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―…squisita musica strumentale ed eccellente musica vocale.‖ Pompilio Totti Ritratto di Roma 1638

Festival of Instruments

Amor non più, amor non più: se la Dea che dal mar nacque, sua madre fu, ah, ch’al foco d’amor non bastan l’acque.
Carissimi, I Naviganti

Front Cover Artwork - Reproduced by kind permission from Aliza Souleyeva-Alexander. ―As a woman from Kazakhstan and a brand new Canadian, when I show my culture and history through my work, I am showing a mixture of many cultures that have been in Central Asia over thousands of years combined with my own perceptions. My past and present experience come together to influence me and my work.‖ Her complete Bio is found at: Back Cover Artwork - The Birth of Venus Nascita di Venere is a painting by Sandro Botticelli. It depicts the goddess Venus, having emerged from the sea as a full grown woman, arriving at the sea-shore. The painting is held in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.

Music of Frescobaldi, Castello, Marini, Kapsberger, Monteverdi & Carissimi & altri ...

Carrie Henneman Shaw, soprano Linh Kaufmann, soprano Steve Staruch, tenor Adan Varela, tenor Garrick Comeaux, bass


Marc Levine, Ginna Watson, violins Steve Staruch, viola
basso continuo

Mary Virginia Burke, viola da gamba Tom Walker, liuto attioribato Paul Berget, tiorba & violone, baroque guitar Bruce Jacobs, harpsichord Donald Livingston, organ
Consortium Carissimi would like to thank you for your ongoing support of our music, musicians and programming. Please help us in our effort to continue to build audience support in this community by sharing the enclosed recording with your family and friends. Look for future concert programming under our Future Concerts section at our website: Consortium Carissimi is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization P.O. Box 40553 Saint Paul, Minnesota 55104 Tel. 612.822.1376
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A special thanks to
Diane Milbrandt, our host at Hamline United Methodist Church, Karen Kustritz, for her gracious support of this program, Bill Mathis and Hennepin United Methodist Church for the use of their portative organ, Robert Foy with Italian text translations, and to

Hamline United Methodist Church - 1514 Englewood Avenue, Saint Paul, MN Friday, March 4th, 7:30 pm Sunday, March 6th, 4:00 pm

THE PROGRAM Claudio Monteverdi Madrigale: Zefiro torna

Our Donors
Nancy Archer Lillian Carteng Laura Carlson Elisabeth Comeaux William and Mary Cunningham Dan Dressen Steve and Judy Emmings Robert Foy Bob and Darlene Hays Bob Hickcox and Jacqueline Henry Gerald and Merry Hoekstra Jeff and Robin Holland Bob and Sigrid Johnson Beth and Pat Nunnally Troy Rustad Susannah Smith Vern Sutton Mark and Linda Triplett Robert and Maureen Vince Nancy Ann Werner Grace Wiechman Preston and Sharon Williams

Biagio Marini
(c.1597 – 1656)

Sonata à Basso è Violino ò Cornetto L‘Eroica à 3
(Il Primo libro di canzone, 1650)

Andrea Falconieri
(1585 or 1586 – 1656)

Giacomo Carissimi

Cantata: Lamento di Maria di Scozia
Lascia ch’io parli

Giovanni Battista Buonamente
(c.1595 – 1642)

Gagliarda Prima
(Quarto libro de varie sonate, 1626)

Girolamo Frescobaldi
(1583 – 1643)

Canzon Prima à due bassi
(Canzoni da sonare, libro primo, 1634)

Girolamo Giovanni Kapsberger
(c.1580 – 1651)

Toccata IX and X
(Libro quarto d’intavolatura di chitarrone)

Dario Castello
(c.1590 – c.1658)

Sonata Prima a sopran solo
(Libro secondo de sonate concertate, 1644)

Claudio Monteverdi Bernardo Storace
(fl. 1660‘s)

Madrigale: Lamento della Ninfa Ciaccona Passacalio à 3. & à 4. Ballo del Gran Duca
(Libro di varie sonate, 1626)

Consortium Carissimi Garrick Comeaux, Artistic Director Elisabeth Comeaux, Executive Director ——— Board Members ——– Robert Hays, President Beth Nunnally, Treasurer Don Livingston, Secretary

Biagio Marini
(c.1597 – 1656)

Giovanni Buonamente
(c.1595 – 1642)

Giacomo Carissimi

Serenata: I Naviganti

- Program Notes Zefiro Torna is based on a sonnet that begins with ―Zefiro torna e di soavi accenti l‘aer fa grato‖ and is from a late XVI century poet, Ottavio Rinuccini, a member of the Camerata de‘ Bardi. This work is one of two madrigals composed by Monteverdi with the title Zefiro torna and is not to be confused with his five-voice a cappella setting of a sonnet by Petrarch published in his Sixth Book of Madrigals in 1614. This madrigal sets a text by Ottavio Rinuccini, the poet who authored the librettos for the first two surviving operas, Peri‘s La Dafne and Euridice, as well as Monteverdi‘s lost opera, Arianna. It was published in the collection Scherzi Musicali, and in the composer‘s Ninth Book of Madrigals (1632). Scored for two tenors and continuo, most of the piece is in the form of a ciaccona or passacaglia, which uses a constantly recurring bass line, and it is the first known example of a vocal duet that uses a ciaccona accompaniment. Although it is sometimes performed in a ―serious‖ manner, it is often interpreted as a comic parody of madrigals as they had evolved by the early seventeenth century, particularly the mannered conventions of the seconda prattica, in which the musical setting is largely driven by the text, and dissonance is used with extreme freedom as an expressive tool. The poem, or rather the sonnet, is a rhapsodic pastoral ode to Zephyr, the west wind that brings Spring and its attendant opportunities for romance, or at least dalliance. Here, as in many of his madrigals, Monteverdi‘s exceptionally fluid textsetting skillfully subverts the structure of the sonnet so that its poetic effusions seem spontaneously improvised rather than constructed according to strict formal standards. The catchy repeated figure of the ciaccona, the springy rhythms, and the graceful but florid vocal lines give the work an infectious exuberance. These and many other examples give performers the opportunity to showcase the music‘s humor, making Zefiro torna one of the composer‘s most popular and frequently performed madrigals. Although winners proverbially write history, artists are inclined to write sympathetically about the losers. Such is definitely the case with Mary Stuart and Lamento di Maria di Scozia. While Mary Stuart may or may not have actively participated in plots against Queen Elizabeth, she was such a focal point for such plots that Elizabeth's final and possibly reluctant decision to execute her was a logical one. However, in this work, as in many others, Elizabeth a monster of injustice, and Mary is a doomed innocent who speaks from the scaffold in the moments before her death. Aside from its dramatic potential, this lament was also something of a political piece. Rome, where Carissimi had been established since 1629, was naturally a bastion of Roman Catholicism, and not only was Mary Stuart considered by many to be a Catholic martyr at the hands of a Protestant ruler, but her grandson, Charles I, had been executed by order of the Puritan-controlled Parliament in 1649. While not a Catholic, he was far more sympathetic to Catholicism than his predecessors, and he was considered by many in Rome to be yet another innocent royal

- Organization History Consortium Carissimi was founded in Rome, Italy in 1996, with the mission of uncovering and bringing to modern day ears, through live concerts, master classes, recordings and publications, the long-forgotten early Italian baroque music of the 16th and 17th centuries. Consortium Carissimi consists of ten to thirty musicians that include singers and period instruments. Among the various types of music that flourished in Rome during the 16th and 17th century, the oratories of Giacomo Carissimi are examples of the most outstanding form of composition of that time. Consortium Carissimi bears the name of the famous composer whose music was known for its simple, fresh new approach to text, melody and accompaniment. Of great importance is the performance of sacred and secular music that is transcribed from manuscript or early print sources. The unique strength that Consortium Carissimi provides is in the performance of these long-forgotten works since much of this music has not been heard since the 17th century. It is only through transcriptions that this music may be heard by 21st century audiences; transcriptions held by Consortium Carissimi. Currently, there are no other organizations in the United States that have these transcriptions in their possession. Consortium Carissimi contributes to the cultural vitality of the community in four key ways. Manuscript transcription and publication; Consortium Carissimi is the only organization in the United States that has in its library transcriptions over 200 manuscripts of this time period, including the complete works of Giacomo Carissimi. Educational programs; Consortium Carissimi conducts master classes with educational institutions, both in and out of state. Master classes include intense studies of vocal and instrumental practices of 17th century Rome. Performances; the ensemble of mixed voices and instruments performs three concerts annually of repertoire from the Italian-Roman sacred and secular music of the 16th and 17th century. Recordings; Consortium Carissimi extends public access to and knowledge of this musical tradition through digital recordings. Consortium Carissimi’s unique commitment to the Italian works of the 16th and 17th is quickly establishing its role as a leader in the arts.


Chi d‘amor soffre i martiri sa sprezzar nembi e procelle. Chi d‘amor soffre i martiri sa sprezzar nembi e procelle. ●●●

Those that suffer the pains of love, know to despise rain clouds and storms. Those that suffer the pains of love, know to despise rain clouds and storms. ●●●

victim of the forces of Protestantism. Carissimi was attached to Rome's lifestyle and culture (he turned down many advantageous offers, including one where he was invited to name his salary, from patrons in other cities) and himself took minor orders in 1653, so it was natural that he write of Mary with special sympathy. For pure theatricality and for dexterity that foreshadows the grand operatic tradition, nothing competes with the Nymph’s Lament found in the second part of the Book of Madrigals, mentioned above. War, devastation, death are quickly followed by pity, expressions of loss and lamentation. The turning of the wheel of human emotion proceeds in a smooth glide. And while Monteverdi‘s initial madrigals in the series aim to get the blood pumping and to build apprehension, the second group tug relentlessly at the heartstrings. The lament is certainly one of Monteverdi‘s absolute masterpieces; its tonalities are rich and dynamic, and it marks a breakthrough for the early Baroque style. The truly operatic soprano solo is juxtaposed against a male trio, and all of this is built over a continuous, hypnotic four-note ground bass (similar to the technique used in many of the duets in L’Incoronazione di Poppea, but here to better effect). In Monteverdi‘s instructions, the soprano is given license to vent passionate expression (a tempo dell’affetto dell’animo e non a quello della mano, he writes), while the trio adheres to a rigorous tempo. The effect is like nothing else in the madrigal literature, and indeed, Monteverdi is breaking out of it — opera is being born. Cantate and serenate embrace a wide variety of vocal forms: recitative, lament, dialogue, canzone, aria, sonetto and others. The term arie a più parti contains all of these different styles which Carissimi and Monteverdi adopted to great advantage. By the time Carissimi began composing cantatas, the years of experimentation were past but the rigidity of the mature baroque had not set in: no longer a madrigal or a simple melody, the cantata was still not yet a formalized succession of recitatives and arias. The structure of two arias, each preceded by recitative, is, however, also present. Among the preferred structures is the twostrophe aria with intercalare (vocal refrain), also called couplet-refrain or rondo form. Strophic variations play an important part in general. The combination of self-assurance and unpredictability along with colorful and poetic texts gives the cantata of the mid 17 th century a special charm. Carissimi and Monteverdi were certainly responsible for defining the characteristic features of the emergent genre.

Miseri, e che sarà? O spavento, o pietà: per quel umido regno corre agitato il legno sentier di morte, e pare aprir la tomba infuriato il mare. Amanti, che dite, che dite? Sospirate, piangete, lagrimate, fuggite, fate quanto sapete: non si cangia, in Amor, fortuna o fato, ahi, ch‘è sempre infelice un sventurato.

O such fright, O mercy. Across the watery kingdom, the shaken ship travels a path of death, and it seems the furious sea opens a tomb. Lovers, what else can you say? Sighs, cries, tears, do what they will, they cannot change, in love, either fortune or fate. Ah, always unhappy, and unlucky.

Garrick Comeaux Artistic Director
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- Composers and Useful Terminology for this Concert Andrea Falconieri (1585 or 1586 – 1656), also known as Falconiero, was a composer and lutenist from Naples. He resided in Parma from 1604 until 1614, and later moved to Rome, and then back to his native Naples, where in 1647 he became maestro di cappella at the royal chapel. Giovanni Battista Buonamente (c. 1595 – 1642), composer and violinist, served the Gonzagas in Mantua until c. 1622, and from c. 1626 to 1630 served the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in Vienna. Notably, in 1627 he played for the coronation festivities in Prague of Ferdinand III, son of the emperor. He then served as the violinist of Madonna della Steccata church in Parma. After a short service there, he arrived at his final position in 1633 of maestro di cappella at Assisi. As one of the first composers to cultivate the violin, he was partly responsible for introducing the new Italian violin style into northern Europe. Only the last four of his seven books of instrumental music survive (1626-37); they include sinfonias, canzonas, dances and sonatas. His sacred music is lost. Bernardo Storace (fl. 1660‘s) Nothing is known about his life, except that in 1664 he served as vice -maestro di cappella to the senate of Messina. This fact is mentioned on the title page of Selva di varie compositioni d'intavolatura per cimbalo ed organo, the single surviving collection of Storace's music, which is also the only source of information on the composer. Given that Selva di varie compositioni was published in Venice, it is possible that Storace was originally from the north of Italy. Dario Castello (c. 1590 – c. 1658) There is no biographical information about Castello at all; even his birth and death dates are unknown, although it is thought he may have died during the great plague of 1630. The title page of the 1629 edition of the first volume of Sonate Concertate records him as Capo di Compagnia de Musichi d'Instrumenti da fiato in Venetia, and the second volume (1644 edition) as Musico Della Serenissima Signoria di Venetia. He was probably associated with St. Mark's, where Claudio Monteverdi was maestro di capella. Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (baptized 1567 – 1643) A composer, gambist, and singer, Monteverdi was born in 1567 in Cremona. His work, often regarded as revolutionary, marked the transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of stile moderno. Enjoying fame in his lifetime, his compositional achievements included one of the earliest operas, L'Orfeo, which is still regularly performed, eight books of madrigals and sacred music, including the grand Vespro della beata virgine. For more information on Monteverdi, see Biagio Marini (c. 1597 – 1656) may have been the first professional violin virtuoso. At about the age of 18 he was appointed violinist at St. Mark's in Venice, under the direction of Monteverdi. Although he wrote vocal music, which tends to be rather stilted, his instrumental music was justly famous and represents the most advanced writing of its type for the time. His music, much of which was in print during his life, was widely circulated and very influential. Girolamo Giovanni Kapsberger (c. 1580 – 1651) Born in Austria, Kapsberger moved to Rome at an early age. A prolific and highly original composer, he is chiefly remembered today for his lute, theorbo and chitarrone music, which was seminal in the development of these as solo instruments.

Amor non più, amor non più: se la Dea che dal mar nacque sua madre fu, ah, ch‘al foco d‘amor non bastan l‘acque. Udite, udite Amanti: chiudete il varco a le querelle ai pianti, ritogliete la prora al mare infido; tornate Amanti, ohimè, tornate al lido. Misero, oh qual vegg‘io atre nubi funeste, gravide di tempeste, già, già portar d‘intorno Austro nemboso ad oscurrare il giorno. Che, non mirate, O Dio, come per l‘alto del flusso marino A salto a salto sen core il delfino? Udite, udite come da l‘arenosa sponda con flebili accenti stridolo augel loquace chiama su l‘onde a guerreggiare i venti. Udite, udite come a poco a poco il mar dal più profondo con strepito roco va raddoppiando il grido, e minacciando il mondo varca iratole sponde e lascia il nido. Tornate Amnati, ohimè, tornate al lido. Fosco il vel copra le stelle, frema il vento, il mar s‘adiri, chi d‘amor soffre i martiri sa sprezzar nembi e procelle.

Love no more. Since the Goddess that was Love‘s mother was born of the sea, waters are not enough to quench the fires of Love. Listen you lovers, listen! Close the door to all lamenting and crying. Move the prow away from the unfaithful sea, Come back o lovers, come back to the shore. Miserable, I see ugly angry clouds, heavy with storms, Begin to bring darkness to the day. Don‘t you see, O God, how high on the waves, are the leaps that the racing dolphin makes? Listen, listen, how from the sandy beach the eloquent crane, with mournful accent, calls the winds to wage war against the waves. Listen how, little by little, the sea from its depths, with clamorous sounds, is doubling the cry and, threatening the world, angrily leaves its home and crosses the shore. Come back, o lovers, come back to the shore. A foggy curtain covers the stars, the wind howls, and the sea grows angry, Those that suffer the pains of love, know to despise rain clouds and storms.


Giacomo Carissimi, La Serenata “I Naviganti” (SSB)
Sciolto havean dall‘alte sponde nave d‘or due tristi amanti, e cader facean su l‘onde, per tributo un mar di pianti. Eran lingue di tormento, i sospir ch‘uscian dal seno, e dicean al mare al vento, ch‘in amor non v‘è sereno. Amor non più, amor non più: se la Dea che dal mar nacque sua madre fu, ah, ch‘al foco d‘amor non bastan l‘acque. Due pupille che son nere, chiari fonti di splendore, son tra fiamme in vivo ardore al mio cor sempre severe. Non vola mai strale che foco mortale al sen non porte: sembran fiamme di vita, e son di morte. Non sperar, folle mio core, libertate alle tue volgie: laccio d‘or che stringe Amore mai dal piè non si discioglie. Su guancia di rosa auretta gentile scoteva odorosa crin d‘oro sottile, e l‘almo restò legata in quel crine: i tesori d‘amor sono rapine. From the high shores two sad lovers launched a golden ship. And, as in tribute, a sea of tears fell onto the waves. There were tongues of torment, sighs which emerged from the breast, Which said to the sea and wind, in matters of love, there is no serenity. Love no more. Since the Goddess that was Love‘s mother was born of the sea, waters are not enough to quench the fires of Love. Two little black eyes, clear fountains of splendor, are flames living ardor, forever painful to my heart. No arrows fly that aren‘t deadly to the breast. They seem flames of life but are flames of death. Don‘t hope, my foolish heart. Free yourself from your desires, The golden bond that ties Love, is never loosened from your feet. On the rosy cheek, a gentle breeze, Moved a golden lock of hair, And the soul was tied in those locks, And the treasures of Love are stolen.

At least six collections were published during his lifetime, two of which are currently lost. Today‘s works come from the Libro quarto d’intavolatura di chitarrone, 1640, which include the unusual toccatas for theorbo with an accompanying bass line – a compositional form almost unique to Kapsberger. Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583 – 1643) was born in Ferrara and was named organist at the Accademia della Morte in 1597 at the age of 14, and was appointed organist of the Cappella Giulia, St. Peter's, a post he held until his death. His extant instrumental output consists chiefly in the Primo libro di Canzoni, 1628. This work include instrumental canzonas for one, two, three and four parts over thorough-bass, of which today‘s canzona is one. For more on Frescobaldi‘s life, see http:// Giacomo Carissimi (1605 – 1674) or, rather, the name ―Jacomo‖ is to be found written on the baptism certificate in Marino, a small town in the southern hills outside of Rome where Giacomo Carissimi was born and raised. Carissimi was one of the most celebrated masters of the early Baroque, or, more accurately, the Roman School of music. The great achievements generally ascribed to him are the further development of the recitative, introduced by Monteverdi, and of infinite importance in the history of dramatic music; the further development of the chambercantata, by which Carissimi superseded the concertato madrigals which had themselves replaced the madrigals of the late Renaissance; and the development of the oratorio, of which he was the first significant composer. Passacaglia - The passacaglia appears to have originated in early 17th-century Spain as the pasacalle, a brief improvisation, usually just a few rhythmically strummed cadential chords, that guitarists played between the strophes of a song. The term comes from pasar (to walk) and calle (street), possibly deriving from outdoor performances or from a practice of popular musicians to take a few steps during these interludes. It later took on a serious character, and is often found in the form of a descending tetrachord pattern, such as that in Monteverdi‘s Lamento della ninfa. Ciaccona - Based upon a dance that originated in Spain, the Italian ciaccona is a series of successive variations that usually follow each other without a break, sometimes even overlapping beginnings and ends, a technique that had a long history in both Italy and Spain. The term ‗variation‘ should be understood very loosely; however, there is generally no underlying melodic theme tying the variations together but at most a harmonic-rhythmic or bass formula, which tends to be treated rather freely or may even be abandoned altogether. In ensemble ciacconas, the continuo bass, by defining the chord formula, often takes the form of an ostinato. Lamento - Usually a vocal piece based on a mournful text, and often built over a descending tetrachord ostinato (or passacaglia), laments are common solo song forms found in cantatas and operas of the 17th century. The genre assumed musical importance during the rise of the new monodic style, which supplanted the old polyphonic style. Indeed, in defining the cathartic purpose of that style, theorists singled out the lament; because it expressed a height of emotional intensity, it was the type of text best calculated to move an audience to pity, thereby purging them of strong passions.


Claudio Monteverdi Madrigal for two tenors and basso continuo
Zefiro torna e di soavi accenti l'aer fa grato e'il pié discioglie a l'onde e, mormoranda tra le verdi fronde, fa danzar al bel suon su'l prato i fiori. Return O Zephyr, and with gentle motion Make pleasant the air and scatter the grasses in waves And, murmuring among the green branches, Make the flowers in the field dance to your sweet sound. Inghirlandato il crin Fillide e Clori note temprando lor care e gioconde e da monti e da valli ime e profonde raddoppian l'armonia gli antri canori. Sorge più vaga in ciel l'aurora, e'l sole, sparge più luci d'or; più puro argento fregia di Teti il bel ceruleo manto. Crown with a garland the heads of Phylla and Chloris. With notes tempered by love and joy, From mountains and valleys high and deep And sonorous caves that echo in harmony, The dawn rises eagerly into the heavens and the sun Scatters rays of gold, and of the purest silver, Like embroidery on the cerulean mantle of Thetis. Sol io, per selve abbandonate e sole, l'ardor di due belli occhi e'l mio tormento, come vuol mia ventura, hor piango hor canto. But I, in abandoned forests, am alone. The ardor of two beautiful eyes is my torment; As my Fate wills it, now I weep, now I sing.
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"Non vo' più che i sospiri se non lontan da me, no, no, che i suoi martiri più non dirammi, affé! Perché di lui mi struggo tutt'orgoglioso sta, che sì, che sì se 'l fuggo ancor mi pregherà? Se ciglio ha più sereno colei che 'l mio non è, già non rinchiude in seno Amor si bella fé. Né mai si dolci baci da quella bocca havrai, né più soavi; ah, taci, taci, che troppo il sai." Part III: Si, tra sdegnosi pianti (TTB) Sì tra sdegnosi pianti spargea le voci al ciel; così ne' cori amanti mesce Amor fiamma e gel.

―I don't want to sigh any longer, Now that he's far from me. No! He will not make me suffer Anymore, I swear! He's proud Because I languish for him. Perhaps if I fly away from him He will come to pray to me again. If her eyes are more serene Than mine, O Love, she does not hold in her heart A fidelity so pure as mine. And you will not receive from those lips Kisses as sweet as mine, Nor softer. Oh, don't speak! Don't speak! you know better than that!‖

So amidst disdainful tears, She scattered her cries to the sky; Thus, in lovers' hearts, Love mingles fire with frost.

Claudio Monteverdi Lamento della Ninfa (STTB, B.c.)

Giacomo Carissimi Lamento di Maria Stuarda, Regina di Scozia (S, B.c.)
Ferma, lascia ch‘io parli, sacrilego ministro. Se ben fato inclemente a morte indegna come rea mi destina.

Part I: Non havea Febo ancora (TTB) Non havea Febo ancora recato al mondo il dì ch'una donzella fuora del proprio albergo uscì. Sul pallidetto volto scorgease il suo dolor, spesso gli venia sciolto un gran sospir dal cor. Sì calpestando fiori, errava hor qua, hor là, i suoi perduti amori così piangendo va: The Sun had not brought The day to the world yet, When a maiden Went out of her dwelling. On her pale face Grief could be seen, Often from her heart A deep sigh was drawn. Thus, treading upon flowers, She wandered, now here, now there, And lamented her lost loves Like this:

Stop! Let me speak. Sacrilegious deed! A fate cruel and unkind leads me to death, my destiny, like that of a criminal, Vissi e moro innocente. Son del sangue Stuardo, e son regina. although I lived and died innocent, truly of the House of Stuart, and truly Queen. Perchè bendarmi i lumi? S‘io mirai tanti gioni, ho petto ancora da mirar l‘ultima hora. Why blindfold my eyes? So many days I have seen, I have the courage to see my final hour. E s‘io gl‘apersi al cielo, saprò ben senza velo alla vita serarli. Ferma, ferma, lascia ch‘io parli.

Part II: Amor, dicea (STTB) "Amor," dicea, il ciel mirando il piè fermò "dove, dov'è la fé che 'l traditor giurò? Fa che ritorni il mio amor com'ei pur fu, o tu m'ancidi, ch'io non mi tormenti più." Miserella, ah più no, tanto gel soffrir non può. ―O Love,‖ she said, Gazing at the sky, as she stood, ―Where's the fidelity That the deceiver promised? Make my love come back As he used to be, Or kill me, so that I will not suffer anymore. ― Poor lady! She cannot bear All this coldness.

And if I open them to Heaven, without a veil, I can close them on my life. Stop! Let me speak. Vatene, vatene pur da me, torna, torna alle stelle ch‘io con anima intrepida e serena sarò, fra tante squadre a Dio ribelle, di mi tragedia e spettatrice e scena. In the company of godless hordes, I remain a soul, intrepid and serene. Of my tragedy, I will be both the spectator and the stage.


A morire, a morire, a moririe. Per serbar giustizia e fede più non vaglion le corone che di stato la ragione anco la verità sa far mentire. To die, in order to serve justice rather than the worth of the Crown For reasons of state can make truth tell lies. Verserò dal collo il sangue Ma non già dai lumi il pianto, che se bene io resto esangue, la costanza al mio duol mesce elisire. From my neck blood will fall, but not tears from my eyes. So long as I’m alive, constancy mixes with my suffering. Voi, mie care donzelle, che m‘inchinaste al soglio, e hor piangenti mi seguite, ai tormenti compatite, compatite i miei casi. E s‘io lassa rimasi spogliata d‘ogni ben, d‘ogni fortuna, non per questo morendo gl‘oblighi miei tralascio: partitevi l‘amor con cui vi lascio. You, my dear maidens, who served me and now are weeping, must follow me to my torments, pity my fate. And though I have been deprived of all wealth and fortune, still in death I remember my obligations: share the love with which I leave you. Soffrite costanti la dura mia sorte E s‘invida morte stillandovi in pianti a voi mi toglie, o fide ancelle, in terra, con sempiterno riso v‘abbraccierò compagne in paradiso. Endure bravely my misfortune, though envious death drowned in tears has removed me from you. Oh, you faithful Ones, I will embrace you in Paradise.

Mira, Londra, et impara le vicende mondane, e tu, ch‘all anglicane schiere dai leggi o Jezebelle altera, di giustizia severa aspetta i colpi, e se per farti in brani mancheranno alle belve gli arti e morsi, serviranno da cani i tuoi rimorsi. Look, London, and learn the changes of the world, and you who rule the English hordes oh haughty Jezebel of severe justice, should the wild beasts lack the teeth and claws to tear you apart, your own remorse will do it. Sì, sì, sfogati assali, scarica sul mio capo a cento, a mille del tuo furor gli strali. Vibra senza pietá su questo petto esangue strazi, scempi, flagelli, atrocità. Yes, yes, rage, attack, shoot at my head in your furious hundreds and thousands; shoot arrows without mercy at this bloodless breast, use every atrocious torture. Lascia ch‘un mar di sangue m‘inostri il nero manto. Fulmina pur, che tanto straziarmi non saprai, quant‘io soffrire. A morire, a morire, a moririe. Let a sea of blood turn my cloak to black. Rave on, for you will not know how to torture me as well as I know how to suffer. Ah, to die. Qui tacque, e forte e invita al suo destin s‘arrese la regina scozzese, né guari andò ch‘un colpo indegno e rio divise il corpo et unì l‘alma a Dio. Here silent, and with undefeated courage, the Scottish queen yielded to her destiny; Her body divided, but her soul united with God.