write the answers on the white board and discuss the answers together. the researcher checked the students‟ answer. To prepare the class. The researcher and the observer came to the class at 10.25 am. After that. the researcher asked the students to listen what the researcher pronounced and then write the answer on the students‟ worksheet. Fifth meeting 1) Opening The fifth meeting was conducted on April.

The students pronounced the words three or four times. the students had to find the synonym of some words by matching the words in the column A to the column B. Then. . They enjoyed this material.63 Next. the researcher addressed some students to pronounce some words that were mentioned by the researcher. The students felt happy because the story was very funny. The students worked in pairs. the students tried to grasp the main idea of the story. Next. The researcher also asked the students to write the difficult words that they found. After 5 minutes. Then. Many students raised their hand to write their answer in the whiteboard. the researcher guided the students to find the meaning form the difficult words that they found. the researcher asked the students to arrange the jumble words into a good arrangement. the researcher asked some students to read the story and the other paid attention to their friends. After the students read the story. Some of the students tried to get the answer from the dictionary and the others were discussed. After 10 minutes. the researcher and the students checked the answer together. After that. the researcher asked the students to write the answer in the whiteboard. The title of the story was “Why Bears Hibernate in the Winter”. Some of the students worked with their dictionary and the other tried to get the answer from the short story that they read before.

the researcher asked three of the students to retell the story. All of the students were silent and did the instruction well. The last task. Next. the students were asked to read the story. Bu”. After 10 minutes. Tau arti katanya. the researcher had some reflection towards all the activities that had been done that day by asking the students‟ feeling and comment. After 5 minutes. The other students paid attention to their friend who retold the story. Then. the researcher reviewed the material. The researcher repeated some difficult words to the students. They had to grasp the main idea of the story individually then retold the story in their own words. the students pronounced and mentioned the meaning of the words three or four times. bu. The researcher asked “bagaimana pelajaran dengan cerita pendek hari ini?” The students answered. They worked in groups.64 For next material. the researcher discussed with the students about the story that they heard. jadi gampang nerjemahin bacaannya”. The researcher did not forget to . Then. The title was “The Necklace”. the students wrote the answer on the whiteboard. the researcher asked the students to discuss some of the phrases from the text. 3) Closing After finishing the task. The other students added “senang. “menyenangkan. They felt happy with this teaching way.

Then. the researcher explained about the rules of the test. she passed the test worksheets to the students. This post-test was aimed to know the students‟ improvement of vocabulary mastery. f. After greeting the students.65 inform the students that in the next meeting the test would be done. 2) Main Activity The students did the test individually. the researcher checked the students‟ attendance list.05 a. The materials were such as understanding meaning of words. Sixth meeting 1) Opening A post-test was conducted on April. They were not allowed to cheat in doing the test or to look for the answer on the dictionary. 3) Closing After the test finished. the researcher discussed the answers of test with the students. pronunciation of words. All students were very active in discussing the . After that. 2010. The bell rang at 08. Then.m. the researcher closed the lesson because the time was up. The researcher also asked about the students‟ preparation to face the post-test that would be done on that day. The researcher came to the class on time and greeted the students. the use of words in context and spelling. The test was the same with the pre test that was done before.

66 answers with the researcher. The aspects that should be improved were meaning of words. the use of words in context. All students paid attention with the discussion. Then. the researcher used observation to see the effects of conducting the cycle. The observation was conducted simultaneously when teaching learning process took place. short texts were used to make the way of grasping the meaning easier. it was known that there were some improvements on students‟ vocabulary. The researcher said thank you to the students for everything during the research. Observing and Monitoring the Action In monitoring the implementation of this cycle. Besides the explanation of implementing the actions above. the researcher asked the students‟ feeling and comment during teaching learning process with the researcher. and spelling. In this cycle. No student was busy with his own business. Then. Then the second to fifth meeting was focused on improving vocabulary aspects and students‟ motivation in teaching learning process. The first and the sixth meeting of the cycle were used for testing. 3. pronunciation of words. They were the mastery of . the results of the observation of the teaching and learning process were also supported by the interviews with the students about the use of short texts in teaching vocabulary. In the teaching and learning process. the researcher closed the discussion because the bell rang. From the observation results. there were six meetings.

the observation results explained the students‟ motivation and activities in teaching-learning process and student‟s motivation from the second to the fifth meeting. Their responses were good. Beside passive. They paid attention to the lesson. They paid attention to the lesson. Some students tried to answer the questions of the task. All students did the task quite well. The students also obeyed the researcher instruction.67 meaning. Beside the students‟ improvements on vocabulary. They were afraid if their answers were wrong. pronunciation. No one was busy with their own business. In the second meeting. Some students were active to answer the questions from the researcher when the researcher gave them some question or asked them to do the exercises. Some students were silent when the researcher asked the question to the students. some students were still passive. To solve this problem. No students were busy with their own business in the class. spelling. The situation was conducive because there was no noisy outside the class. most students were shy to speak loudly. the students looked happy and enthusiastic to attend the class. Although the students‟ motivation increased. In the third meeting. the students‟ motivation was good. the researcher gave advice to the students that it was only a practice. All of them were seriously listened to the stories. the others were quiet. and using words in context. . They also did the task on their worksheet well.

Sometimes they told each other about something else. Good atmosphere was created in the class. many students raised their hand. It seemed that they had already understood about the term. In middle of the fourth meeting. So. To solve this problem. the researcher went around the class to monitor and guide them whether they were active to discuss with their friends or not. The researcher used synonymy technique in introducing the new words. the students‟ motivation increased. In the fourth meeting. It can be seen when the researcher asked the students one by one to check the students‟ understanding. They could do the exercises well because there were some phonetic symbols that helped them to do the exercises. They still made mistake to pronounce the right pronunciation. the students still had problem in pronouncing the word. In the third meeting.68 In the middle of the third meeting. the researcher asked the students to pronounce the word three or four times. the students asked to write some words on their worksheet. When the researcher asked the students to read the story and do the task. After that. the researcher still used short stories for teaching learning process. Before starting the lesson. They were also enthusiastic when discussing with their friends. The students were happy and enthusiastic when the researcher changed the activity in introducing the new words. . the students were asked to fill in the blank sentences with the correct words. the researcher just reviewed all materials from the third meeting.

the researcher reflected the results of the action as follows: a) the students who were still passive were getting more active and interested when they were reading and understanding the story. 4. b) the students were able to grasp the meaning of words when the researcher gave them some new vocabularies.07. In the fifth meeting. They also could write the correct words that they heard. the students were very active.36. c) the students were able to write the words correctly and could use the words in context. all students were active to grasp the meaning of every word. They listened what the researcher pronounced.69 The students felt happy and enthusiastic doing this task because they knew all of the meaning of the difficult words by discussing with their friends and also looking for the dictionary. Moreover. Reflecting the Result of the Observation Based on the observation results which were gathered in field notes. It could be seen during the teaching-learning process. the test score in the first and sixth meeting showed the improvement result. while the mean score of the post-test was 7. In reviewing the materials. . Most students were active and all students got attention to the lesson. d) the students were also able to pronounce the words correctly. The mean of the pre-test was 4.

students were encouraged to practice their ability in pronouncing and writing words correctly. Table 2. Short texts also encouraged the students to be more active during teaching learning process. They also words. The students got 1. The researcher concluded that teaching vocabulary using short texts attracted students‟ curiosity in knowing new words. They became more motivated and enthusiastic in learning English which they did not tend to do something useless and got bored in the middle of teaching learning process.70 Based on the result of the observing and the test above. They also got difficulties They translated words from when they had to translate Indonesian into English or the words from Indonesian vice versa easily. Improvement of the Students‟ Achievement in Teaching Learning Process Using Short Texts Source of the data before implementing the action Vocabulary mastery after implementing the action Vocabulary mastery Observation and Interview 1. The improvement of students‟ achievements in teaching learning process using short stories can be seen in the table 2. easily. All of the aspects were completed. . The students understood difficulties to understand and grasped the meaning of and grasp the meaning of words easily. Through short texts. it could be seen that there were increasing students‟ motivation and also the aspects of vocabulary. into English or vice versa. They forgot words remembered the words and their meanings easily.

3. Most of the students also made mistakes when they did the exercises in arranging some letters into a correct word. which has double letters. They still made words correctly. 2. There were no mistakes in Most of the students forgot writing the words to write the second letter. The students were less 1. mistakes to pronounce the words. The students could write mistakes when they wrote the words correctly. The students could only 4. could of the 3. The students could pronounce. pronounce. grasp and use remember.71 2. They did not do something something useless during useless during teaching teaching learning process learning process. understand remember. They words. exercises. The students still made 3. For example when also could arrange the the students found a word letters into a correct word. grasp and use words in context about 25 words in context about 75% of them. The students were more interested during teaching active and enthusiastic learning process during teaching learning process. The students pronounce the words pronounce most correctly. . The students liked doing 3. 80 % of them. The students could not 2. 4. The students had more full concentration during concentration to do the teaching learning process. The students did not have 2. Students‟ motivation Students‟ motivation 1. They started to ask and answer the questions. understand.

8 % of students became 94. Beside that. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there was an improvement of students who achieved the minimum standard score. chuckled. the improvement also could be seen on the students‟ scores of test. they could pronounce and write the words correctly. There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. They could pronounce. in this case 60. Then the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was . grasp and use the words in context about 75 until 80 % of them. The students did the 4. reason. Then.07 to 7.72 4. freedom. understand. From the vocabulary aspects. different. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores.3 % of students.36. from 4. dream. The improvements were students‟ vocabulary mastery and also students‟ motivation. Research Findings From the table above. The students liked having exercises individually. from 2.07 7. quarrel. sea. remember. daughter. purple. captured. discussion with their friends. sky.36 5. the students understood and grasped the meaning of words easily. the students‟ improvement could be seen. Test The mean score of pre-test : The mean score of post-test : 4. The examples were prince. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. etc.

they did not do something useless . Since is . They asked more questions than before. They were more active and attractive during teaching learning process. Meanwhile. They also had more concentration to the lesson. it means that there is a significant difference between pre- test and post-test score. finally. the t-table higher than for 35 students is 2. the researcher decided to stop the cycle. Next.29. Next. They did not do something useless during teaching learning process and like having discussion with their friends.04. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19.30. They were as follows: a) The aspects of vocabulary mastery were completed. they could write the words correctly. There were some reasons for stopping this research only in one cycle. the students‟ motivation also increased. They also raised their hands to answer the questions. Beside the vocabulary mastery. and they also could use the words in context appropriately. the students‟ motivation increased when the short text were used. Considering the facts of some improvements dealing with teaching vocabulary by using short texts above. The students understood and grasped the meaning of the words easily. The indicators showed that they were more active and enthusiastic during the teaching learning process. they had more concentration to do the exercises. they could pronounce the words correctly.73 3.

It was because the school would hold a mid term test for all the students. The school gave two weeks to finish the implementation of the research. The students also could pronounce the words correctly.07 to 7. grasp. pronouncing.36. there was also an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. The discussion helped them to understand the lesson and do the tasks well. in this case 60. from 4. spelling. Here. The observation that was done showed that there were some improvements in students‟ vocabulary mastery aspects and students‟ motivation. They also could use and write the words correctly. They have their own worksheet that was completed with some short texts. and remember the meaning easily. from 2. and using the words. They liked having discussion with their friends. At first from the students‟ vocabulary mastery. b) There was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test. the students could understand.8 % became 94. so they could have more practices for enriching vocabulary mastery using short stories. C. the students did more practices and steps by steps in understanding. From the pre-test and post-test score. It could be understood since human brain has limit .74 during teaching learning process. Discussion The research findings came from the observation and the test scores.3 %. c) The researcher only had limited time to conduct the research. grasping.

Human also has limit memory to remember all at once (www. more active and enthusiastic to follow the teaching learning process. Second from the students‟ motivation. namely pictures. the students had more concentration during teaching learning process. story. there were also many kinds of interesting techniques used to teach short texts.75 capacity to absorb new things from surrounding. Ur (1998) explains that there are three sources of young learners‟ attention in class. They did some useless activities. Next. such as talking with other students or disturbing their friends. and game. say. the students. Beside the new materials.ksmumail/human_brain. Young learners like to read and listen interesting stories. Then. The students were more active and enthusiastic because the materials used were new materials. should know the techniques of teaching practically for example “listen and repeat”. and write”. were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. According to Linse (2005). question and answer”. especially the students at the back. edu). They focused on the materials which were used . teachers of English to young learners. It made the students enjoy. as the young learners. and Jensen (1980: 285) also states that teaching English to children needs special techniques. Petty. “listen. the situation in the class before implementing the action was described as some students were busy with themselves. The best way to add breadth and depth to child‟s vocabulary is by providing a variety of opportunities for new and interesting experience. the class situation became more active and enthusiastic. After implementing the action. read and write”.

The amusing situation could make students become more enthusiastic. vocabulary in story is presented in clear context and the amusing situation. Maya K. According to Elli (1991:31).david399.htm). David also states that one indicator which makes teaching learning process succeed is the active students during teaching learning process.76 through short texts. It matches with Elli‟s theory. . They are active if they are suitable with the teacher‟s technique and they are far from teacher pressure (www.

For example. Based on the analysis of the result of the implementation of the actions which had been conducted to improve the students‟ vocabulary. Conclusion Having conducted the research of teaching vocabulary by using short texts in Junior High School. The first is about the enrichment of the students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. in arranging the jumble letters. the researcher comes to a conclusion that teaching vocabulary by using short texts can improve the students‟ vocabulary. First. the students could pronounce the words correctly. The more detailed results of the action implemented in this research were as follows. the students also could write the words correctly. AND SUGGESTION A. They also could remember the meaning of the words easily. IMPLICATION. the students could understand and grasp the meaning easily.77 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION. Third. This is based on the facts found in accordance with the result of the action implemented to find answers to the problem statements. It could be seen from the aspects of vocabulary which are completed. the students could pronounce. Fourth. they could rearrange the letters into a correct word. it can be seen that the implementation of teaching vocabulary by using short texts can effectively improve students‟ vocabulary. Second. .

They did not do something useless during teaching learning process. remember.29.07 to 7. from 2. The difference between the pre-test and post-test scores was 3.30. There were so many students who raised their hands to answer the question on the whiteboard or oral answer. the t-table than for 35 students is 2. They also liked having discussion with their friends.78 understand. The researcher found a good atmosphere in the class.04. It proved that there was a significant improvement of the students‟ scores. Next. Since is higher . Meanwhile. Beside that. . Most of the students gave more attention than before. while the coefficient of the t-test between the pre-test and post-test was 19. The second is about the students‟ motivation.3 % of students. in this case 60. they had more concentration to do the exercises. there was an improvement of students who had scored more than the minimum standard score. The students were more active and enthusiastic during teaching learning process. The data of the students‟ score of pre-test and post-test showed that there were more students who achieved the minimum standard score. there was an improvement of the mean score between the pre-test and post-test.8 % became 94.36. Next. it means that there is a significant difference between pre-test and post- test score. grasp and use the words in context about 75-80 % of them correctly. from 4.

say. Through short texts. The teacher can also conduct an oral test to make the students more motivated and attracted in teaching-learning process. Implication Based on the conclusion of the study. read and write”. It implies that using short texts are good material to improve students‟ vocabulary mastery and also improve students‟ learning activity during teaching learning process. materials. the teacher also can use the visual techniques such as mime and gesture and verbal techniques such as verbal explanation. The teacher could use “listen and repeat”. The students suggest using dictionary in translating the words. It is conducted by English teacher to make the students‟ more interested and more active in teaching-learning process and to avoid the boredom. Then. writing and pronouncing correctly. In teaching English using short texts. and media. Beside the appropriate techniques.79 B. The short texts made the students easier in understanding the form and the meaning of the words. synonyms and definition. the teacher should have to choose the appropriate materials and media to teach vocabulary. “listen. The material in this case is . and write”. there is a significant improvement of students‟ vocabulary and improvement of students‟ learning activity after teaching used short texts to teach new vocabulary and to train the students in order to write and pronounce correctly. question and answer”. the teacher should choose appropriate techniques. antonyms in teaching vocabulary to the students. students were also encouraged to practice their ability in reading.

80 short texts. and then make analyses of the stories by their own words. the English teachers should create an interesting and enjoyable situation of teaching learning process. The genre that is used is narrative. The students can find the difficult words and their meaning. there is an improvement of students‟ vocabulary mastery of the second year of SMP 5 Sukoharjo in the academic year of 2009/2010. Suggestion After carrying out the researcher and obtaining the conclusion. Students will be easy in . The materials have to appropriate with the syllabus that used in that school. It makes the students understand the stories well. and for school. By implementing short texts using appropriate techniques and materials. and materials in improving the students‟ motivation in learning English based on certain condition. techniques. It is suitable with the material that used in the second year of junior high school. students. other researcher. The short texts have to contain new and old information to the students. 1. the researcher would like to propose some suggestion directed to the English teacher. Besides. C. the teacher could choose the most suitable method. English teacher The English teachers should learn the characteristics of the students in order to know exactly what they need and what problems they faced on their development. By understanding those points.

There are many other method. 3. and materials of teaching English of Junior High School students that can be taken as objects of research to find out the effectiveness of teaching. They can practice English in their daily life. Other researcher This study is just one of efforts in improving students‟ vocabulary. School The institution should state a policy in improving the quality of the teaching English for children. It should encourage the English teacher to be creative to use various method.81 learning when the situation is interesting for them and the students will more enthusiastic. It should also be facilitated with various media supporting the teaching activity. 2. . techniques. The students have to be more active and motivated to learn English. Students An instructional process will not be successful if students are not maximally involved in it. The students not only can study English in the class but also can study everywhere and every time. It also would avoid the boredom. It is expected that the finding of this study will be used as a starting point of the future research on similar problems. techniques or materials. 4.

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