Gear Teeth/Cogs Research for T-CPR Arm Design

Stanley Eng Chun Wee


Definition of Gear A gear or more correctly a "gear wheel" is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque. Two or more gears working in tandem are called a transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. Geared devices can change the speed, magnitude, and direction of a power source. E.g.

Gears that will be used in the arm

Spur Gear

Internal gear

Gear calculations

Fig 1 Three spur gear tooth forms are generally used with pressure angles of 14½, 20, and 25 degrees. The 14½ degree tooth form is being replaced and made obsolete by the 20 and 25 degree forms. Figure 1. illustrates these three pressure angles as applied to a gear rack with all teeth being the same depth. The larger pressure angle makes teeth with a much larger base, which makes these teeth much stronger and also allows the production of gears with fewer teeth. Any two gears in mesh with each other must be of the same pressure angle. When gear tooth measurements are to be made with gear tooth calipers, the chordal tooth thickness and the chordal addendum must be calculated.

Gear Ratio= Output gear # teeth / Input gear # teeth

For example, if our motor is attached to a gear with 60 teeth and this gear is then attached to a gear with 20 teeth that drives a wheel, our gear ratio is 60:20, or more accurately 3:1

Motor Torque x gear ratio = torque at the wheel

Lets say we have 2 gears. Our input gear (attached to our motor) has 10 teeth Our output gear has 50 teeth Our Gear ratio is 5:1 Motor Torque x gear ratio = torque at the wheel 5oz x 5:1 = 25 oz What if our gear ratio were 1:3 ? 5oz x 1:3 = 1.6oz

1: For gears to fit together they need to have the SAME PITCH (they can have any number of teeth). 2: The Pitch Diameter is roughly the Gear Diameter. (The Pitch Diameter and the Pitch are two different measurements.)

Distance=20cm ( including camera) = 0.2m Weight= 10, 15, 20, 25, 35 N

Torque required to lift arm, M= 0.2x W Weight, N 10 15 20 25 30 Output Torque, M (Nm) 2 3 4 5 6

Output Torque= gear ratio x motor Torque

Objective: Find out the suitable gear ratio and motor torque

Stepper motor

Tiki¶s arm design



Overall view

Center Mechanism

Internal teeth, not drawn

Zoomed in and exploded view of mechanism

Selecting the suitable stepper motor 1 Nm = 141.612 oz-in 4Nm = 566.44800 oz-in (2kg) (440 oz-in stepping motor)

Weight, N 10 15 20 25 30

Output Torque, M (Nm) 2 3 4 5 6

Task for Forest Find out whether Unipolar or Bipolar stepper motor is more suitable for the arm. Do research on the specifications, dimensions, weight and price.


Task for Zhao Assist me in the final part of the arm, which is the mounting of the video camera and the mechanism. Ideas needed. Get SW done by today. DONE

Coefficient of friction

Objective: To make sure that Tiki¶s arm is reusable.

Task -servo motor (forest) .how many are needed? ( 3 or 4) .big/small? Small for 2nd upper beam .medium for first beam .large for base -gear teeth .designed based on how much torque is needed. At least (1:2) -Make beams shorter, very impractical for long beams, adjusting size of beams after discussing with zao

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