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C ONSORTIUM C ARISSIMI

―…squisita musica strumentale ed eccellente musica vocale.‖ Pompilio Totti Ritratto di Roma 1638

Festival of Instruments

Amor non più, amor non più:


se la Dea che dal mar nacque, sua madre fu,
ah, ch’al foco d’amor non bastan l’acque.

Carissimi, I Naviganti

Front Cover Artwork - Reproduced by kind permission from Aliza Souleyeva-Alexander.


―As a woman from Kazakhstan and a brand new Canadian, when I show my culture and history
through my work, I am showing a mixture of many cultures that have been in Central Asia over
thousands of years combined with my own perceptions. My past and present experience come
together to influence me and my work.‖ Her complete Bio is found at: www.alizaart.com.

Back Cover Artwork - The Birth of Venus Nascita di Venere is a painting by Sandro Botticelli. It depicts
the goddess Venus, having emerged from the sea as a full grown woman, arriving at the sea-shore.
The painting is held in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.

Music of Frescobaldi, Castello, Marini, Kapsberger,


Monteverdi & Carissimi & altri ...

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Carrie Henneman Shaw, soprano
Linh Kaufmann, soprano
Steve Staruch, tenor
Adan Varela, tenor
Garrick Comeaux, bass CD

Marc Levine, Ginna Watson, violins


Steve Staruch, viola
basso continuo

Mary Virginia Burke, viola da gamba


Tom Walker, liuto attioribato
Consortium Carissimi would like to thank you for your ongoing support
Paul Berget, tiorba & violone, baroque guitar of our music, musicians and programming.
Please help us in our effort to continue to build audience support in this community
Bruce Jacobs, harpsichord by sharing the enclosed recording with your family and friends.
Look for future concert programming
Donald Livingston, organ under our Future Concerts section at our website:
www.consortiumcarissimi.org
Consortium Carissimi is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization
P.O. Box 40553 Saint Paul, Minnesota 55104
Tel. 612.822.1376

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Hamline United Methodist Church - 1514 Englewood Avenue, Saint Paul, MN
Friday, March 4th, 7:30 pm
A special thanks to Sunday, March 6th, 4:00 pm
Diane Milbrandt, our host at Hamline United Methodist Church,
Karen Kustritz, for her gracious support of this program,
THE PROGRAM
Bill Mathis and Hennepin United Methodist Church for the use of their portative organ, Claudio Monteverdi Madrigale: Zefiro torna
Robert Foy with Italian text translations, and to (1567-1643)
Our Donors Biagio Marini Sonata à Basso è Violino ò Cornetto
Nancy Archer (c.1597 – 1656)
Lillian Carteng
Laura Carlson Andrea Falconieri L‘Eroica à 3
Elisabeth Comeaux (1585 or 1586 – 1656) (Il Primo libro di canzone, 1650)
William and Mary Cunningham
Dan Dressen Giacomo Carissimi Cantata: Lamento di Maria di Scozia
Steve and Judy Emmings (1605-1674) Lascia ch’io parli
Robert Foy
Bob and Darlene Hays Giovanni Battista Buonamente Gagliarda Prima
Bob Hickcox and Jacqueline Henry
(c.1595 – 1642) (Quarto libro de varie sonate, 1626)
Gerald and Merry Hoekstra
Jeff and Robin Holland Girolamo Frescobaldi Canzon Prima à due bassi
Bob and Sigrid Johnson
Beth and Pat Nunnally (1583 – 1643) (Canzoni da sonare, libro primo, 1634)
Troy Rustad Girolamo Giovanni Kapsberger Toccata IX and X
Susannah Smith
Vern Sutton (c.1580 – 1651) (Libro quarto d’intavolatura di chitarrone)
Mark and Linda Triplett
Robert and Maureen Vince
Dario Castello Sonata Prima a sopran solo
Nancy Ann Werner (c.1590 – c.1658) (Libro secondo de sonate concertate, 1644)
Grace Wiechman
Preston and Sharon Williams Claudio Monteverdi Madrigale: Lamento della Ninfa
Bernardo Storace Ciaccona
(fl. 1660‘s)
Consortium Carissimi
Garrick Comeaux, Artistic Director Biagio Marini Passacalio à 3. & à 4.
Elisabeth Comeaux, Executive Director
(c.1597 – 1656)
——— Board Members ——– Giovanni Buonamente Ballo del Gran Duca
Robert Hays, President
Beth Nunnally, Treasurer (c.1595 – 1642) (Libro di varie sonate, 1626)
Don Livingston, Secretary Giacomo Carissimi Serenata: I Naviganti

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- Program Notes - - Organization History -

Zefiro Torna is based on a sonnet that begins with ―Zefiro torna e di soavi accenti l‘aer fa Consortium Carissimi was founded in Rome, Italy in 1996, with the mission of
grato‖ and is from a late XVI century poet, Ottavio Rinuccini, a member of the Camerata uncovering and bringing to modern day ears, through live concerts, master classes,
de‘ Bardi. This work is one of two madrigals composed by Monteverdi with the title Zefiro recordings and publications, the long-forgotten early Italian baroque music of the 16th and
torna and is not to be confused with his five-voice a cappella setting of a sonnet by Petrarch 17th centuries. Consortium Carissimi consists of ten to thirty musicians that include singers
published in his Sixth Book of Madrigals in 1614. This madrigal sets a text by Ottavio and period instruments.
Rinuccini, the poet who authored the librettos for the first two surviving operas, Peri‘s La Among the various types of music that flourished in Rome during the 16th and
Dafne and Euridice, as well as Monteverdi‘s lost opera, Arianna. It was published in the 17th century, the oratories of Giacomo Carissimi are examples of the most outstanding
collection Scherzi Musicali, and in the composer‘s Ninth Book of Madrigals (1632). Scored for form of composition of that time. Consortium Carissimi bears the name of the famous
two tenors and continuo, most of the piece is in the form of a ciaccona or passacaglia, which composer whose music was known for its simple, fresh new approach to text, melody and
uses a constantly recurring bass line, and it is the first known example of a vocal duet that accompaniment.
uses a ciaccona accompaniment. Although it is sometimes performed in a ―serious‖ manner,
it is often interpreted as a comic parody of madrigals as they had evolved by the early Of great importance is the performance of sacred and secular music that is
seventeenth century, particularly the mannered conventions of the seconda prattica, in which transcribed from manuscript or early print sources. The unique strength that Consortium
the musical setting is largely driven by the text, and dissonance is used with extreme Carissimi provides is in the performance of these long-forgotten works since much of this
freedom as an expressive tool. The poem, or rather the sonnet, is a rhapsodic pastoral ode music has not been heard since the 17th century. It is only through transcriptions that this
to Zephyr, the west wind that brings Spring and its attendant opportunities for romance, or music may be heard by 21st century audiences; transcriptions held by Consortium Carissimi.
at least dalliance. Here, as in many of his madrigals, Monteverdi‘s exceptionally fluid text- Currently, there are no other organizations in the United States that have these
setting skillfully subverts the structure of the sonnet so that its poetic effusions seem transcriptions in their possession.
spontaneously improvised rather than constructed according to strict formal standards. The Consortium Carissimi contributes to the cultural vitality of the community in four key
catchy repeated figure of the ciaccona, the springy rhythms, and the graceful but florid vocal ways. Manuscript transcription and publication; Consortium Carissimi is the only organization
lines give the work an infectious exuberance. These and many other examples give in the United States that has in its library transcriptions over 200 manuscripts of this time
performers the opportunity to showcase the music‘s humor, making Zefiro torna one of the period, including the complete works of Giacomo Carissimi. Educational programs;
composer‘s most popular and frequently performed madrigals. Consortium Carissimi conducts master classes with educational institutions, both in and out of
state. Master classes include intense studies of vocal and instrumental practices of 17th
Although winners proverbially write history, artists are inclined to write sympathetically century Rome. Performances; the ensemble of mixed voices and instruments performs
about the losers. Such is definitely the case with Mary Stuart and Lamento di Maria di Scozia. three concerts annually of repertoire from the Italian-Roman sacred and secular music of
While Mary Stuart may or may not have actively participated in plots against Queen the 16th and 17th century. Recordings; Consortium Carissimi extends public access to and
Elizabeth, she was such a focal point for such plots that Elizabeth's final and possibly knowledge of this musical tradition through digital recordings. Consortium Carissimi’s unique
reluctant decision to execute her was a logical one. However, in this work, as in many commitment to the Italian works of the 16th and 17th is quickly establishing its role as a
others, Elizabeth a monster of injustice, and Mary is a doomed innocent who speaks from leader in the arts.
the scaffold in the moments before her death. Aside from its dramatic potential, this lament
was also something of a political piece. Rome, where Carissimi had been established since
1629, was naturally a bastion of Roman Catholicism, and not only was Mary Stuart
considered by many to be a Catholic martyr at the hands of a Protestant ruler, but her
grandson, Charles I, had been executed by order of the Puritan-controlled Parliament in
1649. While not a Catholic, he was far more sympathetic to Catholicism than his
predecessors, and he was considered by many in Rome to be yet another innocent royal
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victim of the forces of Protestantism. Carissimi was attached to Rome's lifestyle and culture
Chi d‘amor soffre i martiri Those that suffer the pains of love,
(he turned down many advantageous offers, including one where he was invited to name
sa sprezzar nembi e procelle. know to despise rain clouds and storms.
his salary, from patrons in other cities) and himself took minor orders in 1653, so it was
natural that he write of Mary with special sympathy.
Chi d‘amor soffre i martiri Those that suffer the pains of love,
sa sprezzar nembi e procelle. know to despise rain clouds and storms. For pure theatricality and for dexterity that foreshadows the grand operatic tradition,
nothing competes with the Nymph’s Lament found in the second part of the Book of
●●● ●●● Madrigals, mentioned above. War, devastation, death are quickly followed by pity,
expressions of loss and lamentation. The turning of the wheel of human emotion proceeds
in a smooth glide. And while Monteverdi‘s initial madrigals in the series aim to get the
Miseri, e che sarà? O such fright, blood pumping and to build apprehension, the second group tug relentlessly at the
O spavento, o pietà: O mercy. heartstrings. The lament is certainly one of Monteverdi‘s absolute masterpieces; its
per quel umido regno Across the watery kingdom, tonalities are rich and dynamic, and it marks a breakthrough for the early Baroque style.
corre agitato il legno sentier di morte, the shaken ship travels a path of death, The truly operatic soprano solo is juxtaposed against a male trio, and all of this is built over
e pare aprir la tomba infuriato il mare. and it seems the furious sea opens a tomb. a continuous, hypnotic four-note ground bass (similar to the technique used in many of the
duets in L’Incoronazione di Poppea, but here to better effect). In Monteverdi‘s instructions, the
Amanti, che dite, che dite? Lovers, what else can you say? soprano is given license to vent passionate expression (a tempo dell’affetto dell’animo e non a
Sospirate, piangete, lagrimate, fuggite, Sighs, cries, tears,
quello della mano, he writes), while the trio adheres to a rigorous tempo. The effect is like
nothing else in the madrigal literature, and indeed, Monteverdi is breaking out of it —
fate quanto sapete: do what they will,
opera is being born.
non si cangia, in Amor, they cannot change, in love,
fortuna o fato, either fortune or fate.
ahi, ch‘è sempre infelice Ah, always unhappy, Cantate and serenate embrace a wide variety of vocal forms: recitative, lament, dialogue,
canzone, aria, sonetto and others. The term arie a più parti contains all of these different styles
un sventurato. and unlucky.
which Carissimi and Monteverdi adopted to great advantage. By the time Carissimi began
composing cantatas, the years of experimentation were past but the rigidity of the mature
baroque had not set in: no longer a madrigal or a simple melody, the cantata was still not
yet a formalized succession of recitatives and arias. The structure of two arias, each
preceded by recitative, is, however, also present. Among the preferred structures is the two-
strophe aria with intercalare (vocal refrain), also called couplet-refrain or rondo form. Strophic
variations play an important part in general. The combination of self-assurance and
unpredictability along with colorful and poetic texts gives the cantata of the mid 17 th
century a special charm. Carissimi and Monteverdi were certainly responsible for defining
the characteristic features of the emergent genre.

Garrick Comeaux
Artistic Director

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- Composers and Useful Terminology for this Concert -
Amor non più, amor non più: Love no more. Since the Goddess that was
Andrea Falconieri (1585 or 1586 – 1656), also known as Falconiero, was a composer and lutenist se la Dea che dal mar nacque sua madre fu, Love‘s mother was born of the sea, waters are not
from Naples. He resided in Parma from 1604 until 1614, and later moved to Rome, and then back ah, ch‘al foco d‘amor non bastan l‘acque. enough to quench the fires of Love.
to his native Naples, where in 1647 he became maestro di cappella at the royal chapel.
Udite, udite Amanti: Listen you lovers, listen!
Giovanni Battista Buonamente (c. 1595 – 1642), composer and violinist, served the Gonzagas in
chiudete il varco a le querelle ai pianti, Close the door to all lamenting and crying.
Mantua until c. 1622, and from c. 1626 to 1630 served the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in
Vienna. Notably, in 1627 he played for the coronation festivities in Prague of Ferdinand III, son of ritogliete la prora al mare infido; Move the prow away from the unfaithful sea,
the emperor. He then served as the violinist of Madonna della Steccata church in Parma. After a tornate Amanti, ohimè, tornate al lido. Come back o lovers, come back to the shore.
short service there, he arrived at his final position in 1633 of maestro di cappella at Assisi. As one of
the first composers to cultivate the violin, he was partly responsible for introducing the new Italian Misero, oh qual vegg‘io atre nubi funeste, Miserable, I see ugly angry clouds,
violin style into northern Europe. Only the last four of his seven books of instrumental music gravide di tempeste, già, già portar d‘intorno heavy with storms,
survive (1626-37); they include sinfonias, canzonas, dances and sonatas. His sacred music is lost. Austro nemboso ad oscurrare il giorno. Begin to bring darkness to the day.
Bernardo Storace (fl. 1660‘s) Nothing is known about his life, except that in 1664 he served as vice
-maestro di cappella to the senate of Messina. This fact is mentioned on the title page of Selva di Che, non mirate, O Dio, Don‘t you see, O God,
varie compositioni d'intavolatura per cimbalo ed organo, the single surviving collection of Storace's music, come per l‘alto del flusso marino how high on the waves,
which is also the only source of information on the composer. Given that Selva di varie compositioni A salto a salto sen core il delfino? are the leaps that the racing dolphin makes?
was published in Venice, it is possible that Storace was originally from the north of Italy.
Dario Castello (c. 1590 – c. 1658) There is no biographical information about Castello at all; even Udite, udite come da l‘arenosa sponda Listen, listen, how from the sandy beach
his birth and death dates are unknown, although it is thought he may have died during the great con flebili accenti stridolo augel loquace the eloquent crane, with mournful accent,
plague of 1630. The title page of the 1629 edition of the first volume of Sonate Concertate records him chiama su l‘onde a guerreggiare i venti. calls the winds to wage war against the waves.
as Capo di Compagnia de Musichi d'Instrumenti da fiato in Venetia, and the second volume (1644
edition) as Musico Della Serenissima Signoria di Venetia. He was probably associated with St. Mark's, Udite, udite come a poco a poco il mar dal più Listen how, little by little, the sea from its depths,
where Claudio Monteverdi was maestro di capella. profondo with clamorous sounds, is doubling the cry
Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (baptized 1567 – 1643) A composer, gambist, and singer, con strepito roco va raddoppiando il grido, and, threatening the world,
Monteverdi was born in 1567 in Cremona. His work, often regarded as revolutionary, marked the e minacciando il mondo varca iratole sponde e
lascia il nido. angrily leaves its home and crosses the shore.
transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of stile moderno. Enjoying fame in his Come back, o lovers, come back to the shore.
lifetime, his compositional achievements included one of the earliest operas, L'Orfeo, which is still Tornate Amnati, ohimè, tornate al lido.
regularly performed, eight books of madrigals and sacred music, including the grand Vespro della
beata virgine. For more information on Monteverdi, see www.hoasm.org/VB/VBMonteverdi.html. Fosco il vel copra le stelle, A foggy curtain covers the stars, the wind howls,
frema il vento, il mar s‘adiri, and the sea grows angry,
Biagio Marini (c. 1597 – 1656) may have been the first professional violin virtuoso. At about the Those that suffer the pains of love,
chi d‘amor soffre i martiri
age of 18 he was appointed violinist at St. Mark's in Venice, under the direction of Monteverdi.
Although he wrote vocal music, which tends to be rather stilted, his instrumental music was justly sa sprezzar nembi e procelle. know to despise rain clouds and storms.
famous and represents the most advanced writing of its type for the time. His music, much of
which was in print during his life, was widely circulated and very influential.
Girolamo Giovanni Kapsberger (c. 1580 – 1651) Born in Austria, Kapsberger moved to Rome at
an early age. A prolific and highly original composer, he is chiefly remembered today for his lute,
theorbo and chitarrone music, which was seminal in the development of these as solo instruments.

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Giacomo Carissimi, La Serenata “I Naviganti” (SSB)
At least six collections were published during his lifetime, two of which are currently lost. Today‘s
works come from the Libro quarto d’intavolatura di chitarrone, 1640, which include the unusual toccatas
From the high shores for theorbo with an accompanying bass line – a compositional form almost unique to Kapsberger.
Sciolto havean dall‘alte sponde
nave d‘or due tristi amanti, two sad lovers launched a golden ship. Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583 – 1643) was born in Ferrara and was named organist at the
e cader facean su l‘onde, And, as in tribute, Accademia della Morte in 1597 at the age of 14, and was appointed organist of the Cappella Giulia,
per tributo un mar di pianti. a sea of tears fell onto the waves. St. Peter's, a post he held until his death. His extant instrumental output consists chiefly in the Primo
libro di Canzoni, 1628. This work include instrumental canzonas for one, two, three and four parts
over thorough-bass, of which today‘s canzona is one. For more on Frescobaldi‘s life, see http://
Eran lingue di tormento, There were tongues of torment, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Girolamo_Frescobaldi.
i sospir ch‘uscian dal seno, sighs which emerged from the breast,
e dicean al mare al vento, Which said to the sea and wind, Giacomo Carissimi (1605 – 1674) or, rather, the name ―Jacomo‖ is to be found written on the
ch‘in amor non v‘è sereno. baptism certificate in Marino, a small town in the southern hills outside of Rome where Giacomo
in matters of love, there is no serenity. Carissimi was born and raised. Carissimi was one of the most celebrated masters of the early
Baroque, or, more accurately, the Roman School of music. The great achievements generally
Amor non più, amor non più: ascribed to him are the further development of the recitative, introduced by Monteverdi, and of
Love no more. Since the Goddess that was
se la Dea che dal mar nacque sua madre fu, Love‘s mother was born of the sea, waters are infinite importance in the history of dramatic music; the further development of the chamber-
ah, ch‘al foco d‘amor non bastan l‘acque. not enough to quench the fires of Love. cantata, by which Carissimi superseded the concertato madrigals which had themselves replaced the
madrigals of the late Renaissance; and the development of the oratorio, of which he was the first
Due pupille che son nere, significant composer.
Two little black eyes,
chiari fonti di splendore, clear fountains of splendor, Passacaglia - The passacaglia appears to have originated in early 17th-century Spain as the
son tra fiamme in vivo ardore are flames living ardor, pasacalle, a brief improvisation, usually just a few rhythmically strummed cadential chords, that
al mio cor sempre severe. forever painful to my heart. guitarists played between the strophes of a song. The term comes from pasar (to walk) and calle
(street), possibly deriving from outdoor performances or from a practice of popular musicians to
Non vola mai strale No arrows fly take a few steps during these interludes. It later took on a serious character, and is often found in
che foco mortale al sen non porte: that aren‘t deadly to the breast. the form of a descending tetrachord pattern, such as that in Monteverdi‘s Lamento della ninfa.
sembran fiamme di vita, They seem flames of life
e son di morte. but are flames of death. Ciaccona - Based upon a dance that originated in Spain, the Italian ciaccona is a series of
successive variations that usually follow each other without a break, sometimes even overlapping
Non sperar, folle mio core, beginnings and ends, a technique that had a long history in both Italy and Spain. The term
Don‘t hope, my foolish heart. ‗variation‘ should be understood very loosely; however, there is generally no underlying melodic
libertate alle tue volgie: Free yourself from your desires, theme tying the variations together but at most a harmonic-rhythmic or bass formula, which tends
laccio d‘or che stringe Amore The golden bond that ties Love, to be treated rather freely or may even be abandoned altogether. In ensemble ciacconas, the
mai dal piè non si discioglie. is never loosened from your feet. continuo bass, by defining the chord formula, often takes the form of an ostinato.

Su guancia di rosa auretta gentile On the rosy cheek, a gentle breeze, Lamento - Usually a vocal piece based on a mournful text, and often built over a descending
scoteva odorosa crin d‘oro sottile, Moved a golden lock of hair, tetrachord ostinato (or passacaglia), laments are common solo song forms found in cantatas and
e l‘almo restò legata in quel crine: And the soul was tied in those locks, operas of the 17th century. The genre assumed musical importance during the rise of the new
i tesori d‘amor sono rapine. And the treasures of Love are stolen. monodic style, which supplanted the old polyphonic style. Indeed, in defining the cathartic purpose
of that style, theorists singled out the lament; because it expressed a height of emotional intensity, it
was the type of text best calculated to move an audience to pity, thereby purging them of strong
passions.

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Claudio Monteverdi
Madrigal for two tenors and basso continuo

Zefiro torna e di soavi accenti


l'aer fa grato e'il pié discioglie a l'onde
e, mormoranda tra le verdi fronde,
fa danzar al bel suon su'l prato i fiori. "Non vo' più che i sospiri ―I don't want to sigh any longer,
se non lontan da me, Now that he's far from me.
Return O Zephyr, and with gentle motion no, no, che i suoi martiri No! He will not make me suffer
Make pleasant the air and scatter the grasses in waves più non dirammi, affé!
Anymore, I swear!
And, murmuring among the green branches,
Make the flowers in the field dance to your sweet sound. Perché di lui mi struggo He's proud
tutt'orgoglioso sta, Because I languish for him.
Inghirlandato il crin Fillide e Clori che sì, che sì se 'l fuggo Perhaps if I fly away from him
note temprando lor care e gioconde ancor mi pregherà?
He will come to pray to me again.
e da monti e da valli ime e profonde
raddoppian l'armonia gli antri canori. Se ciglio ha più sereno If her eyes are more serene
Sorge più vaga in ciel l'aurora, e'l sole, colei che 'l mio non è, Than mine,
sparge più luci d'or; più puro argento già non rinchiude in seno O Love, she does not hold in her heart
fregia di Teti il bel ceruleo manto. Amor si bella fé. A fidelity so pure as mine.

Crown with a garland the heads of Phylla and Chloris. Né mai si dolci baci And you will not receive from those lips
With notes tempered by love and joy, da quella bocca havrai, Kisses as sweet as mine,
From mountains and valleys high and deep né più soavi; ah, taci, Nor softer. Oh, don't speak!
And sonorous caves that echo in harmony, taci, che troppo il sai." Don't speak! you know better than that!‖
The dawn rises eagerly into the heavens and the sun
Scatters rays of gold, and of the purest silver,
Part III: Si, tra sdegnosi pianti (TTB)
Like embroidery on the cerulean mantle of Thetis.
Sì tra sdegnosi pianti So amidst disdainful tears,
Sol io, per selve abbandonate e sole, spargea le voci al ciel; She scattered her cries to the sky;
l'ardor di due belli occhi e'l mio tormento, così ne' cori amanti Thus, in lovers' hearts,
come vuol mia ventura, hor piango hor canto. mesce Amor fiamma e gel. Love mingles fire with frost.

But I, in abandoned forests, am alone.


The ardor of two beautiful eyes is my torment;
As my Fate wills it, now I weep, now I sing.

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Claudio Monteverdi Giacomo Carissimi
Lamento della Ninfa (STTB, B.c.) Lamento di Maria Stuarda, Regina di Scozia (S, B.c.)

Ferma, lascia ch‘io parli, sacrilego ministro.


Se ben fato inclemente a morte indegna come rea mi destina.
Part I: Non havea Febo ancora (TTB)
Stop! Let me speak. Sacrilegious deed!
Non havea Febo ancora The Sun had not brought A fate cruel and unkind leads me to death,
recato al mondo il dì The day to the world yet,
ch'una donzella fuora my destiny, like that of a criminal,
When a maiden
del proprio albergo uscì. Went out of her dwelling.
Vissi e moro innocente.
Sul pallidetto volto On her pale face Son del sangue Stuardo, e son regina.
scorgease il suo dolor, Grief could be seen,
spesso gli venia sciolto Often from her heart although I lived and died innocent,
un gran sospir dal cor. A deep sigh was drawn. truly of the House of Stuart, and truly Queen.

Sì calpestando fiori, Thus, treading upon flowers, Perchè bendarmi i lumi?


errava hor qua, hor là, She wandered, now here, now there, S‘io mirai tanti gioni, ho petto ancora da mirar l‘ultima hora.
i suoi perduti amori And lamented her lost loves
così piangendo va: Like this: Why blindfold my eyes? So many days I have seen,
I have the courage to see my final hour.

Part II: Amor, dicea (STTB) E s‘io gl‘apersi al cielo, saprò ben senza velo alla vita serarli.
Ferma, ferma, lascia ch‘io parli.
"Amor," dicea, il ciel ―O Love,‖ she said,
mirando il piè fermò Gazing at the sky, as she stood, And if I open them to Heaven, without a veil,
"dove, dov'è la fé ―Where's the fidelity I can close them on my life.
che 'l traditor giurò? That the deceiver promised? Stop! Let me speak.

Fa che ritorni il mio Make my love come back Vatene, vatene pur da me, torna,
amor com'ei pur fu, As he used to be, torna alle stelle ch‘io con anima intrepida e serena sarò,
o tu m'ancidi, ch'io Or kill me, so that fra tante squadre a Dio ribelle,
non mi tormenti più." I will not suffer anymore. ― di mi tragedia e spettatrice e scena.
Miserella, ah più no, Poor lady! She cannot bear In the company of godless hordes,
tanto gel soffrir non può. All this coldness. I remain a soul, intrepid and serene.
Of my tragedy, I will be both the spectator and the stage.

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A morire, a morire, a moririe. Mira, Londra, et impara le vicende mondane,
Per serbar giustizia e fede più non vaglion le corone e tu, ch‘all anglicane schiere dai leggi o Jezebelle altera,
che di stato la ragione anco la verità sa far mentire. di giustizia severa aspetta i colpi,
e se per farti in brani mancheranno alle belve
To die, in order to serve justice rather than the worth of the Crown gli arti e morsi, serviranno da cani i tuoi rimorsi.
For reasons of state can make truth tell lies.
Look, London, and learn the changes of the world,
Verserò dal collo il sangue and you who rule the English hordes
Ma non già dai lumi il pianto, oh haughty Jezebel of severe justice,
che se bene io resto esangue, should the wild beasts lack the teeth
la costanza al mio duol mesce elisire. and claws to tear you apart,
your own remorse will do it.
From my neck blood will fall, but not tears from my eyes.
So long as I’m alive, constancy mixes with my suffering. Sì, sì, sfogati assali, scarica sul mio capo a cento, a mille del tuo furor gli strali.
Vibra senza pietá su questo petto esangue strazi, scempi, flagelli, atrocità.
Voi, mie care donzelle, che m‘inchinaste al soglio,
e hor piangenti mi seguite, ai tormenti compatite, Yes, yes, rage, attack, shoot at my head in your furious hundreds and thousands;
compatite i miei casi. shoot arrows without mercy at this bloodless breast,
E s‘io lassa rimasi spogliata d‘ogni ben, d‘ogni fortuna, use every atrocious torture.
non per questo morendo gl‘oblighi miei tralascio:
partitevi l‘amor con cui vi lascio. Lascia ch‘un mar di sangue m‘inostri il nero manto.
Fulmina pur, che tanto straziarmi non saprai, quant‘io soffrire.
You, my dear maidens, who served me and now are weeping, A morire, a morire, a moririe.
must follow me to my torments, pity my fate.
And though I have been deprived of all wealth and fortune, Let a sea of blood turn my cloak to black.
still in death I remember my obligations: Rave on, for you will not know how to torture me as well as I know how to suffer.
share the love with which I leave you. Ah, to die.

Soffrite costanti la dura mia sorte Qui tacque, e forte e invita al suo destin
E s‘invida morte stillandovi in pianti a voi mi toglie, s‘arrese la regina scozzese,
o fide ancelle, in terra, né guari andò ch‘un colpo indegno e rio
con sempiterno riso v‘abbraccierò compagne in paradiso. divise il corpo et unì l‘alma a Dio.

Endure bravely my misfortune, Here silent, and with undefeated courage,


though envious death drowned in tears has removed me from you. the Scottish queen yielded to her destiny;
Oh, you faithful Ones, I will embrace you in Paradise. Her body divided, but her soul united with God.

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