Formule puteri, radicali si logaritmi

1. Puteri
x n = x ⋅ 
x
⋅ x ⋅
⋅ x
nfactori

x = 1 si 0 n = 0
0

x −n =

1
xn

a
 
b

−n

b
= 
a

n

m

x n = n xm
a m ⋅ a n = a m+n
a m : a n = a m −n

adica

am
= a m −n
an

( a m ) n = a m⋅n
(ab ) m = a m ⋅ b m

a
am
( )m = m
b
b

( −1) 2 k =1

( −1) 2 k +1 = −1

Exemple:
2 2 ⋅ 2 5 ⋅ 2 −3 = 2 2 + 5 − 3 = 2 4

(( −2) 3 ) 4 : (( −2) 6 ) 2 = ( −2)12 : ( −2)12 = ( −2)12 −12 = ( −2) 0 = 1

a 3 ⋅ (a 2 ) − 3 ⋅

1
= a 3 ⋅ a − 6 ⋅ a 8 = a 3− 6 + 8 = a 5
a −8

(a −3 ) 4 ⋅ (a 2 ) −3
a −12 ⋅ a −6 a −12 −6 a −18
1
=
= 8−18 = −10 = a −18 −( −10 ) = a −18 +10 = a −8 = 8
−2 −4
3 −6
8
−18
( a ) ⋅ (a )
a ⋅a
a
a
a
 3 3 
 −  
 4  

−3

 3
= − 
 4

−9

9

49
 4
= −  = − 9
3
 3

2. Radicali
De retinut. Radicalul de ordinul 2 se scrie fara indice
2

a= a

n a ⋅b = n a ⋅n b n a = b (n a ) n m m n a n b = n am a = n⋅m a Exemple: 18 ⋅ 32 = 2 ⋅ 3 2 ⋅ 2 5 = 2 6 ⋅ 3 2 = 2 3 ⋅ 3 ( 8 2 ) 3 = 8 6 = 8 3 = (2 3 ) 3 = 2 9 12 6 (a 4 ) 3 = 6 a 12 = a 6 = a 2 4 a6 = a3 = a2 ⋅ a = a a 3. Logaritmi log a A Conditii de existenta: .

..... +∞    (_________ __________ __________ ______      (_________ __________ ______ x ∈(2.. ....+∞) −{3} log a a = 1 log a 1 = 0 log a ( A ⋅ B ) = log a A + log a B A = log a A − log a B B log a A N = N log a A log a Transformarea dintr-o baza in alta: log a b = log c b log c a log a a x = x ........... ...+ )∞  Acest radical exista daca:  x − 2 ≠ 1 ⇒ x ≠ 3  x + 3 > 0 ⇒ x > − 3 ⇒ x ∈ (− 3............. . . .. ≠3................. 2......+ )∞  intersectam −∞ ...............a > 0  a ≠ 1 A> 0  Exemplu: log x −2 ( x + 3)  x − 2 > 0 ⇒ x > 2 ⇒ x ∈ (2....... ..... −3.

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