Suer, Canal Universitlt Facultyof Petroletm & Mining Eng. D PetroleumEngineering ept.

HonrzoNTAL OnWprr DTIuNG TBcmxoLoGY

Dr. Mohamed ShehataFarahat

(2000)

Suen Canal University Faculty of Petroleum & Mining Eng. Petroleurn Engineering Dept.

HOruZONTTAL WpLL On DTLLII{G TpcHNoLoGY

Dr. Mohamed Shehata Farahat

(2000)

CoNrsNrs
SELECTIoNANDREAsoNs FoRDRILLING
HORIZONTAL WELLST AND DRATNHOLES
l.l Seleclion of horizontal wells and drainholes 1.2 Reasons Drilling Horizontal Well and Drainholes for 1.3 Main Aoolications of Hoizontal llells and Drainholes 1,3.1 Thin Formatious 1.3.2. Verticsl Natumlly Fractured Fornrations 1,3.3Lotv Perm eabilityFormations 1.3.4Heterogeneous Reservob Formstions or 1.3.5Applicttion in Resemoitsrriflt Botton Water or with o GasCap 1,3.6 Advantages of Horizontal lVells in Offshore Applications 1.3.7HeavyOil Applications 1.3.8SandProduction Page # I 3 3 5 5 o o 8 9 9

Typns oF HoRTzoNTALWELLS AND

DrproRnnt Dnrr,r,rNc TncnNrquns

Usno
2.1 Utru-shott Turnins Radius 2.1.1 SystemProcesses a,td Equipmentfor Multiplc
Radisk

ll

t2
22 27

2.2Short Tarnins Radius 2.3 Medium-Turning Radias

t-

Prye#
2.i.1 Dil!fins rttt Mulinn-Rutlius Dtilling 2.3.2 Metliunt-Rsdius Dri!!iug MoJorsan{ SlsteuLs2.3,3 HigbMedium and Lott-SoeedDrilling rizo 2.3.4 Medium-Radius-Ho trtttl lltell Sections Section I 2.3,4. Vertical Sectiau 2.3.4.2Curved HorizoutslSection 2.3.4,2 2.4 Lottg-RadiusHorizontgl lyell 2.4,1VerticalSection 2.4.2 Cumed(Turning) Section 2.4.3H orizoutalSection 2A 30 34 34 35 36 39
4l 43 43

43

WnLl,s or Pt,nNNtNc lloRrzoNTAL
AND DRAINHOI,ES G NOUNTRY
j. Geontetrvof Horizontsl WelI or Drainhole 3.1 lf ell Diameter 46 46 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 48 48

I
1

i

I

3'2VplLltpllle
3.2.1Fktt wells 3.2.2 I) ntlulatiug wells 3.2,j Llpt'ardinclineduells ittclinedwells 3.2.4Dou,nward 3.2.5Multilet el t'ells 3.2.6Multi brtuch 3.2.7 Grsvit! drsinage wells well shryes 3.2.8Complex 3.3 D esistlEqip ntal-lysll f&i949!!

48

t
Page #

Dmrlrxcl PRosr-svs Assocnrso wttH
HoRtzoNteL
WBU- DzuLLINGaNo THBTRREMEDY
4.1 DeliNery Weisht to the Bit 4.2ReducingTorqueandDrsg Forces 54 57
58

a3 Epls_ekutus ale ftliag;4e
4.4 Protectian of lyater SensiliveShales 4.5 Direclional Control of 4,5.I Classifrcation hotto,n4.5.2Measurfugit'.slrune ls tool 4,5,2,1 Steering 4.5,2,2 M essurcntent-whiletuillittg (Mll/D) Equipnrcnt and Irrstrume tfltiort 4.5.2.3Geosteering,

s9
60

6l 6l 62 62 68

DRILLSTRING DESIGN

72

HonrzoNrat, WELLConrplnrroN

TncnNreuns
6.1 Comoletion Technolosict :fu-U!X4:[!!!41-LglL!s H orizontal Radial Borelrcle 6.2 Conpletion Oltion for Short-Rtttlius, Mediam-Radius, of ond l-ong-Radius Horizotrtslly'elkDraiflholg;6.2,1Openhole cotn elion
|ll

89

I j
I
i

I

I I

94
95

I

6.2.2 Tail completionand slottedliner completiott

Poge # 95

AppucarIoNoF COILED TueINc TN HoRIZoNTALDRILLING
AND MULTI-LATERAT,CASB STUOII]S AND

HlsroRms
7.1Coiled Tubins Drilli,tg 7. M&LUels I Ci?,ts]J:t 2 lldtet 7,2.1Case 1 7.2.2Case 2 7.2.3Case 3 7.2,4Csse4 7.3Multilatersl CaseHistot! Case1 t00 t02 103 t05 t07 109 lll

RunnnpNcns

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I l-l

lt

lv

Cn. I

llotizort\t lre s Dtiuhry |

Cu,rprnnI

FOR AND REASONS SELECTION DRILLING TIORIZONTALWELLS. AND DRAINHOLES

:

1.1 Selectiono-fhorizofial u,ellsarul drainltoles:
indttstry todaybecattsc to llorizontal wells are ofgrcat intelest thc petrolcutn they proviclcan attractivcnrcansfor improving both plodtrctionratc and 'l'hese are due to that horizontalwellsprovide a latger rccovery efficiency. thcy irl witll tlrclcscrvoifthando vcttical;wclls ancl, addition, area of contact of provide a means for the latetal tlansPodation fltlid. Thus,the horizorrtal drilledto revitalrze wells can be drilledasnew u,ellsor ho zontalsidctracks, wclls thatarecallcddrainholesl llc past of ttrc pcrformance exiting vertical Dcvelopments greatimprovement drilling technology. in fcw years havcseen top drillingrnotors, driveligs, andMWD suclr as tlre use of bent,downhole tcchnique, N4WDcallcdgcoslecring (measurcment whilc dLilling) advanccd or togcther with stccrable drill systcms have grcatly rcduced costs. Recent horizontalwclls havc costno morapcr lnctctofrvcll tltillcd lhltnconlpatablc have also bcen in nlcthodslor conventional wells. Thus, great advances wcl1s. ftom crislingvel1ical drainholes drilJing short-radius The construction and placing ofhorizontal wells hasbecomerautine Usually it is no longer speculativeas to whether horizontal rvellscan be drilled- Tn but most casesno|, the choicc is not whethcr one can dlill horizontally, whethclon should.

l),-.M.S. Farrhat

CIl- I

IIo

urtutl lrt

s D'lllinA

in Grcat advancos the technologyof drilling and locatinghorizontal wells continue to be made. Today much attentionis being paid to thc problemsof re-entering existing vertical wells using smaller diameter,mcdium-radiusand short-radius equipment. These improvements will allow a much larger proportion of existing conventional wells to have their live extendedby recompletionwith long,hofizontal drianholcs. hc provision M WD toolsthat 1 of will opemte in smaller diameterholes is a particularly active area.Thorc arc developmcnt, too, in logging tools. Tools arc now availablethat can be opcrated while drilling to providc irlfornratiotr about lhc rcscrvoirbeing encountored. Locating the logging sensors closer to the drill bit to allow a nore timely evaluation of the bit position and o f the rock bcingpenctrated is anotherareaof active dcvclopment. Thus, drilling a horizortal well to exploit a reservoirusually involvesseveral questions. Thcsequestions as lollows: important are

1. 2. 3. 4. 5,

Whcrcshould well be located? the lr whatdirection should wellbc drillcd? thc (KOI')to horizontll Whcrc should kick-offpoint thc bc? IIow longshould horizontal the section be? ls it neccssary stirnulatc wcll? to thc

The answerof these questions requiregathering information aboutthe and in wellshould be reservoit theconditions existing thcarca. I[o[izontal not catefulstudyof tcchnicnl drilled in all cases, feasibility and economical potcntialof holizontal drilling is needed beforcits application. these For lcasors, accuratc resewoir adjust ard rvclldata should collected. bc Therefore, the horizontal wells are corsideredfeasibleprimarily in the areas: following l. Thin permeable formation. 2. Verticalnaturally-fractured formation. 3. Low permeability fomation. production. with 4. Formation sand with water coning. 5. Fomation with 6.FoImation gasconing.
D,: Nl.S.Frrahrt

AL I

ottzo,tk lllrtts Drtltl t! 3

7.Offshore applications. 8 .t l c a v yo i l a p p l i c a t i o n s . 9.Fonnation access blowouts.

1.2 Reasons Drillitts Horizontal Well and Drsinlrcles for
'l hclc arc scvcmltcnsorrstllill lrolizorrlul lo tlriur vctlical a wcll nrllrcr a wcll. 'l'hcsc rcasons are: l. Increasing productivity. oil 2. Connecting veltical naturally fractures. fromlow-pe rmeability 3. Producing reser.roits. 4. Staying awayfi-om oil-gas oil-water and contacts. (thcrrral rccovery). stream 5. Injecting oil production. 6. Controlling sand 7. I'r'oducing hydrocarbons thin reservoirs. 8. lncreasing ivity. injccl gas 9. l'roducing liorncoalscanls proving and bcttcr cfficicncy. swccp (ROl). l0.lncreasing retumon theinvestment the
the cost of a drilling a horizontalwell is more thanthatofa Sornctimes, v c r t i c a lw c l l a n d c o m p l e t i o rc o s t sa r c u s u a l l yh i g h c r ' l.l o w c v c r , n t o l c o i l r '[hus, would be ultiuratcly rccovered thc horizontal by wcll. horizontal wcll is justifiedin view ol'quickerreturnon well investment.

1,3 Mgitr A

licntionsof Hori ntal ,Y'ellsa,td Drainltoles

Horizontal wells and drainholecan be mainly applied for the following circumstance pay zollcs(reservoir-s) or chalactcristics, namcly: l. Thin permeable fornrations. 2. Verlicalnaturallyfractured lonnations. l'ornrations. 3. Low pelmeability 4. Formzrtion with sandproduction coningproblems. and

Iha izintal

llitlk

Dj iIIi

1.3.1Thin Formstions
When consideriirg fonnationfor homogeneous thjn fcrnration, shoulcl it avoid dtilling a horizontal well into this fonrationthickcrthan200 ft. however, tlris maximum pay zone thjcloress does not hold tnrc for formatiolls with helerogeteous fonnation or fotmaljon with verlical naturally fractures, as shownin Figure1.1and Fig. 1.2.

Thlrr produclilg zonos

W a l e rc o n l n gp r o b l e m s

c a s c o n l n g . p r o b l e m' s

O t h e ra p p l l c a ( i o nfs e a v y r u d e c o n l s c a m s , l: c , f o r m a l i o a c c e s sb l o w o u t s . n , Fig. 1.1 A4oinapplicotiottsofhorizottttl trll,r.

INTERSECTION VERTICALFRACTUR€S OF BY I.JORIZONTAL WELL

Fig. 1.2.
, / . M . S .F r rx h r i

C .I

llorizofttdl

lYc4s Dtiqi!ry

5

'lhus,

the productivityindex (PI) for a lroriT-ontal rveilreflects increases the 'l'ypically, arca ofcontact ofthc well with the reservoir. the Pl for a horizontal well maybe increased a factorof4 compared a verticalwell pcnctrating by to the same reseloir, although enhancementby a factor of l0 or more may be aclrievable certain in circunrstance, shownin Figure1.2. as

1.3.2. Vet'tic

Natt,trallv Fr'flct.rred Forut

ions

A horizontal well provide a means of communicatingwith natural vertical fractures, g., a high fractured limestone. e. lfthe well is oriented intcrcst to thcscfractures productivity the indexcanbe substantially increascd cvcnrvhcn thc lrac(ure density is low. Unfottrnatcly,this can also accclcratc thc movement ofgas or waterto reachthe wellbore.

l. 3. 3 Low Pernrcabilitv

Fornntio

tts

One qucstion is often asked by the opcratol tlrat is how low should thc pcrnrcabilily be in a horrrogcnous fornrationbcforc consi<icring clrillinga lroriz-ontal wcll?. Gigcr detcrnrincdtheanrount ofoil thatcouldbc lno(luccd undcr the sameconditions lrorizontal for n'ell and velticalwell usingtlresame pcrmcabilitics. tesults lromogcncous reservoirfor valiousrcscrvoir Thc ofhis study are prcsented Figuic 1.3. This figulc showsthrt thc honrogcncous ln grcatcr than 10 md should not be fomration witlr rssetvoi| pcrnrcabilitics considclcdfol a horizorltal wcll conrplction. I00 nrd thc sanrc volume For oil rvould be producedafter about 200 days from either typesofwells. Even produccd during the first 200 days,thcrcis littlc cliffcrcncc thc anrount in frotn formation is not homogeneous. a horizontalwell versusa veflical well because However, thc productivity,obtainedby drilling a holizontal well partially and dependson the magnitudeof thc verticalpelmeability the lengthofthe drainhole. Where the ratio ofvertical permeabilityto holizontal permeability is high a horizontal well may prcduce more cost effcctively than a vertical well.

Dr. M.S. Ih' rlat

CII. I

lln,ito

d lITtts Dti i"p

PEBMEN BILITYEFFECT

75

lronizoNl t wErt vlntl:At. wn.t

Irig. I -.1Penrcdbili0 effcc|.

Heterose

Rese ir or Fo,'ntsti

A l r . l i z o r r l , I r v c l l r r r r r y r . . v i r l c r r r r r r r r l x r ' r r r r ' r r r r ( r r 1r1re s r rr r . s c r r ' i r . r , ' rc 1 hclcrogencityexisls in thc horizonlalplanc. A horizonlallvcllborc irr lhc lescrvoir provides potential for far more informationabout the reservoirthalr would nornrallybc availnblc. loggingandconrplclion As tcchrrirlucs bccorno more sophisticated, this aspect of horizontalwells is likely to be usecl advantage. Frotn a prodrrction viewpoint,a horizontal well in an irregular rcservoir nray providea mcansofaccessing isolated productive zoncswhich nrightother.wisc be missed.Furthermore, beterogeneous in reservoirs, the influenceof the hctclogcneous alongthc wcllbolc is r.ctlucccl thc cornpositc lry 0or,v gcon]clry, so thrt production rltcs arc gclrcrlllycnhlnccdin lhcsccit.crrnrs{anccs.

L3.5 Applicationin Reselyl|I tl'ith BottQnlyqlqor

with n Gns Cor2

In nrany cascs,h c t n o s li n t p o r l l n l i r c l o l i n r i t i n gh c p l o c l r r c t i o no i l f i o n rn l r l f rosclvoil is thc tcndcncy lbl rvtrtcl lionr atr urrclcrlyilg acluitlr., gasliorl or1]r.M.S.l,:rr,'hxt

Ctl- I

lloti.

ti l lYdts Dti ing 7

gas cilp, to bc dlawn vcr(iciilly to thc prod(rction wcll. llor.izontal wcllscan have substantialadvantagesin such lcsctvoirs. The conventional rvay of reducing thc effect of coning is to completethe vertical well over a linritcd vcrlicnl distaDce tnaxinlizcthc stand frontlhc watcror gascap,as thc to off cascmay bc. Because its extendedcontact with the reservoir, lrorizontal of a wcll usually has lcss pressure drawdown for a givcn production ratcihandocsa vcrticill wcll. This reduceddrawdownlessens tendency thc coningofwater or the fot gas with the producedoil. Thus, for example,horizontalwells may be operatedat ths santclates as aonventional wells but rvith less-sometimes much less-coning, i.e., witlr bctterwater-oilratiosor gas-oilratiosor both,in some case,productiol without coniDgnray be economicusing horizontal wclls, whcrc it would be plohibitively slow with conventionalwells. In situations where the jlitial rate for production without fiee gas coning would be impractical \a,ith vcrtical wells, it may be possible with horizontalwells to production gravitydrainagc aclrieveeconomic by wilh onJya smallratcofgas gas injcctionto maintain capplessure. Even if oporation below thc critical rate for coning is impracticalbccauscof economics, thero can still be a large advantagefor horizontal welis. This situationis conlmonwhenviscous, conveutioual heavyoils ale produced lronr abovc a watcr layer. When the high oil viscosity and thelow diffcr.encc in tlcnsity between the oil and waler makcsconing, or more concctly fingcrrng, occLucven at vcty low productiolr ratcs. thcsecascs, volumeofoi] thnl [n thc is produccd is approximatcly proportional to thc volurne swept by thc watef finger. As is shown in Figure 1.4, horizontal rvellshavcan advantage ovcr vcrlical wells herebecause figure(reallya crestshaped the liked the roofofa house along the length ol-thehorizontal well) hasa much lar.ger volumeand this lalgercrcstdisplaces nruchlargervolurueofoil. a

Dr. M.S. I:rrahrt

LI1. I

Ilotito

rl ll'clls Dtilti

g

A CohparLon_or.a $dcr .rre Leto* , v.r cat Udt ent, - (, e.t treror, s.ciion ora fizontat iveu

@

7,'\
VEBTICAL WELL WITII RISING CONE HORIZONTAL WELLWI'rH RISING CREST

Fis. 1.4.

1.3.6 Atlttantageso.fHorizontnl rySAtjlt O:fit!!!!!,4tU,lk!l!!!j
Many horizontal welis have beendrilled from offshoreplatforms.Such wells oflct savingsin Plalfolrl rursls il nrkiilionlo llt('it{l!illlit[,r.ti ftrlrrrlorrslrrtr,, Fot example,one operatorstatcsthat thecostofhis North Seaplatforrns is a p p r o x i m a t c l$ 6 m i l l i o n p e r . r v c l ls l o t . [ J s i n gh o r i z o n l a lr v c l l sl,h c s a n r c y nunrbcrof well slots on a platfonrr proclucc can sincccachhorizonlal wcll is note productivethan each convcntional wcll. I\rr.thcrntorc, sinceollbhore wells are nolmally highly dcviatcd in any cascthccxlla costlbr horizontal dlilling canbe relatively srralJ.

/)r'.l\{.S.Farrh^t

a:lL t

Ilotitotthtt tl'! rDti

it|')

Commcrcialofl'shorehorizontalrvell projectsin various aleaincludingthe ill Scasurc tlosclihc(l lllc lilclr(lrrc. ArI iillic, llrc North Scnil||(l(lrc.lirvn

1,3.7 IIeu_y Oil Annlicttions wells lies in thefield arca Probablythc most prospective for usinghorizontal usingstrcarn. For of heavy oil recovery,particularlythcmralrecovery which arc intpossiblc rccover to deposits Canada, is tlre exanrplc, bitunren of methods,have a volttnre oil in placc by economically corlvcntional crudc tn thc oil equalto that of all the known couvcntional approximately is uscdto rccovclthcscrcsourccs operrpit nrining. world. One approaclr
ri k t t r l l o r v c v c r 't,h i si s l i r r r i l c r lr l h c s n r i r llli a c l i o ro f l l l c A t l r i r l ) r s c -tc s c t v o ih a ti s involves handling vastqurntiiicsof close to the surfaccand thc approaclr cltcrtpcr lcss a<l natclial. In situ lhclmal lccovctyis trolc gcnclallytp;tlicablc, crvirorrntcntally. danragirrg Iypical pr.ojccts lravc lequircs closcwcll spacings. lhcrnral rccovcrynortnally thcscarc Ialtcl in filled ol'2.5 to 5 acfcspcr woll and.in mary cascs, a spacirrg i a as c S l l o i r r r p l o vlc c o v c r y . l t c i t t nl t x p t o j c c l sr r( a l i l i r r t r iw i { hs p i t c i t r g s l o w a as 5/8 acfc arc bcing opcratcd.In such oifcunrsta|]ccs, sirtglchofizorlttl ofhorizontal applicalions otrcofthc mostinrportant wclls. This may bccome opelations ficld pilot in Cold [,akc.thc l,loydrninstct' of wclls. I he succcssful gtavity using horizontalrvclls an<l strcants-assistctl arca and in Athabasca in drainagc (SAGD) are discusscd thc litcralurc.A t)lllicularly irlrportarrt rccovcryis tlratit is possible featule of tlrc uscofhorizontalwclls fol strcanr production, c., with with littlc strcanl i. to operateand obtainhigh rccovcries to try littlc sllcarnsbypassing crcstillg.with horizon{ulrvclls,it is possiblc with vcltical by prodrce econornictrlly bclow thc criticalratc for strcanr pass; ofs{rcanrcxccpton wilhoutthc bypass wclls, s(r'carrIloo<lingis itrrpractical very losospaclngs.

1.J.8 Sanl Production sand production is a commonproblem, At higlrer drawdown-pressure, sand. and Sand from uncorrsolidated firc grained espccialJy production the
D/. iV.S.Frrahat

CI. I

llo,izont.tl llcls Drillirrs

l0

crodes and plugs the equipmcnt and rcstrictiog thc flow rates.Scrccnsand gravel placing limit sand entry into thc rvcllborc and in somc casesrcduces productions rates, less pressure drawdowneliminatesthe necd for screenand gravcl placingand allorvs higlrcrproduction ratcsfrorlrdrainholc horizontal or wcll.

ti.

.,t

D/ Nl.S.Fxr.hxl

CII. II

Dti i'tg Tcchttiques

ll

c[AP'ftrR lt
TypES OF HoRIZoNTAL WELLs Ar'ln DlnrnnsNr

Ps TpcuntQu Ussu DRrr,r,rNG
The choice of drilling me0thoddependsupon drilling cost,well spacingand ofa verlicalwellboreis existing Also, the rcsctvoir the mcchanicalcondition consideratiols are also important in sclectingthe drilling method.During thc last decade, the incrcmental cost ofdrilling horizontalwells and drainholes, But today oil industry over a vcrlical well cost,has come down considerably. in newcrdrilling lechnologics, tum the cost grains tnore experienccandrtses Accorclingly, practical thc wclls nraybe furthcrreduced. of drilling horizontal as holizontal drilling methods can be classified into four broad categories rcquircdto turn fionr a uponthc turningradius shownin Figure2.1,depending dt.illing sysfenr Also, theuseofa top-clrivc vertical to a horizontal direction. (TDS) is essential the successful implementation ofa horizontal drilling to program fol: deeper wells; larger wellborcs; ouler-rorv wells (olfshore platforrns); whcn drilledwith waterbase Gumbo or bentonitichole sectious mud; whcre simultaneous high torque and tensionis requiledto be applicd are drillstring.A discussion ofvariousdlilling methods givenbelow for caclr typesofhorizontalwell anddrainhole.

2.1 Ultra-shortTurning Ra irls
Ultra-shor1turn-radius horizontal lroles, sometinres called drainhole.Inthis ft with a tulrrirrg mothod,it utilized waterjefto drill 100-200 long drainholcs radius of 1 to 2 ft. these arc drilled in ptcviously cascdoften mrrlliplc horizontal laterals are drilled lrom the samewcllbore, as shown in Iiigure 2.2. tool may be donewith a whipslock deviating It is repofiedthat, sidetmcking guide.Also, a long slender stceltubcfits insidethe drillpipeinto with a curwed guide,asshownin Figurc2.2.Tbe upperendofthe the top of the whipstock tube has a pressurc seal to containpressuleand divert drilling flrrid through dtilling rateis the tube. Thejet nozzlefits on the iower erd ofthc tubc.'l'hus, cableconnccted tlretop ofthe tubc as shownin to controlledwith a letaining
D,: M.S. Fnrahat

CH.ll

D lli E T..huiques

t2

Figure 2.2. The hole is prepared first by plugging the lowcr requiredand removing a scction of casingby nrilling the sectionis undcr-reamed to increase holediamctet, theproccss the i.e. involt,es urdcr-reaming vertical thc wcllbore and then driliing severairadialsfionr the under-rearned zone. Howevcr,tlte length of the s€ctionand diameteroftlieunder lcamedhole basccl upon thc specification deviating of tool.A spccial packeris placedin thc casingwith a curved guide bclow thc milled section. Ihe whipstock tlcvittirg tool is conncctcdto thc cl.illpipcrntl usscrlbly turrirrlullrc lrolo positioned the kicl(-off point. 'l'he whipstockis orientedand setontne at packer.Then, tlre slendertubc is loweredwith the rctaining cablc..l.he rnud purnp is stattccl and circulatiotr bcgins downs thc drillpipctlrrough slcnclcr tube and ort thejet nozzlcs. Ilydtaulicnrudpressure against ptcssure the scal on lhc tol) oflhc tubcforccsit downward.Iltc tlll)ct)asscs througljthc cur.vcd 'l guidcs ol lhc r,vhipstock. hcscturn thc tul)cthrough 90 anglclirrrrr vcltrcal to horizolttal.A strcam ofhigll prcssurc rrrucl lionr thcjcl rrozzlcs ctorlcs the lor.nralion drills thc lrolchorizontally and whcnthc horizonlal sccliorr <lrillccl is by this rnanner, thc tLrbc pullcdblck into thc pipc with tlrc rctaining is cablc. A l s o , l h c a d d i t i o n a lo l i z o n t a l o l cr n r r y c r l r i l l c i l i . o r uh cs r r n rrcv c l l b o rr r y h h b t c turning thc whipstockin anothcr rlircctiorr shorvrr Irigurcs antl2.4) (irs in 2.-j ( h c p r o c c c l u f c l.l r r r s , l r i g . 2 . _ l l r t r l l ; i g . 2 . 4 s l x ) w l n(l lcpcillillg lwo anangcments multiple r.adials nrul(iplc laycrs. 't.hc chr.rice of in ofradial lcnglh, nunrbcrof radials,and radial array is a function of thc r.cscrvoir pfopottios.lhcsc pl.oportics arc: rcscr.voiIllriokrrcss, vcrLiclrl lroriz0rrlul arrd permcabilities, plopertics, oil wcll spacing, outcr-bountlary lcscr.voir prcssure, gravily dlnilugc, tl)crntill non-lllcfntill proccsscs, ltr.csclcc arrrl ol.irrrpcrnrclblo l ) r r l i n g s w i l l l i n l l t c r c s c l v o i r .l.l o r v c v c t , l r c c l r o i c co l . r x l i l t l l e l g l l r n l x l l al-rangcncnt gcnerally uniqueto eachrescryoir. is

2.1.1Slstent Prccesses !t4!! E41liltmenUat lvutliple Rsdj!ils
Thc basicrrltrn-short radiusradialsystern tRRS)uscsan crcclablc (( whinstock lowered downhole by 4.5 in. workilg into an urrrlcrLcarrcd cavity or hydraulicafly siottedopeningof 22 in. dianclcr.Thc whipstock (Fig. 2.2) is designcdfor use in a 7-in. casing.1'he dr.illsh.ing nraybcprovitlcd firma coiledtubingrig or it may be fabricatcd sitc fron 30 to 40 fr rubing.ioirts. on

Dr-.M.S. Farahltt

CIL II

Dti i,l4 lcchltiqrcs

IJ

A .fi' li"

A
T-

{i "t')'*
,1+

./ii,.'

A

1lo" ri "r' l
\'r-:|

100 - 300 ll

rt r.soo_ 3.ooo

+

|

rr 2,OOOS,OOO ---

:'I

Fig.2.1.
Molion Controuer O.ill String WorkingString HighPr€ssur€, S€al R€movabl€

Fig. 2.2 URRS.
=-:- und€rream€dzon€

Drill Skiilq Fadial Bor€ Hole

D/. M.S.Fnrahat

Cll,
gyit.n R.dlal Compl.tlon

Dt lhtUll'dt,tltlurN

t4

PERSPECTIVE

16!Ftrr=ll11'11

lr''"'"'''1,,,' l!Orl rr".rL,rl
1[:

ill, ""''''

s-a

l: l

Fig.2.1 URRS.

ll-llt-- .--,r lll -rt 1|=lll |-'
Sectlon A

llll

|.utto PaY

Fig, 2.4.Multiple-rodiol cotnpletion.
,l),rM.S.Frrnh:ra

ofltlrcdrillstring drill hcadis wcldcdto thc noscof thc first.ioint A lry<lrnulic 30 on is (radialtubc).If thc drillstring labricatccl sitc,sttbsccltront to 40 ftjoints weldingon the fig computer-controlled of drillstring areweldedby automatic rate floor to form the drillstring.A hydraulicmotion controllerthat regulates is of pcnctration weldedto its tail. 4.5 it is As thc drillstring fablicatcd, is lowcrcdinsidcthc vcrtical in. rvofking scal removable at a enters high-pressure of The nosc(drill head) the drillstring 'l-lre scal providcsthc bottom closurcof thc tho top of the whipstock. within the4.5 in. is workstring.Ilence, the 1.25in. drillstling fully continucd workstringat the outsetof drillstringas shownin Figure2.2. within the to A wireline as attached the tail of thc drillstringruns to thc surface throughthc top closureof the workstting.'llrus'a long workstring and passes cablcis and its connccting the 1.25in. drillstring containing sealedchanrber workstring. by crcatcd thc 4.5 in. vcr-tical Watci drilling fluid at 8000 to 10000 psi is pumpedinto the long vertical punrp.The drilling fluid fi'acture with a conventional workstring at the surface is then pumped down the wotkstling rvhcre it entcrs tlrc dlillstring. The thc tlrrotrgh propelsthe dlillstr-ing of internalwaterpressure the dtilling systetrr bottom scal and through the bendinganclconfiningslidcsand Irigh-prcssure the 12-in radius and 90 rollers of the whipstock.Travcrsing is The horizontally. drillstring the whipstock,the drill hcad entcrs fornration not rotated.

and the whipstock-combhreto propel and to control the motion of the drillstling into, through, and out of the whipstock, r'csultingin threeload c o n d i t i o no f t h cd r i l l s t r i n s . s and control is the drillstring relatedto propulsion The first URRS conrponent (radial tube), which is propellcd out of the verticalworkstringby the fluid pressure within the workstring.

/)/. l\1.S. li:rIalrflt

CIL II

Drillirtg T,

I tl a

o w r a t e d et e r r n i n e s

D r i l lS t r i n gs p e e d C o n t r oO r iifc e l Motion ontroller C
Directiort f Motiorr o

I I
I
I

Drill tring S V e r t i c aT u b i r t g t r i n g l S W Trapped ater
Seals

;l

I

F l o w t o C o n i c a lJ e t ral I I'ig. 2.: Penel iorr corrt'ol v,lti Ie dri IIi ng.

ril t

DrillStrins [:"_..1t; -d
H i g l rP r o s s u f €S o a l
' ! W h i p s t o c k w , l r ,t r i l , ! ' r ' , r . n r , r nnl sh4.:sla br,,{r d,id .onrr'. S l ,t r , q ll,c D,,ll

S -.- Drill lrinq lio' l',', tl I D r i l S t r i n g l 1 ' el,r ' r r r l

b::li,;tl Er,tl

, nrirsr,rqsrr",r";r r , 'l ' ' l r w

llrr , r'r\lr lx,,,l e l ' J s l kh , 1 , 1 .1,'ili, r i'l

.r{rc. Gr,P5,jc5, j l l , f o,,r sr,r,,r

'ir,,r; .;r,',::r.: l \ . 1 , , wl i , . ,r, lsr.irii ctl Drrt

on Fig. 2.6 Stres,ses drillstring.

/)r'. I\l.S. ltur:thnt

The second component is the motioncontroller(Figure2.5) on the tail of the it In dlillstring,rvhich acts as a hydraulicrestraint. csscncc, is a pistonwitlr external seals that slide within a special snroothborehole portion of the 'fhc pushcs thc top of tholnotion on wettcr high-plcsstrrc vcrtical wolkstring. seal controller, and water is trappcd bctrveen it and the high-prcssure at the bottonr of the workstring. Water can escapeonly througha centralorificc rc{r:ritr, trt'akc or on (Fig. 2.5). tlrcrcsttlts a hy<h-atrlic is witlrin thc corrlrollcr of thc forwardrnotion the 1.25in. drillstring.

The third URRS componentof the propulsion atrd control system is the whipstock,which bendsthe drillstringfrom verticalto horizontal. Figure 2.6 slrows the loadson the drillstringthat resultsfi'ornpropulsionand thc rcslraint fbrces. In its passagcinto, through, and out of thc wlripstock, and loads. is to drillstr:ing subjected axial,internal-pressure bending thc scal), thc From Figurc2.6,section of thc dlillstting(abovc higlrprcssure A drillstring stressesare below the clastic linrit. In section B, rvhcre tltc scal and within thc whipstock,thc drillstling is bclow thc high-prcssurc drillstring stressesexceed tlre elastic limit and thc drillstring dclbrnrs plastically. and by Becauscthe drillstring is internally pressurized is constrained rollers and slideswithin tlrc whipstock, it docsrrotbucklcu,hilcit is beingbcnt.In horizontally. Thcseit is exists whipstock the sectionC, the 1.25in. drillstring l-pressurc loads. Again,thc strcsses bclowthc arc tcnra undcr only axialand irr l cl a s l i c i n r i t . The pressureon the water drilling fluid in the systemnot only propelsthe drill tlre in borchole the formation.'fo drillstring,but alsodrillsthe horizontal through conical-jet the drillfonnation,the water drillingfluid is accclerated travellingat 800 to 900 creatinga conicalshell of waterparticles head nozz,le, fVsec.
Dr".M.S. Farahat

CII. II

Drillirtg'I.echniqtcs

t8

ltig. 2.'ltt showszlsclrcnlatic tlrocorricaljct. tlrr:top ol tlrc liigrrrc of At 2.'/t is jet a standard crrllirnated nozzle.The additionof fixed vaneswithin the nozzle causesa conical shell of high-velocity water particles fonl a conical.iet to 'l'hc (I;ig. 2.7b). sizc of tltchoriz.orrtal bolcholcis cstablishctl lhc lwist of by thc vattcs,'uvlrichlttrncotrtrols, iutglcoIrlivclgcncc tlrt:corrc wir{cr' irr llrc of of patticlcs. Fig.2.7candFig. 2.7dshowvancsl'or1wodiffclcntconical anglcs.

n)LE CII A D w^r kEn CONTtOUnAItON

tr) COl.llCAl-

JET NO77Lf

tN SECTTON

n ) v ^ l { L :r r a [ t , t a o ' c o u t c ^ l . . , r r N o z z t F

d ) v A N E U S E Dt N 1 0 " C O N T C A J E r N O Z Z L E L

Fig. 2.7 Cotticuljet nozzle. Fig. 2.8a slrows water jets resultirrg fronr variorrs deglees 01'vanc tu,istin ljct microsccolld llash photoglaphs a colliltratod and two clillcl.cnt oI corrical angleis not affected drilling-flrrid pressure. by iets. The conical These conical jets functionat both ambientand clcvatcd back-pressurcs. highcrbackAt pressules, cavitationdoesnot appear be an important to cuttingrtrechanisrn. Fig. 2.2 sltows thc basic rvhipstock colt[igulitliorr,rlorrbly a crrlvotl irrvcllctl qLrcstion nrark. Insidcthc IJRRSwhipstocl< a scrics rollcr.s slidcslhrrt is of anrl causes progressive a dcflcction bcnding ancl ofthc 1.25in. drillingas it nrovcs thtoughthe w,hipstock.
/)r'. Nl.S, lrl r-rrhu I

CII.

Drilling Trchniqucs

l9

jrws engaging rvcll thc The whipstock is held in place by downholeanchor casing. The anchoringjaw aresetby rotatingthe4.25 in. vcrticalworkstting' To erect the whipstock, the workstringis raisedabout I ft by the blocks,the resulting verlical motion erects the whipstock,he workstringand whipstock thatmaintain at arc lrelclercct by a set of hydraulic cylinders thc wcllhcad tonsion. cotrstant can the Aftcr eachradialplaccnrcnt, stcpsor","u"r."d. Thc rvhipstock thcn bc A downholewithout losing its calibration. rotated, and re-erected cle-erccted, gyroscopeis usedto set the whipstockazimuth]for eachradial.Thus,nrultiple downholewithout havingto trip the radialscan be placedat differcntazimuths rarlial. cachsttcccssivc bctwccn backto thc sttt'lacc whipskrck After each radial borehole is drilled, a 3D positionalsurveycan be applied its to (Fig. 2.8b). The 1.25in. drillstringcanbe surveyed determine trajectory to (ROC) surveytools designed pass with special flexible radius-of-curvature through 12 in (or smaller)bendradiusof the drillstring.The ROC survcytool to was developed provideboth plan (azimuth)and profile (up/downtrajcctory) throughthe data.'It is pumped down the workstring and enters and passes an drillstring as a wireline tool. The tool (Fig. 2.8b) resernbles animal that rnovewithin backboneand has long slidewires placedat eachquadrant The wire-cable backbone. veftebraeattachedto a flexible, torque-resistant, thc nt that measut'e nrovetlre of eaclr slicle wires actuatevery prccise sensors translating directly into the curvaturcof the ROC tool. slide wire separately, rnd Within theROC tool arc an inclinometcr a And, in turn,of thc drillstring. roll sensor.All these data are transmittedto the surlace by wireline"l'he curvature is convertedinto convctrtionalazintuth and inclinationby rrpholc providinga 3D printoutof both the azimuthand the bore inclination' software, the radiusposes following: However,the drilling methodusedfor ultar-short l. turningradiusof I to 2 ft. 2. lengthofdrainhole of 100to 200 ft. zone 3. the first drilling system requiresa 48 in. dianreter under-reamed zone. 24 systemrequires in. diarneter while the improvedsecond zone length varies lrom 6 to l0 ftdependingon the 4. the under-reamed utilized. systcm

/)r. M,S. Faraltat

UI.

DrilllngI'r:chuiqres

two dtuilrltolcs at'o varies to 2.5in. tlttts or trtol'c 1.5 diamcter 5. thedrainholc drillccl.
ns ntc usirrg cillrcrslollcrllirrcrs control, thlirrholcs crorrrplclctl thc 6, fol sarrd gravelpacking. the then ifdesired, a slotted 7. after completingthe drainhole, pipe is several, sttrvcy in zonc,the dircctiotral lincr is lincr is inscrtcd thc uutlcr-rcarncd 8. 9. At l. 2. toolscatt[rcuscd. irr sarrrls, rcccttlly rtttrl has tlrisnrcthocl bccn succcssful llrc rrnbonsolidatcd it hasbcenusedto drill hard rock suchas grarrite. with strong zone may posedifficultiesin reservoirs a largeunder-reamed watcrdrive. bottonr poscs lbllowing: drillingmcthod tlrc lastthc short-radius involves cuttinga | 5 b 2{) fl lorrgwindowin tlrccasing an of l'he process existingverticalwell and kicking-off the dlainholethroughtbe window. guideassist andcurveddrillingerrtry flexibleshellpipes(30 A whipstock in 60 ft) or wiggly drillcollars makinga 20 to 40 lt turringraclius. Also, dilcctional survcymay lrc usodto locatc path. dr'ainlrolc 'f'lrc ,ll/2 kt (r -ll4 in tlirtrrc:lt:r, rrotrrrrrlly 3. ltotizontitlpor(ion wi{lr t is completcd eithelopenhole by inserting slotted or a lincr in thc holc.In thc case of unconsolidated sand reservoirs,a wire mesh seven is wrapped aroundthe liner for sandcontrol.lt is possible drill severaldlainholes to at diflcrcntclcvations tlrrough singlcvcrtical a wr:ll. 'l'he 4. shortturningradius drillingntcthod bccnvcry succcssful nrarry has ilr field applications. the limitationol this method,is that it doesnot offer But 0 sclcctivc cotlll)lction option.lrr otlrcl wotls, it is rrotpossilrlc isolrrlc {o 'l ccrtainprotlucing zorrcs sclcctivoly. his coulclcauscdifficulticsin lhc cilscs whclc frirclrucs intcrsccting lhc drainlrolc flrc in dircct conrnrun icatiorr with eithcrtop gasor bo{toltr watcr. 5, Moreover,milling a widow in thc casingcan be very expensive and time consuming. possible, prefcncdoplionis to drill a drainholc If a through a new verticalwell with arropenhole section. 6, A 90 ft turning radius drainholc is a succcssful technology.This technologyemploys a downhole nrud motors and articulatcddrillstring. Also, it hasbeensucccssful ccrncntccl casing a curvcdscotion tho irr ol'90 ft turningradiushole and harrging, lolntationevaluation the tools can be 'l u s c d . h i s t l r i l l i n g o c l r r r o l o g y u l t ll r r o b l b l y c u s c r t o r h i l l 2 ( )t o 2 ( ) 0l l t co b l t r r t r r i nrg r l i u w c l l sb y r n o r l c l i r r lg c< l l i l l s t r . i arrgi c u l l r l i o n . a s t r r l
Dr. M.S, Falalrat

CH. II

Drilling

I'echniques

Fig. 2.8a. Waterjets.

S e p aa l o r r
c) 3O" Conlcal Jel nozrle at o.4 MP8

Slide Wke

L----

Tool Cross-Section
P ri n t e r
Convgrlor

Computer

To FOCTool lExcitation f-----'/ I SouryeJ

Fig.2.8bROC tool.

E l e c t r i c aS c h e m a t i c l
1)r. M.S. Farnhat

Cn ll

L,ri i't( 7ilhriqur\

22

2.2Short TurnineRadius
Short-lullrltoIizorrtal (ctns Ituvca tu|1t p mdiusol aboutJ0_00ll, lbr.drilliIg fiom cascdholcs. Thc proccssbcgins by sicletrucking, builtlirrg angrc, urru dtilling thc curvedsection with a special anglcbuildingrsscnrLrly. l.lrrrs, a lol re-entrydrilling systemto be tcchnicallysucccssftrl, mustbccapablcof it drilling a consistortraclitrs ourvaturc of arrclol dr.illirrg cut.vc thc rlcsitccl irr dircction, Thcsclcqrrircnrcnt nlisc lrorrrllrc lcc<ls; ,To position the endofthe curvewithin a prccise dcpthintcrvalso thatrnc latcralcanhavcrse fay zoncasdcsircrl. lhc , lo plircc lltc Lrtcnllin a dir.cctiorr rlictatod wcll spacirrg, by dcsilcrJ swccp patterns, other geologicalconsiderations. or a ,To establish smoothcurveto facilitatc dr.illing latcralan<l thc corrrplcting the well. Sevc[al types of shott-radiuscurve-drilling systcnrs arc comrlcrcinlly 'l availablc. lic mostconrrnon lypcsuscsa nrurlmotorto rotatca dfill bit thatls titlcd bit drills a curvcd patlr, anrl thc rotationaloricntationof tlrc ruotor housingin thc boreholc dctermincs dircction thc ofthc curve.Eithcr.a stccling tool or a measurement while drilling (MWD) tool is required to kecp the motor housing oriented during drilling. The systcm nray be uscclwith cotrvcntiorral workovcr rigs ol witlt coilod-tubingurrits.l.lrisis tlrcrrrost or popular method of drilling a curved borehole, but jt is often too cxpensiveto be economicalfor re-entcrsin mature ficlds. Constraincd-rolaty systcfis afc sccon(lcllcgoty oI coltrrrr:r.cially irviriltrlrlc 'lhcy tools. havc a flcxiblc cfi.ivc shrrli irrsidcnn nr.licrrl:rtc(l folNtilg n{)l housing.Since originatedby Zublirr in 1052, this approirch hccngrea y hns rclincd. A resilicnt curveguidcactsas a sprilg thatapplics sidc li)rccto rc a bit ond forccthc bit to dr.illa curwcd pr{h.'l hc curvcguitlcinilially is or.icrrtcd in the desireddirectionand then rclies on wcllboie fr.ictionlo nnrntarn orientation as it advances along the curve. Because the considerable of l'rardwarc required the associated and opcralillg procedu[cs, oIconstraincdusc rotating systclns has dcclined in llvor of llrc nrorc rcliirblc rnuclntotor. systcrlrs.
,r ll.S. I,':tr^hnt

CII. II

Dritti"g

luhniqucs

23

Rotating-guidcd systems are a third category of short-radiuscuwe-drilling 'l'hcy of tools. Fig. 2.9 slrowsthc downlroleconrponcnts onc such systcm. equipment. flexible drili collars,and oricntation includethe curve asscmbly, lhat is pushcd a Thc lclativclyshortcurvcrsscmblyincorpotatcs flcxiblc.joint cqttipnrcnt conrprisc a to onc sidc of thc holc lo tilt {hc bit.'lhc oricntation standard muleshoc sub for gyro orienting or a nonmagnctic collar and rnulcslroc for magnclicolicnting-I his basictool corccpthasbcen arotrnd strb for decades, but problemsrvith angle builds and directionalcontrol have succcss. Ilolvcvcr, thc apPcalof drilling horizontal limitcd its conrmercial w c l l sc l r c l p l yw i t h s u c hc q u i p r n c rl t r r r a i r r s . c Fig. 2.10 highiights the evolution of rotary-guidedcuwe drilling tools before a 1988.Early described tool in 1934that useda flcxiblejoint to allow the bit a a Miller patented similarcurve-dtilling to be tiltedto sidetrack well. In 1944, (Fig. 2.10a)in which thc bit tilt direction couldbc oricntccl dcflcct to assembly the borehole in a particular dircction. lt was assumed that, aftcf initial the would continue drill in a consistent to direction. ln orieniation, assembly 1952, Sanders used a curve-drillingasscmbly(Fig. z.l0b) whose near-bit reamercausedthe bit to the inclined. This systemalso incorpolateda flexible joirrt to allow su{Iicicnt tilt to drill short-radiuscurvcs. The curvc direction was detcrmincdby the orientationof a whipstock, again it was assunred that would continuc drill in a consistent thc asscnrbly to dircction. In 1964, (Fig. 2.10c), Frisby proposed an assembly that used an eccentric stabilizing sleeveto control the bit tilt to orient the tilt in a parlicular direction and to function as a stabilizer to minimize bit wobbling and oscillation. The eccentricsleevecould be positioncdeithcr above or below thc flexiblejoint. It was attashedrotationally to the ddllstrimgwith a pin that was releasedby fluid pressurewhen drilling mud was cilculated through the tool. This sleeve rs similar to one proposed Gilcs in 1955for long-radius by dlilling, cxccptthat to a Gilcs slcevewas oricntcdthc drillstringcounter-clockwisc cngage lock to position the sleevein the desireddirection. Development was renewed in the 1980's. Holber (Fig.2.10d) and Schuh radius ofcurvatutccauscd instability by at workcd on drilling an unpredictablc whenthe bit drilledan oversize hole or became the drill bit, cspccially
Dr: lU.S.Farahat

Dri II irt1; 7'c<: n i qt es h

Nonmagnetic Drlll Collar

Orlenlatlon Kcy

F l e xi b l e

D r i l lc o l l a r s

\',

\-:,r\,,rt.rnlIolt"

Fig. 2.

a ! olary)-

ittott niliiiri ctilvi u.s.yint are,shown. .fitrces
1)r. l\'LS. Irara hat

CII. II

Drillitg

Tcchniqucs

25

tlre Burton addressed problemofpoor unstableas it crossedbedding panes. (Fig.2.10c) eccentric sleevc a control by introducing tron-rotating oriclltatiorl as with splingJoadedblades to glip the wellboreand to lnaintainorientation as the drilling assemblyis wellbore and to maintainorientation the drilling periodicrepositioning the sleeve of assemblyis advanced.Burton advocated curvccouldbc drillcd. so thata Dlanet

1987 e

slrcrt-radius atrve-drillin.g Fig. 2.10 Historical evolution of tlrc rotaryt-guided tool. curve.Thus, to tilt sulficiently Fig. 2.11 showsthat the flexible a short-radius flexible to drill a short-radiusallows the bit it hasbeenuseda non-rotating together tubular steel shellmadeofshoft lengthsofpipe. The lengthsconnect for with articulatedconnectiorrs flexibility. This flexible shell carries the building angle.A vertical thrust to the bit and acts as a sprirrgto facilitated pressure circulatingdrilling fluid. An for flexible liner insidethe shell contains internal drive shaft supportedby bearing packs, carries torque from the drillstring to the bit. The horizontalsectionis drilled with a similar technique but longer flexible shell without spting action and stabilizer to control first by milling a section hole is prepared direction as shown in Fig. 2.11.The The whipstock is run ot'ientedto the con'ect of casing and under-reamed. is directionand set,the anglebuilding assembly run into the hole. Sidetracking as asserr.rbly it guidesoffthe faceof the begins by rotating the angle-building
1}. l\'1.S,Falahnt

('ll. 1l l\lllttH I'nhu\ttrs

Ltl

w h i P s l o c kS i d c t r i l c k i r ra n crl l l i l l i n g o r r l i r r tirrol h c c u r v c tllr o l o c c t i . . ' g c r s i r ta r r i'creasiug upwardanglein thedi'cctionof thewhipstock raccuntirit is bcing hodzontal. Then the angle building asserrbly is pulled out of the hole.The stabilized drilling assembry run, and the str-aight is horizontalsectionis dri ed. Also, there is another versionof thc systcml.otates bit with an articulatccl the nrotor, which improve lrole guida'ce.'fhe welr is compretetr as an openrrore or a special flexible typeslotted lincr is r.un.

Fig. 2'I | ,4 scltetnntic o 'shorr-t'aditr,s .f rrriling racrtttiqrrc rr,sittry finirtra
drillin g ioirtt.

/)r'. M.S. Fara hat

CIL

DTiIi'tgTcchniqnes

2.3 Mc tl i rtnt- Tur n i ng-Bg1!!4;
Although the long-radius approach to drilling horizontal wclls is highly developed and very successfirl, thc radiusrcquircd restricts applications the possible.Medium-radius drilling extends tecbniques thatbuild sections thc so with a radius down to about 300 ft (90nr) can bedrillecl. lolcs drillcdtry I m€dium-radius techniqucs lrave scveral advantagcs conrparcd long-radius to wells and almost no disadvantages. llrey can be drillcd with conventional drilling rigs, althoughthey requiresome special,but now wcll-developed, equrpnrent. Mcrliunr-radiustcchniqucs usc rroir-irrlicrrlalcd slrings nnd hcntt lnrrrl ttill nrotors.'l hcscarc thrccprincipal r-ccluircnrcnts: The bottom-holeassenrbly mustbe ableto drill alonga trajectory with the ) rcquircdradius. Thc drillstring must be sufficientlyflexible to follow the drill without mechanical failurc. Tools used in thc hole must be able to be moved aroundlhe curved partsof the hole. It is importantto note thatthe third requirement listedabovelimits the tools that cau bc used ir the horizontal partofthe holeevcnthroughthc curvature 'fhese thcrc is ncgligiblc. requirctrrctrts placc linritationson whal can bc achicvcd by mediurn-radius drilling.Thc rcquircment drillstring for flexibility mcans drillstringsmust be snrallerin dianreter highcrcurvatures. for Atthc lirnit, it is necessary, e.g., articulated strings,coiled tubing type strings strcsscd beyond thc clastic linrit, andstrings nr.dc o f cxotic highcr-strength thc nralcrialssuchastitanium, carbonfiber or steel-reinforced lroscs. Chargcs of this sort movethe tcchnique bcyondthc boundary ofnornralmcdiunr-radius drilling. The trend to using smaller diameterdrillpipe goesalong with the drilling of smaller diameter lroles. Anotherdrivingforcemoving(heteclrnology towards is strlall dianreters the inccntivc dlill horizontal 1o drnihs with cxisting starting veltical wells.To do this,mctliunt-radius equiptnent carlbc inscftcd thdt down thc cxistingverticalwell casingis nccdcd.

Dr. M.S. Ferahat

CH.II

DtilingTechniqnls

2a

Driiling motorsfof boththe angle-build angle-hold and sections medium_ ofa radius horizontalwcli must bc shorl cnorrghto fass il.oundlhc cut.vilut.c. Doublo-tilttltolors arc oolllllon,particular'ly unglc-hold. tilt in angrc_ Ibr l.hc build motors is relatively Iargeand thc motorsare not rotatable(steerable). Medium-radius hole can be drilled fronr the side ofan existing casedvertical well or from a newly drilled open bole. Ifan existing verticalwell istobe used, a rvindow is milled in thc cxisting casing at ihc dcsirctl Icvcl anda whipstock locked to the casingin the designed orientationbelow the window. 'lhis lvhipstockdirccts thc nrcdiunr-r'adius ltr(l nrolor rlrill in thc rlcsircd azimuth direction.

2.3.1Drillnhrcfor Mediun-R
'Ilrc

litts Driltins

first mcdiurn-radius dtilling systcnr rvas dcscribcd Dcch,llcarn,Sclrulr by

flnd lcnhart in 1986. It allorvcdholcs l6 in. in diarrrctq. b c r l r i l l c rtl o lo horizontal distance 1000ft with a build ratcofabout20 30nr( r 0 0 i 0 . of

'l'hc

systcrnused a narrow,diarnetcr, spccialcomprcssive sorviccdrillpipc (CSDP)carryinglarger-diameter knots. wear I.'igurc 2.12a shows two conrmoncst ol'compre sewiccdr.illpipc. thc sizc ssivc 'lhc pipc is ficqucnllynxrrlc firrrrr tr(xt-lltfllcli0,llsl(lrrilic lirl rrsc slccl rrrru magneticsurveyinstruments in holesrvhere build ratcaregreater and the than l 5 i t O ( 1 0 0f t . ) . m In holcs rvilha lowcrbuildratcthan| 5230nr,hcavy-wall tlrillPipo (c.g.I lovi'fhis pipc watc) is uscd. hasa rvalltlrickncss whichrlakcsit itt)orrt alldil two half timesas lreavyas standard drillpipc(c. g. 62.5 Kg/rnfor.4.5in.pipc compared 25.3Kg/nrfor standard to pipc).ln adtlition,lcvi-rvllcpiqrc in I hus, each30 ft length, centml a upset section uhichbehavcs sirnilarly thewcaf to knotsir CSDP. wearknots Thc (Fig.2.l2b)kccpthcdrillpipc awayfrourthc wall of the hole in thc curvedsectiol.This rcduccs both rotating and longitudinal friction, resulting less in strikirrg. is also It through wearknots the hclpkecpthccuttings suspcnsion thcdrillingfluid. in in

1fr II.S. Faribat

CII. II

Dtillittg

Tcch iqxes

C O M P B E S S I VS E B V I C E R I L L P I P E ( C S D P ) E D

2-7tA 3.112

3.1t8

2
213116

10120t3a

Fig. 2.12a

Compressive Strength
Drillpipe

5"

Wear-Knots

2-7 IB"

s-1t2"

Fig- 2.12b Contpressive strength drillpipe 5 in -wectr-lutots.

/lr. ll.S. I.arahat

CII. II

Dti ing lethuiqn.s

30

2.3.2 lf nlinnrllntli

us Ilrilli rtg ll I ot o,'s .t nrl,l_t'st,'r,,s

Medium-radirrs, angle-buildmotol'stypically havetwo bcndsin theirlength. Motors of lhcse types are showr in Fig. 2.13. Arotlrer nrotorsritablefor building anglein rnediun-radius holesis shownin Irig.2.14.In this asscnrbly, a motorwith a bendis jointedto the dlillstringvia a bendsub.'t he totaltiltof 'l'ablc the motor is equalto the sum ofthc two individual angles. tilt 2.I shows thc holc chanrctctistic that can bc oblailcrl Lrsing nrcdiunr-r'rrrlirrs drilling systcms. fivc different for motorsizcs.llrc two largcst motor.sizc linrilcrl llc kr dlilfing holc wi(h au arrglc-builci fatcof lcssll]l|i|, 14730nr(I00 ll) rr|<l rncv rcquirc rciatively large vcrtical holes. With thc lower degrec ofcurwaturc, Ilevi-rvatedrillpipe can be uscdanclthere complete is flexibilityin thc useof MWD. Iful rlilling shallow, nrccliunr-r'adius lrolizonllrlwcll, lyl)ictl llrlcc IlllS tlcsctiptions arc spccificd lorlhisrvcll rsshowr in fig.2.l5 (con<lrrctor.Jrolc c B l i A ) , I i g . 2 . 1 6 ( s u t f a c c J r o lB l l A ) a n d F i g . 2 . l 7( h o l i z o n t a l - l r ol lc A ) . l l Also, liig. 2.18 shows that the invefted drillslring dcsignfor holizontal holc scctiou. Table 2.1 Typical nrediunt-radius drillitg paranrctcrs
Motor Slze oD 0r.) Mi,titttwlDianeler al Vdlic^lWe (inches) llole OPen Casing Molorrlnn -forqt|o It ll)
NM

8

6314

4 3t4

3 3t4 4 3l,l 5 1t2 120 X4() u90 l2A / 20 35 286

3 3/r] 4314 5lt? t20 340 B00 121) / 20 286

121t4 t3 3/B
85-190 4500 6103 8-14 715 410

a 1t2 I 5/8
100-260 2800 3798 8-14 715410

0 7
t00 300 I t00 t000 19-30 300-2B0

"/30nr lt nadius, Steerir9 crfnb lily"/30 in Uso[rWD
Drllll'lt!'

2.5 Yes
li HWDP

2.4 Yos
4 li' HWOP

Y05
i, //lt ti tt llt" CSDF /lIWDP t' /ltl CSDP or SDiial

FrwDt,

csr)r,

D/: M.S.l.rrrhxf

CII. II

Drilling TcchtiquL's

3l

EA,STMAN CHRISTENSEN HORIZONTAL MOTOHS

Fig. 2.1-t.

D Y N A - D R I L L O U B L EB E N D M E D I U M R A D I U S O T O R D M

.,.,ii'tm:i,1{;#tr3,y3;ry1;,;1;,i;

Itig. 2.14.

1)r. N{.S.fiarahat

C .

Dti ittg'Icch iqkcs

32

Drlll 5" Non-Msgn€llc Plpe (He8vy Welght)

6.75" MWD Dlrocllonal S€nsor

I I

5" Non-Msgn6tlc Plpe Drlll (Heavy Welght) 11.75" Stsbllhor (Non-Mognollc) 8" Bcnl Houslno - Motor (Slnolo Bend) 12.125" Stablllzor

Itig. 2. | 5 ('rttlrr

tot. ltolt,

nll/l.

49'

12.25" Blt
(HsqvyW6lght)

5" Non-MaonoDrl ptpe c

I
Fig.2.l6 Stu{at'ehole BII4.

B'

0.76" MWU Dhoctlonsl Sonsor Gemma Ray/Reststtvlty S€nsors

ono,o. u fn"'xil-$3p;iy"
70'
11.75" Stsblll:sr (No|FMagnotlc) 8" B.nt Hourhrc - Motor (Slngle Bond) 12.'125" Stsbtttz.r

I

I I

12.2!" Btl

Dr. I\,1.S. Fllrrhrf

CII.

Driuilg'Icchniqu.s

(Heavy Welght)

Drlll 5" Non-Magnellc Plpe

6.75"MWD

E +6'

S€nsor Olrecllonal RaySensor Gamma Fsslstlvlty Sonsor 7.75"Stablllzer (Non-Magnetlc)

r I
I
37'

6.75" Ooubl6B6nl Houslng Motor 8.375" Stnbilizer

lrig. 2.17 Hot izo tal hole BIll

Fig. 2.18 Invertetl drillstring desi.gn horizontal lole section. for
D/r Nl.S. Frrahat

CII. II

Dri hry'lttl'|iquts

34

2.3.3 Hieh Medium

a d Lov Saeed Drillins

techniquecan be used with both high-speed, l'he medium-radius medium-and low speedlnolors: ]'hc types of motor uscddcpcndsupon tlrc contlitions.lloth rolling cone and fixed cutter (usually polycrystallinediamond compact(PDC) bits can be used. Rolling-conebits are nearly always used with low and medium-speed motors, i.e. for rotary speeds lessthan about 200 rpm. PDC bits can be usedwith either low-speedor high-speed motors.Both categories ofbit an<l thcrc is corrsidclablc hlvc advantagcs ovcllap irr lhoil rrpplicrrtiorr. Rolling-cone bits, operating low speed, at have advantages hard rocks and in () sorli)wl) t b(jttefto cllbds lo c(nrtlol{llc dircctiorr {lrolrtrlc. thcy rcsp(nl(l ol plrllslrtrrlbcrrirrlls, lhcy rrc lrr)r( lltc othct llttttl, bccrusctltcy lrtvc tttovirtg s l r s c c l ) l i l ) o r v c a r n dh a v ct o b c r c p l a c r 'rrrl r o r 'fc c q U L - r r lIlIy ( ' I ) i t s l n h c llc a i D c tusod highcrspecds at and will frequcltly dlill longcrscctions holc without ol Diamondand thennallystablediarnond rcplrccnrent. bits are usuallyrun on mcdiutn-and high-speed motors.Fig. 2. l9 shorvs additionof hartl lacing the and tungsten carbideinsertsfor protectivc lcgs of rolling-cone thc bits. Also, |lig. 2.20 showsa PDC bit that involvesthc pl'otcctiotr thc top ol-thc bit of tlra{ rlcvcl with nattral clianrorrds, can trc rrscrlrvilh (op-ciivc rigs urrtlrvith backreanring rcmovingcuttingrvhilcdtilling thc horizontal for scclionof well. Fig. 2.21 shorvs other designcharges lrorizontal for driliing bits at inlprovcd stecrability.

2.3.4 Mediutr- Rldius-Horizo ntq! Il/ell Sections
Medium-radius horizontal hole is comntonlydrilledin openlrolc as shownin Fig. 2.22,but sidetracking cascdholesis modemtclycommonwith lorver in pattcrnofabout 300 11. turn radius Motor asscrrrblics nrustconrmonly arc uscd as mentionedbefore. Tangents are used sornetimes;it is common to use a measurement while drilling (MWD).

,r. IU.S.Frrrh:ri

CII. II

Drilling Tcchtiqucs

35

N A T U R A L D I A M O N D SO N T O P O F B E V E L F O R P R O T E C T I O N U R I N GB A C K H E A M I N G D

Fig. 2.19

Fig. 2.20.

2.3.4.I Vertical Sectiorr until the kick-offpoint (KOP) for a It is the {irst sectiondrilled from surface horizontal well or newerwell (Fig. 2.15) or sectionfrom surfaceuntil milling windon' for recomoleted matureor old well for drainhole.
SIIOHTEFIFLAT'IER PDC BITS FOR IMPFIOVED STEEBABILITYIN I-IORIZONTAL I.IOLES
T [ € P O C b l o r t l E r i g h tl e a r u , e s a shotl\ucil.;lnnk, lhl(dki pro l i l c ! i r d s l u l , r r o , l 0 a ( ( r ol o | ( l l h . Theso leahrcs atu d{rsn.blo ld

Iton lones 1990

Fig.2.2I.

Dr'. M.S. Farah:rt

ctl.II

lrtiuitru t.thniqn.s

36

D -lt

vdtla!lhd. il,lll..l ,nJ .".d ro .r.tico o, t,,r,,rdirroc.jt,)u Dot,,r V.r'lcrl d.rthnrrnotro!ro,nnrlonc.D,it^j,,o. i,,,t u.i torrt,,,,itl v . r r l c . l h o l o p l u s o o d . b J c tl o k l c k o t t p . i j r r C u r ! . d h o l o . u c r l o n d , l t t o dr t v o ! 0 h 9 0 - l r n r r . l i . . l l o r h o n r . l I ' o l o 6 6 c r l o nd r i l l o d curv.il ddd ho.ilont.t hotoE.crton, .asod ,nd cuUFv(uu

Ititrg.2.22 A4ttliuut Iunt hori;ottIrtIu'tlL

2.3.4.2 Curved Sectiatt
'llrc scclionofhorizontal holcslrrmst hlouglra 90' curvc lrcrn vc rcnl crrlvcrl wilh an avclageturn laclius 3(X)-tt(X) Ihis cun bc ckrnc lo horizontal li. olthe thfough following: C t r)i dotv for |ertictl well: At kick offpoint, thc scclionnrill (lrig.2.23)is t t t t tr t r r l l t cc n s i t r ig ,t t r i l l c rrlt g i r r g i r r r r l t j l o . \ 2 1 1s i n ! ,l l i V i s g r ' lr r r r r r v i t l r s I l l lhrccstcps.

'lhlce

diffcrentlrolton-holeassclllblics uscd to sidc thc wcfll alicr sct afc whipslockas shown in Frg. 2.24 shows typical conllguration notor ol scctionl'orkick-off,brildirrglnrl horizontal nlo(orirsscniblics-uscd dcviation deseit. for drainholein Egyptian-westem
/lr'.ll.S. I:rurh:rl

CIl. II

Dri i,tg Tcchniqrcs

31

Hydrulic Jar

61/4

61/2 5 3/8 4 3/B

Bit Sub

I

T, oa

Boot Basket

5 1t2

r
I
S e c t i o nM i l l

a 1/4

1/8 1/2 5 1t2

I H t_
I
Taper l,4ill

a 1t4

Fig. 2.23 tuIilIirtg ass ly. enfu

Dr'.M,S. Farahat

CH. II

Dtilti

g Techniqnes

38

J

J

A

A

B

Limber

Bent-Housing

Pad and B e n t- Ho u s i n g

Bent Sub

Benl Sud and Benl-Housing

= M o l o r , B = B e a r i n ga s s e m b l y , C : O u i p u t s h a f t a n c l i l , D = B e n t h o u s i n g, E : P a d , a n d F : B e n t s u b

Fig. 2-24Motor deviati) sectian.

/f/. NI.S, F:rrahnt

CIt- II

Dri hlg Tc.hrirlt.s

39

Dtilling insidc motor asscmbly. continuous wilh thc sidclrack Anglc-buikling cascd holcs (usually 7 in. diattrctctor Iilrgcr casirtg)is donc with strtall diameter,slim-hole tools. A section of casing is removedby nilling, a sidctrllckingplug is sot and drcsscdoff. Somc opcratorsprcfcr to sidclrack o t thc olcascd hole with lowcr build ratc, itrcrcasing build latc allcl dlilling.r part of curved section. Drilling and angle building operations continue, rneasuringdrift angle and dircction pcriodically. Inclined or first build arc dcplh.l'hctt, a dircctional is (curvc),straight(tangcnt) clrillctlto lhc rcqLtit.ctl in contittucs a slnoothcurvc unlil is motor assembly run, and anglc-building the hole becomeshorizontal. The curved scction of the hole may be cased before drilling the horizontal section, or both holc may be cased togetller. Running of the casing dcpendsupon the turn radius,lengtlr of horizontal section,formation conditions,torquc and drag.

I 2.3.4.2 Horizonto S ectiott
Hotizontal section of medium-radiushas angle of about 90o. The horizontal section is drilled using low angle build stecrablenrotor assctnblyas shown itt with a low angle assembly a bendlrousing has Fig.2.25.A commonsteerable bend of 0.25'- 0.5", possibly with a very tlrin deflcction pad to prevcnt motor housing (as shown in Ftg. 2.26) wear reaming nonnally is unnccessary are rcflectively limber. Reaming car be done with a becausethe assemblies ifrcquircd.Thcn,drilling contirucsuntil thc rcamingassenlbly, nonaggressivc torizontal scctionis conrpleted. Lastly, the featuresof this drilling method used for medium-radiushorizontal well, are given as follows: tn this method, the turning radius from a vertical to horizontal direction is about 300 to 800 ft. 'l Two systemsare availableto drill thesedrainholes. hesesystemsusedtn general are: downhole mud motors and flexible drillpipe. One system utilize build-motors for angle building al a rate of about 2dl100 ft. thc horizontalpotlion is ddlled by using anglehole-motorswhich drill at a rate to hasbccn usedsucccssful drill 1000to of about30'/100 ft. Suchsystem 1500ft long wells in fracturcd formalions.
/)r. N{.S.F:rrxhnt

(:IL II

l)tilling

I-u.hniques

40

Flcqucntlytlrcscwclls al'c rlso conrplcto(l usirrg slotlctllirrcr.s.'llrr: wclls c i l n l ) c l o g g c t l r r s i t r gc o r n r r r o r o i a l l yv i r i l i r b lc o i l o t ll r r l r i r r gu o r r r r l e t l ir r: r cvnlunl tools. fir'rnnliorr ion

St a b l l l z e d e n t b l l ou sl n g | n o l o r
Survcy tool

P o s l l i v r -r l i s pl r r c c r r rt rt . o r l o w t r l t o l cr r t o o r l

SlecraLrlo r a c l i l t so f c r r r v a l u r o

Top slablllrer n = lln(lhts ot curvnll|lo

Degrco ol l)cn(l R

Benl-houslng slablllzor

Fig. 2.25 T14t I steer altIe s),s n. ica te
/)r. M.S. Iarahal

CH. II

Drilling

I'echniqrrcs

4l

ffiffiHm"TF-l -lN lH. llw i iiffi'1 tffillffil
lrrlrri:ur r-ir;:trl.iEir

o

Fig. 2.26.

lilrlH-r

horizontal well classifications drillednrainly deviation are by Long-turnradius are in openho1es. Wells in this classification charactcrized largerhole sizes by to ol zurdalc vcry susccptiblc lrigh dragandtorquclrccausc longopcnholc in although srrrallct diarrcter holes section. Flolesizerangeup 12.25 cliameter
are lltote conln'loll.

Wells with a radius of crirvatureof about 300 m ( I 000 ft) in the deviated (as are usingthetcclrniques shownin Fig.2.27)a sectiorrs commonly dr-illed the nrotor and MWD to locate holeas drillingproceeds. stcerable bcnt nrr.rd in Also, therc are significantadvantages using top-drivc ralhcrtlrantotary table drilling rigs, and top-clrive rigs ate commonly used in offshore cost installation, of land rigs havehad top-drivebecause tl-re applications.Fer.v ar-e for howevcr, nervtop-drive designccl spccifically landopcrations available.

Dr. M.S. Farahat

CII. II

Drillitrg I'ecluriques

42

[?or long-radius horizontalwells drilling, the NavigationDlilling Systenr (NDS) empty a NorTrak streeable motor with doubletilted U-joint housing (DT[J) as shown in Fig.2,2B. The systenr profilesand can drill directional without costlyasscnr[rly nrakccoutsccorrections changes.

0ouble-bend conli[uration U0t0r Drilex
Inlo$r.rl blado slablilzor f ' o 5 i l l v or l i r , ) l n o or l r l willl bonl llousing

Fig. 2.21.

$teeraDle ntBtqi' iUurati0n xc0nf
P o s i l i v e( l i s l ) l a c o n ! o n ll o l o r willt pl(l an(l l)rr|tl lr)l[]in(l

('

I:ir:.2.29. Y ... \'l f cf'^'-'-"' 1 II LJJ J

'

Also, thc D l'U lrousing two sliglrtbcnds-[r'st onc clilccliorr, has irr tlrorr thc in slightly tilt the bit's axis fronr thc hole axis. ltcsultingol-['sct opposite-to anglc can bc configulcclfi'om 25"Io 78'Loplovitlc doglcg capabilityup to 6'1100ft rvhiledrilling in the orientedmode.\Mren thc rotary tablcis engaged while the NorTrackmotor continues run, bit offset is negated to and the NDS assembly drills straighta head.To keep the well on course,otientedand rotaly sections 'l c a n b c t l t c r r r i r l o w i t h o u tt r i p p i r r g u { o l ' l l t c l r o l o . l r c t l o t r b l c - t i t t c s i g l r d o ll brings the motor axis back into alignmentrvith the boreholeaxis, providing
ll:tr':rh:rt /)r'.Nl.S.

CE.II

Dti

i'tg lechniqnes

directional control and consistentwell path curvaturewith low bit offset and strcsses. asscmbly anddr-ivc housing, bcaring, nrirrinral

2,4.1 Venical Section It is drilled ftom surfaceor sea bed until KOP (Kick-off point) using tools. convenlional

(Turnin 2.4.2Curved
The cuwed section of horizontal tum holes through a 90" angle from horizontal to vertical with an averagetum radius of 1000-3000ft. The first 'fhe same gcneral stcp is to deviatedand bcgin drillirrg thc curved scction. proceduresare used for drilling the high-angle directional and mcdium-turn pattcrns.l{cduced anglcsof brrild and longcr opcn holc scctionsmust be ollowed. tt is necessaryto establislrcurualute and thcn drillcd witlr one of severalassemblyoptions,as shown irr Fig.2.29 pattemswith longer turn ladii in drilling tcchniqucs thc carlicrpartofthe cuwcd arc dtillcclusingditectional -l'hen 'I arr section. his is mote common where bit walk and angle is about 20o. angle is about 6d. Drilling continuesto higher angleswith rotary assenrblics in a few cases, such as a hole with vety long tums- Normally, rotary assembliesare less efficient for building angle and controlling direction at drilling with steerablemotor assemblies lo horizontal with motor assemblies, as often as possible.Tangent sectionsslrould be drilled as needed.Tangents are often placed at an inclination of 60'. Tangentsare omittcd in some holes that havc longer turn radii becausedrilling longer sectionsplavidcs tin'le for morc rvcll path adjustments.

2.4.3 Horizontal Section of Horizontalsections long-turnholeshave anglesof about90o depending sectionis drilled The horizontal and uponfonnationconditions well pattems. Procedures sfeeablemotor assembly. with either a hold or low-angle-build
Dr. trt.S.Farih,rt

CIl. II

lttiUh,E Tt?huiqu.s

44

similar to dr:illing the horizorltal pattcrn uscd. seclion tlrclncdium-lunr of alc Ro(ary nsscnrtrlics scldonr arc uscd.Draganrltorqucincrcirsc rvillrirrr:rcasing depth. Torque nay approacb the ma;rimurr linliting torquc-strongthofthe dlillstring in very deep holes. This hasoccuLred evenin a complctcly cased hole. Moto[ assemblies should usedhere,sincetl]e do not require be rotating the drillstring.Drag and torquemaybe nrinitlizedwith tlrecorrect typehigh q u a l i t y u ds y s l e m n do t h c ra c t i o n s . m a

TI; iJ

II
CJ-r!Fd // |

\

br
Drllllns ll'o

,/ / ,'1n"rl^i'r soction

q9e !l-srr

\+4rf
0illliri! ll'o

Fig. 2-29Long hutt horizontal well. Ilowever, this drilling method (long-lurningmdius) has a turningradius of 1000 to 3000 ft in most casesalrd uscs mostly convcntional tools. A combinationofdrill bits with bcnl subsancl downhole nrucl rnotors uscoro alc drill 2000to 5000ft long horizontal wells,sometimes reduces 4000 ft long. to The advantages and disadvantagcs iinrjtations or ofthis drilling method used l o r l o r ) g i d i u s h o r i z o n t a l e l l .c n r r c s r r r r r r r r r i z r .df o l l n w s : l w c b 1 Thesewells can be cored,loggedand treated. 2. Problems in cetnenting the lrighly deviated wellbores are furtllel aggravatcd horizontalwellbotes,especiallyin regaldto displacement in frourthe holeandunifoml comcntplacemcnt aroundtlrcwcllbolcs.

D/. M.S. !i,r.rh.rf

(:8. lI

DtillinE li.hriqrcs

45

hotizorrttll ofccnlcntirrg indicatc possibility thc howovcr, Rccontadvlrrccs, themsclcctivcly. wclls andpcrforating oflong radiushorizontal option,a majoradvantage completion A selective wells, would facilitate producing only from the oil bearing zonesand walcl or gasproducirtg zones. shutting-offhigh a thatthc well perletrates A typical tuming of 1000 to 1500 ft roquires point.l'his lrrgc Iatcrrll rescrvoir 2000to 5000ft a way liom thc spudding in spacerequitcmentlimits tho trse of this technique many shorcficlds where the typical vertical well spacing is l0 to 80 acres.However,this types oftechnique is very useful in offshoredrilling

D,-. Nl.S. F'Ar:rhat

CIL III

Har

tt: ofllotiznalal

tt'c|lr

46

Cunprulr III
PLANNING OF HORIZONTAL WELLS AND DRAINIIOLESGnonlrTnv

I

l-Qeagg11y of Horizontal ll/eu or Drainholc
wcll antlshapc rvithirr rcsclvoirhavca sigrrificarrt Wcll dianrctcr', tnrjcclory lhc c. impact on costs and overall rvcll success. g. productivityand recovery. gcometry a criticalaspcct horizontal rvcll dcsign. is of Consequcntly

i.I lTell Diameter
The diameter of horizontal section is the easiestwell geometry element to \\,hich u'ill allow thc following: It dianrctcr', identify. shouldbc thesnrallest ancldtilling asscnblics and hydraulicprograms to l. Use of controllablc placcrrrcnt objcclivcs anrlholc stlbility. achicvc clcatancc run thc neccssalv to cvaluation tools. 2. Sufficient 3, Sufficient clearanceto install the requircd complction, production, and wolKoverequlpmenr. for producfion. 4. Sufficicnt diarnctcr ccononricil wcll in a ficld dcvclopmcnt shoulcl dcsigncd bc llowcvcr, tlrc initial hotizontal wilh largcr dialnctcrto allow running an cxtra string of casing in caseof hole problems,e. g. influx of rvateror gas. Ilolc diamctercan unexpected possibly rcduced placticcs ltolc oncedrilling/conrplction andconcsponding bc

,D,:IU.S.l':rrrhat

CIL III

I'ttrti'tg

ttl Ilorizotttt

tvctls

4',7

on conditiors have been evaluated the first well. Also, the well diameter bc by of sclcclionis tcstrictcd thc cliamclcl cxis(ingvcrticalwcll 1() rc-ctltctcd. 'l may litnit well lcngth,cvaluatiorr. he lcsllicteddiameter 'l'lrcsc consctptcuccs utust bc Completionor produotionopclationoptions. early during the wcll trajectoty design. considered

g!!,ProfiLe lL lV_
'fhc nlost increasingwoll goomctly aspectis tlre wcll plofi1e withirr llrc horizontal rvell profilesusedfor' reservoir shown in Fig. 3.1 that illustratcs as app d i ffcrcrrt Iications.

Fig. 3.1 llasicwellprofilcs.
1.., l, t rcscrvoirs to solvc watcr or gas 3.2.1 Flat wells: are uscd inhornogeneous coning problems. Thjs is the easiest and least expensive design shape to over thc well life. but accomplish, it providethc lcastoptions j,2.2 []nddotittg 'ells: ^re used in reservoirs containing impertneablc reservoirs. iDto thc barlicrsthatscpalatc l€scrvoit's two oI n]olc isolatcd
Dr. ['1.S. F:lrnhat

CH. III

Ptautittg ofnotizohtdt

utetls

4a

i,2.3 Upword inclined welk: arc tsed in dirty rcservoirswhere gasconing rs a problcrn. the gas intcrlaccnrovcsdownwarl and clr(crs As thc lal crrci lhc of 'Ihe horizontal wcll. end ofthe wcll canbe plugged andproduction contimred. 'lhis wcll plofilc hasthc advanlagc thrt it loculcs of tlrc fluirl lcvelslrrr rr nll l lg lr rc I l i v c sl l r ( i( ) l l t i ( ) o l l r l r r g g i r r r r r c ltil r cc r r t i r r . o r i z o r r ts r lc t i o rrrr r r rl lr r r x h r c i r r l l thc well asa vcrticalrvell. 3.2.4 Dotptut'ard itclined *ells: are used in dirty resewoirs where water coningis a problcnt.As thc watcr interlace movesupward,waiel comeslDto the far end of the well first. The inclinedwell can therefore pluggcdback bc and corrtinues bc producedafter watel breaktlrrough. to 3.2.5 ll[ultilct'el wells: are used with sand lcnscsand with rcscn,oirssepnrated 'lhesc by inrpcnncable banicrs. v,cllshavea higlrerchallenge/risk tcrmsof in hajeclorycontrol but providesfor dual brcak thr.ough the rvcll s life by in i s o l r r l i rog' q r l r r g . gtilrrrcl o r v c r t c pr r l l d u n ( : c ( ) r r r r i$ , t e rl l r x l l l ( - t i ( n r j r r s _ rr g s c or 3.2.6 Mt li hrot,(:h:Sllort radii are widcly uscd.Multi branchrncdiumantr long radii wells arebeginniug be usccl shouldfind widcspr.cacl in thc to and usc lcxt l-cwycafsduc to thcir inrprovcrl ccotronrios incr-cascd and t|rlrirragc arca. j.2-7 Gmrit.1, drainocc l,clls: ar.e bcirrgdrillcri in dcplctc(l rcscrvoir.s willl lro dlivc nechanisnr otherthangravity.It is likcly thatgravitydrainage wclls can b e t t s e ri ln l r c a v y i l s t r c n r ni o , r , l i n p r o j c c t s . o l g 3.2.8 Conple.r tell sltopes: conbine molc than one oftire abovc well sfierpes and are useriin rcsovoirs with con4rlcxgcologythrt varicswidcly ovcr lhc length of horizontalrvell.

1.3 DesigttllOt'i.zot, l lt ellI!4ie.'tot! to
In accordance thehorizontal drilling, with wcll ther.c thrce arc scotion rrarlcly: yertical L sec(iol;it is drilledfrom scabed(rnudlirc) unlil kick-offpoint (KOP).

l)/'. M.S. Iarahrt

CIL III

Planning of llorizontol

llclls

Ttutting or curvetl or angle build section: it is drilled from kick-off point arc, (KOP) to theend-of-curve ([OC).'l'his section incluclcs first-build thc tangcnt, sccontl-llriltl thc iu'c. tlrcstraiglrt nrc 3. llorizontal section:it is drill(xl lronr thc cnd of sccond-hrrild (llOC) to to thc end ofproposed distartce be dr:illedhorizontallyin thc pay zone,ill izorrtal wcll to bc drillcrl. accordancc tlrctypco['hor with here is a part of Farahat'sresearclr The designof horizontalwell rnentioned published Cairo university. International 6{r' conference, Feb. |999. l'his by on design is basecl the conccptof tlre sirnpletangentbuild curvc. The three . that fomr a horizontal u,ellor drainholc showltin Fig. 3.2. aro major scctions as Thus,from this Figure,the thteesectionmay be designed l-ollows:
vEnncAL sEcrioM n

ol
A A S I Cg U t L D C U NV € GEOMETNY

I

,1 -Ha - V

H-|

Fig. 3.2 Design of ltorizontol v,ell trajectotlt using lhe sinrple
tangent build c:utve nrelhod. Nl.S.|rarah:rt

CH.III

Planni'ry of Hotizottol tlclk

50

l. Thc build-radius the first-build of arc:

R : 5 7 3 0B , /
2. lleightof thefir'st-build arc: D' : R(Sinlr-Sin I1), 3. Heightofstraighttangent D, : L, CosIr, 4. lleight ofthe second-build arc; D,: R(Sin!-Sin lr), ofhorizontalwell: KOP 5. The iengthofthe first section KOP : TVtLD,-Dr-Dr, ofthe first-buildarc: 6. The displacement II, = R(Cos Iicos I), 7. 'l:hc displaccrncntthcstmight of langcnt:
H, : L2 Sin Ir, of arc: 8. The displacement the second-build lIr : R(Cos Ir-Cos It, 9. The length ofthe first-build arc: .

(l)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

Dr M.S. I'arahat

CH.III

Platui g of lrorizon,tt Welts

51

( Lr: 100 lilr)/8, 10.Thelcngth ofthe second-build arc: L3 : 100(I,- lr)/B ||. Ihc rrcusulcd dcpth atlhccrxlof lho firct-l)uiltl afc: MDr : KOP l- Lr,
l2. 'l h c r n c l r s rc r l d c p l l )a t t l r cc n ( l( ' f s t | 1 r i g h | r o g cl : rr tt

(e)

( l0)

(l t)

MDr=MD,+Lr, 13.Themcasured depthat theendofthe second-build arc: MD3: MD' -FL3, = The lengtbofsecondsection L, + L2 + L3 or MD3-KOP.
t4. The length ofhorizontal sectionor third section: H

(t2)

(13)

(14)

This length is selectedaccordingto the tuming radius of horizontal well to be ploposcd. EX. l: During drilling a horizontal wcll in Egyptiandrilling concession, the follorving data wcre requircdto designthis well trajcctorl, namely: Minimum expected anglcbuild fate:8?100 ft. Minimum tangent lcngth= 120ft r anScnr rngte = )u. Tarrgcnl angle90'al S000ft TVD. Designwell trajectory.

EalJlti!2!f 'Ihe l. build-radius ofthe first-build arc: = R : 5 7 3 0 t 8 5 7 3 0 / 8 : ' 1 t 6t f
Dr: iU.S.Ihr:rhnt

cn.III

Phn iry ofrrotizontat ttlerts

53

MD, = 16P 't t, = 8206 625- 8831ft. + 12.Themeasured depthat theendofstraighttangent: -F MD, : MDJJ Lr : 8951 500= 9451ft.
I-cngth ofsccondscction: Lt J [_,+ Ll

: 625+120+ 500: 1245ft. 14. Length of horizontalsectionor third section= H proposcdlength in a c c o r d a nw e hR : 7 1 6f t , w h e r e : 8 0 0 f t I , I : 3 0 0 0 f t . t h u sR : 7 1 6f t , cit R , H will be 2685ft. 1'hus, proposed the lcngth ofholizontal section:26g5 11. The measured drilling depthofhorizontalwell or : KOP + Iengthof tumingsectionI lenglh ofhorizontalsection. = 8206 1245 2685 i2136ft. + + The displacement oflrorizontalrvellpathor trajectory : Ilr + II2 + FI3 Il :265 -t 92 1, 460+2685: + 3502ft. The tnreverticaldcpthofhorizontalwe pathor trajectory: 9000ft.

,r. ^t,S. Fr|.ahrt

CI{. It

Dtilli'ry Probt.ns

54

Csaprer IV
Dnrr,r,rNc PRonr,nnrs AssocrarnD wlTlr HonrzoNur,Wrll
DRIT,T-INc Aun TIIIiIR REMEDY

l'herearefournrainproblems during drillinghorizontal wells and drainlrolcs, narncly: g l . D c l i v c r i nw c i g htto l h cb i t . 2. I{cducing torque dragforccs. and 3. llolc cleaning. 4, I'rotcction watcr-scnsitive of shalcs5, I)ircctionill control.

4. DeQ'r:e I ry,Wihlt la theBitApplyingsufficient weightfor optinraldrilling ratethat is oftcn a proorcrn! bit cspccially at highcr anglcs ancl whilc dlilling the hofizontitl; scction. Corlverrtiorral rveightfor efficientdlilling is about2000 5000 lbfpcl inch bit 'l ofbit dianrctcr. he available weiglrtflom a givcnasscnrbly bit thcorelically is teduccd by a lactor relatedto the cosine of thc dlilt angle.'llris cosinc approachcs zcro as the holc angle rpp|orclrcsq{t'. Mot.rl asscrnblics drill with lessbit weightthanro(alyassernblics. efficiency They cornpensate bit for weight with highor rotationalspeedof turbincsand motors.

Bit wcight maybc increased rcducing by dragandkrrque. oftenthisis not Bur Ibr sufficient an optinraldrilling rate in holcswith highcranglcsand in sections. weightis o{Ienincreased usingthe split assembly Bit horizontal by

,/. M,S. Frrrhat

CI

IY

Dt illit'8 I'knttuLs

:r:t

which diving the botton hole assembly into two partsas shorvn Figure4.1a in 4 arrd .1b.

n
g

D ll 3-1,/2'

or fi.0'..,,illll C o l l a r s
U

';:,h

Er D e r i e n l a l c o m p r e s s l v e \se, v ic e O r i l l t [.4WI Pulser rReslricter [.4WD s u b1 I sub
c:: _-l o

tEtllloEl'.lffiD

I I *.*"^"\ ./

l"No -Downhore\ l c c o l l a rs - j I .-.------____Molor -------\ \

\

Fig. 4.1a Generalizcd,lt illstring conf gtrnliott

c5.

Fig. 4.1h Achievirtguleighton bit tllrouglt contpresstve forces usingsplit a,tsentblies.
Dr. M.S. Frrihrt

(11. ll

lrilli4

hr

o't

5('

l o w c rp a r t o f t h e a s s e n r b l yt,r c l L r d i nh c b i t , n r o t o rd i r c c l i o n a l o n h o l i lg , c (ools,and the nonmagnetic coilatsare lcll at lhc bottomol thc dr.illslring. Ihc fcnlaindcrofthc drill collarsarc placcdin lhc vcllical holc or irr an up1rcr ourved hole that has a low drift. The two sectionsare connected with pipc or in sourccases conlprcssion hcavylvcightor rcgulartlrillpipcus strown 'fhe in Fig. 4.2. drillstring is completcdin the conventionnl rnannerrvillr <hillpipefrom the top of uppor sectior to thc surf'ace. Split bottom hole assemblics reducedrag and torqueso that nlore weighl can bc appliecl the to h i t f o r d ri l l i r r g t r s t e r . f

'l'hc

I

I reav}1,leight Compp,po roorivo pipe

Drj[ cotiar drill

I"ig. 4.2 ConponentsoJltot<ttnlnle assenbll,. 'fhe heavicrdrill collarcate more cflcctivcplaccdin thc vcrticalholc scction as conrparcd placingthem in the horizontal to or.highlydeviatcd holescchon. 'lhcy cxcrt ntorcdown q,ardfolcc to thc lorvcrdrills0ing and lcss folcc on tltc sidc of lhc rvcllbore.'l'he forcc is trarsnrittcd lhe comprcssion drillpipc by or to the lower half of the assembiy the high argle or horizontal in hole section. Partofthe dowtq,ardlorceis stili lost dueto sonre dragandtorque. 'l'he cornprcssion pipe or drillpipe connectingthe two assonrbly sectiorr logcthcr opcr tcs in contprcssion, thal lllc risk of hilurc inclcascs. so l)r.illing rvi{lr a sllccablc assenrblyand rotating thc drillstr.ingslowly, also is
/)/: l,l.S. Fxrnhnl

CII. lt'

Irtilliug

hlnn!

l

:r/

' l l r c j r r r l r t t t r t l x 'ttc r l r r i r clrl r t t r ' I t l i v t ' r h i l l ( . t ' l i r f t il t r r r r r lti r r lltv t r r ' (r . p l r l ) l ( . . ls l. t i r r l r o v cl l i r I c l l c c t i v c . j t l r i t t gr r r rllr t t t t r p i l t gh i s i t t c t c r t s ch c w c i g l r li r r l l t c the is One athactive positioning jar butnpcrsub olr top of thc lowcr asscmbly. pipc pl'ovideswoigh lol the lower half the assemblyand let tlre compression jarring action. Also, a jar bumper sub should always be placednear the top of thc upperhalfofthe assembly.

4.2 Reducins Torque and Dras Forces parallcl of the Drag is a lorcerestricting movdment the drill tools indirections 'l Drill s{rirlg rotational lrrovonrcnt. to the wcll path. orqueis thc lorcc rcsisting and nippittgaspartof thc rub and slideagainst wall oflhc |olc duringrotation of Drag and torqucare nleasurcrncnts this frictional rcgula[drilling activities. to ofthe drill tools. Icsistance thc movement Drag is rncasuredin thousruds of pounds over or undcr the free hanging ofapplied torqttc. is in 1'orque tncasurcd loot poutrds wcight ot thc drillstring. ittg It is inlportant to have a good weight in<licatotattd torquc-ttrcasttt cquipnrcnt.llxoess drag and torque causc dircctional drilling pr'obtcrls of espcciallyin turning and horizontalsoctions horizontalwell, oftctt vcry tluc kroxccssdragot' scvcrcin thiswell. lhc dlillslling can lail [tom lctrsion in twist olf clucto exccsstolquc. Ilithcr casclcavcsan obsttttction thc holc drag key seatsthat, in turn increasc requiringfishing,Open holc drag causcs the and torquc.Drag increascs risk of stickingin kcy scalsancldiflcr.cntial prcssurcsticking.Dlag also lcducc availablcbit wcighl scvcrcly al hrghcf anglcs. actions lcdrrccs but Eliminatingall dragand torqucis not practical, prcvcrrtive lcvcls.ll is bcst to dcsignthc wcll pattcrnfor a minitttLtttr thcnrto acceplablc l t l ol a l c r r r r r b c lo l - c l r a n g c s i t n g l c r t ra l o w i r r t g l o l b t t i l t o r r l r o p . i x c c s sl t i t gi r r l r l as torquearc tcducedby placilg casingin tlrehole.Drag incrcascs thc sincol' 90", thc stling wcight is As holc anglc incrcases. lhis anglc apptoachcs transfeued from hook load to drag weigh. Reatning reduccsdtag and torquc causcdby key seatsand rough rvcllbore.Thus, it is itnportant to drill smooth and straightinclined or ttuning scction.Reducingdrillstringwcight cr.u.res rcduccsdtag and torque at high quality of tnttd with goocl chcnticalarrtl
,r),.. M.S. Frr.hxt

CE.II'

Dtiuinql'toblens

56

propcrtics fot physical which are essential. bascnrudshouldbe considctcd Oil of more demandingsituationsbecause its good lubricating qualities.

4.3 Hole Cleanins or Cuttinss Removol problem arises drillinghorizontal in wellsis thc difficulty o[ that A particular -l rockcuttings frornthc horizontal seclion thc rvcll. hc sourcc of of removing
itllorv Ihc ploblctuis tlll{ cullirgs tondto scttlc in lhc bollontol thc lrolc rrtttl the mud to pass above without tmnsportingthenr. Seltled cutlings are rrndesirable sincc they increase the friction in the hole and, if it is latcr proclrrcc poor ccnrcntbonds-A grclr{ irnprovcnlcrlirr rcrrrovirg colncntcd, cullingshas bccn achicvcdby using top-drivcdrilling rigs. lr lhcscrills, lhc dtillstling is rotilted by a largc. gcatcd clcctric ol hyrfiaulic(lrivc nrok)f (typically400 hp to 1000hp) rvhichslidcsup and dosn thc dlill nrirsl rails on (scc llig.4.3) rathcrtlranby tlrcconvenlional rot.ry tableao(lKclly. With this it to arr?llgcnrcnt, is possiblc rotdtcthc drill s{rirrg and kr cilculirtcrrrr,ul llrc its s l f i l g i s l c r r o v c ( lf i r ) n rl h c l x ) l c . l h i s l c r r r l s o k c o l )l l r c r I i l l c r r l l i r g si r r t and to proviclca nruch clcancl hole. lhc rcnrovalof crrllirrgs susponsion rcduces l'rictionbctwecnthc drill pipc and thc holc and rcduccs lcndcrrcy thc l. , l s l i n s t i c k i r r !l1o r v c v c rt'h c l I n s p o ro l ' c u l l i | l g b y l h c n r u ( li s r r r o r cl i l l i c r r li{r r t a hofizontrlholc thanin a vcrlicalonebccause cultingstcnd to scl(lcat {hc llre botlulr of tlrc holc and thc fluid tcndsto passabovc.I Iigh fluitl vclocilics arrtl prornotc the transpoi of lhe cultings,but lhis can bc linri{cdby a tnlbulcnce in tenclcncy washouts thc wall ol thc holearrcl for alsoby thc physicrrl capacity o f t h c n r u dp u n l pt o p r o v i d cf l o w . ' l o p r o m o t c u r b u l c r c ci,t i s d c s i l a b l c o t t havc a low fluid viscosity.On thc othcl lrand,to rcstrictthc scllling of thc 'lhcsc solids whcn thc flow is stoppcd,a high viscosity is ncccssuly. conflicting requirements can be accomniodated,at least particularly, by plasticfluid rvith a high latio of yield point rnakingthc nruda non-Newtoniarr to plastic viscosity. Polymcr nruds are conr only used lor this. AIso, rnininrizing formation damage shouldalrvays a majol concern sclcctirrg in u be the components within it. mud system andparticularly chemical In practice, a wide Varity of drilling mud compositionshas been used for upon the situation. Also, thctc can be drilling horizontalholes,depending good rcason to use oil-based tnuds to control shale swclling. They perlonn
D,.. N{.S.Frr:rlrat

CIL Il/

I)rilli

P I'rohlrnrs

5!)

betterthan inhibitedwater muds in this lespect.Howevet, oil-basednuds are rlanner and they ate satisfactory difficult to disposeof in an environmentally
l o t r r o r c c x p c n s i v c l l r l r r w l r ( c r - - b a s c r l r r c s . A s i r c o r r r p r o t t t i s c ,w i t l c r r t t t < s l t l l - r v l t l c r

polymefsare ollen chosenfor drilling drilling fluids containingwater-soluble horizontalwells. They can have good inhibition and lubricationqualitiesat a lower cost and without tire problemsof n-ruddisposalfound with oil muds. Polymer r.nudsalso glve improveddrilling rates if the contentof suspended solidsis kept low.

P o r t a b l e o p D r i v eD r i l l i n g y s t e r n T S
I'lrol o <:o rl es.yTitsco l)ri lliu g 7'eclt n ology u

Fig. 4.3.

Photogruplt slrorvirtg portable syslem installed beby, rig's existing block, hoolt autl srvit,cl.Ilylrtulic service loop goes lo pump skitl. Torque ruck is lastcued lo hack of derrick.

4.4 Protectiort of Water Sensitive Sltales tend to collapsein contactwith freshwater. This can Shalelayers frequer-rtly trsually consist ol' by drilling fluids.Thcscfltricls be prevented usingoil-bascd Fluids an invert emulsionof water in dieseloil togetherwith other additives. of this type have been used in the North Sca. Watcr-basednTudscan be by shales the additiouofNaCl inhibitedto reducethe attackon water-sensitive or CaCl2.These additivesreduce the chemicalactivity of the water and its shale. lnhibited water-based tendency to penetrateinto the water-sensitive

Dr. M,S. Farahat

Cn. Iv

Dritti',8 t'tohten's

60

[ludi are nol as cffcctive as oil-basednruds for the plotectior of shales,but thcy arc{eaper andlessdamaging environmentally. llcccntrcgulillions intcndcd to protcctthc cnvifonlncnt nrrking thc usc of rrc salt-bascd muds more difficult for land operations. Offshoresallbascdfluids arc acccptabic, thcrcarc rcstriction thc uscofoil-bascdnrutl. but on

4.5 D irectio Contr I nal o
Ovcrcoming forcc of glavity is a fundamental thc ploblcrnir dilcctionaland ho|izontaldrilling. The bottom hole assembly(BHA) is a heavy weight hangingon the bottom ofthe drillstring. Thc BllS must ovcrcomethc lcrrccof gravity with a strong side forcc for directional drilling. 't his for.ceis applied rvith stabilization, firlcrumsand operating techniqucs. Morc cornnron bottonr holc asscnrblics havc onc point ol-lcvcr.agc ootltact witll tlrc wall ol thc lrolc, suchas a bent.BHA's with multiplepointsof wall contact abovcthe bit canbe controllcd more accurately.Three points of contact definc a constantarc of cuwature correspondingto the desired build rate of the motor assemblies. Motors asscmbly can be fixed or adjustable. Fixed assemblieshave two aligned lulcrum suppolts for building angle accuratclyand at higher ratcs than adiustable assemblics.Adjustable assemblicsare more flexible for use in varions situations,especiallythe steerableversions.The term steerablehas a specialmeaningin the oil industry. Most motor assenrblies steerablein the sensethat turning the drill srrrng are changes the coursein order to drill ths hole in thc desireddirection.The steerableBHA consistsof bit, down-hole motor with build in dog-leg tendency, measuremcnf while drilling surveysystemmay allow to continuc trackirrgofwellborc path (as shown inFig.2.27). Positive displacement motors developed power from a rotot-sraror configuration, fluid is lolccd into thc opcn cavity ofthc nrotors as hclicalthc motoroutputshaftdrivesthebit directiy, thcrcby'eliminating needfor dtjll the stri g rotation.The build tendencyofthe motor systcm,referrecl as dog lcg to establish€d use of bent housingmotor (normally0.5'to 1.5"anglebends by coupled with under gauge stability ). On the motor itself and iust above the
,r. NI.S.Fnrahrt

CII. It'

DriIiIg

P,oblcms

6l

nrotor by varying th€ bcnd in thc nrotor housing as wcll as stnbilizcr pllcclncnls glugcs. l\{o diflcrcnl dlilling rnorlcsarc uscrl willr s{cclatrlc systenr. lhe first orientedmode (slitling), the motor rvilJ producc angle changcs rcsultingfrotr motor dog-lcgtcndcncy, makirrgit possiblc charrgc kr thebuild or direction of*'cll course. grcatcl l)oglcg lcndcncyol lhc systcrr is dcsigrrcd proritlc irrrglc kr charrgcs l y t , l l l a nw l l : r 1l r c r l c l i l r l l l r r c c < l cs lo l l r u ll l r c r r n i o t i { lo l t l r i l l i r r g r r rlrr c t I r n c r r r c rolary drilling nodes. lt is possibleto obtain overall build or turr rate needed fot u'cl1patlrrvithout tripping.

4.5.1 Ckssiftcstiotr of bottom hole ss1eJlblias (BHA's) Thcscarc subdivided into rotaryand molorclassificflliols, lA canbc hrrlhcr lll 'l'hc divitledinto categor ics. kind of equiprnent posilionin BilA nolmally and classificsthe asscnrblics the assemblytype. The various typcs of urotor dcviationsection shown in Fig.2.29.BIIA's are nsntcdbasctl usagc are on as listcdin tlrcfollowinstable.

8il..1's
Natnc (usacc

Linrber
Deviation or sidetrack

, nrotof

e build
Rotary.or motor Anele hold Reamin fishing Rotary,ol rnotor

4.5.2 Medsuri g ittstntments Measrtring instruments record drift, direction, and tool lacc of thc basic nreasurcmcnts directional for and horizonlaloperations, providc accuratc to
D/' iU.S.Farahat

CIL Il'

DtiIi"E hoht.Dts

62

conlrol,somc tcclrniqucs applicdsuch as llrc stccr.ilgtool or MW!) arc arc givcn below. fhe advantageof MWD over steeringtool is that MWD can be usedin both rotary and orientedmotor phases drilling. 4.5.2. I St.\'t'ing turol An instrument package contains a modified magnetic single shot and other (as instrunrents shown in Fig. 4.4). A coder convedsthe nrcasured data to (hcscclatato lhc sur'fircc ough a clcctlical pulse,and a scndcrtransnrits ll shiclticd clcctlic conduit.Surface equipment includcs rccordcrto covertthe a pulscs and digital or TV typc displays.'l'hesc inslr.urrrents clootrio arc availableimmediatclyat the surfacefor usc to control hole direction.ln opcfalion,the instlunrcntpackageis lowcrcd and raised rvilh a shielded c l c c : l l i c a lo l ( h r i t( c a b l c ) n t h c r c c l o f a r v c n c h o s i l i o n c o n a t r u c k . ' l ' h c c o p d p i r t : k i r g c a t sr rl r r c c c i v i r g r i n s l r u n r c l l r r b r l l r cd c v i l l i l g l D o l o il t s s c n r r ) r y s i o s i iurd lcrnainsin thc holc duling thilling. l{otary asscmblics can not bc usc(l wilh stccring tools.1hc drillstringrvith dircctional nrotorasscmbly bottorn on ir lor.vcrcrl is l)af{rvlyinto thc holc. l hc ilslrruncntl)ackagc lorvclcdinsicic llrc rhillslringon a cablctluoughasitlccntry sub out into lhc anntrlar sltacc.l hcrr lhc cablc rrrrl drillslting arc loqcrcd logclhc[ \\,i1hlhc cal)lc oUtsidcand parallclto thc drillstring.

d!,2. 2 Mea ement-whiIe dri IIi ug (M ll D) $tr
Mcasurcnrcnlrvhilc (MWD) rccordsnlcilsurctncnls or ncar lhc bit whilc at 'lhe dtilling continues. data are transporte(l immediatelyto tlre surlacc as pressulc pulscsin mud columncovcrcdby a codcrstoretlin a storage ice, clcr 'l'hc and transmitted thc surface. to instruntcnt packagc [ratterics a snrall has or turbincgcncrator driven by circulatirrg nrrrdfor a pou'ersupplyas shownin Irig.4.5. A conrhlonsystenthas a rnud pulscrthat rcccivcsstorcddata and convcrtsit into high-fiequcncy pressurc pulscs in llrc rnud lop a sctsitivc includcsa decoderto llessu[e detectorat tlre surface.Sulfacecquipnrent conveltthe pressure pulses elect cal pulse,digitalor Tv-type dispiays to and lccordcb as shownil Fie.4.6.

/). lll.S. Farrhnt

CII. IV

D,'illing Prcbleus

63

\
lllt(lltte k, Sltttcc RflJi . Nott.tuaE'ftricDt ill Colhi St,rJey Stc.\i ETool ' lluleshoc Oricnrltrg Sub 'Dc,tt Sub t

Rotnthry ltit Stl,

lloatlor-rt puter& Printer ConT Powor Cablo Non Maonetlc DrlllCollar

Bont
.--

Fi.g. 4.4 Surveysteering tool.
Dr'. M.S. lralahat

CIL IV

Dtilling lhblens

64

DIAGRAM OF TELECO'sMWD TOOL

Mudflow

I

Allernolo,

Hon-Moqnclic (ollor

0ircrlionul Senror

Fig. 4.5. 'l'hclcforc, an M WD systenlcotl'lpriscs:

1 . A dowr-rhole tool assembly,consistingof a special non-magneticdrill
collar housing the sensors and electronics for measurement and transnrission functions(Fig. 4.5). 2 . A surlaccsystcurfol' thc detcctionand clccoding the IVIWDsignal and of conrputati<rn display and ol'thc M WD clata shownin l1ig. . as 4.7

Dr. l\{.S. Fnrahat

lD fi)

tr,r, ro",r r. t-,qrr,,rr,,o t o , " ,r , o " r : . " " " , n
A rl naqlri\ n'a ^li'rr,rl

sof ro, l,ln.rr,rt n.rr I"nrrt ll".r I'or.r t I rn!xri,'r ,r.

A r l1 4 . ' l r h s . , 6 r . r , / f o i i

i

---

., 1"",,

j ,'r;;r.r;;11

)ii,';

l t t r \ i i t i v i t l- ( ; r r f r r r n . l ) i r t ( t i o r r r l
\ t ; r n r r u - l ) i r r (l i ' n r i ' l S , ! l ( r r l
Sl5ltrll

STEEYE AS9€I'ELY

rgo|.
A-agf-MIltY

wlile drilling (MWD) Fig. 4.6 Measurentetft
I)r'.M.S. Fnraltat

CIL IY

Dti i'19 Problens

66

_-

l=

_

_

-

Rlc _ Fr-oon fisTEra _ _-.-_-

_

-]

DRII-LERs

L.E.D, DISPLAY

NoN-r^cdErrc "--

""*l

x4.lV.D.
Fig. 4.7 NervMWI) tool.

D^r

^aulsmoF P^cxacE

/)r'. l\4.S.Irat.aha{

CIL lY

Driuiltg I'toblents

l \ 4 W l )s y s l c r r l u rl ) r r r v i ( l c . i n l lv : r r i o r :rjl i l l i t c t r l o r r r b i tl r orr r sh c l i r l l r w i r r l l c us c i: l irrl'olrrrltion: l . S r r v e yi n l o r m a t i o n :i l e c l i o ni.n c l i n a l i oa n dl o o l l a c cr c a d i n g s . d n 2. Fd-nlation inlormation: gamma ray, r€sistivity, rreutronand density reading. 3. Mechanical information: downhole weight, toaque, shocks, flow and temperature readings. Also, thcre are three distinct types of MWD transmissionsysten currcntly available: l. llrc positivc pulsc systcnr: in lhis systcnr a plungcrtypc vllvc nlonrcntarilyobstructsmud flow, giving risc to a trrnsicnt pcak ill (Fig. 4.8). pressure standtripc '[hc rcgativcpuJscsystcm:in thc syslcm,a valvc nr(nrcnlirily vclls a 2. poftirn of thc mud flow to thc borcholcarrnulus, gcrrcrllingl lrlnsicnl pressurc (Fig.4.8). drop in standpipc 3. The continuouswave system:in this system,a spiming, slottcd rotor and a slotlcdstatorlepeatedly obstruct mud flow, rathq like a rotaryvalvc or a sitcr.'Ihis gcncratcs continuous a low frcqrrcncy lluc{ualion sfandpipc in pre isurein tlreregionol'30 psi cxactlylike a low pitchcdhum.'I he carrier wa e is modulated, rather like an FM radio transmission, to convcy infi rmation to surface.

!!9.!!

lllD truts mk sio n svste nt

a The mcdulator generates repeatedse[iesof flucluation in staudpipepressure by pcri.rdicaily obstructing nrud flow as the rotor vanesoccludetlle statiotr 'lhus, 'l'his the 12 llZ MWD carrier wave is generated. construct slots. of flcrlrrcrr;y wrvc is modulrrtcd, cnclosc(|, pcriorlictlcrcclctaliorr llrc ot by 'lhis modulaor rotor whiclr introducephase shifts into the carrier wave. lo to rnotlrrla tcclrrric;uc vcry closcly corr:pirr':rblc ficrlrrcrrlly ficqtrcrrcy ion is jon as mo<lula (tiM) radiobroadcasting, shownin Fig.4.9.

,/: l\t.S. [1lralr,lt

CII. IY

Drilliug l\lthlcu's

68

Positive Pulse
[-{

Pressure

Negative Pulse

ilnl + ilml] ilm

Tinre

t-,-_______,_

Continuous Carrier Wave

MDASURIIMBNTS IVIIILIt DIIII-I-ING
Fig. 4.8 4. 5.2. 3 GeosteeringuElLlpt11elllLgrul 'I'he lrt str unrcntatio tt

Time

newestlrlarket developing in MWD is fol geologicalsteerirg, sonletimes ci\llcdgeosk'ctittg ravigatiol ofthe well coutsc, or accolding MWD litho to

logy measuremert. geological A specialist, engineer, geoscientist usually or is at the rvellsitefof interpretafion the dala bcing neasured. be effective, of To these new systems lequireuteasulem€nts closer bit. tlre

/l/. [{.S. lr:rrrhit

Fully Closed

Padially Open

Fully0pen

60

P
o-

P
Valveopensand closes 5 timesper rotation Al 2.4rotations second per a 12 Hz carrierwaveis crcate(l

Titne lra stuis.t ion r)tsten1.

Es!!p44!!!! 'l h or v l r o l M W t ) - l i l l r lo g yn r c l s r r l c r r c orrlg c u s l c c r i r rrgr r i p r r r icsrs ltr o r v l c u r s c l r if Fig.4.10, whicJr compr.ise: l. A downholc asscmbly, tool consisting a specirl of non-nragnctic cLillcollar'
I t o t r s i t t llll,t c s c t t s o t s r r t r r : l c c l n r l i c si ) r l t c i * i l t , L l l e l l sl r n t l l r l r r s n r i s s i o r r i, l l l L n o t i o n s ,ss h o w ni l l r i g .4 .I L a 2. Surfacesystemfor the detection and decodingof the MWD signal and conrpLrtalion displayof thc M!VD dala,asslrowl il lrig. 4. 10. aud

l)/r M.S. Farahat

< II. Il

lrtiqing I'hn)tu s

70

I
i;
G

?-.

l, ;

6

I i:
lri
IA5!

! .?

{

t,E

E; q;
t 'z 5 a 5

co 8
iii

il
,{'

qt

tt

s t:!
o
I

a

hl (J h

Fig, 4.10 Geo.rtecring lc(h iqrrc.

il ql
r)
c)

,/. NLS. Ihrahat

CII Il/

Dti i E l"ohlzn's

'71

I Slt uttt (trhtlio,t:

The advancedMWD or Cieostocring system can providc, using varrous diflcrcntcombinations, followinginfornration: the l. Surveyinfornration: direction, inclination andtool facercadings. 2. IoDnation inl'orftationtgamnta ray, reccptivity, ncuh-onand dcnsity rcir(ltg. J. Mcclranicalinfomtaiiorr:dorvnltoleweight, torqrrc,shocks, flow arrd (cnrpcrature lcadings. 4. I.,ithology irrformation: geologicalmarkersand/or thc top of |cscrvoir, forrration dip, stratigraphia control iir thin and dipping lcservoir.s, high rcsolution seismicmappingol'complcx gcological slnlclul.cs suchas silll domcs, localfault structurcs con.rplex and layeledprocluclion zonc.

Apnlicatiotts:
Thc newMWD or geostcering systenis csscrrtial pr.ccise positioniug fbr r.vcll u,hich crucialto tlte success drillingadvancetl is of horizon{al extended_ and rcach wells.

IU.]Y.I). I)OWNIIOI,E SYS'INM

l;-T
<

---

aAIrLnY

^?," -tI
36

u | l l tI

o

Fig. 4.11I4\I.D dov,nhole sys/en.

/ ) / M . S .I ' x r : r h x l

CIr- Y Drilst,i g Dcsign 72

CHaprBnV DnrllsrRnc DnsrcN

Many different traiectoriescan be used to drill a horizontal well to a given l l il l a r g c t .l w o c d r l r o r n l t c r ' r t l t i v crsc s l r o r v r rl I i g . 5 . l . l r o r r rl l r i sl i g r r l et,l r c broken linc shows the traicctqry that would be followed if there were a c u r s l u t tllt c l i u so l o u r v t l u r c .l l t c t l r j c c t o t y , l c p i c t cIrrly l l r c s o l i r lI i t r cs l t o c s c r l y l r i l l l r r r 'r r r v : r l r rn lcl l r cs l r r r lr,' r r r r r c r ' l c,r l r rl r n l l (| | l s c r ' l i o no r r r r o l l r crr r r v c r l l . at section the botton'I. This tangelttrajectory beenusedfiequently, it is has but not as commonnow as it oncc was.The main reason usingit was to givc for A .nore flexibility as the reservoir is penetrated. difficulty with thc constant radius approachis that, if it is found not to be practicableto achievcthc radius ofcuwatureassumed, holc may end up too deep.In somccascs, the whenthis has occutred,the long-radius BllA choseninitialJyhas bcen rcplaccdby a rrredium racliuson to allow morc rapid deviation.With rnodem adjustable motors, such a change can be achio,ed by motor adjushncnt. It is now c o n r n r o1 od l i l l r v i l l r c o r s l a n8 t o l l / 3 0 n r ( l ( X )l ' t )l r r r i klla t oo r l o r r s c 1 5 " n a l to 20'130 (100ft)rateup to 65"to 75'andthcn finishthe angle-build m section at 7'or 8'130 m.
I R A J E C T O F YW I I H I I I G H F I | B U I L D n A i L AND TANGENT SECTION

Paih lor co.rl6nt

n

\

Fig.5.L

D/. M.S. Fnl.'lh^t

CII. Y Dti sttitry Desigt'

and the betwecn drillpipe thewall ofllre hole wells,fi-iction In drillingvertical the haslittle effectupontheweighton thebit (WOB) This weightis basically the in weighloflhe drillstring theholeless pull on therig block Ttis buoyant adjustedto the desiredlevel by the driller' When drilling inclined, and particularly hot'izontalholes, friction has a much greater effect ln the the horizontalsection, drillpipelies on the bottom of the hole and its weight doesnothing to drive the bit folward; mther, its weight multiplied by the the in of coefficient ftiction of frictionresults a forcethat decreases weighton the bit. As the hole is clrilled farlher horizontally,the weight on the bit pipe ir the by reduced usinglighlweight This decrcases. effectis commonly horizontalsectionof the hole and heavierpipe or ddllcollarsin the verlical section.Suclra string is refetredto as inveded.The makeupof an inverted wellsfieldis shown verylongholein theNorman to used drill an early, string i f a i n F i c . 5 . 2 n dS a l a mi e l da ss h o w nn F i g 4 1 .

INVERTFD RILL TRING D S
i2l mn' HEV|',ATE to SUFFACE

Fi9.5.2. have beenmade for using lightweight exotic materinls, I'lowevcr,suggestions e. g., aluminum, titanium, or carbon-reinforcedplastics, in the horizontal too scctionol'holcs. Irr gcncral,howevcr,thcschavo bcen considotcd costly to and it has not been found necessary developdrillpipes of this lype'
/ r . M . S .F n l x h : r l

a ll. I

lrillnriq: Ir,\ign

l1

Heavy- Weight Drillpipe

Spiral DrillCollar

CompressiveS trength Drillpipe MWD

Angle Build Molor,
207100 ft. Btl

FletrievableWhipstock
I"ig- 5-3Drillslring ltsign /br lrilling tlnti gsc(tiou ol ttulitrn" nulitu horizontal utell or draithole usittgMlltD tool. The analysisof the forces on the drillstring as they affoct dmg and torque ate of great interestto drillels and severalcontpanies lrave devisedcontputer 'lhcsc loL clcpcncl upon a knowlcdgc(ol ollcn an ;rtogtatrrs this analysis. assunrption) ofthe coefficjent friction between pipe and the hoJeand of the nlost stem. Accotdingly,a torqueand drag progtam developed Maurer Engineering by was uscd in the drillstringdesign.The following assumptions/design criteria wereused: l. A maximumof 15000lb weighton bit (WOB) would be required.
/)/. M.S. trarrhat

( tt. t

lhilhtrirt: Ir'si(i

75

2.

'lhc

nraxinrttnrWOR worrld hc rcqttircd clrrling <lrillinl; in lhc oricrrtcti

al'l dopth). rrodc(sliding) D (total as u'hilein compression long to tlre 3. It wouldbe acceptable rotate drillpipe wele not bclldillgstress load and thc nlaximum as the criticalbuckling
cxceeded.

'Ihus,

an jnve ed drillstring wottld be c A. d s p c c i f i c a t i o n sn i n v c t t c c lt i l l s t t i n g l c s i g n abovethc legulardlillpipe,as shownin Fig. 5.6.

design drillpipc anclFig.

Heavy- Weight Drillpipe

Spiral Drill Collar

r Angle hold motor

..\^rDTU, 1"- 4" I 10 0 fr. / . Stablllzed rotary tools

Retrlevable Whipstock

Bil

MWD

Compressive Strength Drillpipe
Fig. 5.4 Drillstring de;ign for drillin g ltorizontal sectionof rcdiutr raditt.t l,lll/1)trxtl. lnrizutlul tvt'llot rlnitholc u,ting 'l in and Fig. 5.7. lvottldbc rtttt in lrrrs, rcgulardlillpipc as shorvn lli1. 2..12 llrc g c o t n p t c s s i o n .i g . 5 . 8 s h o w st l r r r t h c c t i l i c a lb r r c k l i r r l o l t l w o t t k l t r t r ll r c F l | r c x c c < : r l t : irrl | i n 1 ;' ( ) l ' r l i ( ) n.l s o .l r i 1 l . 2 . I Bc I r ' u s c r rl l s cr l r i l l s t I i r tl1tlt l lw ( ) t l l ( l < r r b c u s c r k r t ! i l l l l r c 8 l / 2 i r r .l r o l c . l
D/: M.S.Irxr:thrl

CIl. Y Dti striry Desigli 76

Anctle BuildBottonr Flole Assembly

Hcavy - Weiglrt Drillpipc

Drill Collar

Compressive StrengthDrillpipe SurveyTool

Angle Build Motor, 1.7 '/ f oot

Bir

Retrievable Whipstock
1 i11. l) illstr ing lesigrtJU'drilling tut i g se(tion oJucliuttr,tudius 5.5 hotizoutul tvell or dmlnhole usitlgsteet'ingst!rve\, lool.

Dr. i\{.S. Irarnhat

I ll. ,

Ittilltrl't'ti

Itt llltt

'/7

Anqle l"loldBottonr Hole Assemblv

HeavyWeightDrillpipe

Spiral Drill Collar

Anglehold motor
oo

c St a bilizedrotary to ors

Bir

Compressive Strength Drillpipe
sec Fig. 5.6 Drillstring tlesigrtfor tlrillirtg hr.u'izorltdl on ol redirutt-r'rtdius t'ell or drai hole usingsleeing sutret' tool horizonta.l 1he specified BHA s ale shownin Fig. 5.9 thtough5. i2. Otrly lwo stabilizcls alxrvc attd rvoultibc trscd; onc on tlrc rlotor-[]clting ltoLtsing otrcittrttrcclialcly the rno{of.Fig. 5.9 and 5.10 shorvsthat BILrys dcsignftrl dlilling holizontal nrode. wcll Lrsing ol'hotizonlal slidingtnodcand r-olaty scclior rlrcdiurr-radius s t A l s o ,r i g . 5 - l l a n d5 . 1 2s l r o w s l r a tI J l l . ( s d c s i g i l c r |d r i l l i n gl u r n i n g c c l i o n section oflorg-tadiusofholizonlalucll. and horizontal

u'cil iu tbc ALrslion dual F[om casehistoryop an opposed-bore horizontal and it ol fex:rs(t-lSA), is lbundthst:in thc 121/2 lil/2 formatior SotLth Clhalt
Ir: h'LS. Ihl:lhnl

(:11.Y Dri nri g Dcsisn 78

i r v c r t i c a ll x ) 1 c s , 4 . 5i r c L i l l p i p cl r r d 6 . 2 5 i n r l r i l l c o l l l l sw o u l d b c u s c d i n t[ conventionll illiug configlrralions. the6.25 in. hole,lhe lollowingstrategy tfor was phnllc{1: I. lolque arxlrllirgwoLrld nrininrizcd running3.5 iD, 15.5lb/ft dlillpipein the be by l r o r i z o n l il r lo l 0 i r r l c f v r l s . 2 . ( i r r ( i eS l l 5 r l r i l l p i l r c o r r k lb u r r s r xilr r l l r e h o f i z o n t i r lo l e . ' l l r eh i g l r l e n s r l u w h slrenglhol this pipe is lot^ted in compression thfoLrgh high cloglegs the the in cuwij (lulningsljclioD). 3. ALlequale in heavyweighl drillpipcwoulclruDin the verlicalhole to proride 3.5 (WOll) and to ovcroonrc wcighlod L)it holc d.agwhilc orieDled. 4. llcrrdingslrcsscs i nrersurelrent whilc drilliltg collar corDeclions and in tlte downholcnrotor would be mininrizccl with nonntagnetic, coftlpressive seNlce d f i l l p i p c ( N M I ( S i ) l ' ) a s s h o w r l i n l r i g . 2 l 2 i n p l a c eo u m a g o e t dc i l l c o l l a r s . r ol ir

Articulated Plpe Compresslve th Streng Pip e

Fig. 5.7 lllidtlttel

drillpipe dDtlcatnptessi|e sr'et\th (ltillpipe 5in-\rutt-ktlats D . N l . SF : r r h i t . |

CII. I'

Dtt st'i'ry Desig

79

i

!-ig. 5.8 Buckling lootl ts. hole anglefot'4.5 i , 20 ft tlrillpve.

StringStabilizer Section

AnEIeHold Motor

BearingHousingwith / Ceniralizer Stabilizer

Bir
seclionoJ BLl,'lrlesign slidingmodedw'ingdrilling horizonlal Fig. 5-9 Jor u'ellor drairthole. netlhn>rulius tlf horizontal
Dr. vl.S.Ihrnlrt

CII. I'

Dti rhitls D.,!itn

llll

Angle Flotd Tool
Rotary
Speclal Drlll Strlng

s

Stabillzer Sccllon

Bir

Itig. 5.10 Specialdrill.slringde.signJttr t'otdt.t'nndedL!ritg drilling horizontol scclion oftitediukt iddius ofhori.o ttl t<:ll or dtuittltolc.

Dr. A'1.S. Ii':rrnhrt

C -V

Dti s it'g Desis

8I

String St abilizer Bent Sub

Angle Build Motor
20"i 100'

Section lu4otor

Kick - olf Sub

with Upper BearingHousing / Centralizer Stabilizer
Tilted Drive Shafl

Bir
lrig. 5.1I l) I t.4 desiguJbr drilling ttutting sectie,no1f long+atlius cj horizot Ltu I nell.

I). l\t.S.lrnrrhat

CIL I/ IrillstrirB D.sigu 82

Strinq Stabilizer Motor Section

AnEle Hold Motor
1-4" / 100'

Double Tilted U - Joint

Bearing Housing with Centralizer/ Stabilizer
Bit
Fig. 5.12 lllJA design.[ordrilling ltorizolttal sectionoflong rodius of hu izrtttttl m,ll. A j o i n t o t N M C I S D Pe s e n r b l e s o i n t o f 3 . 5 i r r .h c a v y - w c i g h tr i l l p i p cI.t i s t al d 'fwo nra ul'actured milling the OD o1'a 4.'i5 in. tool joints. by I ft loug sections, evcnly spacecl tLrepipe bodv, are lefty unnrillccl for.rnwear ol to knotsas slro\,vlt Flg. 2.12.A fulJjoint oi NMCSIIP is rrrnabovethe MWD in collal anda |0-ftjoinIwith no wearrlragrctically isoiate M\\rD scnsors. thc

D/: i\t.S. nrr.rhat

CH,Y

Dti ltti,tg Dtsigtl

rJ3

Srrgsrirr &Aryt:

pLtstLt( ll!!r!!L cun,el holeltllJllJtirSgttlilJ!

'l'he a l a r l < l i i l l s l r i np a s : ; i r g l o n g r c r i r v c dr o l ci s b e n tl i k c a b c a t n n c i s s t r c s s c ( l g 'l lerlsileslfess in the wall of tlre pipe cau be accorclingly. he rrraxirnunr in as estimalod showrr Fig. 2.13and is givcnby the followingequation: o,= Maxirnrrrn strc:;s: E (Ii,"/R), ofthe drillstr:ing arrtl ofclasticity,R* is the radius whereE is Youug'snrociulus o r o I { i s t h cra r l i u s l e r rv a t u r c l ' t h ol r o i " . lf, in adclition bcing aroundlhe cttn atureof the hole,the drillstringis also, to of rotating,tlre stiesscsat any point on the circumference the string vary l'iorD tensileto corrplcssiveas il rotates.This tcnds to causemetal litiguc. lrr jointcd l)y addilion, bccuuscllrc pipc is not continuous,but in sectious fiom the simple eqttatit'n the stfcsses greoterthaDcalculated are couplings, above.It follows then, that if equation(1) is to be used thcre should bc a n ol' lirctofol sirfoty. fol srrbstanlial Nazzcl(1990)suggests steclcollars, stfcss with a factorof safctyof2, shouldbc used.'lhisrcsul{s in 20000psi combiDeri psi Ihis valueis usedin thc a valueof 10000 {o be usedin the aboveequation. cxamplc. follorvirtg

Ex. I:
ol'cuwatureto u,hicha cylindlicalddllcallaIcarrbc bcrtl llre Cirlcrrlatc radirrs psi), assrttrtirg ug's Yo cxccctlirrg lunsilostlossol 70 Mpa (100{-}0 ir willuruL psi) and ttre collar diamctelis nrodLrlus ol'clasticily is 200000Mpa (29'k10'' 1 2 7r r r n(r5 i r r). .

Sohttion:

= n- l8l m(s951i). R = [f)lo,]R,- 12.01)0001701*|27121*.001
s , 0 1 =t c n s i l o l r c s sp s i( M p a ) .
1lr M.S.['arrhrrt

CII. l,

Drillstuing DesiC"

84

Or, 512*Lll2l = 604 ft I / R = [E/ol R,": [29* 1061000]*
l hcrcfore, thc values in thc following table werc calculated ir the same (usingEq. l): rrraincr'

'l'ablc L 1 5 . 1 :C ' a l c r r l r t t cidl o o l l r r l r I r l a f o rr 1 . ll l
Collor dianreler
Ifiches

Re drudi s

Angle-buikl "/to -

ft
71 107
l.l3

50
15

2.0 3.0

234 152 469 586 703 820 93'7

24 l6

100
125

3.9
4.9 5.9 6.9 '7.9

12
9.6 8.0 6.9 6.0

17,)

150
I /i

2t4 250
286

200

drillcollalsare sttfficicntly Flom this tablc it b€ seenthat evenlarge-dianretcr drillirg, c.g.(r'l30nr (l(X) lt). Willt tttcclittttt llcxiblclo bc uscdlor long radirrs oflhc ttlbulars is restriction the dianrctct on radius d|illing, these an increasing is A of sevelity"/30rrr irtclcasul. cliatttclcr 75 nrnris thatcanbc uscdas clogleg (R for of needed a devia{ion 16"/30m = 107nr or'352ft). of GradeE For no axial load, an allowablebendingslress 18000psi ensures S limit of 107cyclcs.CratJe pipe a pipe rernains below the fatiguccmlurancc of allowable bendingstress 21000 psi. maxinrum

Dr. lI.S. ltarahnt

CIL V

Dti shi'19 )).sign

85

Le pth of s rigid c)'litrder wlticlt cttn ass along e g!!t!9!L!!,ell willry-q-t distortion
1'lrelimiting lcngth, L, of a rigid cylinder that can passalong a hole sectionof curvature radius, R, can be calculatedfrom the geometry of the diagram tn Fis.5.l3.

GLOMF or nrcrocvrrr,roen cunvEoHoir tRy rr,r

Fig. 5.13. theorem thetriangle with the heaqrbrokenline: UsingPythagoras for marked R'?:(L/2F+(R-AD),, Or, (r./2F: R'?: (R'z2RAD+ (AD)1, Whichif we neglect AD'term becomes, thc | 2 sq.root(2RAD). NotethatR andAD nust be in tlresame unitsasL.

Dx 2: cylindrical of to motorconsisting straighl It is planned build an articulated joints.Assumitrg motor jointedtogcthcf tho with flcxiblcparticulated scctions of section ilwhatwoultlbc themaximum lcngth nrolor is 95 nrmin diamcter,
.)r. M.S. lr.lrahrt

( ll. I

lrillntit{

lt.\iryt BG

it is desired drill holcswith a deviation to of20 /30 nr (100 ft) and ifbcnding ofthe nrotor sectionis to be avoided. Tlre hole diameteris to be l2l mm.

Solutiort:
l. Calcrrlate radius ofcunr'ature I I R / l 8 0 1 0 / 2 0 h u s .I l - 3 6 r n . l : 2 . L D = t l z l 9 5 ) / 0 0 0 0 . 0 2 (n r 1 r = 2 sr1root (2*86*0.026 4.2 m or 13.9ft. = L 'I he allorvablelengthsfor the samehole and tool diamelersand for other build ralesare calculatedbelow.

Table able5.2:Calcul 5.2:C culated accountab enslhdate. "/30rn (100ft) R CalculntcdL M ft 225 282
316

m

Irt 12.4 13.9 16.0 19.6 27.8

25 20 t5
l0 5

69 88
I l8

3.8
4.2 4.9 6.0 8.5

172 344

564 1128

Thc fol|'wing lableshowsthc calculatecl clcflmnce, AL),nleas!rc(l nrrrr in and rcquircdto accommodate 5 and 2.5 m long lools in holeshaving inches, 10. c r l v c t r r r , r d i i o [ 5 0 , 1 0 0a r r d 0 0r n . n 2

,,.. M.S. rrrahaf

( IL I

Itrilht,irg tt, \ign

lt7

Table 5.3:Cl m 50

rcc rcqurrcot)erween tween DolL- toot olamclct-s. ano di

Itl ___fglefr"j rrdius

r:T::
t64 32ii

Boledianretcr'-tool C)l)

L: 10 nt or 32.8ft

250
125

!,.8

100 200
50 100 200

4.9 2.5

6e6
164 323

63
63

L:5mor16.4ft

3l

1.2

656 _L
t64 328
656

16
16 8
4

ll

no
t,.6 0.1 t).2

L : ) - Sn o r 3 - 2t f

50
i00 200

Although calculations this types illustratethe dii'ficultyof conductrrrg of a st!aighl k\)l along a curvcd hole. thcy assunte thc.c is no berr,-liirg slrcss exertedby the string abovc arrd bclorv thc tool, i. Fi., i1 is iissrrrnerl the conncctiorl madcb1,a lleriblc.joinl.or lhlt (hc lool is conncctcrl flcriblc is to sub. Lr the bcnding rnoment applied to it, at cithor cnd, by thc connecting tubulars.

l). ilt.lt Ixr ri[nt

(IL

l I

lt'.ll (i,rpltaiu!

88

ren Crr,lp VI

Compr,nrton II onrzoxt'al Wur-r, TncHnrqrms
'l well or drainltole mustbe choseo thc light of iu of he conrpletion a horizontal p a t h c f r r t r r r r ' c v o l u t i o l ' t h c n a t u r c :f t h c l l u i c l s t x i r r c c d l o n g{ h c l r o r i z o r r t a l o n ,' oll or drairrlrole thc sclcctivc production tllat ivill ensLrre. and nceds I)?.finilitrccottrylelio,r: the choice of the partitioning of {he drainhole and of tlrccornp,,sition thc liner nrustbc nradcvcry qrrickly.I'hcdccisionnraybc of l ' ; r s c d , ' r r l a t al i t ' u r t h c g e o l o g i c asl L r r v c a n d { i o n l M W I ) o t g c o s t c t r i t t g y {cohnique rvireliuelogging.,A.nothcl or option rnigl]t consistin partilionlng independently the characteristics the reseruoir. of of IIorr,o,er, ilre drainhole this choicervhichtechnioally nol idcal, may lead to very high conrpletion is ,rrstsin nraly field cases. I anltorarl' <trrrtpleliotr: fot' consolidatcd fotnrations wlrere o|en-hoie productior possiblc, dcfinitivechoiceofihc cornpletion thc is rnaybe dcfr.rrcd irnd a dccisiontiiketrlaler on accordingto tlrc production data.In pla(iicc, r:clcctivc rvill on unwanlccl fluirlsbcgin l,r bc l)rocfuction be decided only rvlrcn prroduccd. 1hc cltoicc ntay also bc dcfcllcd if it is possiblcto rrrr irr an 'rrrcemcnk:d pcrloratcd litlcr and lo rcl)l:rcc latcrby a sclcctivc il conrplcliorr. ',\/hcrclstltc lcrnpotaryconrPlctiorr solution is prcfcrablc,it is not alrvays 'l'hc {i asiblc. diffcrcncc betwcen lwo possibilitics in the (lataflvailablc thc iics and in the tillrebetwecn acquisilicn the of lirr choosillg lype ofconrpletion thc t l r e s d a l ; i r r r J l r cr r r r r n i r irn t h eI i n e l c r t g

Dr.,\1.S.l'xrrihiil

CH. YI

tt cll Conu't.tior

89

Thus, in any case,the solution to be adoptedwill consistin choosinga typc of and encountered cornpletionthat is suitedboth to the geologicalcharacteristics productionvia the dtailhole lt is conditionsfor selective to the optirrrum for: to thcrefore,necessary have tecbniqucs 1) Describinga resenoir from a horizontalwell or drainhole 2) Estirnating the production incrcasesthat may be obtaiued as tlre rcsult of selectiveproduction.

6.1 Cotnplelipn4lepbtplpsles -Ultq:! t9!:!4 a4t4tlQ!!r,at!!s!4s!li !! fu Borelrcle
Fig. 2,2 showsthe radial boreholecondition after drillstring placoment.At that point the system consisting of a horizontal radial borchole continuing a drillstring with its drillhead in place. To provide sand control or florv regulation,the radialsmay be completedby altemativeptocesses. The firct processinvolves only an FSD (flexible sandbarier) and includes: cutoffofthe drillheadfrom the drillslling. l. Elcctrochemical dfillstrjng to permit a 2. Pumping down of the FSD through the open-ended anchor cxpandagrinstthe fonrration. to barbed spear in to 3. Withdmwalofthc dLillstLing lcavcthc IISDarrchtncd placc. ll he second altemative processinvolves use of thc drillstring as perforation, ard the FSD with: cutoffthe drillhead fro the drillstring. l. Electrochemical fill to 2. A two-step(two-life) gmvel packingprocess provide 10096 of the radial boreholeannulusaroundthe drillstring. 3. Electrocbemical perforation of the drillstring along its entire leogth dowrrholc aftcr thc first lift ofgravelpacking. 4. Placement the FSD within of onteringthe drillst.ing through its perforations. processis io cul offthe drill Electroche,tricalc..rojtt the first electrochcmical hcad at the rose of thc drillstring after placement.Ihe cutoff tool is simple an by insulatcd rnctaltlisc connccted an clcctticcablcto an clcctticwcll or powcr

I),-.M.S. rauhflt

CII..VI

llall Cornpletion 90

srlrlroe. cablc stop is placed on the cablc that rvill stop at the top of the A rlrillstringand accurately locatethe cuttingtool at the desired position. r-ocherrrical cutoff tool has been usecl elecl succcssfully thc field to cut in o ff mole than 500 drillstring.The advantage electrochemical of cutting over cxplosivcs that no slrattered is pipe or shar-p edgesare l'ornred. The tool is vcry costeffccliveand reliabledownhole. lllectrochcnical perforatiort: perforation by electrochcmicalproccsscsis irocornplislred downholeafter the 1.25 in dlillstring in place.A flexible lube (l;ig. 6.1) rs pumpeddown tlre vefticalworkstringand throughthe 1.25 in ,hillstring. The perforation tube continuous insulated an flexible conductor rlithin thc tube wall. Small porls lined with elcch'ically conductivc rnatcrial ;rrc installedirr the tube and connectto the corrductor within the nerforationlrrbe wall. When bl'ine is punrpeddown the well and entersthe perloration lrbes,a.jctof electrolyte flow thtougheachpod. An eleclric welderis usedto ( rcate il litc 1,1"'"r, cnrrcnt) in the perforationtubc conduclor.. Ilach gror-t 'flic lrr:colnes clcctrocheur drilling jet. rrn ical result is a scriesof oligrted 'rhese in pcrforation tools provicle lx'r'foratioirs the 1.25 in. drillstring. about r0 sirrrultancorrs I pcrforations canbc or.icrrlcd any dircction. that in 'llre

Radial Tube .l
Porlornlor. C s n t r a l i z oF i n s r

C o o x i aE l o c l r i c a l l B r a i dC o n d u c l o r

Fig 6.I Llectrochenical perforator.

1)r. IVI.S. l'arahat

CII.l/I

lYc Contletio,l

9l

b icr): A tlcxiblcslotlcdlincr wasclcvclqrcrl bc rrsccl saul bttt't I,',lB (Jtcxibte aloneor to backup theperforations.
y , l I t i s a l r c l i c a l l yl i ) l l l r c ( n r c l . l l L r b c s r r p c r f i c i a l ls i n r i l a r ' l oc o r r v c n l i o n l l out wirirrg.'l'heFSI3nray bc ptrrrlpcd ol' conductfor electrical flcxiblc-metal by into thc fomration IIn thc cutoff noseof thc | .25 in dlillslringand ancllored The drillstringcan then be pullcd back 1() expandi|gset of barbson a spcer. leavethe bare FSB anchoredin place the FSB nray be punrpeddown the drillstring10 serveas an Alternatively, and two Fig. 6 2 shorvsa schcnlatic inncr slottedliner fot thc petforations. cr.oss sectionsof the FSB. Figs 6.3 and 6.4 show schenraticplacerrentsion a formation. lnitial tests shows a combined effect of good sand exclusion and effective transpqrt of high viscosity oil througb the helical joints at low pressurcdrop.

WITI] PENFONATEDRAOIAL 'UE:

Schematic epresentation R

I
Cross-section
w nr r n ^ u r l l r u a F : M r v E D

,.-".,,ffi.n***L"*-"9tr"3
O p e n e dJ o i n t C r o s s * s e c t i o n
Fig.6.2.
Itig. 6.3.

D/. M.S.F^rnlt,rt

AL

W

lI/cI CoDtl'ltlio'

92

Casing
R Sucl<er od
Vertical Slotted Liner

HAV ZONE
L l t L L I l r r ti r r l r i l l l l l l l L l l i I l l l l l l l l l i l I r r L r l t l i

ilirai'|F'|rer ii
i i r r n r ! rI 1 1r , nr r , r r i n r L r r l r r

[i
Pump

'."]0"

il (

Barrier sand

l+li+u+

Fig. 6.4 Completed radial systent with gravtty clrainage.

by llorizontalgravelpacking:graveipackingcanbe accomplished a twoJift lilling proccss wjth a watet/gfavel slurry.In the first lift, gravelis puntped gravel and out of its cutoffnose. Conventional sutface tlownthe ddllstring paoking equipnentis used.Aftcr leavingthc opennoseof the dlillstring.the boreltole g,r'avel sluny flows back towardthe wellborethroughthe horizontal stagcs ol'grtvcl Fig. thc the rnnrlusaround drillstring. 6.5shows proglessive packing. nlustbc puttrpcd dulirg thc lllst lill, tlrcmatcfial lo glavclpacl< successfully lt a sufficient rate to ensuretrunsportof the gtavel within tlrc 1.25 in pumping of mtc is in excess 7 ft3/sec. It rlrillstring. is foundthat a suitable tadial borcholc, whichis the of onccthc slurtyrcenters attnulus thchorizontal of This largerdiameter the radial borehole typicallyabout4 in. in diameter. to r:luses sluna mixtures slow and tlre gravelto scttlc,fonninga dune the
Dr-. Nl.S. I^r:rhrl

CIL I'l

tl'tU Con'tndiou

93

fiotn tlrenoseofthe dlillstringbaclitowardthc that trroves within the annulus an lills thc radialbotcholcattttttltts, vcrticalwellbotc.As tlreduneparlicularly ullage ( a flow spacewith a flat bottom and curvod top) is createdbetweenthe lolr of lhc radial borcholcanri lhc tlcposilcdgrnvcl tlttnc lhc rrllagcrs llrc gfavcl of foundalionof the self regulatingcharacteristics this horizorrlal closcsoff lhc trllagc in a slandoll it packing lrtoccss.tf gravcl gradrrally and thus ctodeout, caflyillg rllole ol thc causes fluid velocityto increase the thc gravel back toward the wellbore.lf the ullagc enlarges, vckrcity of the fonninga higherduue. sluny slowsandmoregmvelsettles,

GravolMov6m6nt in First Lill

GrevelMov€ment in SocondLirt

:1,

6) secrionor Hon?onrJr 3D'ehoto

e)Gr.vel Floa lhrouglr !li.qe

c) conlinled Mov€menl

d) Conclusion First Lllt ol

h) 1000/0 Fill Cotrrplelion

Fig. 6.5 Progres"sive.s/agcsof grat,el pa<:kittg.

itrcotpotrttittg sys(cttrs At tcasl,Fig. 6.3 anclFig, (r.4show total cotrrplction FSB alone or gravel packing and perforation and FSB placenrent in the cfiillstring for the ullta-short radius ladial systcnl.

D,: lV.S.Farihrt

CII.l/I

I|.

Co',' tthn

94

(t,2 Comnletiorr

r Short-Radiu s, Mctli un -Ratli Radius of Horizotttsl Welk Dreinholes

lrig. 6.6 and Fig. 6-7 slrows a schematic diagramsof vafious com!llction r)ptions for shorfradius,medium-radius and long-radius horizontalwclls of lnd drainholes. Thesecompletionaspects described are below.
hhro nrD1.r'i h h,,,rnrn sdr(ri roo"l

"l.lldpo An oxoninlo

coorpl6lior ronrosDnli'rlr somooll||. oDlloirs.v.ilnl,ln

Fig.6.6 Tailpipe contplelionin open hole ofhorizontal tt'ell.

B a s i c T y p e s o l C o D r t l e t i o nJ o r l l o r i r o h t a t W e s

-\ \r--\-\l i r s l n r t c l ll i ' r r i n o t r r t rh r l .

-[-]-lr'r) s!dr(l .) Cr1.(l,.rnrnilitr(l tr Iorrl((l lhs h n,,m htri. nirI nhrl, s.i{n{r ini tl( l's

Fig.6.7 Basic f,pes of coutplel for horizontol well,s. ion

.D,r IU.S,liar.hit

alLIl

lt t ll 1 .',ttldldt

95

6.2.1Oaenhole compluiott
Open hole completionis incxpcnsive but is limitcd to complctionreservorr rocks.Accotdingly,it is difficult lo stimulato this opcn holc (|iig. 6.7 up Icft) arrdto control either injcction or productionalong the well length. A few early ()l)cn horizon{llwclls hnvcbccnoorrrplctcrl holc but lho l)rcsL:rrl lrcrrtlis u way fiom using openholecompletions,exceptin formationssuch as Austin Chalk.

6,2.2 Tail comolelionand sl.otted lhrcr conryletiotr
Fig. 6.6 shows the tailpipe completion in open hole of horizontal well. This tailpipccornpletion intcndcrl rclrcscntonly sorncof thc optionsavailablc is to for well completions. In some reservoit, or parts of the [cscrvoirs, the horizontalwell may be managed non-cemented by lines. l herefore,tl'temain purposeof inscrting a slottcd liner in a horizontalwell is to guide hole collapse.ln addition, a liner provides a convcnicntpath to insert various tools such as coiled tubing (CT) in a horizontal well. Slotted lincr rs installed in open hole when the reservoir is unconsolidated or loosely consolidated sands(Fig. 6.7- up rigbt). Also, cased,ccmcntc<l anil perforated liner which is expensiveand is used in long horizontal section(Fig. 6.7 dorvn packcrs lcft). Slottcdliner in opcnholewith blanksections external and casing (liCP's). This is intermediate fomr ofcompletion technique. However,thereare five tlpes ofliner have beenused,namely: l. Perforuted liner: where holes are drilled in the liner befrorelanding the liner into the openhole ofhorizontal well. 2. Slotted li er: where slots of various with and depth are rnillcd along lhc liner lengthbeforelandingthe lincr into lhe openholeoI lrorizortal wcll. 3. Prepacked liners.' slotted lirrersprovide limited sand control bv selected hole size and slot width sizes. However, these liners aro susceptible to plugging in unconsolidatcdforrnations,rvire wrapped slotted lin€rs havo been used effectively to control sand production. Recently, the use of gravel packing for effective sand control in horizontal wcll has bccn 'lhc provcd. succcssfully rrairr disadvarrtagc a shrltctl lino is llri!t of
Il,r. M.S. Falihilt

CE. Yl

we Co tl.ti'n

96

effective wcll stimulation couldbe dimcult, dueto thc openannular spacc between the liner and the wcll. Similarlv selective Droduction and are injection procedures diffi cult.

.t. Llnu'wilh I,o lal lsolnlion: roocntly,oxlcrrol cnsingl)rokus (li('l"s)
have been installed outside the slotted liner to provide a long horizontal s€ctiul into severalsmall seclions. This methodprovideslimited zone isolation, which can be used for stimulation or production control along thc rvcllpathor length. Cenreriedand perforated lirtet: liner is possibleto cement and perforate mcdium and long radii horizontal wells. Cement usod in horizontal weil completionshould havc significantly less free water contentthan used for verticirl well cementing.This is due to gmvity in a horizontal well, where ftec v,ater segregates near the top poftion of the well and heavier ccment 'l job. To avoid this, it is at in settlcs the bottom. his results a poor cement to imporl.ant conduct a frec water test for cementat least 45'. In additior. the conventionalAPI free water test is conductcdin the vertical position. Also, Fig. 6.8 and 6.9 show schematicofproduction liners in both well Ilrryar irt westemdesert. Fig.6.10showsanothcr 3HZ and well Salarn-7l{Z Egyptian casehistory for rveil completionstatus.

,D/. .S.Iarahat M

CIL YI

lr'.

(ot'rlctit,'

97

oW.oz0ll tv oI . o o ' ! ! 0 1 ! L v : t o t . t st : l s - A . 2 , / ! I
{,zl0ll- 8 Z!60ll95C )$tVlS .Z/l I

IAIY

,s zt60t Iv I

U:tddY-lJ.z/t

(,1160t-.8z9ot) cs3 c:lllo-ls.z/t 9

{,ezsot-,02?0t) 9 5 t ) l N v _ t €- z l l 9

(,8ZlOl-.1c9 6)

0s3 o?Ilols.z4

t

31livs

, 0 01 c 9 e l v ufldYoY .z/t s

.09'9896 lV BXd 9S3'IYNA:tIX!

*
d f

',!;
;.t .F

lrt i; =d

. 00 ' 8 c 4 8 I Y u3lN3W3 C SOH.Z/! I

:<

;l<

B= oo

rr -I oo
zN zts Fdi

Fig. 6.8 Schenntic ofproduction liner ir well llayar 3HZ.
D,. M.S.l'arahrt

CH.I'I

lrle Con c,iou 98

604'

t 65 4 '

l7 t4'

7430' f5f4.t2'

76S6'

ofproductiotl er in well Salam-7Hz. li Fit. 6.9Scllematic

Dr M.S. Farahaf

CE VI

WeIl Cottltletiotl

99

Barenburg a 39

p"

i
E! gl ! F 9!

ii .i:ii ii , , , . ; , .;,.:.:;.,:;:.,i,,r rr :: ,

Lr:.: r-r:t':.:r:
59o|l6nple|c<lF6eoi&dbn

Fig. 6.10Final conrpletion stalus

Dr-M.S. Farahat

CII. |'II

Cl & L\!!! lli:turi.\

llJll

CuAIrEnVII
APPLICATIONoF COII,ED TunTNc Tx

Honlzol{raL DRTLLTNG ANDMULTI-LATERAL CnsB Srunrss nNn

HtsroRrns

7. Uegiled Tuhing-Dri!!!r!g
l(ccently,thcrc has been activity in drilling ho zontal wclls usirrgcoilcd trrbing for the drill string together with a bent mud motor. Coiled tubing cquipmenl,ratherthan a conventional drilJ rig, is used. Sevemlsuccessful holeshavcbeendrilledin the AustinChalkusingthis techniqLre. Althoughthis is l,..ohniquc rrotyct viable commercially, prospccts thc {irturcap|cal {hc lb| 11ood. 'lhe equipment usedto drill the first hole with coiledtubing is shown in lrig. / .1,7.2,1.3,7.4. The sidetrack hole from an existingverticalwell was drilled .Ihe rvith 2 in. OD coiled tubing for a horizontallcngthof 504 m (1652 ft). Iubing had a tensile strengthof 60000 lb and the tubing injector could exert a push-pull forceof60,000lb. One ofthe problem inherentin this techniqueis that the coiled tubing, because i{ is comingfrom a reel,canrrot rotatcdto orientcdthe drill nrotor.l hrs tras be hoenovercome using an orientingdeviccbchindthe drill nrotorA srrbis by lrcing <lcvelopcd that can be arljustcdlionr lhc sutlicc via a wilclinc t<r orientedthc drill face. The diameterof the hole drilled by this techniquc has hcen too snrall to allow the nse of MWD cqrripnrent, wirclinc stccring but MWD tools arc now availablcc. g., advrnccd lools arc used successfully. MED (geosteeringtools) that can probably be adaptedto this sewice. Since thc coiledtubingnormallyhasa wirelinewithin it, this doesnot prcsent sitnrc problen as that found with jointed drill strings.The methodmay developto

,r-. tr|.S.F:|rrhrt

CH.l/II

CT & Case|lisbties

I01

,

cd6d

iubhs

*/sLih.

cdr rbqlerr! h.

coioldd

adtuiqbh ro!.

uP sub
ch!cr vdrl8rc|

Fig. 7.1 Wellboreand directional BHA.
C o i l e dT u b l n gC o n n e c l o r

Navl-Drlll

H

Slarthg Mlll

Whlpstock Assembly

il fl I qi
a
Fig.7.3 ,r-. M.S. Farahnt

u U
l -D 'r l Dl

I L]

Irig.7.2 Wit1.loi.t, cuttiqg assenl ies

l)1t,4for

E trith C7

CH. l/

C7 & Cas. llistotics

lD2

:il{.p 1

S[ep 2

SLep 3

SLep 4

Sl.cl) a)

Fig. 7.4 Sicletr.ack pl'ocedures. \\/here it is usellulfor the rcworking and re,completion existiug wells of lithout lcquir-ing drill rig. I-Iowever, a severalinprovements are necessary Lcfore tlrc method can be cornpetitiveeconornically. r'oiled trbing dtilling may be particularlyuseful fol under balanccdrilling l)ccausc is not neccssary conlinuallyaddednew sections dr.ill;lrPc. it to of llcvcralcolrparrics actingdcvelopirrg atc toolslirl coilcdtubingdrillirrg.
!

.2 Mttltilmunl Cose Stndies
t\lultilatcralwells are considered many to be arnongthe nrostin'rportant by lcchnoJogical bteakthroughs be introduced the oil andgasindustry.'l-hey to to plovidelhe capability drainthe resen,oir to moreefficiently resulting an in increase(l of rocovery mostreservoirs. rate in Industryleaders haveestinrated

Dr-.M.S. Farahai

Cn. UI CI & Cls( Ilhtotias

103

ll)irt lhc use of nrultilateral systemswill allow rccovery r tos to inorcaset{) l]( lwccl 30 1() Itorccnl I lly(lr()cit 6() o I hols ilr lrlacc. Some tlrillirg scrvicescoltinue to be thc leaderin the new gcrerationof n r | r l l i l i l l c r fc l i l l i n g a n d c o n r p l c l i o t ry s l c n l sO r n r | l l i l l r l c r a:lr y s l c l l tis r c l s . l dcsigncd for case of use and can be customizedto sewice nearly all multilatcral drilling needsi The following case studies offer.just a few c\ilurplcs ofwhal wc car accornplish rvilh locrrs cttslonrcr on scrvico.

(Fir1,5) 22.!:eqe_1
In 1996 and 1997, Sperry-sunsuccessfullyinstalled several95/8 in RMLS1M RetrievableMultilateral Systemfor Occidentalpetroleum of eatat Ltd. fronr ol'lshorc SANTA FE 127locatcdirr the ldd El Shargificld,Oftilror.c rig ealar. in tlrc Arbian Culf.'Ihe RMIS providesfull-boreaccess the lat,:ral to whilc nrairtainirgunrcstrictcd acccss lhc rrain wellbolebclorvllrc latcr;tl. to Onc o[' thescwclls was drilled as a dual lateralwith a single5 in. complction whiclr pcrmilsseiective reentry eithcrlateral of utilizinga special krol stringinstalled or coilcdtubil1g. Occidentalhad determinedthat the ISND ShuaibaFormation recoverywould bc enhancedby drillirrg multilatcral wellbores in both the Shuaiha A and B Members. Historically, production from vertical wells in this ficid has bcen low, yicldingonly 300 bopd,u?ith rates to 3500bopdbeingachievcrl rarc up in instanceswhere wells intersectedfaults. Occidental also deci<lcdtha,.it was imperative for the futurc managontent the Shuaibareservoit to desi.rninto of these wells the ability to leenter each wellbore selectiv€ly. The mosr cost_ effective method to aclrievethis is thc use of multilalcrutl drilling an<l complction technology.With thc use of multilatcml. actual proclur:tron pcrfon'nance has matchedor exceeded expectations with increases 600y0rrver ptevious production rates. lnitial production rates have averagcd4056 bopcl pcr fateral, with individual wells producing up to 7724 bopd frorn both the ShuaibaA and B. lollowing sevcralweeks of production,the wclls trave stabilized, with one well, averaging 6000 bopd combinedproductionfr.onr both laterals.

D,. N{.S.F'nmhrf

a lL l/I

( 1,\ (-t1!' Il^tlri's

llltl

Fig.7.5

1)r.N{.S.Farahat

CH. VII CT & Case fiisto

es

105

This well was planned and drilled dual lateral well with medium reach wellboresin both the Shuaiba and B. the 9 5/8 in ploductiou A horizorltal casingwas run to 6138 ft. MD. The RM LS windowswas set at 5476 ft. MD at with thc KOP at a 78 inclination 5488ft. Ihcjunction ofthe upperShuaiba at A lateml with the prinrarywellborewas cemcnted 4817 ft MD at a 90.4 The lowcr was thcn drilled to 12686MD. This welJ is currently irrclination. dual lateralproducer will evenhrally placcd br.rt bc being flowed as a Shuaiba into scrviceas a poweredwater injection well.

7.2.2Case2 (Fip. 7.6)
Sperry-suncomplotedthc first 9 5/8 in LTBSTMcementedlateral for Mobil of of Canadain November 1996.thc installation the 9 5/8 in LTBS in well was only thc 17-W3in Battrum, Canada AD 10-35/1D16-35-18Saskatchewan, application worldwidc.'llriswasalso third suchcommercial ofthis technology tllc first lateral reentry nade to on flate an annular casing packer for stagc ccnrenting. This well was drilled to drain two Roseray sand zoncs separatedby an effectiveirr drainingrcservoirs impermeablc laycr multilatcrals cxtremely arc by ovemll capital costs separated impenrcablc rock layers and in decreasing rcquiredto devclop rcscr-vcs. ln this heavy oil application,a 9 5/8 LTBS window joint was installed in the nrain casingstringsarr 8.5 in main bore lateralwas dlilled fronr thc cusing shoe and tlren lined with 5.5 in wire wrapped scrcens.A secondary6.5 in lateral was drilled and lined with 4.5 in rvire wrapped screcns through thc using a completionsdcflection tool LTBS windows. The lateral was reentered to inflate the ACP and stagecementthejuncture ofthe main casingand lateral tools,full-borcacccss both to dcfiection linet. After removing{lrccomplctions lrtcralsis availablc.

./)r.M.S. Farrhat

( tl.I ll

(-1 .\ (nr

Ili\!ui^

lll(t

Fi14.7.6.
/)/'. N{.S.Fr[rl!:rf

C . I tl ( 7 tr Ca\. tttsL,i.s

t0't

7.2-l!sss ltf!c,7.])
During Septcrnbcr 1996,Spcrry-sun Dresser -l ools succcsstirlly antl Oil drillcd and completed biplanarmultilateral a rvcll using Sperry-srrn L'l BS l,ateral s Tie-Back Systcm with selective through-tubingreentry and isolation capabilitiesprovided by the DresserOil Tools LRS Lateml Reentry System. Thc muftilateral 2l1I)-l7AlB off the Bravo platfotm- was conrpletcd for PhillipsPetroleum Norway in thc EldfiskField in the Crcatcl Dkofiskarcaof thc Norwcgian Sectorin the North Sea. Phillips Petroleum chose to use the LTBS and LRS prirrarily f{)r selective isolation and shut-in capabilities rvhile maximizing the productive flow conhol. The combinedsystemalso allows accessto the primary casingwhile maintaining full-bore accessto the laterals,which may be re-enlcredat any tinre dLu-ing life of the u,ell. Without the usc of thesespccializedsystenrs, the Phillips could not economically producs the remaining reserves in this rcscrvoirc.

Zone the higher pemreability Cbalk formation knorvn as the Tor- as well as a secoudhodzontal latcml in thc shallowerEkofisk forrnation.l)rclimirrrry production results suggcst that thc upperlateral will produccapproxirnrtcly 26 % of the total ilcrenental recovery expectedfrom this wc]|.'lhe reser.ycs recqveredfrom the tighter Ekofisk lormation would havc bcen left in placc b_v a sllntlald Udfisk horizontirl rvcllTlris well was the first cornmercial multiJateralsystern appliczrtionin the Norwegian North Sea featuring a non-restricting3.81 in through-tuningrnci throughbore ID, reentryand isolationnrcthod-Drcssc| 'fool s I lts. A 7 Oil lirrcl tic-back,5.5 productionlincr, and , 4.75 in opcn Irolc aud rrrultilatcral systcnrprovided the lough-tubinglccntfy. The LRS was successfullyuscd to isolate the upper lateral while perfomring 10000psi (BHP) fr.ac job in lower. latcral. This wasalsothc fir'st Norwegian Nolth Seawell to utilizca pre-millcd lateral drilling rvindo*-Sperry-Suns I-TBS.

/)r. lU.S.Farahat

CIL t'II CI t Crsel/isrorn,s 108

Fig. 7.7.

D/: M.S. F:rrrlr:rt

CE t/II CI & Cav llistt,i.s

109

4 12.4 Case (Fig, 7.8)
In Febnrary 1q96.Spen)/-Sun. alongu irh Nederlandse AardolicMaatschappij joint venfure between Shell and Exxon) and pressule Conlfol B. B. (a EngineeringLimited (PCE), successfullycombined their expertiscto achieve thc rvorlds first selectivethrough-tubing.feentry into a multilateral well RTD l . l . l o c a t e dn t h c R o l l e l d a n ri e l di n t l r e\ c r h c r i a n d s . i F Spcrry-Sun Downhole Tool Developmenf Group and pCE worked closcly togetherto modify and developPCE s MLR MLrltilateral ReentrySystcm. making it compatible with Specry-Suns LTBS lateral Tie-llack System.Thc integratedsystem usescomponents developedby both Speny sun and pCF in oldcr to deploy equipmentsuch as a through-tubingdeflection tool on coiletl hrbing,thus allowing selectivereentryinto lateralwellbores. 'l
l

lrrough-tubing coiled tubing reentry to the lateral was a fundamental rcquirementof this project as was the need to improve productiorr.'l'his well was designed to reach different reservesin the sane rcsenoit rvhich wcrc scparatedby layers of diflcring permeability.NAM wantcd to reaohnrorc of thc field and increase dr.ainagc the area. thc initial prodnction ln phrse,rccrrtry was not required.Ilowevel, the reentry operationwas cauicd out ilnyway, lc\ confirm that it will be achievable when NAM determines need lbr reentrv. the After successfullydrilling and lining the rnain wellbore, a lateral was <lrillcd orrt of the primary casing using the I-TBS. This lateral was thcn comDlclcd with a linel which was tied back to the pr imary casing. Then, Lrsing Sperry Sun s upper muleshoeassembly, MLR nipple was latchedacrossthe LTIIS the ptemilledwindorvand held in placeusingthe SSDSlatchsysten. fhis acrior) allowedNAM {o dcploy PCE s throdghtubing deflcctiontool coilcd tubing ard set it in the MLR lippJe asscnrbly. Sclcctive throughtubingaccess the to Iateral wellborcrvasconfinned a dumnryplug wasrun in smoothly as andthcn retrieved fiom the PCE nipple located in the lateral liner. Finally, the dcflection tool was rctrievedon coiled tubins.

,,: M.S. Farahat

Lil. l'll

(:1 li (.:tt? Ilistutit | | l{'l

'fhis

aclrievcrnenlrvas a

nullilatcrai anrl conrplction t c c h n o l o g i c a l

lr|cakthrorrgh. l1 provcs thc lcasibility of sclcctivc to thc iirtcfrl rvcllltorc iirr

thcpellornranoc well servicing of opelations.

Fig.7.8.
Dl lV.S.Falahrf

CH. VII CT & fnsc llisktii.s

111

st"olLc e_ c. 7. t; !_0'i Y Z. UUWblelsLeqrcHi 1
'I his first nrultilatcrllwcll in thc Middlc lirrstwrs tlillctl irr l\,larclr l996. lhc conrpietion consistcd two horizoltalla{crals of cnconrpassing about3500fl of crposedholein eachleg (Fig. 7.9) 'l he operator drillcd the lower lateral scclionas an extcnsion oflhc parent rvcll borc.The uppcr'latcral well section exitedout a 9 5/8 in., 40lb/ftp,rrcut c'rsrrrg string into an 8.5 in. hole. A 7 in lincr was set through thc build until horizontal. '| his liner was set with a compositejoint acrossthe hollorv whipslock face as cnrlicr.'l'helincr rvasccnrcnlc(1. lhc lllclal rvirs <liscrrsscd rrnd t:orrrplctcd thcn llow tcstcdfor 2 weeks. 'l \vls llrcssrrrc hc lowcr parcntwcll borc was llrcn rcoponcd, lhc.jrrnc{ion lnrl t( sted.Bccause the vcrticflllypenrreablc of naturcof lhc lirrnralion whiclr in llrc cxit wirsplacc(1, ccnlcntsqtrcczcs wcrc ttcc<k:rl llrc.jurcti()rl() plss llrc at and pressurc tcsts. I'r)sitive negative l'lugs wcle thcn pullcd fionr thc prrcnt nrrtllatcralwcll bolosusirrgfull grugc 'l rnd tlrrough-tubing diveltersand a window bushingasscnrbly. hc rvinclows b u s h i t ra s s c t n b lw a su l t i n r a t c lIy f t i n t h c . j u n c l i o a n da 4 . 5 i n . l L r b i ns l ri n g g y c n, g r r s r r r rirr t h cl r l ) p cc o n r I l c t i r n ) . r 'lhis installation took longerto run lhan anticipatcd, ncvertheless, both wcll l'ores becameproductive.The oricntationnipple and mating lock dcvicc r',,orkcd well. Bascd on tlris cxpcficncc,Drodifications rvcrc rradc to thc ptoccdulcs. rlcflectols, enhancing efficiencies beslpracticc and

,/. i\'I.S. txrihrt

CH. VII

C7 & CoseIlinoli.s

112

Fig.7.9.

,/. ['I.S. Farahnf

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