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Baquiran Sped 512 February 26, 2011
WRITTEN REPORT Title: What do we mean by Inclusion? Inclusion in education is an approach to educating students with special educational needs. Under the inclusion model, students with special needs spend most or all of their time with non-disabled students. An Overview of the Inclusive Classroom *The teacher plays a vital role: • He/she understands the learning, social and physical needs of the students • It is her/his role to create a welcoming environment and provide students with ongoing opportunities to learn, share and engage in all classroom activities. • Should determine what alternate assessment needs to occur is another area where the educator needs to make changes to specifically support the student in the regular classroom. How it is different from mainstreaming? Mainstream Generally, mainstreaming has been used to refer to the selective placement of special education Inclusion Inclusion is a term which expresses commitment to educate each child, to the maximum
and social work. regardless of handicapping condition or severity. o In addition to problems related to definition. more intensive instructional sessions in a resource room. the students receive any additional help or special instruction in the general classroom. o the student occasionally leaves the regular classroom to attend smaller. It involves bringing the support services to the child (rather than moving the child to the services) and requires only that the child will benefit from being in the class (rather than having to keep up with the other students). Those who . All services must be taken to the child in that setting. in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend. Proponents of inclusion generally favor newer forms of education service delivery. • • extent appropriate. Proponents of mainstreaming generally assume that a student must "earn" his or her opportunity to be placed in regular classes by demonstrating an ability to "keep up" with the work assigned by the regular classroom teacher. • Classification • regular inclusion or partial inclusion o Whenever possible. most specialized services are provided outside a regular classroom. particularly if these services require special equipment or might be disruptive to the rest of the class (such as speech therapy). • full inclusion o Full inclusion means that all students. it also should be understood that there often is a philosophical or conceptual distinction made between mainstreaming and inclusion. or to receive other related services. and students are pulled out of the regular classroom for these services. will be in a regular classroom/program full time. such as speech and language therapy. This concept is closely linked to traditional forms of special education service delivery.• students in one or more "regular" education classes. and the student is treated like a full member of the class. occupational and/or physical therapy. However.
To avoid harm to the academic education of students with disabilities. meet. adaptive curriculum Collaboration between parents. full panoply of services and resources is required. peer tutoring. create. in most cases. and evaluate the students together Reduced class size based on the severity of the student needs Professional skill development in the areas of cooperative learning. including: • • • • • • • • Adequate supports and services for the student Well-designed individualized education programs Professional development for all teachers involved. and goals for each student Coordinated planning and communication between "general" and "special needs" staff Integrated service delivery Ongoing training and staff development . In principle. it merely moves the special education professionals out of their own classrooms and into a corner of the general classroom. modifications. those who support inclusion believe that the child always should begin in the regular environment and be removed only when appropriate services cannot be provided in the regular classroom. general and special educators alike Time for teachers to plan. several factors can determine the success of inclusive classrooms: • • • • • • Family-school partnerships Collaboration between general and special educators Well-constructed plans that identify specific accommodations. reduce students' needs.support the idea of mainstreaming believe that a child with disabilities first belongs in the special education environment and that the child must earn his/her way into the regular education environment. or improve academic outcomes. teachers and administrators Sufficient funding so that schools will be able to develop programs for students based on student need instead of the availability of funding. Necessary resources Although once hailed as a way to increase achievement while decreasing costs. o In contrast. full inclusion does not save money.
but more fundamental requirements exist: First. Also. so students who typically use wheelchairs can stand when the other students are standing and more actively participate in activities Encouraging students to take the role of teacher and deliver instruction (e. Many schools expect a fully included student to be working at or near grade level. read a portion of a book to a student with severe disabilities) Focus on the strength of a student with special needs Selection of students for inclusion Educators generally say that some students with special needs are not good candidates for inclusion. Another common practice is the assignment of a buddy to accompany a student with special needs at all times (for example in the cafeteria. and to remove any barriers to a friendship that may occur if a student is viewed as "helpless. Students that are entirely excluded from school (for example. . emphasis is placed on the value of friendships. This is used to show students that a diverse group of people make up a community.g.Common practices Students in an inclusive classroom are generally placed with their chronological age-mates. due to long-term hospitalization). to encourage a sense of belonging." Such practices reduce the chance for elitism among students in later grades and encourage cooperation among groups. regardless of whether the students are working above or below the typical academic level for their age. on the bus and so on). Teachers often nurture a relationship between a student with special needs and a same-age student without a special educational need. that no one type of student is better than another. being included requires that the student is able to attend school. Teachers use a number of techniques to help build classroom communities: • • • • • • • • • Games designed to build community Involving students in solving problems Songs and books that teach community Openly dealing with individual differences by discussion Assigning classroom jobs that build community Teaching students to look for ways to help each other Utilizing physical therapy equipment such as standing frames. on the playground.
such that they represent a serious physical danger to others. some students are not good candidates for inclusion because the normal activities in a general education classroom will prevent them from learning. Positive effects There are many positive effects of inclusions where both the students with special needs along with the other students in the classroom both benefit. because the school has a duty to provide a safe environment to all students and staff. Finally. due to enrollment in a distance education program) cannot attempt inclusion. Research has shown positive effects for children with disabilities in areas such as reading . Most students with special needs do not fall into these extreme categories. self-management strategies. a student with severe attention difficulties or extreme sensory processing disorders might be highly distracted or distressed by the presence of other students working at their desks. students with severe behavioral problems.or who are educated outside of schools (for example. peer-mediated interventions. Inclusion needs to be appropriate to the child's unique needs. but not full inclusion. For example. students with all types of mild disabilities. food allergies. etc. as well as many who are deaf or have multiple disabilities. For example. pivotal response training and naturalistic teaching strategies. Bowe says that regular inclusion. The students that are most commonly included are those with physical disabilities that have no or little effect on their academic work (diabetes mellitus. are poor candidates for inclusion. some students with special needs are poor candidates for inclusion because of their effect on other students. epilepsy. He also says that for some students. is a reasonable approach for a significant majority of students with special needs. are not violent. Teachers of students with autism spectrum disorders sometimes use antecedent procedures. even regular inclusion may not offer an appropriate education. Additionally. notably those with severe autism spectrum disorders or mental retardation. paralysis). delayed contingencies. and students whose disabilities require relatively few specialized services. do not have severe sensory processing disorders. as most students do attend school.
The study determined that children in the integrated sites progressed in social skills development while the segregated children actually regressed. A study on inclusion compared integrated and segregated (special education only) preschool students. Positive effects on children without disabilities include the development of positive attitudes and perceptions of persons with disabilities and the enhancement of social status with nondisabled peers.individualized education program (IEP) goal. and post school adjustments. increasing positive peer interactions. . The study determined that students with specific learning disabilities made some academic and affective gains at a pace comparable to that of normal achieving students. Specific learning disabilities students also showed an improvement in self-esteem and in some cases improved motivation. improving communication and social skills. many educational outcomes. Several studies have been done on the effects of inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms. Another study shows the effect on inclusion in grades 2 to 5.