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I P v 4 & I P v 6 I N T E R N E T T O P O L O G Y M A P J A N U A RY 2 0 0 9

AS-level INTERNET GRAPH

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0
1273(CW)

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A N A LY S I S T E A M . Bradley Huffaker . kc claffy This visualization represents macroscopic snapshots of IPv4 and globally routed IPv6 prefixes seen in Route Views BGP tables on 1 The position of each AS node is plotted in polar coordinates
Number of Number of Number of Number of Calculating AS coordinates as described above results in a large
Young Hyun . Matthew Luckie IPv6 Internet topology samples captured in January 2009. The January 2009. (radius, angle), that are calculated as follows.
S O F T WA R E D E V E LO P M E N T
IP address IP links ASes ASlinks number of overlapping nodes (hundreds in the case of the IPv4
POSTER DESIGN Connie Lyu plotting method illustrates both the extensive geographical graph) which distort the graph's edge. To better visualize so many
IPv4 4,853,991 5,682,419 17,791 50,333 We aggregate this IP-level data to construct IPv4 and IPv6 Internet The outdegree of an AS node is the number of next-hop ASes that
scope as well as rich interconnectivity of nodes participating in ASes at the edge, we refined our node placement algorithm to
IPv6 4,752 17,036 489 1,904 the global Internet routing sytem. connectivity graphs at the Autonomous System (AS) level. Each AS we observed accepting our probe traffic as it left this AS. The link
ARK HOSTS . AARNet . APAN . ARIN . ASTI . CAIDA . spread out overlapping nodes. This modification creates bulges in
approximately corresponds to an Internet Service Provider (ISP). color reflects outdegree value, from lowest (blue) to highest the outermost ring of the AS-core, corresponding to longitudes
Canarie . CENIC . CNRST . FORTH . FunkFeuer . HEANet . Iowa State University . KREONet2 . National Research Council Canada . NIC Chile . For the IPv4 map, CAIDA collected data from 33 monitors located We map each observed IP address to the AS responsible for (yellow). Toward the center of the graph we have manually labeled with substantial Internet infrastructure deployment, which also
Northeastern University . Purdue University . Southern Methodist University . TWAREN . Universitat Leipzig . Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya . in 30 countries on 5 continents. Coordinated by our active routing traffic to it, i.e., to the origin (end-of-path) AS for the IP some of the highest outdegree ASes with their associated ISPs. correlates with populous regions of the globe.
University of Cambridge . University of Hawaii . University of Luxembourg . University of Napoli . University of Oregon . University of Waikato . measurement infrastructure, Archipelago (Ark1), the monitors prefix representing the best match of this address in the BGP
probed paths toward 7.4 million /24 networks that cover 95% of routing tables. For the IPv4 graph, we used the BGP IPv4 routing To determine the longitude of an AS, we used the IPv4 BGP table
University of Zurich . US Army Research Lab . Verizon
from Route Views to find a set of announced IPv4 prefixes for each The IPv6 graph grew from 486 AS nodes in January 2008 to 515
the routable prefixes seen in the Route Views2 Border Gateway table provided by Route Views. For the IPv6 graph, we used the
C O O P E R AT I V E A S S O C I AT I O N F O R I N T E R N E T D AT A A N A LY S I S AS. We subdivided prefixes into the smallest prefixes that Digital nodes in January 2009. Over the same period we saw an increase in
Protocol (BGP) routing tables on 1 January 2009. IPv6 routing table collected by RIPE NCC3.
Copyright (c) 2009 UCRegents San Diego Supercomputer Center . University of California, San Diego Envoy's NetAcuity4 mapped to a single geographic location in the number of IPv4 ASes from 18K to almost 23K. Whether these
All rights reserved. 500 Gilman Drive, mc0505 . La Jolla, CA 92093-0505 . 858-534-5000 . http://www.caida.org / January 2009. We then calculated the AS angle coordinate from changes represent actual new AS allocations or result from
http://www.caida.org/research/topology/as_core_network/ For the IPv6 map, CAIDA collected data from 6 Ark monitors
located in 4 countries on 2 continents. This subset of monitors
radius = 1 - log ( outdegree(AS) + 1
maximum.outdegree + 1 ) the weighted average (by number of IP addresses in each mapped
prefix) of the longitude coordinates of all such subdivided
modifications in our measurement methodology is not clear.
Compared with the AS-core graph of January 2008, we observed a

PROJECT
digital
envoy
probed paths toward 1,491 prefixes which represent 88.9% of the
angle = ( longitude of the AS’s BGP prefixes
in netacq ) prefixes. NetAcuity currently only supports IPv4 mapping, so we
use the IPv4-derived locations for ASes in both graphs.
westward shift in the position of ISP TelstraClear due to its
increased presence (per NetAcuity's mapping) in Australia.

ARIN Ark http://www.caida.org/projects/ark/


1

Archipelago
American Registry for Internet Numbers
w w w .cai d a.o r g
2
Route Views: http://www.routeviews.org/logo.png 3
RIPE NCC http://www.ripe.net/ 4
digital envoy http://www.digitalenvoy.net/