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A HISTORY OF McMASTER LABORATORY

By Dr L.E.A. Symons,
Formerly of McMaster Laboratory,

With a chapter and notes by Dr H. McL. Gordon.


CONTENTS

Foreword ... ... ... i


Acknowledgements ... ... ... ii

introduction ... ... ... iii

Chapter I F.D. McMaster Animal Health Laboratory and 1


Ian McMaster Wing.

Chapter II F.D. McMaster Animal Health Laboratory -


The Early Years by Dr. H. McL. Gordon.

Chapter Ill The Division, Finances, Admlnistratlon and


Organisation of Research.

Chapter IV Animal Accommodation and Management - 26


(1) The Laboratory, (2) McMaster Farm,
Badgery's Creek, (3) Armidale, New South Wales.
\

Chapter V Research: General Comments and Intersmi Parasites. 34

Chapter VI Research Continued: External Parasites,


Bacteriology, etc.

Chapter Vll Ian McMaster Bequest.

Chapter Vill The Library.

Chapter IX Some Personal Histories of Former Staff.

Chapter X Visitors.

Chapter XI Chiefs, Associate and Assistant Chiefs of 120


Division, Officers-in-Charge and Heads
of Laboratory, Research Staff.

Appendix 1 Pamphlets and Bulletins, Special 135


Publications, Special Reviews,
Recent Chapters in Books

Appendix 2 Science Sheep Show p

Index
Or Symons is to be highly congratulated on the comprehensive and detailed history of the McMaster
Laboratory. It has involved a vast amount of study and enquiry together with contributions from members
of the initial staff, notably from Dr H. McL, Gordon. All members of the past and present staff are indebted
to Dr Syrnons. One of the earliest laboratories within the CSIR, it was established through the generosity
of (Sir) F. D. McMaster and the Estate of his son, Captain Ian McMaster, who died of wounds sustained at
El Alamein during World War 11. The purpose of the gift to CSIR was to establish a laboratory to study the
diseases of grazing animals particularly sheep.

The laboratory quickly established an international reputation, particularly through the work of (Sir) Ian
Clunies Ross, which it has maintained and indeed strengthened through the years. Its reputation was
maintalned through the appointment for limited periods of Ian McMaster Fellows distinguished in overseas
countries interested in similar fields of study and the establishment of Divisional overseas studentships
whereby promlsing young research workers were enabled to study at selected overseas universities or
institutes to qualify as research officers.

The initial interest of the McMaster Laboratory was In the eplzootiology and control of internal and external
parasites of sheep, but not solely, as bacteriological diseases such as footrot also occupied a prominent
place in the research programmes, which are fully described in the text.

Dr Syrnons has assembled the early history of the Laboratory and the development of the research
programmes admirably. The Laboratory developed a happy lialson with prominent leaders of the grazing
lndustry and wilh other CSIR or CSlRO Divisions or universities with similar interests.

It is fair to state that the McMaster Laboratory was a pleasant place to study and enjoyable relationships
were malntained within the staff. Dr Symons' account will further sustain the spirit of scientific fulfilment
and enjoyment.

Dr D. F. Stewart
Former Associate Chief of the Division
& Officer-in-Charge, McMasfer Laboratory
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I thank the many people who made this book possible. I especially want to thank Drs. Hugh Gordon and
Douglas Stewart. Hugh Gordon for his chapter on the early days of McMaster Laboratory and for his
notes about anthelmintics and epiderniology and his vast knowledge of the Laboratory. He helped me with
corrections of what I had written, especially before I joined the staff. Douglas Stewart provided me with his
long experience and knowledge of people at the Laboratory and wrote the Foreword. They both read
through and corrected what I had written about them. Similarly, I owe a debt to Drs. Ian Beveridge, Helen
Newton Turner, Pip Lipson, Ian Johnstone, Bunny Austin, Buddy Rogers, Alan Donald and John Dineen as
well as Harry Offord, George Merritt and Alma Culey, who also read and corrected what I had written
about them. I also thank Durno Murray, Drs. Bob Reid, Joe Boray, Doug Burrell, Peter Outterldge and
many others for my account of their research. I must not forget Michael Moran of the Archives of CSlRO
In Canberra and the Archivist of the University of Sydney wRo both provided me with much about the
origins of this laboratory. I also owe a debt to Mrs Jill Rsdford, Librarian, for her advice and assistance.

I accept responsibility for any opinions and the accuracy of the facts presented in this book and welcome
comment and criticism from readers.
INTRODUCTION

The F.D. McMaster Animal Health Laboratory, as it was first known, was formally opened on November
26th, 1931, then became McMaster Laboratory when its name was officially changed in 1963. The
Laboratory took its name from Frederick Duncan McMaster, later Sir Frederick McMaster, a grazier of
"Dalkeith" near Cassills, New South Wales, who provided the money for its construction on the campus of
the University of Sydney. It was then a major part of the Division of Animal Health of the Council for
Scientific and Industrial Research (CSiR).

Sir Frederick McMaster was a farsighted grazier to whom the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
Research Organisation (CSIRO) owes much for research into problems of animal disease, particularly of
Internal helminth parasites. But McMaster Laboratory was not the only benefaction of Sir Frederick.
When the Laboratory was opened in 1931 it had no associated field station, without which it was
incomplete and could not function. Sir Frederick leased the property known as "Hinchinbrook" not far
'
from Liverpool, then an outer suburb of Sydney. Part of "Hinchlnbrook he then made available as a field
station for the Laboratory. This remained so until 1937 when the Division bought the F.D. McMaster Field
Station at Badgery's Creek west of the suburb of Cabramatta. Sir Frederick helped with the acqulsition
and development of this property.

He also provided the largest part of the cost of the Ian McMaster Wing of the original laboratory which was
formally opened on November 14th, 1956, shortly after his death the same year. The Wing was named
after his only son, Captain Ian McMaster, who died from wounds after the Battle of El Alamein in World
War II.

Sir Frederick also left much of his estate to the CSlR for use after the death of his only daughter, Miss
Thelma McMaster, for research into veterinary and agricultural problems. The sale of these shares in the
pastoral company, F.D. McMaster Pty. Ltd., were eventually used to set up the Sir Frederick McMaster
Bequest to fund the Sir Frederick McMaster Fellowships for very senior and distinguished overseas
scientists. It is administered by the CSIRO. However, this is available for research not only at McMaster
Laboratory but can be allotted to people to work at a large number of relevant Divisions or Units of the
CSIRO. The number per year or frequency of these Fellowships may vary, although the first of them was .
granted to someone to work at this Laboratory.

sir Frederick was not the only member of his family to benefit this Laboratory. The dividends from the
family pastoral company that passed to Captain Ian McMaster, his only son, have been used to establish
Fellowships and Scholarships. The former is for distinguished overseas scientists t o work at the
Laboratory. These have come largely, but not entirely, from Britain. The Scholarships have been used for

iii
graduates to work for a year or more with someone overseas. Recent scholars have used the money to
assist them towards a Iiigher degree at the University of Sydney while under the supervision of research
workers at the Laboratory. The money has been used for other purposes, but the Ian McMaster Bequest,
as it is known, is described in more detail in Chapter VIII.

It is, therefore, obvious that McMaster Laboratory owes much more than just Its name to the McMdster
family, particularly to Sir Frederick. More details of their generosity, particularly of the story of the
foundation of the Laboratory, is told in subsequent chapters. This book is an outline of the history of
McMaster Laboratory, its construction, the animal houses and field stations, some of the outstanding
members of the staff, the library, the administration, its finances and above all, the research.

McMaster Laboratory was 50 years old in November, 1981. This auspicious birthday was marked by a
symposium in parasitology held at the University of Sydney, the proceedings of which were published as
"Biol~gyand Control of Endoparasites" by Academic Press, Australia in 1982. This book was edited by
L.E.A. Symons, A.D. Donald and 4.K. Dineen.

Although McMaster Laboratory is one of the first laboratories of CSIR, as the CSlRO was known until
1949, it is not the oldest. Before the construction of the Laboratory the Divisions of Animal Nutrition in
Adelaide and Economic Entomology and Economic Botany (later Entomology and Plant Industry) already
accupied a new building in Canberra. Because the Division of Forest Products, although it preceded the
Division of Animal Health, had only a temporary building in Melbourne, the F.D. McMaster Animal Health
Laboratory was therefore the fourth laboratory of the CSIR. Perhaps it is the third laboratory if the building
in Canberra is considered as one, although occupied .by two divisons. First, however, it Is necessary to
tell something of the background of the setting up of the original Division of Animal Health.

Representations by G A Julius (later Sir George Julius), then Chairman of the CSIR, and Professor A.E.V.
Richardson of the Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Adelaide, af the imperial Agricultural Research
Conf~rencein London in October 1927 led to a visit to Australia by Sir Arnold l'heiier, formerly Director of
Veterinary Education and Research at Onderstepoort, South Africa. Sir Arnold visited all States of
Austraiia over six months to make himself conversant with the relevant problems of animal health and
made recommendations for the organisation of research. His report was subsequently published by the
CSIR in 1929 as the larger part of the publication 'The Health and Nutrition of Animals". The smaller part
was that of Dr.J.B. Orr from the Rowett Institute, Scotland, who reported on pastures in Australia.

Sir Arnold recommended that a Division of Anfmaf Health be set up with a central laboratory in Canberra
with separate laboratories in the States. Use should be made of existing organisatlons and institutes in
the various States, and there should be co-csperation with the School of Veterinary Science in the
University of Sydney and with the Departments qf Agriculture in each State.

iv
Undoubtedly thls report was influential in the organisation of research on anlmal health in thls country, but
eventually no central laboratory was built in Canberra. However, there has always been a close
relationship between the CSIR, and subsequently the CSlRO laboratories of the Division of Anlmal Health
and the Faculties of Veterinary Science at the Universities of Sydney and el bourne. This has always
been so between McMaster Laboratory and the Faculty of Veterinary Science in Sydney. Co-operation
between McMaster Laboratory and the Departments of Agriculture, particularly of New South Wales, has
varied over the years and has often depended upon co-operation between individuals.

Sir Arnold Theiler was eventually under strong pressure from Dr. A.C.D. Rivett, Chief Executive Officer of
the CSIR, and Professor Richardson now on the Council to accept appointment as Director of Research in
Animal Health. Although he had difficulty making a decision whether to accept the position, Sir Arnold
eventually turned it down because of his age and failing health. The full details of this story are included in
Thelma Gutsche's book "There was a Man, The Life and Times of Sir Arnold Theiler, KCMG, of
Onderstepoort".

This history is the story of McMaster Laboratory of the CSlRO Division of Animal Health up to the end of
1989.
CHAPTER l

F.D.McMaster Animal Health Laboratory and Ian McMaster Wing

The Council of the CSlR recognised the importance of agricultural research in the first Annual Report of
1927. There was a conference attended by the Heads of the State Departments of Agriculture, the
Professors of Agriculture from each university, some agricultura! experts, as well as representatives of the
CSIR. A Standing Committee on Agriculture was appointed. In the second Annual Report of 1928 it was
recorded that a Division of Anirnal Health should be organised to investigate various diseases of animals.
This then is the background to the construction of the Laboratory.

The F.D.McMaster Anlmal Health Laboratory was the first laboratory of the Division of Animal Health. As
already stated in the Introduction, the Laboratory was named after Sir Frederick McMaster of Dalkeith,
whose generosity and close association with the CSlR made it possible.

In 1929 the Prime Minister, the Right Honourable S.M. Bruce, addressed the Sheep Breeders' Association
of New South Wales and drew attention to the serious economic plight of the wool industry. Increasing
competition from artificial fibres meant that the industry had to make the fullest use of scientific methods
and research. Although the Government, through the CS1R was prepared to meet the cost of research, he
challenged the industry or any individual pastoralist to provide money for laboratory buildings. The only
pastoralist to meet this challenge was the then Mr F D McMaster, who generously offered the CSlR the
sum of E 20,000 for a laboratory for the investigation of problems associated with animal health. This
deed of gift is the frontispiece to this book. The Laboratory is, of course, situated in the grounds of the
University of Sydney, close to the School of Veterinary Science. Why was it not built in Canberra as
proposed by Sir Arnold Theiler? Perhaps fhe most satisfactory explanation was contained in a
n answer to a question by a
memorandum to the Prime Minister's Department dated February 17th, 1930, O
Member of the Federal Parliament. The Secretary of the Department of Public Works, Canberra, pointed
out:

(1) that it was desirable that the Laboratory be close to the fully equipped and staffed Department of
Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, with which close contact was possible;

(2) that it be near Glenfield Veterinary Research institute which was the leading such institute In the
country; and

(3) thcf in Sydney it was practicable to maintain closer contaci with pastoralists and their Associations
when they visited the city, held their meetings and could visit the Laboratory. Furthermore, in an earlier
letter dated August 6th, 1929, to Professor R.S. Wallace, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sydney, Dr
A.C.D. Rivett then the Chief Executive Officer stated that as New South Wales was 'by far the most
Important portion of the Commonwealth from a stock-raising poirit of view, it goes without saying that the
headquarters of the Division should be within Its borders and it Is the warm desire of the Councll
'
establishing the Division to associate it as intimately as may be possible with the University of Sydney'. Dr
Rivett went on to say that 'we have already had experience of co-operative arrangements with Universitles
and I hope you will agree with us in the decision that it is inadvisable to enter into any legal covenants. It
should be possible for two such bodies as a University and a Commonwealth Research Councll to define
an understanding by an exchange of letters, leaving the development of the proposed co-operative work
to proceed upon such lines as wisdam and experience may dictate'. He then asked whether the Senate of
the University would agree 'to co-operate with the Council by supplying the necessary land for the
erection of the proposed laboratory'. He also expressed the wish that 'the site be adjacent to the
Veterinary School....'. Because the eventual agreement by letters is so critical to the use d the land and
the Laboratory by the CSIR, and its successor the CSIRO, the correspondence is quoted In full. In letters
dated August 13th, 1929 to Dr. Julius and Professor Richardson, Dr. Rivett pointed out that there had been
the possibility of discussion of legal matters in the erection of the CSlR laboratory of the Divison of Animal
Nutrition in the grounds of the University of Adelaide, but that this had been avoided by the wisdom of the
Vice-Chancellor, Sir William Mitchell, and his colleagues. He also noted that the questian had never
occurred in the understanding about laboratories between the DSIR in England and other organizations
such as Cambridge University. Eventually such an understanding was reached between the CSlR and the
University of Sydney. The gist of this is that the CSlR retain the use of the land rentfree and the use of the
F D McMaster Animal Health Laboratory as long as It wished, but that the Laboratory would revert to the
University i f and when at any time the Council did not continue to use It. There is no formal legal
agreement. The understanding is made clear in the letters which were exchanged between the two and
which are reproduced below.

THE UNlVERSlN OF SYDNEY

3rd September, 1929.

Dr. A. C. D. Rivett,
Chief Executive Officer
Commonwealth Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,
314 Albert Street, EAST MELBOURNE, VIC.

Dear Sir,
The Registrar of the University has already sent you the resolution adopted by the
Senate at its August meeting with regard to the suggested establishment within the
University of the Division of Animal Health of the Council for Scientific and Industrial
Research. In order to carry the matter a step further, I put forward for your consideration,
the following proposals as a basis for PRe co-operation between your Council and the
University:-
( 1 ) . That the laboratory, which it is proposed to erect on the University Grounds
t o house the Division of Animal Health, will, on ceasing to be used for that purpose, or
for any other purpose connected with the work of the Council for Scientific and lndustrial
Research and mutually agreed upon between the Council and the University, become the
property of the University and come under Its control.
(2). That, so long as the !aboratory is used for the purpose Indicated in clause
(I), the University will make no claim on the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
for rent for the land on which the laboratory is erected.
(3). That the Council for Scientific and lndustrial Research will undertake all
responsibility for equipping and staffing the laboratory, so long as the laboratory remains
under the control of the Council.
(4). That the University, on its part, will endeavour, as far as possible, to place at
the disposal of the workers in the laboratory such facilities for the carrying on of thelr
work as exist in the University, while the Council for Scientific and lndustrial Research, on
its part, will endeavour, as far as possible, to place at the disposal of University offlcers
the facilities whlch the laboratory affords. It is understood that, while appointments to the
staff of the laboratory are entirely in the hands of the Council for Scientific and Industrial
Research, the Council will not insist on adding lo, or retaining on the staff, any person
who may for any reason be objectionable t o the University, and it is also to be
understood that ail appointees to the laboratory will be subject to the general discipline
of the University.
I shall be glad to know how you regard these proposals as defining a general
understanding under which the proposed co-operative effort may proceed.
Yours faithfully,

R S Wallace,
VICE-CHANCELLOR

September 9, 1929

Dr. R. S. Wallace,
Vice-Chancellor,
University, SYDNEY. N.S.W.

My dear Vice-Chancellor,
I have your letter of September 3rd and have discussed it with my colleagues on
the Executive Committee. We realise, as l am sure you do, that there is no essential
difference in our points of view regarding the proposed co-operation in animal health
investigations between the University and the Council. With your paragraphs 2, 3 and 4
we are in full agreement, but we would rather like to suggest that the form of paragraph 1
should be slightly altered. As it stands in your !otter it might be taken to suggest that
there was an expectation that the C.S.I.R. might cease to use the McMaster Laboratory
for animal health work. It is perhaps only a small point, but if you have no objection we
would rather like the wording to run somewhat on the following lines:-
That while the Council for Scientific and industrial Research fully anticipates that
the proposed co-operation between the University of Sydney and itself will continue
Indefinitely, it realises that circumstances may possibly arise which will render h unable to
continue the work. The Council recognises that in such an event and in the further event
of the laboratory not being required for any other purpose of scientific research
connected with the work of the Council which may be rnutually agreed upon between the
Council and the University, the laboratory building will become the property of the latter
and pass under its control. You will see fhaf what we desire to emphasise or, at any rate,
to imply is that in the work in which we are jointly engaging we are establishing a branch
of national scientific activity which is not likely to come to an end for a very long time, if
ever.
Yours sincerely,

A.C.D. Rivett
CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY

23rd September, 1929


Dr. A.C.D. Rlvett,
Chief Executive Officer,
Commonwealth Council for Scientific and lndustrial Research,
314 Albert Street, EAST MELBOURNE.

Dear Sir,
Replying to your letter of 7th September, B am glad to note your concurrence with
the proposals of my letter of 3rd. September, defining a general understanding with
regard to the establishment and upkeep of a laboratory within the University for the
Division of Animal Health of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. P see no
objection to your re-draft of paragraph (1). I shall place the correspondence which has
passed between us before the Senate of the University at its next meeting and shall inform
you later ifit meets with its approval. I realise, as I know you do, that in a co-operatlve
undertaking of this kind, the first essential for success is mutual good-will, which, I am
sure, will not be lacking.
Yours faithfully,

R. S. WALLACE
VICE-CHANCELLOR
In the letter dated September 23rd, the Vice-Chancellor stated that he would place the correspondence
between them before the Senate at its next meeting and that he would inform the Chief Executive Officer if
it met with its approval. On October 14th, 1929, the correspondence between the Vice-Chancellor and the
Chief Executive Officer of the CSlR in relation to the establishment of the laboratory was submitted and
approved.

On June 2nd, 1930, the Buildings and Grounds Committee successfully recommended to the Senate that
the plans submitted for the Laboratory by the CSlR be approved subject to the Vice- Chancellor and Dr.
Bradfield being satisfied as to details. The Minutes stated that these two had examined two sets of plans
submitted, and recommended the adoption of the plan showing a building without a tower. This plan was
the one originally approved by the CSIR. A letter dated June 4th, 1930, from the Acting Registrar to the
Secretary of the CSIR, confirmed this approval by the Senate.

The Minutes of the Senate meetings to the end of 1930 have been examined and found to contain nothing
about a formal legal covenant between the University of Sydney and the CSlR on the lease of the site by
the latter, nor any proposed action should the University wish to terminate the occupancy of the
LEabaratory by the CSIR, or should the Council wish to terminate its occupancy.

This understanding stated in letters between the CSIR and the University and wlthaut formal legal
agreement was subsequently the basis for the building in the University grounds occupied by the National
Standards Laboratory. This matter was agreed to in letters between the CSlR ancf the Vice-Chancellor in

After the agreement between the University and the CSlR was reached, building of the F D McMaster
Animal Health Laboratory was planned and begun. It was i o run east-west close to the Veterinary School
and parallel to Parramatta Road.

Early planning was undertaken by Ian Clunies Ross, B.V.Sc., who, as a parasitologist, was employed by
the CSIR, although working at the University, and H.R. Carne, B.V.Sc., later Professor and head of the
Department of Veterinary Pathology. The new Laboratory was to provide facilities in practical classes In
veterinary pathology and for the latter's personal research into caseous lymphadenitis (CIA) of sheep that
was already financed by a grant from the CSIR. In fact, Sir George Julius had afready offered H.R. Carne
a post In the CSIR, which included work on the plans and specifications of the Laboratory. Although this
was a tempting offer he felt that he should not relinquish the lectureship to which he had recently been
appointed. There was also a close relationship with the University through Professor 4.D. Stewart, Dean of
the School of Veterinary Science, during the plannir~gand erection of the building.

Tenders for the construction of the Laboratory were called after revised plans from the Chief Designing
Architect were discussed between Sir George Julius and the Director of Works in New South Wales. The
possibility of a third floor in the future was then discussed and it was decided that some slight
I

modffications to the plan would be necessary and that sketch plans for these alterations would be
supplied. A third floor was never added.

A contract was signed between Beat Bros. Ltd. and the Commonwealth of Australia on September 8th,
1930, for the erection of a two-storey building at the University of Sydney t o b e known as the F.D.
McMaster Animal Health Laboratory. The originel price was E 20,207 which was revised to bring
expenditure down to approximately E 18,200.

There was also some further discussion over the final price of the building and furnishings which was not
to exceed the E 20,000 donated by Mr F. D. McMaster, because the CSIR could not provide any extra
money. Certain features such as the types of tiles inside the building were modified to bring down the
cost, which was finally just short of the E 20,000.

H.R. Carne supervised the selection and installation of fittings and equipment for the various iaboratorles,
service rooms, and photographic unit etc. This involved frequent consultation with architects and
builders.

The 34 weeks allowed for construction meant that the building would have been completed by April 24th,
1931. Unfortunately, this had to be delayed. A large part of the site that had been swampy had been
packed with earth filling. This provided an unsatisfactory bed for piles that had already been driven in for
a proposed building for the Veterinary School. These were tested for suitability and eventually removed,
and new piles driven for the CSIR Laboratory.

The F.D. McMaster Animal Health Laboratory was opened by the Chancellor of the University of Sydney,
Sir William Cullen, on November 26th, 1931, in the presence of the Chairman of the Executive Committee
of the CSIR, Sir George Julius, the Minister of Agricu!ture for New South Wales, Mr. Dunn, as well as Mr. F.
D. McMaster and other leading people from the University and CSIR. Mr. McMaster in his speech stressed
the satisfaction he and his family felt in Raving made the benefaction that made the Laboratory possible.
He believed he had contributed in some srnall degree to furthering the primary industries and prosperity of
the country. After the conclusion of this speech, Sir William Cullen presented Mrs McMaster with a golden
key and asked her to open the doors, after which he declared the building open. Some of the origlnal
staff, including Hugh Gordon, uriofficially occupied some laboratories sometime before the official
opening.

it was subsequently decided that the headquarters of the Division of Animal Health would remain in
Melbourne.
Ian McMaster Wing

Since the opening there have inevitably been various additions in the University grounds for housing both
sheep and small experimental animals, space for garages, workshops, slaughter and post-mortem rooms
and an incinerator. Any addition that encroached upon their grounds was always made aRer agreement
with the University of Sydney. These must all be included in this history. However, a major addition to the
McMaster Laboratory was the Ian Mc41sster Wing.

In about 1954 Sir Frederick McMaster visited the Laboratory and saw how cramped the facilities were. At
that time Mr. Dudley Gill, then Chief of the Division of Animal Health and Production, had decided to
spend most of his time in Sydney and was using as an office the room he had previously occupied as 0-1-
C. Dr Douglas Stewart, who was then 8-i-C, had only a small room, Sir Frederick then said in effect that
he was not fulfilling his obligations to the Laboratory. Shortly afterwards he donated Commonwealth
bonds to be held in trust by the University of Sydney for the CSlRO to build an addition to McMaster
Laboratory. The addition was to be known as the Ian McMaster Wing in memory of his only son, Captain
Ian McMaster, M.C. Sir Frederick died shortly after making this generous donation. i

Again, there was close co-operation between the CSlRO and the University whose permission was
necessary before the wing could be built. The Registrar of the University wrote to the Secretary (General
Administration) in December 1954, agreeing t o commission the architects and arrange for the
construction of the building. As with the original Laboratory, it was agreed that the University would have
the first option on the building should the CSlRO vacate it at any time. Unfortunately, although the face
value of the bonds was E 52,000, they were only expected to yield about f 40,000 when surrendered.
Because this was insufficient to pay for the Wing, the Chief of the Division decided that the short-fall
should come from the Ian McMaster Bequest also held by the University and normally used to pay for
visitors to or studentships with the Laboratory. Although this intention was opposed by Dr. B.F. Stewart,
the Chief did not press the CSlRO to make good the short-fall from its own funds.

The Ian McMaster Wing was eventually handed over to the CSlRO and opened by His Excellency Sir John
Northcon, Governor of New South Wales, on November 14th, 1956, before representatives of the CSIRO,
the University and graziers organizations. His Excellency was welcomed by Sir Charles Bickerton
Blackburn, Chancellor of the University. Sir Ian Clunies Ross presided over the gathering, whlch was also
attended by Lady McMaster and Miss Thelma McMaster. The Wing initially housed the headquarters of
the Division, a new Library and the Animal Breeding Section on the upper floor. There was also a
basement for a workshop and coldroom. Since then, the Wing has been put to other uses and at present
houses the administrative staff of the Laboratory on the ground floor and provides a staff room for
meetings and seminars, and is used as a tea room.

Buildings for animal accommodation, garages and workshop, etc., are described in Chapter IV.
CHAPTER ll

The F.D. McMaster Animai Health Laboratory The Early Years -


by H.McL. Gordon.

Towards the end of 1930 and on through 1931 there were, in the Veterinary School at the University of
Sydney, as we watched the building of the McMaster Laboratory, nine of us whose lives and careers were
to be moulded on our early years in that laboratory.

Dr. Ian Clunies Ross was then Parasitologlst to CSlR and lecturer in Veterinary Parasitology. Dr. G.P.
Kauzal had come from Hungary in 1927 and was engaged in parasitological research under the guldance
of Clunies Ross. N.P.H. Graham was House Surgeon, having graduated B.V.Sc. in 1930. Fred Hamilton
was a general assistant to George Williams who was in charge of the animals at the Veterinary School as
well as caretaker and lived in the cottage immediately west of the laboratory: Re taught us the care and
handling of livestock, including horseshoeing. W.I.B. Beveridge and myself were undergraduates in final
year (with S.P. Hebden and L.F. Rickard-Bell). V.G. Cole was laboratory assistant to Ciunies Ross. H.R.
Carne was lecturer in veterinary pathology and bacteriology. H.A. Offord was a general assistant in the
Veterinary School, (referred to by Professor J.D. Stewart as 'the boy').

We watched and heard the driving of the great concrete piers on which the laboratory was built. These
piers were 25 feet long, 12 inches square, with a steel core, and were driven by a great pile driver into the
ground which was 'fill' from the excavations for the underground railway in the city. The laboratory was
thus built on reclaimed ground which had been a deep gully west of the Veterinary School.

Little did 1 think then that the McMaster Laboratory was to be my 'working home9for the rest of my Ilfe,
and that those other eight men were all to have an enduring influence on my research and professional
reDationships and on the enduring importance of research in the McMaster.

Having graduated early in 1931 (graduation ceremonies were then held in the year following the final year
of the course: a four year course in those days), I was awarded a Walter and a Eliza I-iall Veterinary
Research Fellowship, and then, sharing a tiny laboratory with G.P. Kakrzai, began to work with the
parasites and parasitic diseases of sheep. This small laboratory was located at the north end of the
upstairs corridor of the Veterinary School.

There were four pens for sheep located where the east end of the present Annexe of the McMaster is
situated. Fred Hamilton attended to the sheep, did our washing up, and generally helped most of the staff
in the Veterinary School, including Graham in the Clinic. Ciunies Ross had an office cum taboratory In the
same corridor to the south of the library (with its rounded windows above the entrance to the School)
Which was opposite the head of the stairs. Victor Cole had a few metres of bench in this room.
Thus we watched with keen anticipation, the completion of the McMaster and on a memorable day In
August 1931 we began to move into a new and truly sumptuous laboratory, soon to be joined by Helen
Newton Turner, recently graduated Bachelor of Architecture, who became secretary to Clunles Ross who
had hls office immediately west of the northern, and main, entrance to McMasfer. H.R. Carne had an
office immediately opposite. Offord had come from the Veterinary School with Carne and was In charge
of the 'kitchen' where media making and the preparation of glassware soon became his province. In the
'scullery' was Mrs Mary Glover who did the washing up, made morning and afternoon tea and generally
'mothered' us. Mrs Wardman was cleaner - quite a task as the laboratory staff grew.

The McMaster was opened officially on 26th November 1931 when Mrs (later Lady) McMaster turned a key
in the front door - Harry Offord being inside in case the key did not work.

From early 1932 the staff began to expand. Upstairs the south-eastern section had a large laboratory
shared by Kauzal and me. Next door Clunies Ross had a laboratory in which much of the studies on tick
paralysis, begun some years earlier in the Veterinary School by him, was carried on. His technlclan, Cole,
became adept at dissecting out the salivary glands of the licks. Cole had a sarge laboratory in the north-
east corner and there we carried out worm egg counts, made and incubated faecal custures and made
worm counts on material from autopsies conducted in the post-mortem room immediately below. This
laboratory had a small annexed 'hot room' where temperature could be controlled for the Incubation of
sheep faeces for the supply of infective larvae of the nematodes under study. Also in this 'working'
laboratory was a battery of Baermann Funnels used by Kauzal who was investigating the bionomics of the
free-living stages of the parasites by exarnination of soil and pasture samples from the field station
"Hinchlnbrook".

The libra~yoccupied the small room opposite the Read of the main stairs, and safer expanded westwards
and was very cramped until the Oat-i McMaster Wing was opened In 1956. Further west upstairs there was
a large room where RNo members of the Division of Plant industry (located ln Canberra) carried out work
In Australian grown tobacco. Occasionally 'experimental' cigarettes were made and offered to the
smokers on the staff for testing. This room became our first 'common room9and was later subdivided.
Further west again a laboratory housed N.P.H. Graham, joined later by K.L. Taylor (one of my cousins
who was an agriculture graduate who subsequently went to Canberra and was Technical Secretary of thd
Division of Entomology, and later still went to Tasmania to work on the Sirex Wasp, a predator in pine
plantations.) He and Graham began to study the ectoparasites of sheep, especially the Ked (Melophaaus
ovinus) and body louse m a l i n i a ovis). Graham was designated 'Field Officer' and had most of the
responsibility for the development of fencing, yards, pasture sowing and top-dressing at 'Hlnchinbrook'.
His experience as a jackeroo in northern NSW (at 'Dungalear' Walgett, where later he and D.A. Gill carried
out a series of most important studies on sheep blowfly) proved very useful. For some years (1932 - 1937)
Graham was seconded to the George Aitken Pastoral Research Trust with a roving commission in which
he travelled widely in eastern Australia establishing contact with the grazing industry and maintaining
I

liaison with Departments of Agriculture in the investigation of diseases of sheep. (see section on field
trials). In this role he took laboratory findings to the field and brought field problems to the laboratory: a
highly important enterprise which went far in establishing the name and reputation of the ~ c ~ a s t e r .
Nowadays it might have been termed public relations, and indeed it was just that and a great deal more as
it kept well to the fore the immediate as well as long term needs of the sheep industry for research Into
disease and production. He travelled initially in a tiny 'Baby' Austin car, later in a red Ford 'Ute'. (There is
a remarkable photograph of Clunies Ross standing up in the Austin as he surveys the sweep of the Old
Man Plain in the western Riverina - it is reproduced in Pioneers of Wool.) I had great pleasure and
instruction from Graham as we travelled and worked together in the field. When we were developing the
use of arsenical enemas for treatment against Nodule Worm (Oeso~haaostomumcoiurnbianum) he and I
spent a week near Jugiong NSW administering 2 quarts (about 2 litres) to each of 2008 sheep.

Also upstairs on the south side just w ~ sof


t the top of the stairs a large room was fitted with benches and
plumbing and served for practical classes in bacteriology and pathology for the 3rd year undergraduates
in Veterinary Science: a nice cooperative facility between CSiR and the University. This arrangement
continued for some years until the pathology laboratory in the School was extended.

Downstairs the south-east corner had the post rnortem room with wide windows affording a vantage point
to see who came and went via the Veterinary School. Many hours were spent there on autopsies on
sheep used in the testing of anthelmintics and in studying the oesophageal reflex and washing large
quantities of faeces through sieves to collect the large bowel parasites. Next door was the hlstopathology
laboratory where Len Whitlock, shared between CSlR and University, developed his skills in the
preparation of tissue sections. He had come into McMaster fs service the needs of practical classes and
of CSIR staff. His meticulous technology was mirrored a few years later when his younger brother,
Harold, came to replace Cole wRen he entered the course in Veterinary Science in 1933. Among Harold's
skills and ingenuity is the McMaster Worm Egg Count technique, and its many advances and variations
throughout the parasitological world. In the south-western corner a photographic darkroom was the
domain of Ed Parrish, a skilled and affable photographer and in spite of a spinal deformity expert rifle shot
and a fine tennis player as well as a man of charm and character. One remembers him with appreciation
and affection, as we did of his successor, Ian Roper. Many a good evening's tennis was enjoyed at Harry
Offard's club in Leichhardt, with Harry, Len Whitlock, Ed Parrish, Victor Cole and me. I lived in Glebe and
spent many evenings in McMaster at the microscope, and in the Veterinary School as l 'worked' the
ancient projector to show slides to illustrate a series of lectures in genetics given by Clunies Ross to the
Workers Education Association Group.

There were laboratories for W.I.B. Beveridge who began his meticulous studies on footrot which did much
to illuminate the pathology and epidemiology of the disease, point the way to control measures and
gained him his D.V.Sc., then we had a place for W.A.Carr-Fraser, Sydney graduate in Veterinary Science
recently returned from attaining his Ph.D. from Aberdeen - and representing Scotland in Rugby. He
brought improved techniques in haematology and introduced us to mathematical statlstics whlch had us
looking more closely at our data: it was not just sufficient to 'see the difference'. He and Clunies Ross dld
not always see eye to eye in such matters. Carr-Fraser had tremendous energy and enthusiasm as he
began to look at the relationships between nutrition and resistance to helminthosis. His enthusiasm for
mathematical statistics encouraged Helen Turner into this discipline which she developed and extended
and went on into sheep breeding and genetics. The Bachelor of Architecture went on to become a
Mistress of Genetics! Having advanced from caring for the secretarial needs of the Officer-in-Charge
Helen Turner acquired an assistant - a quiet and gentle lass, Violet Willis, whose severe asthmatic attacks
eventually were fatal. She was the first of the few who have died while members of the staff. There is a
photograph of her in McMaster.

Last but not least of the early staff was Bill Charleton who presided over the small animal colony: later he
went on to become a qualified Meat Inspector.

One may look back to the attributes and experience of those of us who might be regarded as 'the Old
Hands'. Clunies Ross had worked on Tick Paralysis, Hydatid Disease (which earned him his D.V.sc.,) and
with A.G. McKay (who was a Walter and Eliza Hall Fellow, as was Clunies Ross earlier) on Liver Fluke, and
with Sydney Dodd in testing Black Disease vaccination, and with H.R. Seddon (Glenfield Veterinary
Research Station) on anthelrnintics, and had spent some time at the Molteno lnsfitufe In Cambridge, and
in England had contact and instruction from R.T. Leiper and T.W.M. Cameron. (My colleague, L.K.
Whitten also employed for a short time at the Laboratory, used to refer to a s~ccessionof teachers of
parasitology - Leukart, Looss, Leiper, Cameron, Clunies Ross, Gordon. Later after his time, there were
Arundel, Rickard, Beveridge, Kelly, Dunsmore - and Whitten himself lectured in Malaysia). Clunies Ross
spent part of 1929 - 1930 in the Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Imperial University, Tokyo. Thus
he brought a wealth of experience and contacts in the wide field of parasitology to McMaster.

Kauzal, who graduated from the Veterinary School in Budapest, had worked with Professor Kotlan, then
an internationally acknowledged parasitologist, before coming to Australia in I927 when, with financial
assistance from Pastures Protection Boards, he began a series of surveys of the geographical and
seasonal occurrence of the worm parasites of pigs and sheep. Later, with Clunies Ross he worked on the
life-cycie, pathogenicity and control of the Kidney Worm (Ste~hanurusdentatus) of pigs. He was an
experienced parasitologist.

Graham had been an undergraduate for a year or fwo in the Faculty of Agriculture before 'going bush' to
work as a jackeroo on 'Dungalear' at Walgett before entering the Faculty of Veterinary Science in 1926.
He was House Surgeon in the Veterinary Clinic in 1930. His experience as a jackeroa was well applied
when he supervised the constructie~I of fencing and especially sheep yards at 'Hinchinbrook' which used
a 'bugle' design which facilitated the free-movement of the sheep as they approached the drenching and
drafting races on a curve. (This was an old desigp which only in more recent years, 1980's, Ras come to
the fore again when decreasing availability of farnr labour necessitated better sheep handling facilities).
Dr. H.R.Carne, although never on the staff of the Laboratory, had recently returned, 1928, from a year In
France at the Laboratoire Nationale de Researche Veterinaire and Pasteur Institute, and had from that year
been lecturing in veterinary pathology and bacteriology. From him we had kindly advice and instruction
and the need for meticulous application in research: reflected in his studies on caseous lymphadenitis.
Carr-Fraser had recently returned from taking his Ph.D. at the Rowett Research Institute at Aberdeen and
brought new techniques in haematology and an infectious enthusiasm for mathematical statsstlcs which
was transmitted to Helen Turner who brought the precision and imagination of the architect t o her
secretarial duties and then on into the world of research. Ian Beveridge and 1 were raw graduates but we
had useful bacl<groundsfrom growing up in the grazing industry and we were keen to discover. (Ian's first
book, 'The Art of Scientific Investigation9,reflects his deeper interests in the 'philosophy' of his science.)

Thus the McMaster had a rich and varied background: its name endures and one trusts will endure.

Our facilities were by modern standards, meagre and simple but they sufficed. The laboratory was
'modern' - even advanced, for the times (60 years ago). There were four pens for sheep - 10 sheep each -
and a small shed for storage of fodder. Fred Hamilton was in charge. (I think that these pens had been
built by the University a few years before). One pen was converted' for Beveridge's footrot work by having
its edges raised to provide a shallow pool in which sheep had to stand: it was extraordinary the efforts the
sheep made to keep their feet out of the water. Later when Graham began to work on ectoparasites a
small dip and yards were added, and then, to cater for the need to raise sheep free from worm parasites, a
cage shed was built with open front and small raised pens with slotted (grating) floors. For a time we
grazed sheep on the lawns surrounding the laboratory, and we utilised sheep from the nondescript flock
used by the University groundsman to keep the grass short on the sporting ovals and surroundings (no
power mowers in those days). The ravages of stray dogs eventuasly led to disbanding this flock.

Thanks to the generosity of Sir Frederick McMastsr we were able to use 300 acres of the 2000 acres of
'Hinchinbrook', which he had rented to graze cattle. It was located near Kemp's Greek, a few kilomotres
from the present McMaster Farm at Badgery9sCreek. it was in cattle at 'Hinchinbrook' that we found what
appeared to be a new species of Cooperia - one of the nematode parasites of the small Intestine. It was
named Cooperia mcmasteri (it is almost certainly C.surnabada) and we had it on display at the opening of
the laboratory. Lady McMaster remarked that there was no family resemblance! The 300 acres provided
six 15 acre paddocks for experiments on the effects of different degrees of infection on the productivity of
sheep, and the remainder of tlie area was used to maintain a breeding flock which provided lambs to be
raised worm-free at the laboratory, for work with caseous lymphadenitis, and a small programme of cross-
breeding to examine the inheritance of wool and mutton charscters. (Some ewes from the Camden Park
flock were crossed with Border Leicester rams).

There was a small hut which served as field laboratory and on a few occasions Victor Cole, then an
undergraduate in Veterinary Science but working for CSlR in spare hours and weekends, (we were in the
laboratory on Saturday mornlngs in those days) and a fellow student (Ron Greville) spent the weekend
there when field experiments required daily care. We commuted to 'Hinchinbrook' in a second hand
Austin with trailer for carrying sheep, and some of us in addition if there was a large party. (On one
occasion the Austin carried Clunies Ross and Dr. J.A. Gilruth, then Chief of the Division ('Old Jock' as we
irreverently but affectionately called him). The pastures were top-dressed and seeded by a few of us
walking abreast, each with a bag of seed and superphosphate. Water came from troughs fed by siphon
from the open channel which corlveyed water from the upper Nepean dams to the Prospect reservoir of
the Sydney Water Board.

'Hinchinbrook' served our needs for field studies until 1936 when CSIR and the University of Sydney
acquired Badgery's Creek from the Buffier family, with financial help from Sir Frederick McMaster. The
University section became the McGarvie Smith Farm (funded from the McGarvie Smith Institute which
produced the first anti-anthrax vaccine in Australia). A dairy farm was established and there H.J. Geddes
developed his water harvesting system. The students In final year of the course in veterinary science (by
then a five-year course) spent most of that year in residence on the farm. The CSlR section became the
McMaster Field Station where the fate R.B. Kelley established what was later to become the Division of
Animal Production, and the McMaster Farm where we conducted parasitological work and bred lambs
which were brought to the laboratory and raised worm-free for the maintenance of 'pure' hfections with
individual species of helminths and for immunological studies which required parasitologically naive
sheep.

Early Field Work

Most of the field work devesoped via personal contacts with sheepowners. Clunies Ross had been
engaged In field work in the early testing of Black Disease vaccines developed by Dodd (then lecturer in
pathology and bacteriology in the Veterinary School during the early 1920's). Clunies Ross was well
known through his activities as a speaker on foreign and other affairs over the radio and through
progressive contacts with members of the grazing industries. Sir Frederick McMaster often introduced
fellow pastoralists and Clunies Ross was also a steward, with Sir Frederick, In the beef cattle section of the
Royal Agricultural Society show. Graharri had many country contacts which were extended when he was
seconded to the George Aitkin Pastoral Research Trust. Beveridge and myself came from grazing
properties in the eastern Riverina and New England regions respectively and consequently had many rural
contacts and were soon known to be concerned with research on sheep diseases at the McMaster
Laboratory. Beveridge's secondment t o the Australian Pastoral Co. at "Noondoo" On southern
Queensland, and my secondment to Grazcos (1935) further extended contact with the sheep Industry.

The early field trials at 'Frodsley' in Tasmania, 'Gundowringa', Crookwell, NSW and 'Meteor Downs' in
Queensland aroused much interest among rocal graziers. In the early 1930's the State Departments of
Agriculture had few veterinarians on their staffs and were not fully served by research and extension
functions, especially the more specialised aspects, e.g. the diseases caused by hehinth parasites,
footrot, flystrike, ectoparasites, and as information on these and allied problems developed in CSIR,
largely at the McMaster, there were increasing calls on the staff for investigation and instruction.
Beveridge was seconded to 'Noondoo', then a very large property (around 1 million acres) where he
investigated flystrike, including the Mules Operation, then a very new intervention In the control of the
disease. My year with Grazcos was the stimulus for the epidemiological work In New England.

Clunles Ross was early recognised as a 'man for the future' with the prospect - fully achleved - of
becoming of considerable importance and influence. This recognition brought further contacts 0.g. E.H.
Lefroy of 'Cranmore Park', Moora, W.A.

All of these circumstances contributed to the early and extensive application of work at McMaster Into the
field. The close and essentially practical nature of this aspect of research provided a strong sense of
participation between research and industry, and above all it enabled an early assessment of the
applicability and practicality of research findings.

'Frodsley', located at Fingal some 70 km south-east from Launceston, Tasmania, is In a high rainfall region
with rather poor soil and sowiy productive natural pastures. There were serious problems with
malnutrition, exacerbated by parasitic diseases including fasciolosls and gastrointestinal helmlnthosls.
The owner, K.E.Brodribb, was enthusiastic In the 'improvement' of pastures and disease control and was
keen for investigations. Field work was initiated by C8unies Ross and resulted In an extensive program of
drainage to reduce the extent of the habitats of the snails and thereby assist in tRe control of fasciolosis. (I
spent an extra few days of my honeymoon at Frodsley in February 1937 to cReck the effectiveness of the
drainage system). A series of simple trials with anthelmintics - remembering that in the early 1930's the
efficiency of these drugs was very limited - showed that general thrift and especially wool quality could be
improved even though the control of the parasites was not highly efficient.

These trials, as with most field trials, raised further problems and ttiere were many further investigations,
later carried out by the Tasmanian Depaflment of Agriculture. The transfer of investigation from @SIRto
the Department of Agriculture was a feature of much of the field work initiated at the McMaster Laboratory.

The trials at "Gundowringa" (near Croob~ellon the Southern Tablelands in NSW) had their genesis In the
concern by graziers that one of the fruits of the 'pastoral revolution' as manifest in the development of
highly productive sown pastures with consequent increased stocking rates might greatly increase the
hazards of parasitic diseases and perhaps also adversely affect wool quality. improved nutrition might
increase fibre diameter and later the colour and 'character' of the fleece. The results are well summarised
in the paper by Clunies Ross in the old CSIR journal and it is felt that as these concPusions also express
much of the qualities of expression and 'philosophy' of Ciunies Ross that a full quotation is merited.

In the "Gundowring" trials Corriedale sheep were used and there was some concern that the possible
effects of highly improved pastures on Merino wool might be different. Accordingly a trial was carried out
with sheep in the "Merryville" (Yass) superfine wool flock, with the collaboration of Walter (later Sir Walter)
Merriman, noted breeder of superfine Merino sheep. The results are in the last scientific paper which
bears the name of Clunies Ross (with Helen Turner, Norman Graham, Harold Carter and Hirsh Munz). The
results dispelled most of the doubts expressed by the breeders of fine and superfine Merino wool that the
Improved nutrition provided by improved pastures might adversely affect wool quality.

A similar trial at "Frodsley" in Tasmania supported these findings and there was a general conclusion that
while the higher plane of nutrition might result in a slight increase in fibre diameter this did not detract from
the value of the fleece which was heavier and the fibre more everliy grown than that of sheep grazing
natural pastures.

The trial at "Meteor Downs" in the southern part of the Central Highlands of Queensland (near Sprlngsure)
was prompted by the serious outbreaks of haemonchosis which occurred In the region, not regularly but
periodically depending on the incidence of rainfall. The results showed that sheep could tolerate
moderate numbers of Haemonchus contortus without serious detriment to health and productivity, and
provided field evidence that carbon tetrachloride was very effective against this parasite. This trial was
carried out in 1932. Epidemiological studies were begun in the more northerly part of this reglon from the
late 1940's in collaboration with the Department of Agriculture, and similar trials were conducted in the
western Darling Downs region of Queensland during those years.

During the mid to late 1940's limited trials were carried out In South Australia in collaboration with John ,

Lee of the CSlR Animal Nutrition laboratory in Adelaide. Trials were located at Kybybollte In the south
east, at Clare, north of Adelaide and at Pillana on Eyre Peninsula. From the early 1950's trials began In
Tasmania (to extend the earlier findings at "Frodsley") located in the Branxholm-Bridport region in the
north east, Triabunna on the east coast and at Cressey Farm in central Tasmania. During this period trials
were conducted in Western Australia over a wide area extending from Moora in the north through
Toodyay, Beverley and Kellerberrin to Kojonup, Williams and Bridgetown and Cranbrook in the south
west. During 1959 - 60 I.W. Parnell moved from MchAaster to Perth where he conducted a more extensive
trlal based on the CSlR Field Station at Kojonup. From the late 4940's trials began in the Southern and
Central Tablelands region in NSW, first at Yass, Canberra and Bungendore then at Goulburn, Oberon and
Mt. Lambie (Rydai) and several of these trials were continued until I retired In 1974, each adding to
knowledge of epidemiofogy, affects of parasitic disease on productivity, and control, including extended
observations on prime lamb production in the Bberon region. it was during this period that the extensive
work on the application of molluscicides in the control of fasciolosis was in progress.
CHAPTER Pil

The Division, Finance, Administration and the


Organisation of Research

The Divlsion and the Institutes

Changes to the name and organisation of the Division of Animal Health are relevant to the history of the
Laboratory because, if for no other reason, they have determined the range of research therein.

Initially, as it is now, it was known as the Division of Animal Health, but there have been changes since
January, 1930, when it was first formed as part of the CSIR. Dr Gifruth was appointed as Actlrrg Chief and
was formally Chief of the Division by June 30th, 1934. He was stationed in Parkville, Melbourne, which
was then, and has almost continuously been, the headquarters of the Division.

In 1935 Dr Bull became Chief of both the Divisions of Animal Health and Nutrition. He had been at the
University of Adelaide. After only about a year Re became Chief of the combined Divislon of Animal Health
and Nutrition, a position he held until Animal Nutrition was split off to become the Division of Biochemistry
and General Nutrition in 1944 under H R Marston. The Division of Animal Health was then renamed the
Division of Animal Health and Production, but Dr Bull remained Chief.

The Council for Scientific and lndustrial Research became the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
Research Organisation in 1949.

In 1959 Dudley Gill, the 0-I-C of the laboratory, also became Assistant Chief of the Division.

Some of the staff of the Laboratory, notably Helen Newton Turner, were transferred to the Division of
Mathematical Statistics but remained at the Laboratory. When the Animal Genetics Unit, under Dr J M
Rendel, was formed in 1952 some of the staff of the new unit, previously on the staff, were transferred, but
also remained at the Laboratory.

When Dudley Gill, who took Dr Bull's place as Chief of the Division, retired in April, 1959, It was split into
three; (1) the Division of Animal Health, with Dr Gregory in Melbourne as Chief and Dr D. F. Stewart at
McMaster Laboratory as Associate Chief; (2) the Division of Animal Genetics O
n North Ryde, Sydney, with
Dr Rendel as Chief; (3) the Division of Animal Physiology at the Ian Clunies Ross Research Laboratory,
Prospect, Sydney, with Dr I.W. McDonald, as Chief.

The Division has been known as the Division of Animal Health ever since then. The headquarters
remained in Melbourne, although Dudley Gill as Chief was at McMaster Laboratory. When Dr A K
Lascelles became Chief, he too, always had a0 office at the Laboratory, whereas the headquarters
remained in Melbourne. Furthermore, when Dr Donald became Chief, he too, had an office nearby,
although the headquarters of the Division did not come to Sydney until the retirement of Kevin Hodges as
Divisional Administrative Officer. During the term of Dr. Dineen as Acting Chief of the Division the
headquarters remained in Sydney until he retired. When Dr Bagust became Acting Chlef and the
headquarters returned to Melbourne, Dr Donald became Director of the new lnstitute of Anlmal Products
and Processing. This occurred early in 1988. Since early in 1989, Dr M. D. Rickard has been Chief of the
Division. Although changes to the head offices of the CSlR and the CSIRO obviously affected the
organisation of the Division and hence the Laboratory, they need not be outlined in this history. On the
other hand, the grouping and general organizaton of related Divisions dicf reflect the overall outlook of the
management of the CSlR and CSIRO.

In the CSlR the Chief Executive at Head Office, then In Melbourne, did directly Influence the staff and
outlook of the Divisions, and hence, of the Laboratory. For instance, before Barbara Johnston was
employed as a librarian at the Laboratory, she had to yo to Melbourne to be interviewed by Sir George
Julius. As the size of the CSlR and then the CSlRO grew, the influence became less direct and the
supporting bureaucracy inevitably also grew. Details are interesting, but are not the concern of this
history.

When the Division was split into three, each Chief became a member of the Animal Research Committee
of which Dr. Rendel was Chairman. On the retirement and sudden death of H. R. Marston, Br A. T. Dick,
became Chief of the Division of Nutritional Biochemistry, as it was then called, and joined the Committee.
Dr Stewart, as Associate Chief of the Division of Animal Health also became a member In 1961. In 1974 Dr
K A Ferguson Assistant Chief of the Division of Animal Production, became Chairman and moved to
Canberra. This Committee discussed research problems and Initiatives of these Divisions.

The Animal Research Committee was in existence until 1978 when the institute of Animal and Food
Sciences was formed with Dr Ferguson as Director. From 1975 to 1977 he had been an associate
member of the CSIRO Executive. The Divisions in this Institute have changed from time to time with
changes in the organization of the CSIRO, but originally included Anirnas Production, Fisheries Research,
Food Research, Human Nutrition as well as Animal Health and two or three Units which included
Molecular and Cellular Biology. When Dr Fergerson retired in ApriD 9986, Dr Donald, who had been Chief
of the Division of Animal Health, became Acting Director until the formation of the institute of Animal
Products and Processing of which he was appointed Director in 1988. The Divisions In this new Institute
consist of Animal Health, Animal Production, Wool Processing, Tropical Animal Production, Food
Processing and Human Nutrition. Again it is obvious that there has been a regrouping and renaming of
some Divisions, but this is not the concern of this history.

The functions of these two Institutes reflect changes in the outlook of research in Austrasia and of the
greater control by government and industry. This control, or accountability, reflects the financial
restrictions and outlook in many countries, not only Australia. It must also influence research and Its
L
finance in the Laboratory.

Financial Organization

The research undertaken at the Laboratory is described below. It is its finance and changes with time that
is described in this section.

Originally, in the days of the CSIR, all research was financed by appropriations from the Federal Treasury.
This was then allotted to Divisions. The finance of the Division of Animal Health was, in turn, allotted to the
constituent laboratories, one of which was, of course, the F. D. McMaster Animal Research Laboratory.
No doubt there was then, as there has been for some years, discussion and even argument with the Chief
as to how much was required and how it should bedivided.

Later, members of the Australian Wool Research Committee (AWRC) and the Australian Meat Research
Committee, which consisted of representatives of the respective rural industries, provided additional
money for research. The Laboratory was more involved with the former because its research was directed
to the sheep industry. Members of the Committees, particularly the AWRC, visited the Laboratory perhaps
twice a year to learn about the research undertaken and usually to be addressed by the researchers
involved. Dr Stewart said later that the Committees did not influence the direction of the research at the
Laboratory and that they never criticised or ever made a formal protest about the work. He was able to
use the grants as he wished.

Durlng those years the support from private firms was negligible. There were occasional donations from
some drug firms for such things as equipment, etc., but these were not directed to particular projects and a

were used at the discretion of Dr Stewart. He has en amusing story of a donation from the local branch of
a well-known drug firm which was subsequently not approved by the overseas head office, but which had
already been spent.

Since about 1982 the financing of CSlRO research, including that of the Division of Animal Health and
hence that of this Laboratory, has changed radically. This change is related to restriction of money for
research in line with the genera! restriction of money and a call for accountability of spending.
Furthermore, the Australian Government decided that there was insufficient input into research by the rural
industry. For this reason several appropriate committees were re-formed into the Wool Industry Research
Council (ultimately the Wool Research and Development Corporation), to which all projects were to be
submitted for approval. A three-year period has allowed the CSlRO to adjust to this plan, after which it
would be on the same competitive basis as ail other applicants for funds.

To a large extent this possibility has been answered by changes within the CSIRO. During 1989 the
CSIRO and the Officers' Association agreed that the majority of research appointments were t o be
Indefinite and that there were to be only a small numbers of term appointments with well-defined criteria.
This means that Divisions must put aside funds to enable them to change research projects according to
their assessment of what is required, to pressures from industry and possibly, from politicians. Research
staff must accommodate to these changes or become redundant. These changes in appointments must,
of course, affect this laboratory.

But of course, a growing proportions of funds for research do not now come from appropriations.
According to Dr Peter Waller, the 0-i-C of McMaster in 1988, about 72% to 73% of funds available to the
Laboratory still come from appropriations, and the remainder from industry. Industry funds come from the
Australian Wool Corporation, the National Biotechnoiogy Research Grant Scheme, which is administered
by the Industrial Research Development Board, other government agencies, as well as from private
pharmaceutical firms.

As the CSlRO is actively encouraged to look for funds from industry it is highly probable that the
proportion from this source will grow. Research in association with pharmaceutical firms is tactical rather
than strategic. Some are stricter than others, but in general, these arrangements range from collaboration
In research at the Laboratory to contracts which stipulate the nature and extent of the agreement. In
general, the value of the contract covers the salaries, overheads and operating cost of the project. The
difference between this total and the contract figure i.e. the 'profit margin' is retained for strategic
research. As the firm owns the results of that research, its publication may be restricted, although it Is
often subsequently published, for example, after one to three years.

These pharmaceutical firms have an incentive to contribute to research funds because there is a taxatlon
reduction of 150% on any money they offer. Research scientists within the Division, hence at the
Laboratory, also have an incentive t o seek out these contracts which are taken into account In
performance evaluation.

As Dr. Dineen said, the past Chiefs of the Division would not now recognise the responslbllltles of the
present Chief who has to spend much of his time making and examining collaborative agreements and
contracts with private firms and has insufficient time for planning and management of research. No doubt
the 0-i-C of the laboratory must also be involved in this type of work.

The main role of the CSlRO is to do strategic and tactical research, and, where appropriate, to transfer the
results to industry and produce funds through licensing arrangements where appropriate for future
research.

The opinions ot the Laboratory scientists on these financial changes vary. Some are uneasy to various
degrees, others accept them as inevitable. It can be argued that the Australian government Is only doing
what the governments of other countries are also doing.

It is obvious that big changes in the funding of rural research are underway. These have been dealt with in
some detail because they affect the future of this Laboratory.

Divisional overseas studentships to enable promising staff to obtain Ph.D.s and qualify as research officers
were funded from salary savings. C.H. Gallagher, D.S. Roberts, P.K. Briggs, A.D. Donald, P.J. Waller, B.A.
Panaretto, J.H. Thomas and D.B. Adams were included in this method.

Administration

Administration and the necessary staff grew with the Laboratory. Dr Ian Clunies Ross as the first 0-i-C
had what was then known officially as a Clerical Assistant, but to everyone else as a secretary. This was
Miss Helen Newton Turner whose distinguished career as a genetist and statistician is descrlbed In
Chapter IX. She occupied this position until 1934 when, according to the staff list, she became known as
Secretary and Statistician. The latter is an indication of her future career. She is listed in this position until
1937 when she became a Technical Officer (statistician) when D A Gill was 0-i-C. According to Helen
Turner, H H Wilson became the Clerk about 1939 and took over from her when she returned from
overseas. Harry Wilson's career was interrupted from about 1941/42 by his service as a navigator with
the RAAF. For some time he was with a flying boat squadron of the RAF in West Africa.

He is again listed as a Clerk in the Annual Report of 1946/47. According to the staff lists he was known as
Laboratory Secretary in 1954/55 when Dr D F Stewart was 0-i-C. In 1965166 he was known officially as
the Administrative Officer of the Laboratory when Dr Stewart was Associate Chief of the Division.

Harry Wilson had a long, distinguished administrative career. He was well-known to everyone at the
Laboratory and outside the Division, for example, at Head Office of the CSlRO and at the Regional
Administrative Office in Sydney. He was everitually invalided out of the CSlRO early in 1969 and died not
long afterwards.

He was succeeded by T A Lewis as Administrative Officer. Tom Lewis, who had a very long career in the,
CSlR and CSIRO, had been Senior Clerk at the Laboratory. He held the position as Administrative Officer
or Laboratory Secretary until his retirement in March, 1979.

At this point it is necessary to ask whether the terms Administrative Officer or Laboratory Secretary meant
anything more than names conjured up by Head Office. In fact, there was no difference between the
duties of each position.

Tom Lewis is named the Administrative Officer in one list and Laboratory Secretary in another, both of the
same date. After Tom Lewis, W J Carpenter became Laboratory Secretary until September, 1982. He had
also been Senior Clerk. Then in December of,that year, when Dr A D Donald was 0-i-C, G C Boswell
became Laboratory Secretary. L J Callachor became Laboratory Secretary in June, 1985, when Dr J K
Dineen was 0-i-C of the Laboratory and Assistant Chief of the Division. Leo Callachor held this position
until June, 1988, when he was succeeded by R I Gilbert. Ros Gilbert had also been Senior Clerk. Dr P J
Waller was 0-i-C at this time. Ros Gilbert was the first woman to become Laboratory Secretary, a position
she holds at this time. At present all the administrative staff are female.

When Dr Helen Turner began as Clerical Assistant or Secretary there was no other administration staff.
Later she had an assistant who died in tragic circumstances. The number of administration staff gradually
Increased. They are now known as Administration Staff Officers of various grades from one to six, but
nevertheless, are still known by their occupations. At the head of the group is the Laboratory Secretary,
beneath her is the Senior Clerk, but there is also a Purchasing Officer, an Assistant Purchasing
Officer/Stores and a Staff Clerk responsible for files, pay, mail, etc. There is a Steno-secretary, a Word
Processing Typist and a Receptionist, who is also the telephonist.

There is also a Technical Officer, who is visually the electrician, and a Laboratory Craftsman who attends
to all other problems the Laboratory may have. In fact, these two are so capable that it Is seldom that
anyone outside is called upon for assistance.

Earlier there were a stores officer, a driver, a mechanic responsible for the upkeep of the Laboratory
vehicles and at least two cleaners responsible for the individual laboratories and passage-ways. These
positions have now been eliminated.

Organization of Research

Research is, of course, the reason for the existence of this Laboratory. This section describes the
changes in organization that have taken place. The actual research is described in chapters V and VI.
The organization of research at the Laboratory changed with the change from the CSlR to the CSlRO and
the growth and sophistication of the latter. Involved too, were the availability of funds, the sources of
these funds and the accountability demanded by the Federal government.

In the years of the CSlR and before the formation of the then Divisions of Animal Physiology and Animal
Genetics, research at the Laboratory covered a very wide field. Research, although emphasis was upon
problems of internal parasites, included work with external parasites, bacteriological diseases,
biochemical studies, wool biology, nutrition and fertility of sheep. There was also studies of the hybrids of
Zebu cattle breeding problems at the F. D. McMaster Field Station at Badgery's Creek. The emphasis in
the early work with external parasites was with blow-fly strike. Biochemical studies included that of
mineral metabolism of sheep, the effect of poisonous plants, drought feeding, ram feeding and later, some
endocrinological studies. Wool studies included fleece chemistry and the physical characteristics of wool.
Bacteriological studies emphasized footrot and CLA of sheep and Corynebacterium species. Pregnancy
toxemia of ewes, enterotoxaemia and black disease of sheep were also investigated.
The formation of the Divisions of Animal Physiology and Animal Genetics reduced the range of work at the
Laboratory by taking away some of the research staff and their fields of work. Then in March 1982 that
part of the Division at lndooroopilly in Brisbane became part of the new Division of Tropical ~ n i m a l
Sciences.

As Dr Ferguson said on his retirement as Director of the Institute of Animal and Food Sciences, McMaster
has influenced the development of research in the CSlR and CSIRO. From people at the Laboratory come
the Divisions association with the wool industry, for example, the Division of Textile Physics, as well as the
Divisions of Animal Physiology and Animal Genetics. The early Fleece Analysis Laboratory at Villawood,
but closely associated with the McMaster Laboratory, was critical to the formation of the Division of Textile
Physics.

In the formative years of the Laboratory there was little formal division of research into well defined
groups. The inter-relationship between groups then and later is now uncertain, but undoubtly it did exist
between some groups and from time to time. Sometime after the CSlR became the CSlRO In 1949,
research was more formally divided into appropriate groups. Diseases from internal parasites was one
such group and included research on helminthiasis in New South Wales. Amongst those was listed
ecological, immunological, metabolic and anthelmintic studies, as well as some work on liver fluke
disease. Another group on bacteriological diseases included foot diseases of sheep and lumpy wool
(caseous lymphadenitis). There was a third group concerned with diseases due to external parasites,
while a fourth covered other areas of research such as antimicrobial factors in wax and melanotic livers in
sheep. But these groupings changed with time so that in the Divisional Annual Report of 1969/70 are
included biochemical studies of the host-parasite relationship in sheep, the isolation and identification of
the toxin of the dog tick (Ixodes holocvclus) and skin gland secretions of the wild rabbit.

By 1970 the work of these groups were often more widespread throughout eastern Australia, for example,
work on internal parasites included work in the Melbourne and Brisbane laboratories as well as at
McMaster. The work between two or three laboratories was becoming integrated.

The separate programs, which might include more than one laboratory within the Division were numbered.
Program I , Diseases caused by Bacteria, included Project 1 . I , foot diseases of sheep. Program 4,
External Parasites, included Project 4.1, Biting Insects of Livestock. Programs 5, Internal Parasites,
included projects on ecology, anthelmintics, pathology, biochemistry and immunity. Programs 9, Other
Areas of Research, included a project on organic chemistry. These are projects at this Laboratory and
each was accompanied by a statement of its objective.

There were, of course, changes with time in the names of these programs and of the projects within them.
For instance, in 1971 the programs on external parasites was expanded to contain projects on ecology,
on potential vectors of ephemral fever and on lice and the dog tick. The programs on internal parasites
included projects on the natural history of haemonchosis, on epidemiology control of helrninthosls of
sheep and on pathophysiology. Sometimes individual projects were widened to become speciflc
programs, for example, in 1974 pathophysiology became Program 5. In 1977, Infection and Immunity
became Program 10. In general, each program dealt with a specific problem, for example, diseases due
to external parasites or the various programs dealing with internal parasites. The latter covered a
widening field because of its importance to the Laboratory.

In the Divisional Annual Report of 1979/80 the word "programs" was dropped and the groups were merely
numbered, for example, 7 was external parasites and 8, internal parasites, but the projects were
numbered as before with a statement about aims or an outline of research.

Then in 1987 the McKinsey Enquiry that examined the structure of the CSlRO recommended changes that
had far-reaching effects on its organization and on funding and management of research.

Dr Stewart, O-i-C from 1954 and Associate Chief of the Division until 1974, has described the development
of a research program. About then he said that this was a gradual affair, depending on the gaps to
knowledge which are necessary to fill, the availability of staff and their special training and interest,
programs of the laboratories, the facilities and finance. Overall planning is always something of a
compromise influenced by these factors, but the major objective remains clearly defined.

This statement is true no longer when research is even more closely determined by the sources and
availability of finance and accountability to the politicians of the moment. In his introduction to the Annual
Report of 1981/82, Dr Ferguson, Director of the Institute of Animal and Food Sciences, of which the
Division of Animal Health was part, stated that ".....the Government policy of restraint on public spending
has meant an overall contraction in the resources available...." Later in the Report he went on to say that
"steady progress is being made to reduce levels of staffing and funding and to changing research needs,
with programs in all Divisions undergoing change".

At least three reports into the CSlRO had major effects on the direction and management of research at
the Laboratory. The first of these was a review of the Division commissioned by the Executive in 1981 at
the end of Dr Lascelles' term as Chief. These reviews were always held at the end of the term or on
retirement of a Chief of a Division. This review decided that research of the Division was to be on diseases
of sheep, cattle, pigs and poultry, with emphasis upon immunology. For the Laboratory, this entailed
emphasis upon internal parasites. The second was the McKinsey enquiry already referred to, and which
had a radical effect on the management of research in the Organization.

Apart from describing the present arrangements, it is unnecessary to follow in detail the progressive
changes to research and its management that has followed these two reports. First, the rural industry
must determine the projects undertaken by the Division. Doubtless there must be some compromise
between the rural industry and the Division, but it is the former that is overridingly important. Secondly, as
recommended by the McKinsey Enquiry, the CSlRO as a whole, must be run on more business-like lines.
Thirdly, the management of research within the lnstitute and the Division has changed. As a result of
these provisions, as Dr Donald, now director of the new Institute of Animal Products and Processing, has
said, the description by Dr Stewart, of the organization of research is no longer valid.

Until quite recently there were three programs at this Laboratory. Program K covered a wide field'of
parasitology related to molecular and biochemical pharmacology antiparasitic agents and their
pharmacokinetics and metabolism, population dynamics, epidemiology and control, molecular genetics of
anthelmintic resistance, sustainable control and self medication of ruminants in tethered husbandry
systems. It also included helniinths and nutrition of sheep in Northern China. Not all of this was at the
Laboratory, some was at Armidale and Parkville (including the last named project). However, Dr. John
Steel at the Laboratory was Program Manager. Program M, of which Dr. Ken Beh was Program Manager,
included molecular approaches to disease control, vaccine performance in farm animals (from Armidale)
and immunity to nematode infections of sheep. Program D was centred at the Animal Health Research
Laboratory at Parkville, but included some bacteriology at this Laboratory, namely fleece rot and vaccines
against salmonellosis and haemorrhagic septicaernia in sheep. However, with the advent of the new
Chief of the Division of Animal Health, Program M has been eliminated so that all work on aspects of
internal parasitism, including immunity is now part of Program K.

Briefly, the Chief will now decide priorities and aims of the Division and the staff necessary t o achieve
them. The Chief is responsible to the Director of the Institute who now has a more authoritative position
than in the past. On the other hand, work within each project within a given program is decided upon by
the Project Leader, who is responsible for the day to day decisions. The Leader, in turn, is responsible to
the Program Manager, who is responsible to the Chief of the Division. The Head of Laboratory, as the 0-i-
C is now known, is responsible for the management of the Laboratory as a whole, which, of course,
includes its administration.

As described here, the system appears rather rigid. In fact the actual situation depends very much upon
the personalities of the people involved. At this Laboratory there may be frequent consultation between
the Program Manager and the Project Leaders, who come to agreement before the Manager discusses
the matter and comes to some agreement with the Chief. The Head of Laboratory may also be Involved In
these discussions.

I
This series of responsibilities reverses those of previous years. Much now depends upon the Program
Manager and Project Leader. The whole system also effectively reduces the responsibility and necessity
of the bureaucracy at Head Office in Canberra to be involved with decisions on the direction and control
of research by the present Izrge number of Divisions. Furthermore, this system s x u l d please the
research scientist as it apparently reduces the size of the hitherto growing bureaucracy at Head Office.

A feature of the programs in the Division of Animal Health is that projects within them frequently involve
research scientists in Melbourne and Armidale as well as this Laboratory in Sydney. For instance, more
than one project in Program K, includes scientists at all three sites, whereas others involve two of these
sites.

This was written not long after the present system had begun. Doubtless there will be changes wlth time
as the system becomes established. Details of this system are included in the chapters on research at the
Laboratory. Despite the changes in funding and management over the more than 50 years of the
Laboratory's existence, there can be no doubt that the standard and value of its research depends finally
upon its quality and personalities. One has only to read annual reports or to hear scientists talking about
their predecessors or contemporaries to be aware of this.
CHAPTER IV
I

Animal Accommodation and Management


I
L

Supply of animals, almost entirely sheep and small animals (mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits), Is
essential for research at the Laboratory. They have been bred at the Laboratory, (particularly small
animals), or at a field station. Some experiments have also been carried out at a field station. This
chapter tells the story of accommodation and management at both.

At the Laboratory

Accommodation for sheep and small laboratory animals has always been a major problem and the source
of much discussion and correspondence between the Laboratory and the University of Sydney on whose
property buildings and pens had to be constructed. Copies of much of the correspondence Is available at
the Laboratory or in the GSIRO Archives in Canberra, but Dr. Gordon, who was on the Laboratory staff
from the beginning and for many years thereafter, is a source of much relevant information.

In 1931 there were four sheep pens, each of which could hold ten sheep, at the eastern end of the present
Annexe. (Dr. Gordon thinits that these pens were built by the Veterinary School). One of these was
converted for Dr. Beveridge's work on footrot by building up its sides so that it could hold about four
inches of water. Another pen was converted later into a small dip for early work with keds and Ilce. Later,
a small galvanized iron feed shed was added. There were garages and a blacksmith's shop.

In the early days of the Laboratory some sheep were grazed where the front lawn now Is and also
between the Laboratory and the original wooden buildi~igof the Veterinary School. That buildlng still
exists at the eastern end of the present Evelyn Williams building of the University. The University also had
a very nondescript flock of sheep which grazed the nearby oval and its surroundings, and which was used
by the Laboratory for early field work. This flock was finally dispersed because of attacks by dogs that
occasionally also attacked the sheep in pens.

Part of the animal house for small animals owned by the Veterinary School was also shared by the
Laboratory. The Laboratory thus avoided building its own small animal accommodation.

The small feed shed was eventually extended by building an open shed with six wooden pens with slatted
floors to house worm-free and infected sheep. initially these pens were used for work with Haemonchus
contortus, Ostertaaia spp. and Trichostronavlus colubriformis. Then more pens were added in a westerly
p-

direction, where the Annexe now stands. Later still another group of pens was built towards the present
Veterinary School sheep house. Finally, another group was built at what is now the eastern end of the
Evelyn Williams building of the University. By about the mid-1940sthe Laboratory could accommodate
about 200 sheep.

26
Then finally the Annexe was built. This runs in an east-west direction, south of the buildings and exercise
yard of the Veterinary School. There is an access road in front of the building.

The first form of the Annexe was opened in 1946 when D A Gill, then the 0-I-C, received the keys.
However, the building of the Annexe was delayed because a drain, through which flowed the original
creek in the vicinity, had to be strengthened by the Metropolitan Water Drainage and Sewerage Board.
This also involved the University of Sydney. The Annexe largely accommodated sheep, although some
small animals were kept there under the coritrol of Jack Stone. The remainder were housed nearby In the
Veterinary School small animal accommodation. Subsequently, plans were proposed in 1950 to extend
the Annexe in an easterly direction to house all small animals and to build a third floor. Much of the
original Annexe was destroyed during these additions, but the new building was corr~pletedin about 1951.
There have been numerous alterations and additions since then, but the present form and use of the
Annexe is described below. The Annexe has had added l o it a workshop, a double garage and stores for
gas cylinders and spirits at the western end. These are all ground floor additions.

Small animal accommodation remains largely as originally planned, but Is suitably Isolated from the
remainder of the building. There were appropriate rooms for all species, including a large room for guinea
pigs, but for a long time no animals were bred there. They all came from a special breeding unit, Including
a specific pathogen-free unit (SPF), at the farm at Badgery's Creek. Now almost all small animals are bred ,

in the Annexe.

Also on the ground floor, and next to the post-mortem room, is a cool room. This present cool room
originally housed a small incinerator, but this was removed when the University built a large incinerator
nearby. The Laboratory now uses this incinerator and allows the University to use the cool room. The
ground floor also has a staff room and, of course, pens for sheep.

The middle floor has rooms at the eastern end for the cultivation of infective nematode larvae, a wash-up
room for apparatus, various work rooms and an office. There is a surgery on the south side of the central
corridor. Again, there are several sheep pens.

At the eastern end of the upper floor is a large fodder slore reached by an external block and tackle which
moves freely inside the room. This large room also contains a fodder mixer. In addition to various sheep
pens there is also a large metabolism room towards the western end and on the north side of the building.
It must not be overlooked that besides sheep and small animals the Annexe has also from time to time
accommodated some cattle and goats. It is appropriate here to discuss the management of the Annexe.
Finally, of course, it is under the control of the 0-i-C, but latterly rnembers of the staff have had delegated
authority over t h e sheep and the animal attendants. Dr. J.W. Steel was in charge, followed by Doug
Burrell, who, as a veterinarian, was responsible for the disposal of sick sheep or their carcasses. Since
then there have been various changes of authority.
I

The surgery was initially closely associated with Fred Hamilton, a Technical Officer, who was in charge of
the Annexe for some years until he left to go to a pharmaceutical firm. He was a very good assisting-
surgeon, particularly for the insertion of cannulae into the gastrointestines of sheep. It was, for a time,
under the supervision of Dr. David Stewart until he left to go to the Divisional laboratory at Parhville. Then
Don Himsley, who was then in control of the sheep in the Annexe, was in charge, but it then passed
directly to the control of the O-i-C. The surgery has been modernized from time to time, especially with
improvement in the methods of anaesthesia. It is respected and used by people outside the CSIRO,
particularly from the University of Sydney.

The supply of infective larvae was set up by and under the control of Dr. Hugh Gordon, but when he
retired in 1974, Dr. Alan Donald took charge. There have since been changes of control. Infective larvae
are also cultivated for people outside the GSIRO, for example, for pharmaceutical firms for which a charge
Is usually made. Sorne larvae go interstate, for example, formerly to Professor Rogers, then of the
University of Adelaide. The Annexe has frequently had short-term assistants, particularly veterinary
students when free to do so. There have been working visitors from countries such as India and Fiji, some
of whom became quite well known in their own countries.

Neither must one overlook the people who have passed through the Annexe or the workshops. Some of
these have been with McMaster Laboratory for many years. These people are indispensable for the
functioning of the Laboratory. Some of their names are mentioned in Chapter IX.

Donations of Sheep

1
When "Hinchinbrook" was acquired as a field station in 1933 donations of sheep came from Sir Frederick
McMas.ter, E.D. Ogilvie of Glen Innes, J. Busby and from Camden Park Estate (descendants of the John
Macarthur flock). The Camden Park ewes were mated with Border Leicester rams donated by L.A.
Hamilton of Rylstone. The progeny were "wild" and often difficult to handle in yards.

In later years there were many donations. Sheep from "Burindi" of Barraba provided by W.S. Capper,
were used by M.C. Franklin in a nutrition trial. For a number of years E.K. Bowman, "Wargundy" of
Craboon provided 100 weaners each year (something over 1000 in all) which were used chiefly in trials
with antheimintics, and some immunological work. The sheep from "Burindi" and "Wargundy" came as a
result of a letter to Country Life newspaper at a time when CSlR funds were not available to purchase
sheep. There were offers from a number of other graziers, but pen space was limited. Later still there
were donations of sheep from Clifton's Pharmacy in Crookwell, Wollogorang Pastoral Co of Goulburn,
Tom Lawson, Bruce Turner both of Oberon, R.B. Murray of Mt. Lambie, Nivison Bros of Walcha and from
"Gidley" at Bungendore.

In the early years of CSlR at Armidale, donations of sheep came from Saumarez Estate, Wallamumbi,
Standbye, Mihi, Gostwyrk and Cherry I-lill through cooperatior) with owners and managers.
These donations were of tremendous value in enabling research projects and the monetary value was
many thousands of pounds. Benefactions of this nature reflected the close association between CSlR and
the grazing industries and were an expression of appreciation by industry of research.

McMaster Farm at Badgery's Creek

The first field station for the Laboratory was 'Hinchinbrook' on the Old Cowpasture Road, not far from
Liverpool. This was a gift from Mr Frederick McMaster, as he then was. He leased the property for three
years from October 1932. Three hundred acres were made available to the Laboratory. These were
selected by the CSlR as suitable for the Laboratory's purposes. This area was then divided Into small
experimental paddocks of various sizes, two of which were large enough for running larger groups of
sheep. Water was siphoned from a nearby race belonging to the Metropolitan Water Board.

A small field laboratory containing necessary equipment was also erected and about 100 Merino ewes
were maintained to supply the Laboratory with worm-free lambs.

Much of the development and supervision of the management of 'Hinchinbrook' was the responsibnity of
Norman Graham. The experimental work conducted there is described briefly In Chapter V. Stories about
'Hinchinbrook' are included in Chapter IIwritten by Dr. Gordon.

However, by 1935 'Hinchinbrook' was inadequate for the range of work, such as sheep and cattle
breeding, which became part of the work of the Laboratory. A larger field station was required. For this
reason the Australian government on behalf of the CSlR approved the purchase of 860 acres whlch was
part of the property known as 'Bangaroo', near Badgery's Creek and owned by Mr. Norman Buffier. Mr.
Buffier generously contributed up to L500 for the erection of an appropriate building as a memorial to his
father. An advantage of this purchase was that the University of Sydney also purchased 430 acres of
'Bangaroo' for the Veterinary School. Thus, the F.D. McMaster Field Station came into being in 1936.

Dr. R.B. Kelley became 0-i-C of the Field Station in 1938. He had been a geneticist at the Laboratory
since 1936 when he was originally appointed by Dr. Gilruth, the first Chief of the Division, for research on
the feasibility of ir~troducingZebu cattle into Austraiia. Dr. Kelley was appointed Assistant Chief of the
Division of Animal Health in 1949/50. He had a distinguished career supervising the cross-breeding of
beef and some dairy cattle with Zebu strains originally imported from the U.S.A. His scientific career is
described in more detail in Chapter IX.

After Dr. Kelley retired in 1953, R.H. Hayman became 0-i-C and remained in this position until 1959. The
F.D. McMaster Field Station was then split between the new Divisions of Animal Health, Animal Physiology
and Animal Genetics after the retirement of Dudley Gill as Chief of the then Division of Animal Health and
Production. Bob Hayman continued as 0-i-C of that part of the Field Station that became part of the
Division of Animal Genetics.
Even before the F.D.McMaster Field Station was divided between the three Divisions, that part now
known as the McMaster Farm was designated the Parasitology Block was used by the Laboratory for
parasitology experiments. Then, in 1963, that part of the F.D. McMaster Field Station allotted to the
Laboratory became known officially as the McMaster Farm.

There have been a number of additions of land and of buildings, etc. 01-1the McMaster Farm since its
allocation to what became once again, the Division of Animal Health. Perhaps the most important of these
was the addition in 1976 of some acres from the Division of Animal Genetics after the retirement of Bob
Hayman. The house previously occupied by Bob Hayman and the office and laboratory on a portion of
the land was also transferred to the Farm. This house was rented by Erik Nielsen and his family after the
erection of the SPF unit.
\

There have also been a number of sheds erected for shearing, hay and other uses, as well as silos for the
storage of fodder. As important as these was the erection in 1966 of a field laboratory that also Includes
an office for the farm manager and a common room for the staff. A cottage for the farm manager was also
built in 1966 and enlarged from three bedrooms to four in 1969. The farm manager pays rent for this
cottage.

McMaster Farm has always provided worm-free lambs for the Laboratory, but now breeds less than before
because of the purchase of weaner sheep from properties known to be relatively free from parasites and
footrot. They are kept in pens and drenched when they arrive at the farm. Some worm-free sheep are
occasionally supplied to others outside the CSIRO, particularly to the NSW Department of Agriculture. On
the other hand, there have always been some experiments conducted at the Farm. This is dealt with In
more detail in subsequent chapters. The early work with Zebu crosses have already been mentioned.
There were also sheep breeding experiments in the early days. Here it is necessary only to add that other
experiments involved parasitology, including liver fluke. Experiments with footrot were long carried out at
the farm. The entomology group set up traps for insects.

It Is also necessary to say something about the management and staff at the Farm. Obviously, McMaster
Farm is ultimately under the control of the 0-i-C of the Laboratory, but since it became independent there
has always been a farm manager. Almost all of these have lived in the cottage. Some of them stayed
some years, others, perhaps less satisfactory, did not stay long. The farm manager is responsible for the
conduct of experiments at the Farm, which are, of course, primarily the responsibility of the research staff
at the Laboratory. The number of olher farm staff has varied, but has been four for some time, despite the
doubling of sheep numbers.

Although money Is now short, as it is throughout the Division, the present farm manager, John Pearce,
claims that there has been sufficient for equipment and that there is enough to continue the function of the
Farm.
A major project on McMaster Farm was the erection of the SPF unit, and then a conventional extension so
that all small animals could be bred there and transferred weekly to the Laboratory. The original SPF unit
was completed in January 1975 and the other breeding unit in 1978. Since then, because of costs, all
guinea pigs and rabbits are bred at McMaster Laboratory. By 1990 the SPF unit Is maintained with
assistance from the University of Sydney. When this assistance ceases it is probable that the unit will also
cease. In fact, it was closed at the end of 1990.

There was originally some co-operation with the Division of Animal Production for whom the unit has bred
guinea pigs and rabbits. The University of Sydney also contributed an assistant for breeding mice and
rats in the SPF unit. Although most money came from the Division of Animal Health, outsiders provided
some feed.

The Laboratory at Armidale, New South Wales

The laboratory and field station at Armidale has a tortuous history but nevertheless a close but variable
association with McMaster Laboratory. It was first associated with the Division of Animal Health and
Production and was known as the Regional Pastoral Laboratory (RPL) from 1947.

Even before February 1944, when Ian Johnstone became the first 0-i-C and before it was known as the
RPL there had been some research at Armidale when the University of New England, as it eventually
became, was a university college of the University of Sydney. Hugh Gordon with lan Montgomery as his
Field Officer, set up a parasitology outstation with headquarters in an old stone and shingle building in
1938. This eventual!^ became Ian Johnstone's office for the next eleven years. From the beginning, Ian
Montgomery started a study of the epideniioiogy of the rise and fail of parasite numbers in sheep. This led
to a pattern of the use of anthelmintics and management for the control of parasites.

Much of the early research was on properties with sympathetic owners and/or managers. These included
'Saumarez' belonging to the White family. Eventually, in the autumn of 1946, there was a meeting chaired
by Colonel H.F. White of Bald Blair with Miss Elsie White representing the remainder of the family, A.G.
Brett, the manager of 'Saumarez' and Ian Johnstone representing the CSIR. Ian Johnstone pointed out
that rotational grazing and stocking rate, improved nutrition and parasite control research required greater
areas than then available. Rotational grazing trials had been inconclusive up to that time. Nearly 4,500
acres, or about 1,820 hectares from the south-eastern corner of 'Saumarez' was eventually sold to the
CSIR and became known as 'Chiswick' which had been the name of one of the paddocks. Ian Johnstone
says that he was responsible for the name Chiswick for the whole block. Dr Bull, Chief of the Division, D A
Gill, 0-I-C of McMaster Laboratory and the Executive of the CSIR all supported the purchase. In Ian
Johnstone's opinion the word regional in RPL was important because the unit was becoming a centre for
research for the New England district and in fields outside the immediate interests of the Division.
Nevertheless, the association with McMaster Laboratory remained close. However, the concept from the
beginning of Chiswick was one of soil-plant-animal and environmental relationships. The Laboratary has
continued parasitological studies extending to animal production and other aspects of animal health. So
the present day, Division of Plant lndustry then represented by Dick Roe, a co-founder of the concept and
an important contributor to the development of the research station, had interests in native and introduced
pastures and other nutritional trials. The Division of Soils was involved with the soils and vegetation of the
New England district and so on. The Wildlife Section, as it then was, used the RPL as a centre for their
rabbit observations. The Division of Entomology had an interest in the early years and the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics stationed an officer there to gain field experience. He, Doug McRay, later became
Director of the Bureau. In the early years, before the establishment of Chiswick, samples were sent to
Sydney for faecal egg counts and the identification of parasites. This was cumbersome, so that as the
RPL became more independent and the necessary laboratories were built, these were done locally.

Buildings, water and fences were established with time. The first was a petrol and oil store early In 1947,
but this was followed by shearers' quarters, etc., overseer's hut, shearing shed and yards and sheds for
machinery, cars and storage. By 1954 there were cottages for a manager and two overseers, bachelors
quarters, a field laboratory, stables, a dairy and slaughter and lambing yards. Other laboratarles and
buildings for records and a library were also built. These were initially at the University and later at
Chiswick. In fact, there was originally a close relationship between the libraries of the RPL and McMaster
Laboratory. This included occasional visits of the Laboratory librarian to the RPL. Chiswick became a
complete experimental station for animal, pasture and related research.

Water was originally an urgent necessity. This demanded new windmills, reticulation plpes and eventually
a substantial dam. The homestead and laboratories also needed water supplies. Internal fencing was
also required, as well as a netting boundary alongside the railway line to keep out rabbits. Trees were
planted for afforestation, etc. Then in 1959 it became part of the Division of Animal Physiology which was
subsequently renamed the Division of Animal Production. In about 1960 it was renamed the Pastoral
Research Laboratory (PRL).

Then, in about 1977, the Division of Animal Health, and hence, McMaster Laboratory became formally part
sf PRL and built an immunology laboratory. Neve~Thelessearlier both Drs. Ian McDonald and Trevor
Scott, Chiefs of the parent Division, encouraged research, particularly in parasitology associated with
McMaster Laboratory. There were interdivisional meetings that included the Division of Plant lndustry
after part of that Division became interested in parasites. Dr. W.H. Southcott, who retained his Interest in
parasitology and was originally with the Division of Anirnal Health and Production, transferred to the
Divisions of Animal Physiology and Animal Production and finally to the Division of Animal Health.

Bill Southcott became 0-i-6at Armidale and Assistant Chief of the Division of Animal Health. He says that
he never had any difficulty getting sufficient animals and land for parasitological research from the two
earlier divisions.
1
Research in RPL and PRL is described under appropriate headings in Chapters V and VI. Dr. Hugh
Gordon, together with Drs. McDonald and Helen Turner and Dick Roe of the Division of Plant Industry had
a large part in planning the experiments on rotational grazing and stocking rates at Armidale.
CHAPTER V

Research: General Comments and Internal Parasites

Assistance

Research staff have been assisted by many people and organisations. It is not possible or even desirable
to name them all. They include the State Departments of Agriculture, particularly of New South Wales, but
the association with the latter has varied from time to time. Sometimes it has been close, sometimes not.
Perhaps there has been antagonism between us when one has believed that the other was trespassing on a

their ground. At times the co-operation has been between individuals rather than with the Department as
a whole. Veterinary Inspectors in various parts of New South Wales have also co-operated most usefully.
Individual stock owners have worked with scientists from the Laboratory. This co-operation has often
been voluntarily given and has been gratefully received. It has often been a critical part of the research by
individual scientists.

There has also been good co-operation with other Divisions of the CSlR & CSIRO. Thls has been an
important aspect of research of many scientists from the Laboratory. Equally important has been co-
operation with universities in New South Wales.

There has been close co-operation with pharmaceutical and allied firms. Particularly in the early years of
the Laboratory different firms provided anthelmintics and the where-with-all to administer them. One firm
provided formulations and measurements of different particle size of phenothiazine.

For some years after McMaster Laboratory was built it was dependent upon the availability of money from
appropriations, that is, from the Australian government. Later, it was assisted with money from the
appropriate Boards, particularly from the Wool Board. This continues to this day, even though the names
of the granting bodies have changed and there is now far greater control of the sort of research that 1s
acceptable to them. Since about 1982, pharmaceutical firms have co-operated with the Laboratory. The
nature of this co-operation is explained in more detail elsewhere in this book. This form of asslstance has
involved several firms, many from overseas, but usually with branches in this country. To publish a list of
these firms would be invidious and perhaps some might object.

A General Account

There is a general statement of the organisation of research in chapter Ill. This told the story of the range
of research, how this changed with the re-organisation of the Division and its organisation at the
Laboratory. This and the following chapter is a more detailed account of research, which, after all, is the
reason for existence of the Laboratory.
Research at the Laboratory has been largely on sheep, particularly diseases of sheep, with ernphasls on
parasitic diseases, especially in recent years. Research into internal parasitic infection has always been a
major interest. Whether this was due to the personal interest of Sir Ian Clunies Ross, the first O-l-C, who
was originally CSIR parasitologist at the University of Sydney before the Laboratory was built, or whether
this primarily reflected the original interest of the Division is debatable. Nevertheless, research at Its
inception in 1931 covered a wide field and was responsible for the eventual setting up of other dlvlsions
which developed research started at the Laboratory, for example, Textile Physics, Animal Physiology and
Animal Genetics, as they were originally called.

Research before the Laboratory was built has an important bearing on subsequent research. Most
researchers were veterinarians. This was a policy which persisted for many years, although from time to
time the Divisions did employ scientists who were not veterinarians. It was not until recent years that
anyone who was not a veterinarian was appointed to a senior position such as Officer-in-Chargeor, as It is
now known, as Head of Laboratory.

Research Prior to the Laboratory

Dr Ian Clunies Ross, as he then was, was described as a parasitologist in the second annual report of the
CSIR in 1928. We then worked in the School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, before he
became the first O-i-C. Prior to and after his departure for post-graduate training at the Institute of
Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, he had a number of publications in CSlR Bulletins on F. hepatica in sheep, the
use of carbon tetrachloride for the treatment of this infection, an investigation of the life cycles of this
parasite and of its intermediate host, a snail, and on the hydatid parasite (the intermediate stage of
Echinococcus aranulosis) and on the control of hydatidosis. He had also worked on field trials with a
vaccine against Black Disease developed by a lecturer in veterinary pathology and bacteriology and on
Tick Paralysis of dogs (see Chapter VI for more details of the latter).

W. A. Carr Fraser worked on the paralysis of pigs under the supervision of Dr H. R. Seddon, Director of
Animal Research at Glenfield. R. C. Cramp was seconded by the Meat lndustry Board of New South
Wales to the CSlR to work under Professor J. D. Stewart of the University of Sydney on CLA of sheep. He
examined the incidence of the disease at the abattoirs, the distribution of the lesions and some
bacteriology. G.P.Kauzal had worlced on Stephanurus dentatus in pigs. H.R. Carne, who was with the
Department of Veterinary Pathology at the University, had a grant from the Science and lndustry
Endownment Fund to work on methods of the serological diagnosis of CLA and had a close association
with the CSIR. In fact, from 1931 until the temporary fibro pathology laboratory was built in 1946, he had
an office and laboratory in the Laboratory. Research after its completion, when it was first known as the F.
D. McMaster Animal Healtii Laboratory of the CSlR and then, in 1949, of the CSIRO, depended upon the
inevitable development of animal accommodation at the Laboratory in the grounds of the University of
Sydney and at the associated field stations. This is described in Chapter IV.

4
Research at the Laboratory

Before describing this research it is appropriate at this point to record the movement that occurred to and
from the Laboratory of young promising workers and senior visitors from overseas with an interest in
similar fields as the Laboratory. However, the latter sometimes also Involved other laboratories of the
Division, not solely McMaster. Dr D F Stewart, the O-i-C from 1954, had an important, but not sole
responsibility, for this innovation. Divisional studentships were made available to suitable research
workers to study at appropriate institutions for a Ph.D. or D.Phll. to qualify them as a Research Officer, as
the appointment was then known. At that time tan McMaster Fellowships were granted to distinguished
scientists from overseas to work in appropriate fields at or from the Laboratory (see chapter VII). The first
Fellowship was granted in 1954. There was, therefore, a very valuable exchange between promising
workers who studied with noteworthy people at their laboratories before qualifying as Research Officers
themselves and distinguished scientists from overseas. These international contacts continued for many
years.

Internal Pmsitolagical Research

Because internal or endoparasitic infection has always been the principal interest of this Laboratory the
remainder of this chapter is confined to research on this subject. As infection with helminths, particularly
with nematodes, is of major significance to the animal industry it was inevitable that internal parasitism
became an important subject of investigation.
Internal parasitology can be conveniently divided, as if was for many years, into anthelmlntics, resistance
or immunity and epidemiology etc. As investigation became more sophisticated these divlslons became
less obvious and justified. For instance, the control of parasitic infection depends upon the
interrelationship of resistance to anthelmintics, immunity and epidemiology and nutrition. Nevertheless, In
the description of much of the research, these divisions have been retained. The interrelationships of later
years have been made clear. Early research into anthelmintics and epidemiology of internal parasitic
infeclions of sheep was done by Hugh Gordon and his colleagues. These colleagues included, Drs. Ian
Clunies Ross, Peter Kauzal and Norman Graham from the Laboratory and Ian Johnston, the 0-1-C at
Armidale. The separation of anthelmintics and epidemiology was originally relatively straight forward,
despite the obvious connection between them. As early as 1948 Hugh Gordon stated, "infrequent and
Irregular use of anthelmintics, implies that timing must be based on epidemiological considerations". This
obviously tied the two together. This connection between the use of anthelmintics and epidemiology has
been the basis of much of the research by Drs. Donald, Waller and Prichard and later by Drs. Steel and
Hennessy.
Anthelmintics

This section was written appropriately by Dr I-.(. McL. Gordon who, up to his retirement in 1974, was in
charge of this aspect of parasitology.

In 1931 the anthelmintics for sheep in common use were arsenic (as a solution of sodium arsenite),
copper sulphate, alone or combined with sodium arsenite, and later with mustard. Carbon tetrachloride
had come into use in 1926 against Fasciola hepatica. It was highly effective against adult fluke but not
against immature forms unless the dose was increased. Although it had unpredictable toxic effects many
millions of sheep were treated over many years but overall losses were very slight. Tetrachlorethylene
was also on the market, largely following testing by H.A. Veron (Vita-Lick Ltd).

Very little thorough testing of anthelmintics had been carried out on adequate numbers of sheep and
utilizing worm egg counts as a quicl< preliminary test of efficiency. it was generally recognised, from
clinical (practical) observations that the efficiency of sodium arsenite and copper sulphate was erratic:
following drenching many sheep still showed symptoms of helminthosis, particularly haemonchosis. (In
1931 we had very little knowledge of the pathogenesis and symptoms of infections with the 'small
trlchostrongyles' - it was not until there were extensive outbreaks of trichostrangylosis, especially In the
eastern Riverina in the mid 19301s,that it was appreciated that these parasites were common causes of ill-
thrift and diarrhoea.

Early Trials at McMaster

The first trials were designed to determine whether fasting prior to drenching Influenced the efficiency of
copper sulphate and carbon tetrachloride against H. contortus. Fasting did not appear to influence
anthelmintic activity. Carbon tetrachloride was uniformly effective in all sheep, while copper sulphate was
effective in most sheep, it was quite ineffective in others. At this time studies on the oesophageal groove
reflex especially the effects of copper sulphate in by-passing the rumen were in progress. Following
further trials including sodium arsenite and tetrachlorethylene it became clear that the efficiency of certain
anthelmintics was strongly influenced by their destination after drenching. Sodium arsenite, copper
sulphate and tetrachlorethylene were not effective against H.contortus unless they by-passed the rumen.
The effect of copper sulphate on the oesophageal groove reflex ensured that it, and other drugs mixed
with it, or administered immediately following the dose of copper sulphate, by-passed the rumen in a high
proportion of sheep. In contrast carbon tetrachloride was equally effective whether It by-passed the
rumen or not: this was confirmed by direct injection into the rumen via the flank. Tetrachlorethylene given
In this way was not effective, but was usually effective when administered with or immediately following a
dose of copper sulphate. Similarly the mixture of copper sulphate and sodium arsenite was generally
effective but the latter given alone gave very variable results. Further trials were carried out to determine
efficiency against immature parasites and dose rates for adult sheep.
Anthelmintic efficiency against H.contortus was usually satisfactory once these considerations were kept
in mind, but the small trichostrongyles were generally but little affected. A variety of compounds and
mixtures were tested against Trichostronavlus SDD. but only three showed promise: copper sulphate plus
nicotine, copper sulphate plus carbon bisulphide, copper sulphate plus tetrachlorethylene. The two latter
presented difficulties in formulation, administration and toxicity. In 1935 the copper sulphate-nicotine
sulphate (as Black Leaf 40) mixture came into use in the field, especially when trichostrongylosis was the
problem. (During 1935 1 was seconded to the Graziers' Cooperative Shearing Co, 'Grazcos', when this
mixture was introduced and saw its variability and toxicity in the field. Nevertheless, it was for some years,
until the advent of phenothiazine, the only useful anthelmintic against Trichostronavlus SDD.)

In 1936 R.H. Watson made extensive studies on the physiology of the oesophageal groove reflex and had
well confirmed and extended the simple observations initiated by Clunies Ross, working with sheep at the
Sydney Meat Preserving Co with the considerable help from the manager, Mr Mills, and the slaughtermen.
Watson carried out further studies following his transfer to the CSlR laboratory in Adelaide.

(It should be noted here that at the time the observations on the effects of copper sulphate on the
oesophageal groove reflex were in progress at McMaster, H.O. Monnig in South Africa was carrying on
similar work).

Phenothiazine - the advent of this drug, the first of the broad spectrum anthelmintics, changed the whole
concept of the application of anthelmintics in the control of the helminthoses. Truly preventive programs
based on the epidemiological findings from the @SIRactivities in New England were now possible.
Studies on phenothiazine began in 1939, but i t was mot until after World War I I that the commercial
application of the drug became possible. A great deal of work was necessary to determine its range of
activity, efficiency against immature worms, formulation, effect of particle size on efficiency, methods of
administration to minimise staining of the fleece, toxicology, activity of related compounds, and later,
when W.P. Rogers came to McFAaster, mode of action.

In much of this work the McMaster had considerable help from a number of proprietary firms: Drug
Houses of Australia through the late Ross Anderson with formulations and drenching apparatus, N.J.
Phillips with drenching 'guns', Imperial Chemical Industries with formulation and particle size
measurements. In McMaster, G.P. Kauzal invented drenching apparatus arid W.V. Whitlock developed the
principles and use of the oesophageal tube which minimised staining of the fleece by delivering the dose
into the oesophagus rather than the mouth. The oesophageal tube was an extension added to the nozzle
of the drenching 'gun'.

The activity of phenothiazine was not affected whether it by-passed the rumen or not, and thus means for
controlling the oesaphageal groove reflex were no longer required. As a result studies on the reflex
virt~~ally
ceased, (Similarly, studies on the toxicity of carbon tetrachloride ceased when other fluklcides
became available).
Until the advent of phenothiazine the only useful treatment against ~eso~haaostomum
columblanun and
other large bowel parasites was an enema of sodium arsenite, administered first by a modified drenching
'gun', developed by Kauzal, later with a 600 mi syringe developed by N.J. Phillips Pty. A great deal of field
work was carried out to check the efficiency, safety and technique of administration. In one large-scale
trial 2000 sheep heavily infected with Chabertia ovina were treated at 'Dalkeith' (Sir Frederick McMaster's
property at Cassilis), by the late Captain Ian McMaster and myself, in 1936 - a five-day operation. With
N.P.H.Graham we treated 2000 sheep at Jugiong, also 1936. This treatment was very effective but
tedious. The advent of phenothiazine saw its demise in 1939.

In an effort to find an anthelmintic effective against Oe.columbianum, Mennig in South Africa devised a
mixture of copper arsenite and copper tartrate, administered from a spoon after stimulating the
oesophageal groove reflex with a dose of copper suiphate. Extensive trials were carried out with this
mixture at the Laboratory and in the field at Armidale. Anthelmintic activity was somewhat erratic and
there were toxic effects, and the method of administration was awkward and tedious. However, the gag
developed by Msnnig to facilitate depositing the powder over the tongue proved particularly useful when
one wished to examine the molar teeth of sheep. (Later observations using the gag in Australia and in
Scotland (1949) provided evidence that individual sheep which were not thriving often had abnormal
molars).

During World War II there were shortages of many drugs including anthelmintics. A wide range of
compounds were tested in search of substitutes, by both rumenal and abomasal injection. Among the
compounds 1 :8dihydroxy anthraquinone (commonly used as a purgative for horses) proved very
effective against large bowel parasites including Trichuris spp. It had little effect on other nematodes and
it was used in field trials in Western Australia to investigate the effects of infections with C. ovinq on wool
quality (treated sheep showed a reduced occurrence of tenderness and 'break' in the staple).

Following World War II there were extensive developments of new anthelmintics by proprietary firms. The
research at McMaster had given the laboratory some authority on the use of anthelmintics in the control of
the helminthoses of sheep and it was essential that to investigate the efficiency and safety of new
anthelmintics. Accordingly extensive trials in the laboratory and field were carried out with the
piperazines, organophosphorus compounds, anthraquinones, bephenium, methyridine, chlorinated
benzenes and in due time with the highly effective, broad spectrurn compounds (benzimldazoles,
levamisole, pyrantel, morantel).

The application of chemotherapy - in its widest sense as the role of chemical control In the treatment and
prevention of parasitic disease - required the basic knowledge of efficiency and toxicity and precise
recommendat~onsthrough extension (including advertising) on the timing of application, in relation to the
constraints of husbandry practices and the indications derived from seasonal patterns of changes in the
parasite population. Epidemiological studies provided these patterns.
In addition the techniques of application as in drenching, application of insecticides (dipping, spraying,
jetting), and spraying molluscicides required an understanding of the apparatus including its care and
maintenance. While these activities may not have appeared to be 'proper' research they were
nevertheless essential for the proper realization and achievement of the efficiency of chemotherapy and it
was incumbent on CSlR to attend to these needs. To this end we had the admonition of the Chief of the
Division, Dr. L.B. Bull, in his summing up of the Joint Blowfly Committee recommendations in 1941 -
'Telling people what to do will not meet the case: you must show them with all due skill." The "due skill"
was developed from experience in field trials, and was demonstrated during such trials, at meetings of
graziers (Field Days, Agricultural Bureau) and as opportunities arose on individual properties and flocks.
In these activities we had active support from Clunies Ross. These activities might nowadays be classed
as 'public relations', but in the earlier times I think we regarded them more as an obligation, and as skills
were developed, perhaps as 'showing off', to demonstrate that there was sound 'practical' support for
what CSlR research was doing. in later years these activities had less support, even discouragement,
which may have contributed to declining support and appreciation of CSIRO.

With the development of the newer broad spectrum anthelmintlcs and the increasing knowledge of
epidemiology and immunology it was interesting to partition the activities of anthelmintics. Eventually In
1973 eight uses were designated, perhaps a somewhat artificial separation, but serving to emphasis the
complexity of the host-parasite relationships, and to indicate where in the biology of the relationship a
chemotherapeutic attack might be made. Briefly, these uses were: Curative to deal with clinically manifest
disease, Tactical when an emergency was recognised, Strateaic based on an epldemlological pattern,
Diaanostic to assess the economic importance of parasitic disease and in the differential diagnosis of ill-
thrift, Experimental to manipulate the experience of infedion, lmmunoloaical to assist, and not delay, the
acquisition of immunity, Special to take advantage of particular attributes, e.g. the DDP System (daily
dose phenothiazine), the protective effects of 2,6 diiodo-4-nitrophenol (Disophenol) (and nowadays
closantel and slow release mechanisms), and Extended, as a combination of tactical and strategic
required to have an extended or covering application which would counter PPRR (peri-parturient
relaxation of resistance) and hypobiosis.

The advent of the highly effective, broad-spectrum anthelmintics presented new perspectives in the uses
and application of chemotherapy. These drugs were used in field trials, chiefly on the central tablelands in
NSW (Goulburn, Mt. Lambie, Oberon) firstly to measure the effects of parasitic disease on production
(growth and quality of wool, body weight in Merino sheep, and achievement of market weight in prime
lambs). In this work there was tremendous assistance by the stockowners who provided sheep, use of
land and often help with labour. (One should record Wollongong Pastoral Co. at Goulburn through John
Watson and Brian Pearson, at Mt. Lambie, Bruce Murray; at Oberon, Bruce Turner and Tom Lawson).
Most o.f these trials were conducted, with variations, over 10 - 12 years.

These trials were in many ways production trials and the anthelmlntlcs were applied in a diagnostic
capacity, utilizing the concept 'diagnosis through control'. It was necessary to guard against 'interactions'
I
with trace elements and with parasites other than those controlled by the particular drugs In use. The
basic groups of sheep were treated monthly with thiabendazole (first of the newer drugs) and sub-groups
were given supplementary treatments e.g. against Trichuris spp., Fascioia hepatica, Moniezla spp, and
coccidia. In initial trials, sub-groups were given supplements of either copper, cobalt or selenlum in order
to ascertain whether these trace elements were deficient. This again was an example of 'dlagnosls
through control'. In trials both with prime lambs and Merino weaners no benefits were recorded from the
additional treatments against Moniezia spp., but in some years there were benefits, as earlier access to
market weight, in prime lambs from repeated treatments with sulphadimicline suggesting that coccidosis
was adding to the adverse effects of helminthosis. The regular weighing and close observation of the
sheep in these triais emphasised the multiple causes of ill-thrift and repeatedly illustrated the value of
'diagnosis through control', by the use of highly effective anthelmintics.

The conventional application of an anthelmintic, as an occasional single treatment clearly had limited
effects on the parasite population unless supported by managerial manoeuvres, e.g. preparation of 'clean'
pastures ('safe', 'low worm'), based on knowledge of epidemiological patterns. Considerable attention
was given to utilizing the 'Special' attributes of certain compounds, e.g. the effects of repeated small daily
doses of phenothiazine (DDP System) on egg laying by the parasites and in killing larvae in faeces. When,
with the collaboration of Anlmeals Pty. (Dr. G.P. Kauzal - one of the original research group In McMaster)
an attractive excipient, as a solidified moiasses block, was developed and a reasonably assured repeated
intake of phenothiazinewas achieved, there were useful results in field trials in the control of helminthosis.

The remarkable effects of Disophenol in affording protection against reinfection by H. contortus for several
months (as long as five months in some sheep) were confirmed in field trials. This activity is confined to
blood sucking parasites and there was some evidence that the suppression of infections with H.contortus
may have favoured the development of heavy infections with Trichostronavlus s m . (This evidence of
'interactions' between species of trichostrongylids requires careful consideration when a narrow spectrum
drug is used to control haemonchosis, and there may be analogous problems when a monovalent vaccine
is used.) A disadvantage of Disophenol is that it must be administered by Injection and that it stains the
wool, and there are obvious problems with tissue residues. In recent years closantel, which has a similar
but rnuch shorter protective period, has proved useful with almost a key role in control programmes in
regions where haemonchosis is of regular and severe occurrence.

The application of slow-release devices lodged in the rumen-reticulum Is a recent use of the special
application of anthelmintics.

Studies on the mode of action and pharmacokinetics of anthelmintics began when W.P. Rogers came to
McMaster in 1945, concerned with phenothiazine and related compounds. In recent years this work has
been extended to the modern broad spectrum drugs, with added urgency due to the development of
anthelmintic resistance. The identification of the enzyme systems concerned and especially the role o#
tubulin have been prominent features of these studies.
1 '

41 i
Anthelmintic resistance has come to the fore in recent years. Drs. Peter Waller and Keith Dash began
working on this problem at McMaster Field Station after Dr Alan Donald became 6-I-Cof the Laboratory,
and later, Chief of the Division. They later co-operated with the New South Wales Department of
Agriculture and Pastures Protection Boards.

The history of anthelmintic resistance is interesting. Early in the 1970s there was resistance, particularly
with H. contortus and T. colubriformis, to thiabendazole at Badgery's Creek. There was also resistance
and clinical disease due to these two parasites following treatment with thiabendazole in the Northern
Tablelands. Drs. Alan Donald and Hugh Gordon recommended changing to another broad-acting
anthelrnintic, but this was not taken up. There was, however, an eventual change to levamisols for
another nine years until Dr. David Stewart working with footrot at the McMaster Field Station found that
sheep did not respond to this anthelmintic. Sheep with ostertagiasis at Canberra were resistant to
oxfendazole and fenbendazole. Anthelmintic resistance was extremely high in the Northern Tablelands
and not as high, but nevertheless, too high, in the Southern Tablelands. Reduction of the dependence on
anthelmintics reduced the development of resistance, the biggest problem in parasitic control In Australia
today. From 30 to 80% of farmers, depending on the ability of the local adviser, can now control
anthelmintic resistance. This is due principally to research work in the Division of Animal Health,
particularly at this Laboratory.

This control is due to the Wormkill program, which is principally due to the effort of Dr Keith Dash and has
had a spectacular success. Wormkill is now used by over 90% of farmers in H. contortus endemic regions
in the Northern Tablelands. Farmers have been encouraged to use the Drenchplan program in the winter
rainfall areas of Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia as well as southern New South Wales.

The aim of the Wormkill program was to reduce the number of drenchings per year of ewes and lambs
with narrow spectrum closantel to control H. contortus by strategic treatment. The smaller number of
broad spectrum drenchings would reduce selection for resistance by T r l c h o s t r o n a ~ l uspp.
~ and
Ostertaaia spp.
-

Resistance and Pharrnacakinetics o f the Benzimidazoles and other Anthelmintics

It was decided that because of resistance in sheep to benzimidazoles and other recent anthalmlntlcs and
because the emphasis was upon their pharmacokinetics a separate section was justified.

Research in the pharmacokinetics of anthelmintics was the responsibility of Dr R K Prichard with the
assistance of D R Hennessy from about 1976 until early in 1984 when Roger Prichard resigned to become
Director of the Institute of Parasitology and Professor of Parasitology at McGill University at Ste Anne de
Bellevue, Quebec, Canada. Des Hennessy, originally a Technical Assistant, then an Experimental Officer,
was awarded a Ph.D. in 1985 and became a Senior Research Scientist shortly afterwards. Or Ernest
Lacey also belongs t o this group. They are now responsible for the research i n aspects of
pharmacokinetics, but In turn are responsible to Dr J W Steel, Manager of Program K.

in about 1974 to 1976, resistance in parasites of sheep to the new benzlmidazole anthelmintics first
became apparent in Australia. Research was therefore commenced at the Laboratory into the behaviour
of benzirnidazoles. Since then a number of commercial firms have become involved with this group in
collaborative research on the pharmacokinetics of these anthelmintics. For instance, they have paid the
salaries of Technical Assistants and Experimental Scientists, as the latter are now called.

The initial methods were relatively crude, for example, oxfendazole could be examined by radio
immunoassay, but there was some cross-reaction with fenbendazole. Then radioactive metabolhes and
eventually High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) became available in about 1979 so that all
metabolic profiles could be assessed. These enabled metabolic profiles of benzimidazoies such as
thiabendazole and fenbendazole to be determined in blood, at different sites within the gut and in urine
and faeces.

In about 1981, it became apparent that much of these benzimidazoles must have passed through the liver ,

and been secreted in the bile. For this reason a bil? pump was fixed to the side of sheep from which bile
was released into the small intestine. Thus, bile flow rate was determined quantitatively and the sequence
and chemical structure of the metabolites assessed. From this it was shown that the aromatic
benzimidazoles were substantially metabolized in the liver, secreted in the bile and then excreted In
faeces, whereas the aliphatic compounds underwent minimal metabolism and were secreted In the urine.

When the aliphatic parbendazole was examined it substantially slowed the bile flow rate, and could be
usefully used in conjunction with other benzimidazoles to slow metabolism of the latter. The potentlatlon
program arose from this finding. It then became possible to control the effect of these anthelmintics by
manipulating their presentation or metabolism. In fact, the CSlRO patented the combination of
parbendazole and oxfendazole.

It was also shown that the benzimidazoles were more effective if the majority of the dose went into the
rumen and not into the abomasum. Syntex, a firm with an interest in research in appropriate
pharmacokinetics at the Laboratory, then developed an apparatus that ensured that all such drugs went
directly into the rumen.

The third generation of benzimidazoles remain the anthelmintics of choice despite the enormous
resistance in parasites of sheep and goats. Undoubtedly, research into the pharmacokinetics of
benzimidazoles at the laboratory has played an important part in coping with parasite resistance to these
compounds. After Roger Prichard left in 1984, a large emphasis in research has been in defining new
strategies for drug presentation, that is, in changes in molecular design. Netoblmin, a pro-drug for
1 I

43
benzimidazoles, that is water soluble and could therefore be given both parentally and orally, was
subsequently introduced.

1 I
Dr Ernest Lacey has used pharmacological techniques t o examine changes i n the structure of
benzimidazoles in relation to their action and changes in resistance in sheep. This research is carried out
In vitro using larvae of parasites so as to avoid using variation in the host that 1s inevitably introduced.
Biochemical research has used radioisotopes so that specific assays can determine the she of action of
benzimidazoles.

Dr. Lacey is now examining the action of ivermeclin, another anthelmintic. It is appropriate here, because
it is related to resistance to drugs, to include research in ivermectin which was released In Australia in
1987. Most of this research has been with H. contortus and T.colubriformis, but cestodes and F. hepatica
have also been used.

There has also been some research on "Fasinex", another benzimidazole, but not a carbamate, which Is
for liver fluke (F. he~atica)and will not affect other parasites.

In addition, Dr Norman Anderson from Parkville and his co-workers, including John Steel and Des
Hennessy, are involved with the sustained intraruminal release of the anthelmintic albendazole at three
sites, Armidale in the north, Werribee in Victoria in the south, and roughly midway from this Laboratory.
An industrial firm is involved and the capsule designed by the CSlRO is now marketed worldwide.

There is also a co-operative work with Dr. N.C. Sangster of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the
University of Sydney on the pharmacokinetics of anthelmintics in goats, and with the University of Sydney
and Dr J C Boray of the New South Wales Department of Agrlcuiture at Gienfield, on resistance
anthelmintics and insecticides.

One major success of the original Program K was the Wormkill pian briefly described elsewhere in this
account of research at the Laboratory.

Epidemiology

Much of the earlier work on the epidemiology of parasitic infection was due to Dr. Hugh Gordon until his
retirement in 1974. Here it is irr~portantto acknowledge Hugh Gordon's contribution to epidemiology in
Australia.

Studies on the epidemiology of the helminthoses of sheep began in Armidale in 1938 under the direction
of I W Montgomery. He and his associates worked on private properties from a laboratory within what
eventually became the University of New England at Armidale. They needed to apply anthelmintics in a
preventative capacity against life cycles by reducing the parasitic infections before seasonal conditions
favoured the development and survival oi free-living stages. They determined the appropriate tlme for the
use of anthelmintics.

What follows up to the appointment of Dr. Alan Donald was written by Dr. Hugh Gordon.

The early work which began in New England in 1938, was largely due to me and my colleagues. It was
concerned with the whole range of nematode parasites of sheep and was extended to the Central
Highlands and Darling Downs in Queensland, and to Western Australia, South Australia, and Tasmania,
and from the late 1940's to the Southern and Central Tablelands in NSW (Yass, Bungendore, Goulburn,
Oberon, Mt. Lambie (Rydal)). In the States there was close collaboration with Departments of Agriculture,
as well as with CSlRO (WA and SA), and from WA and Tasmania laboratory technicians came to
McMaster for training in techniques. There was little epidemiological work in Victoria untll Norman
Anderson began his work in the western district from the early 1960's.

The aim of the epidemioiogical studies was to seek and define seasonal patterns of change in parasite
pop~~latlons
with the object of applying anthelmintics in a preventive (strategic) capacity. When seasonal
patterns were discerned trials included the application of anthelmintics in order to determlne the optimum
times for application. Where circumstances were suitable the newer anthelmintics were applied in their
role in "diagnosis through control" to measure the effects of helminthosis on the productivity of sheep,
including growth and wool production (quantity and quality) and the progress of prime lambs to market
weight. These studies were carried on, as combined observations on epidemioiogy and the application
and efficiency of anthelmintics in the field until I retired in 1974. One trial continued during a period of
drought (Goulburn) when worm burdens were generally very light, but sheep treated with thiabendazole
had higher survival and production rates than untreated controls. During drought the parasites which
persisted were Nematodirus spp and Trichuris spp., due to the resistance of their free-living stages to
desiccation, and the propensity of Nematodirtls_spp. eggs to accumulate and mass hatch following even
moderate falls of rain.

Other epidemiological studies were concerned with changes in the parasite population and consequent
output of worm eggs during the peri-parturient period: a source of infection for the iambs. There were
clear differences in worm burdens between pregnant and non-pregnant ("dry") ewes, being much higher in
the former. Increases in worm burdens, and egg output, may begin some weeks M o r e lambing, but were
more marked during lactation. The development of heavier infections in pregnant ewes was associated
with the resumption of development of hypobiotic worms and the establishment of newly acquired
Infections. Parasites already in the ewes increased their egg production thereby adding to the
contamination of pastures and increasing the hazards of helminthosis for the lambs. Trials concerned
with these aspects of epidemiology were carried out in the field (Goulburn, Mt. Lambie) and at McMaster
Field Station.
1

Observations in the field (Goulburn, McMaster Field Station) showed spectacular changes in the utillsation
of pastures between treated and control sheep harbouring naturally acquired infections. Treated sheep
tended to graze the pastures evenly to produce a lawn-like profile, while control sheep were more
selective and their pastures were ragged and tussocky. This difference was attributed to the restoration of
normal appetite in treated sheep which then needed to graze heavily and evenly to satisfy their appetite.
The control sheep suffered depressed appetite: thereby confirming the observations made in the
laboratory in the 1940's with trichostrongylosis, and even more markedly with oesophagostomosis (Oe.
columbianum). In the trial at McMaster Field Station it was necessary to remove the treated sheep from
their pasture because there was not enough herbage for their needs. (Statisticians suggested, facetiously,
that if sheep were treated with a highly effective anthelmintic they may die of starvation! However, it may
well be that if sheep are harbouring only a very light infection and possess their normal appetite they may
have to be provided with extra grazing - lighter stocking - in order to attain full productivity).

Concurrently an extensive series of observations were made in the laboratory concerned with hypobiosis,
persistence and loss of infection, effects of varying the magnitude of the dose of larvae and the program
of administration e.g. single, spaced, repeated, superimposed doses. The results were complex and clear
Interpretation difficult when consideration is given to the interactions between and within species of
parasites, the influence of age, nutrition and resistance/immunity, the phenomena of hypobiosis and 'self-
cure', population pressures in heavy infections, and removal of parasites with an anthelmintlc before
challenge. These 'reactions' are undoubtedly seen in the changes in parasite populatlons in the field and
thereby complicate the relating of such changes to the parameters which can be measured, and which
form the basis for the development of models concerned with the prediction of fluctuations In worm
burdens. The recognition of variations in susceptibility between sheep, the high and low responders,
added a further variable to the epidemiological picture.

The epidemiological observations in New England began in a very limited way in 1938 and, retarded
during the war years, were expanded and enhanced with the development of the Regional Pastoral
Laboratory at Chiswick from the late 1940's. The control of oesophagostomosis (0e.columblanum) in
New England, and other regions of NSW and Queensland having predominantly summer rainfall pattern
was a very pressing need. This disease affectecl the health and productivity of sheep for most of their
lifetime and was a most irnportant component of the syndrome of ill-thrift. Haemonchosls was a killer
disease, trichostrongylosis and oesophagostomosis were more cfironic and had persisting adverse
effects on productivity, and rendered sheep very susceptible to fly-strike. Haemonchosls could be
controlled with the anthelmintics available in the pre-phenothiazine days, but until the advent of
phenothiazine treatment against trichostrongylosis was based on the copper sulphate-nicotine mixture
and had to be supported by better nutrition, while an arsenical enema was the only effective treatment
against 0e.columbianurn and other large bowel parasites. In the 1930's and 1940's improvement of
pastures through sown grasses and clovers and the application of superphosphate was scarcely
beginning. Improvement of nutrition to supplement natural grazing depended on fed supplements e.g.
maize, or grazing cereal crops e.g. oats. In trials in New England weaners grazing on an oat crop made

46
good gains and were not unthrifty and it was observed that they shed their large bowel parasites wlthin a
few weeks of beginning t o graze the oat crop. There was no similar effect on H.contortus or
Trichostronavlus spp. This observation was followed up at McMaster Field Station and it was confirmed
that sheep quickly rid themselves of 0e.columbianum and Trichuris spp. when they grazed on oat crops.
Further trials in New England showed a similar but less marked effect when sheep grazed on a phalaris
pasture, but not on clover pastures. (Phalaris tuberosa, as it was then called, formed the basis of much of
the early pasture improvement work in New England). The extended use of phalaris pastures and the use
of phenothiazine, especially during winter months, greatly reduced the numbers of 0e.columblanum and
following the introduction of thiabendazole in the early 1960's 0e.columbianum has practically
disappeared from New England; curiously, seemingly replaced by 0e.venulosum. These observations
owed much to Johnstone, Southcott and Dash. (A somewhat similar situation was seen in Western
Australian trials where sheep shed their infections with Chabertia ovina when they began to graze the
fresh growth of Capeweed [Arctotheca calendula) in autumn).

There were some limited observations on the changes in worm burden between sheep grazing on
irrigated and dry-land pastures at the Falkiner Memorial Research Station at Deniliquln In the
Murrumbidgee irrigation Area, in collaboration with the Division of Plant Industry.

With the development of the Regional Pastoral Laboratory in New England the whole range of
relationships was examined between parasite populations, seasonal changes (year long and for shorter
periods), nutrition, type and quality of pasture, stocking rates, individual susceptibility, resistance and
resiliency, variations in the structure of the parasite population as sheep aged, larval population (survival
and availability) and the particular situation with Nematodirus spp. (Lengthy survival of eggs and larvae,
accumulation sf eggs and mass hatching after rain.)

With the accumulating knowledge of the relationships between trace element deficiencies (copper, cobalt,
selenium) it was necessary to determine whether these nutritional deficiencies might complicate the
findings of trials concerned with the effects of parasitic disease on thrift and productivity; for example, It
might be possible to achieve improved production following a regime of treatment with anthelmlntics, but
It might be negated if a trace element deficiency was present. Accordingly when a field trial was planned
in a region where the status of trace element deficiency was not known the initial grouping had sheep
treated monthly with thiabendazole (or other broad spectrum drug) with sub-groups treated wlth
supplements of the trace elements, and where circumstances warranted other sub-groups were treated to
control fasciolosis, tapeworm infection (Moniezia) and coccidiosis. (Outbreaks of cocc~diosisoccur in
lambs from time to time and in some trials with prime lambs those treated every two weeks wlth
sulphamethazine made more rapid weight gains). These sub-groups served as 'controls' to detect factors
other than the common nematodes, which might contribute to LOP (less than optimum productlvlty)
('diagnosis through control').
With the appointment of Dr Alan Donald in 1961 epidemiology, or ecology as it was then called, became
more sophisticated with the development of a statistical approach. This is not to denigrate the research
before this, but is a reflection of the times. The people involved became known as the helminth ecology
group.

It was first necessary to examine the methods hitherto available for the recovery of eggs and free-living
larvae from pasture. Eventually it was found that the constant flow centrifuge method for separating and
concentrating larvae was relatively highly efficient and saved time. It was a method that could also be
used for rumen fluid and faecal suspensions.

However, early research examined the effect of humidity on the development and hatching of
Nematodirus s~athiqer. The critical relative humidity was 75%, below which mortalities occurred. Eggs
hatched immediately following rain or dew.

Studies on the distribution, development, survival and theoretical observations on populations of Infective
larvae and eggs on pasture were based on models developed by Drs. G.M. Tallis and Alan Donald. These
were eventually modified by Dr Tallis of the Division of Mathematical Statistics.

Research on the free-living stages of H.contortus and T.colubriformis was continued at McMaster Farm
where separate plots were contaminated with faeces of known numbers of eggs at regular Intervals
throughout the year. The difference between these two species was largely due to deslccatlon of
developing eggs, hence the presence of H.contortus in the summer rainfall districts. As T.colubriformlg
had a far greater survival from desiccation, there were trials that examined the development of its embryo
after transfer from high to low levels of humidity and at different temperatures with the same saturation
deficits of air. When the ecology of the free-living stages of I-l.contortus and T.colubriform1s was
compared, it was shown that the latter parasite had a greater probability of becoming infective larvae on
the herbage. Nevertheless, much depended upon the actual output of eggs through successive parasitic
generations. The results of these trials over some years with these two species suggested that the
weather in any one year had important effects on the number of infective larvae available. T.colubriformis
could be recovered from pasture for six to eight weeks without rain in the summer, whereas no
H.contortus survived. However, as larvae of both species persisted on improved pastures for longer
periods than was thought possible, sf~ortterm rotational grazing to reduce worm burdens significantly was
untenable.

Work at McMaster Field Station on the comparative ecology of these two parasitic species ended about
1970. Nevertheless, there was some research in the population dynamics of parasites in ewes and lambs
until about 1971. The results can be summarised into three parts:-

(1) that the larval intake by ewes at the end of winter failed to produce adult egg-laying so that the
worm populations in lambs were stable in the last five weeks before weaning.
(2) when the eggs deposited by ewes on pastures was high after weaning, there could be severe
trichostrongylosis in lambs in about five weeks after weaning.
(3) if ewes lamb on pastures with over-wintered larvae, and if the lambs are weaned at 12 to 14 weeks
of age, drenched and moved to clean pastures, there may be little, if any, advantage In drenching
ewes about lambing time.

After this research, the ecology group collaborated with Drs. F.H.W. Morley, J.R. Donnelly and A. Axelsen
of the Division of Plant Industry at the Ginninderra Experimental Station in ACT from about 1972. There
were fruitful large scale grazing experiments with sheep and cattle and with no difficulties wlth assistant
staff and money. This research work continued until about 1978 or 1979 when the group from the
Laboratory had certain parasitological research they wished to continue and the group from Plant Industry
had agronomic questions to answer.

It is unnecessary to follow the details of the research at Ginninderra, but recommendations put Into
practise for grazing sheep and cattle were evolved and which have now continued for some tlme:-

(1) anthelmintic treatment together with grazing management allowed the abandonment of
suppressive anthelmintic treatment. Suppressive treatment involved treatment at short intervals.
(2) the development of efficient methods of control based on seasonal variation of larval development
on pasture.
(3) the acquisition of natural immunity by grazing animals.

Studies on Fasciola hepatica and liver fluke disease ,

'I
The studies involved work on the epidemiology, chemotherapy and control of fasciolosis. Some work
before the laboratory was opened has already been mentioned in this chapter. The account is again under
appropriate subjects, not in chronological order.

In 1955 Hugh Gordon suggested in a brief review that more work should be carried aut on the
epidemiology of liver fluke disease, the use of the latest anthelmintics, the control of snails and the
immunological aspects of the disease. Dr J C Boray, a veterinarian who came from Hungary, answered
many of those questions.

Joe Boray clarified the taxonomy of lymnaeid snails, and determined the identity of the intermediate host
snail of F. he~atica,called Lvmnaea tomentosa. The geographical and seasonal occurrence of the snail
was defined and its biological characters, including reproduction, survival and dispersion were studied In
the laboratory and in the field. The studies on the snails were of an ecological nature as they defined
generation time, optimum temperatures for oviposition and seasonal variations. The population usually
increased in the spring, continued through summer and declined in autumn. Dry seasons reduced snail
populations through reduction in the size and suitability of habitats and death of snails through

49
dessication. However, the high reproductive rate and the ability to survive for many months in mud even
when it had dried as surface water evaporated, enabled a rapid restoration of the populatlon. These
findings explained the apparent failure of the application of molluscicides and emphaslsed the need to
restrict the area and change the form of snail habitats by drainage and conversion of bogs and swamps
into dams before applying moluscicides. The wide dispersion of snails and their persistence in small
isolated habitats stressed the need for thorough application of the moluscicides.

Studies were carried out on the suitability of other lymnaeid species as intermediate hosts for F. hemticq,
some of which were conducted while Joe Boray held a research scholarship at the Veterinary School of
Hannover, Germany. I1 had been suggested previously that a common European snail, L. Dereara, may
have been a progenitor of L. tomentosa having been brought to Australia and New Zealand in the water
barrels of ships in the early days of settlement. However, Joe Boray's studies showed that L. tomentoa is
an indigenous species of Australia and New Zealand highly susceptible to the introduced F. he~atica.It
was found later that another species, L. viridis, which is widely distributed in China and the Pacific region,
is the intermediate host of liver fluke in Papua New Guinea.

There were extensive studies on the bionomlcs of the stages of F. he~aticaIn the Intermediate host
including the multiplication from sporocyst through radiae and cercariae. The periodicity of the discharge
of cercariae from the snail was also studied. The infectivity of metacercariae for sheep depended on the
vitality and vigour which is influenced by the time of emergence from the cyst as well as some earlier
environmental effects.

Many past and present staff of the laboratory will remember the successful work to breed snails and
produce metacercariae. The necessary equipment took up much space arld this equipment and the
method undement several modifications. The stated aims of the system were to produce a large number
of metacercariae for anthelmintic trials and for the experimental investigations on fasciolosis. Joe Boray
also sent metacercariae to laboratories as well as universities and chemical firms Ira Australia and
overseas.

The epidemiology of fasciolosis in sheep and cattle was investigated, beginning with the survey of the
incidence in New South Wales by observations at abattoirs and extended to the field. The epidernlological
studies were carried out especially in the Central Tablelands (Hampton) and at the Murrumbidgee
Irrigation Area (Griffith) where heavy infections were found. There tended to be two seasonal peaks In the
acquisition of infection in early spring and late summer and these coincided with the release of
overwintering cercariae from the snails and the subsequent availability of metacercariae produced by
snails which obtained their infection in spring and summer.

Based on the above epidemiological studies, strategic application of anthelmintics were recommended for
many regions of Australia, including a simple and effective system of chemotherapy combined with
pasture rotation.
A number of native animals including possums, wombats, grey kangaroos and Tammar wallables became
Infected as well as the introduced rabbit but were not regarded as "efficient reservoirs".

In the laboratory, the pathology of acute and chronic fasciolosis was studied, including the anaemia as
described in the section on pathophysiology. Other observations included the susceptibility of two breeds
of cattle; there were no differences in the number of flukes which established but the dairy breed (Jersey)
showed more severe clinical effects than the beef breed (Hereford). In a comparison of parasite burdens
in subclinical infections in sheep there were no differences in numbers between sheep on high or low
planes of nutrition, but in those on the low plane there was earlier and greater production of fluke eggs.
The onset of severe pathological changes was delayed in sheep on the high plane of nutrition. Fasciolosls
resulted in a significant reduction of wool growth even wRen only a moderate number af flukes were
present in the sheep.

Acquired resistance to fasciolosis was studied in sheep and cattle. There was no evidence of resistance to
challenge infections in sheep either following prolonged infections or vaccination with irradiated
metacercariae. In cattle there was apparent resistance after single and repeated infections, but this may
have been due to the unfavourable habitat which resulted from pronounced fibrosis and calcification of
the bile ducts; very much more marked in cattle than in sheep. In cattle, age may have been more
Important than an earlier infection in the development of resistance.

The possible effects of sciomyzid flies in the control of snails was investigated. Although the larvae of
these flies consumed a variety of snails, including the lymaneids, the overall snail population was not
significantly reduced.

Studies on the paramphistomes (Calci~horencalico~horumand Param~histornurnIchikawai) included the


life cycle of the flukes and their pathogenicity in a field outbreak of acute paramphistornosis at the
Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area. The biology of the intermediate host planorbid snails, Gvraulus and
Helicorbis spp., was also studied. Experiments for the successful treatment of acute pararnphlstomosis
was also carried out.

A number of older and new anthelmintics in diffcrent formulations were tested for efficacy agalnst
he~aticaof different ages including toxicology. A widely accepted method of "standardized anthelmintic
test" has been developed in sheep and in rodents, suitable for the screening of new anthelmintic products.
A sensitive quantitative diagnostic method for fasciolid and paramphistome flukes was also developed in
the laboratory.

Studies on molluscicides and their application are described above.

In the laboratory and in the field Dr Boray had skilled assistance from an Ian McMaster scholar, Miss
Jenny C Andrews, B.Sc., from a visiting veterinarian from Germany, Dr Fred A Happich, and later from an

51
agricultural graduate, Frank B Roseby.

Immunology
I ' I

I / , )
I
Early observations on the behaviour of infections with H. contortus suggested that sheep which appeared
to have developed resistance to experimental infections might become susceptible again when
maintained on a low plane of nutrition. In a preliminary trial (initiated by Carr-Fraser before he resigned)
there was some evidence that sheep on a diet adequate in phosphorus were more resistant to the effects
of infection. Later observations resulted in a general conclusion that a high plane of nutrition did not
protect sheep against the establishment of an infection with H. contortus or T. colubriformis. but the
infections did not persist as long as those in sheep on a low plane of nutrition and there was a degree of
resistance to reinfection. It was difficult to assess the influence of tRe plane of nutrition on infections with
Oe. colurnbianum because of the variable and lengthy prepatent period which results In immature worms
emerging from the mucosa as long as 4-5 months after the infection was acquired.

Research on the resistance of sheep to H. contortus and Trichostronavlus spp. was continued by Dr D F
Stewart from about 1952 to 1960. Essential to this was the development of a complement-fixation test for
circulating antibodies. By boiling at 1 0 0 for
~ ten
~ minutes an antigen was extracted from eggs, third
stage infective larvae and young adults of H. contortus, whereas antigen was extracted from third stage
Infective larvae and adults of Trichostronavlus spp. A lipid was the essential constituent of the boiled
antigen which could be extracted from a number of species of nematodes, but not from the two
trematodes that were tested. No antibody response was stimulated by ground mature H. contortus or by
Infective larvae of either species of parasite when killed by heat. It was also found that larval antlgen from
H. contortus reacted with antisera from sheep infected with H. contortus or Trichostron- spp.,
whereas antigen extracted from Trichostronavlus spp. reacted with antisera from sheep infected with that
species alone.

The occurrence and persistence of resistance to H. contortus was irregular and was not an acquired
immunity. Individual sheep might be resistant to several doses of larvae and yet subsequently succumb
to a further dose of larvae after a few weeks before eggs appeared in the faeces. Deaths often resulted
from acute haemonchosis before worms had reached egg laying maturity. This compared with the
vigorous and sustained antibody response to both larval and adult forms of Trichostronavius spp. The
difference between the two species of parasite was thus quite distinct.

Vaccines from ground infective larvae of either H. contortus or Trichostronavlus spp. were found to be
unsuccessful. This is interesting because of the later attempts by others to vaccinate sheep against
parasites.

'Self-cure' had been noted in the USA in the late 1920s and was examined in New England, New South
Wales, in 1938. It was not until Douglas Stewart extended his investigation in about 1947 on the
immunology of helminthoses of sheep that 'self-cure' was re-examined.

It was then shown that 'self-cure' could be produced by the administration of infective larvae to sheep
hypersensitised from previous experience of infection. The reaction was commonly accompanied by a rise
In blood histamine, skin sensitivity to an antigen prepared from infective larvae, oedema of the habitat of
the parasite concerned, a rise in circulating antibodies and often an oeslnophilia.

The direct observation by laparotomy of the abomasum of hypersensitive sheep following the Injection of
exsheathed larvae provided further support for the hypothesis that there was a change In environmental
conditions at the time of 'self-cure'. The effect of the intake of larvae of one species of nematode upon
other species appears to depend upon their respective location in the alimentary tract and suggested
local rather than systemic reaction. Antigenic material from parasitic larvae in the abomasum passed
readily to the small intestine and led to the displacement of the local T. colubriformis, but antigenic
material generated by T. coluhriformis in the small intestine could could not pass to the abomasum. There
was, therefore, no cross 'self-cure' against H. contortus when larvae of T. coiubriformiswere administered.

When grazing sheep were examined weekly over 18 months it was found that faecal egg counts fell as
serum titres rose and vice versa. Seven periods of 'self-cure' were observed. Naturally grazing flocks
were found to 'self-cure' after summer rains and this indicated that sheep then received large doses of H,
contortus.

The part played by blood histamine was also examined. It was found that the administration of an
antihistamine drug prevented the fall in faecal egg count, but not a rise in the serum titre. In over half the
occasions when 'self-cure' was observed, it was associated with a rise in blood histamine between days
two and four after the administration of infective larvae. in no instance was there a rise in blood histamine
when sheep failed to 'self-cure'. However, blood histamine rose in infections with other species of
parasites when sheep were 'self-cured' when Trichostronavlus spp. larvae were given In prevlous
infections of the same parasite. On the other hand, histamine in the wall of the abomasum in sheep
resistant to H. contortus was comparable at the height of the reaction to that of normal sheep. There was
no evidence, however, that 'self-cure' was directly caused by blood histamine.

It was found that there was oedema of the abomasal mucous membrane and a rise in blood histamine In
sheep previously infected wilh H. contortus and then given infective larvae of this species. A similar, but
less marked oedema of the small intestine occurred in sheep infected with Trichostronavlus spp. after
being given larvae of the same species.

It was also shown that continued infection with mature forms of either species of parasite, did not sensitize
sheep, nor did they 'self-cure'. There was no reaction to the intraderrnal inocuiation of H. contortug
antigen.
I
1
Dr J K Dineen joined the Laboratory in 1961 to work on the mechanisms of Immunity to parasitic infectio
1.
For his personal history Chapter IX must be consulted. He has been assisted by a number of Research
Scientists, Experimental Scientists and Ph.D. students from the Department of Veterinary ~ a t h o ~ o ~ y ,
University of Sydney. Amongst these have been Drs. Wagland, Rothwell, Adams, Kelly, Windon, Emery
and Outteridge. Some of these were Ph. D. students when they first came to the Laboratory.

John Dineen believes he was given a free rein. At all times some fundamental work was necessary.
Although he came to believe that the application of his research must be foremost, there must be a sound
knowledge of the basic principles. The dynamics of the host-parasite relationship was studied with the
recognition that the role of the immune response promoted the survival of both host and paraslte. The
Immune response regulates this relationship rather than eliminates the parasite.

For these reasons John Dineen and his co-workers studied the mechanism of the immune response in
which nippostrongylosis of the rat and trichostrongylosis of the guinea pig were models. The technique of
the transplantation of cells was used. John Dineen and his colleagues were, in fact, the first to use cell
transfer immunity against parasites. The aim was to determine whether a humoral antibody immunity or a
cell-mediated phenomenon was involved. It was shown that the latter was so, at least in Infection with I,
colubriformis. Surgery was used to demonstrate that immunity in the guinea pig was probably due to a
specific cellular response, but that there were also non-specific effector inflammatory mechanisms
Involved.

Subsequently the inflammatory response that accompanied intestinal parasitism and its role in the effector
mechanism was studied. This also demonstrated the possible relationship between immunity and the
pathophysiology of parasitic infection.

After this fundamental work, immunity to T. colubrlformis in sheep with irradiated larvae as a vaccine was
begun. It was found that about 50% of young sheep respond to vaccination whereas the remainder do
not. if the mean of all sheep is calculated, then irradiated larval vaccination is not successful. The report
of earlier studies that the technique is unsuccessful is thus explained.

Clearly, genetic factors determine whether an animal responds to vaccination or not. Responsiveness
was also found to be correlated with productive performance, for example, wool growth. It Is therefore
possible to select animals with a high level of responsiveness to vaccination without prejudicing their
performance.

A search for a genetic marker was commenced. When Peter Outteridge moved to the Laboratory from
the Animal Research Laboratory at Parkville, he found that there were antigen atlotypes that corresponded
to high responders. This should, therefore, be a practical proposition. There were no technical difficulties,
but it is necessary to develop the typing of antisera.
also examined.

Although Dr Rogers cancluded that the action of phenothiazine remained uncertain, it was shown that it
became attached to fatty substances in the parasites from which it could not be separated by acid or
alkaline hydrolysis. Furthermore, the anthelmintic property is due to phenothiazine itself, not to Its
oxidation derivatives.

Shortly before Dr Rogers resigned from the CSlRO in 1952, Dr Judith Koch joined the staff to work with
him. She took up the study of the biological activity of complex ions that were made with the co-operation
of the Chemistry Department of the University of Sydney. The effects on enzyme systems in solution were
believed to be due to the charge on these complex ions. For instance, the inhibition of acetylcholine
esterase was shown to be due to the cationic charge on a complex ion. The effect of complex Ions on
carbohydrate metabolism and their niolluscicide activity were also investigated. This research continued
for some years until they could no lor~gerbe produced by co-operafion with anyone from the University of
Sydney.

Abomasal histology, exsheaihment and in viin, cuttimtion

This is the research of Dr. R.I. Sommerville from 1951 to 1963 when he left the Laboratory to join the
Department of Zoology at the University of Adelaide.

Ian began with a study of the histotrophic phase of the entry of the larvae of Ostertaala spp. Into the
abomasal mucosa of sheep when they are inaccessible to anthelmintics. He mapped the peptic, parietal
and argentaffin cells of the rnucosa and, most importantly, identified globule leucocytes in the abomasum ,

and intestines of sheep infected for at least five .~eeks.Finally, Ian demonstrated that the third stage
larvae enter the gastric pits and glands of the pyloric and cardiac regions of the abomasum between 72
and 96 hours after administration. Thereafter thelr development is variable. Some may quickly leave the
mucosa, whereas others are undeveloped for whet may exceed three months. They may develop to the
adult stage in the mucosa before rnigrating to the lumen of the abomasum.

Ian then studied the exsheathment of parasitic larvae. He reported that they exsheathd in that part of the
alimentary tract anterior to where the adults were found, for exampie, H.contortus exsheathed in the
rumen, T.colubriformis in the abomasum and Oe. columbianum in the duodenum. He then developed an
understanding of the mechanism of exsheathing.

First, there is extrinsic factor in the rumen which Is dialysable and has optimum activity at about 40oC. It
is related to the hydrogen ion concentration and low oxidation-reduction potentials, which probably act
upon a centre, which may be in the posterior half of the larval oesophagus. This determines where
exsheathing takes place, for example, in the rumen or abomasum. Larvae so activated produce an
exsheathing factor that may be released from the excretory pore. This exsheathing fluid contains a
It was found that an infection prdduced by the administration of irradiated larvae of T. co~ubriformi~
'
produced a high level of immunity in high responder sheep. ~lthoudhlight infections developed following
challenge there were only slight temporary effects on the productivity of the sheep. In general the high
responder sheep performed better than the low responders, and their productivity was similar to that of
controls which had not been given khallenge infections.

John Dineen then became interested in examining the possibility of developing sub-unit vaccines with
recombinant DNA. With this work he collaborated with Ian O'Donald of the Division of Protein Chemistry
who was fractionating TrichostronavIus spp. A highly selective vaccine was tested. John Dineen then had
a large team working on this project, but he could spend little time on it as he was then the O-1-C of the
Laboratory and subsequently Acting Chief of Division.

I
W.O. Jones, in association with Dr. John Steel and formerly with Dr. Peter Outteridge, studied the
intestinal cytology and endogenous mediators of parasitic expulsion. This is at the interface between
pathophysiologyand immunology where not much is known.

Parasite Physiology and Toxicology

Research into what was officially known as parasite physiology and toxicology began with the
appointment of Dr W P Rogers and was first mentioned in the 20th Annual Report of the CSlR of 30th
June, 1946. It is rioteworthy that he introduced the use of radioisotopes and geiger counting to the
Laboratory. (Dr Rogers was joined by various research scientists over the following years Including
Misses M. Lazarus, H.B. Esserman and Dr. P. Whitfield.) .

Dr Rogers was primarily interested in fundamental biochemistry of helrninths, but was formally concerned
with that which might explain the anthelmintic action of phenothiazine, etc. Nevertheless, the group did
examine some of the more basic biochemistry of a number of parasites of sheep and other animals. The
oxygen metabolism of various parasites, including oxygen uptake by eggs, larvae and adults and Its
utilization was investigated. Oxygen tensions close to the intestinal mucosa and aerobic and anaerobic
metabolism were determined. Nitrogen metabolism was examined, together with nucleic acid metabolism
af a malarial parasite of man. Other work included the effect of pH on the development and the uptake of
nutrients by larvae of H. contortus. The uptake of phosphate by parasites and the small intestine of sheep
was also examined, as well as the physical characteristics of haemoglobin from two intestinal species of
parasite and its biological significance in nematode parasites.

The investigation of the action of phenothiazine included its inhibition of acid phosphatase activity, its
uptake in vitro and in vivo by parasites and its relative toxicity and effectivenessagainst various parasites.
It was found that phenothiazine was taken up by the cuticle rather than by ingestion by the parasite. The
effectiveness or otherwise of derivatives of phsnothiazine was investigated. The uptake by respiring
mitochondria and the absorption and excretiorl by sheep of different particle sizes of phenothiazine was
I
protein and a dialysable cofactor and contains antigenic substances, some of which may be specific.

I 1
Ian examined the in vitro cultivation of larval parasites, first of ~.brasiliens~s
and the;, In more detail,
H.contortus. He looked at the effect of crowding of larvae, media, growth, the number of surviving larvae,
morphology related to ingestion and nervous tissue. Sterilisation of exsheathed larvae of H.contortus and
their subsequent survival under different concentrations of carbon dioxide was also examined. The gas
phase appears to be important to the development of larvae of H.contortus up to the third larval stage,
whereas the fourth stage were apparently independent of the exogenous sources of nutrients. This
project was concluded at this point when Dr. Sommerville resigned from the CSIRO.

Pathophysiology is the term used to explain anorexia, (inappetance), poor growth etc. In sheep this also
includes poor rate of wool growth. It does not, however, describe only the deranged physlology, but
includes the biochemical changes. At this Laboratory it was confined to the effects of internal parasites,
whether nematodes or, occasionally, trematodes.

In the early days of the Laboratory, parasite infection was confined to its pathogenic effects, that Is, such
things as loss of weight. There was little or no attempt t o explain them, that Is, t o examine the
pathophysiology. Some of the earliest observations were made by Drs. Clunies Ross and Peter Kauzal.

In the 6th Annual Report of 1932 of the CSIR, shortly after the opening of the Laboratory, there 1s an
account of the pathogenic importance of some species. This included haemonchosls In Tasmania, New
South Wales and Queensland that reduced wool growth rather than body weight. Other lnvestlgations
confirmed the pathogenic importance of the immature forms of C. ovina. Nematodirus filicollis was
relatively benign except when the nutrition of the sheep was poor. In the 12th Annual Report of 1946 it
was shown that sub-clinical infections of T, coiubriforrr~isreduced food consumption, body weight and
wool production. Oe. colurnbianurrl reduced body weight and wool production.

After this there were some observat/ons of poor growth or loss d weight in sheep used O
n experiments for
other purposes and of the effect of nutrition on parasitic infection. Then, in the 4th A ~ n u aReport
l of the
CSlRO for year ending 30th June, 1952 and in the succeeding Annual Report there were observations on
plasma volumes and the fall of total blood volumes per unit body weight and the resulting hypocythaemic
anaemia due to Triel~ostronavIusspp. These observations were made by C el Gallagher shortly after he
joined the staff. Then in the 6th Annual Report of 1954, Dr M C Franklin or his colleagires found that
vitamin A blood levels fell in heavy infections of T. colubriformis.

I was appointed early in 1955 to study the pathophysiology of gastointestinal Iofectlons and was
eventually assisted by W 0 Jones and Dr J W Steel and, for a short time, by Dr R K Prichard and D R
,
Mennessy. The foilowing are brief outlines of research until early 1982 when on my retirement all research
I

57
I
on pathophysiology ceased. This is not described in chronological order, but is conveniently divided into
groups according to subject.

In most instances at this Laboratory the effect on body weight and appetite was evidence that the
infection, by whatever species of parasite, affected the host and so justified whatever pathophysiological
response was examined in the experiment. Experiments included infections with N. brasiliensis in rats, &.
dubius in mice, T. colubriformis in guinea pigs and sheep, 0. circumcinctq in sheep and F. h e ~ a t i c aIn
sheep. Also included for comparative purposes was infection with Elmeria tenella in chickens and two
bacterial infections in sheep or guiriea pigs. In general the effects increased with the number of parasites
administered, whether in single or multiple doses, and where tested those that occurred for a specific
time, probably until the host became resistant.

Anorexia or inappetance is a common symptom of parasitic infection and has also been recorded in many
other infections with bacteria and viruses. It has also been found in the pathophysiology unlt In guinea
pigs infected with the bacterium Yersinia ~seudotuberculoslsand in sheep with footrot primarily due to
Fusiforrnis nodosus. Whether anorexia accounts for the failure to grow or loss of weight has been
debated between laboratories, but it has been concluded that anorexia is not entirely responsible. Pair-
feeding has been commonly used at this Laboratory t o assess its importance t o this and other
expressions of infection. Care must be taken with this technique because the uninfected tend to eat their
reduced ration more quickly than do the infected animals.

Although the cause of anorexia was the particular concern of this unit, only two experiments were
conducted. In the first, it was found that the intravenous administration of the octapeptide of the hormone
cholecystokinin depressed food intake of sheep, although the dose was almost certainly unphysiological.
Because it had been found that there were low levels of zinc in the blood of man On various parasitic
Infections, plasma zinc was measured in trichostrongylosis of sheep in the second experlment. Plasma
zinc was reduced in infected sheep that became anorexic, but not in the uninfected, whether pair-fed or
not.

Change to the mucosae of the intestines was evidence that damage could affect function. This was
examined in detail in nippostrongylosis of rats and what follows was illustrated by this infection, although
details may vary between infections. The diameter and dry weight of the jejunum was increased, also with
Increases in the thickness of the two smooth muscle layers. The changes were progressive, until by the
10th and critical day the jejunal mucosa could be flattened because the villi were shortened and fused.
The crypts were lengthened, distorted and often opened directly to the surface. Nevertheless, the degree
of damage varied from place to place in the jejunum, even in heavy infections. Electron microscopy
showed that the length of the microvilli was reduced and the brush borders were irregular. The parasites
frequently enclosed misshapen villi, but were free on the surface, whereas T. colubriformis was often
burled beneath the mucosal surface. The progenitor cycle of the epithelial cells of the crypts was
shortened with their faster movement along the villi. There were progressive changes to the lamina
I
I

propria, including enzymatic alterations. Furthermore, the turnover of eplthlelial cells In the worm-free
distal ileum and colon was increased, with longer crypts in the ileum, but not in the colon. The faster
turnover of epithelial cells in the distal ileum and colon was obviously not due to the mechanical action of
the parasites, bul possibly to metabolic or other substances passing down the tract.

In general, the absorption of sugars, amino acids, palmitic acid, bromosulphaiein and the fluxes of
elecfrolytes and water as well as the digestion of proteins and maltose was reduced in the small intestine
in infection, but not if measured from the entire intestine. The rate of absorption from the distal worm-free
regions sf the small intestine appeared to be increased. Malabsorption in the infected region was directly
i
related to the severity of the infection.

Digestive enzymes such as maltase and dipeptidases of the mucosa were reduced in the infected reglons
of the smali intestine. The rate of flow of fluid and ingesta through the proximal two-thirds of the small
intestine was reduced, but increased in compensation in the distal ileum. After experiments had shown
that malabsorption and reduced digestion and even anorexia could not account for poor body growth or
wool production, it was necessary to examine metabolism, particularly protein rne~abolism. Initially, the
basal metabolic rate (BMR) was investigated with mice infected with N. dubius. Depression of BMR was
shown not to be due to anorexia which, however, reduced total body lipid and liver glycogen. Early wark
on protein synthesis and catabolism was with guinea pigs infected with T. colubriformis and mice with N,
dtlblus. Subsequent work was entirely with T. colubriformis in sReep and guinea pigs. The techniques
varied, but the results can be summarized as follows. There was an increase in synthesis in the structural
proteins of the liver, in plasma protein (due largely to albumin leakage to tile small intestine) and to the
mucosa of the small and large intestine. On the other hand, there was a decrease of protein synthesls In
skeletal muscle, wool and cortex of the kidney. Overall, there was an increase O
n protein synthesis in the
whole body of guinea pigs in which it was measured due to methodologicai problems with iambs. Protein
synthesis was decreased by anorexia alone in the smali intestine and whole body, uncertain In the
structural proteins of the liver and without change in wool, large intestine and the kldney cortex.
Catabolism was increased in skeletal muscle in which it was also increased by anorexia alone. There were
other experiments that must be described separately. Leakage of plasma proteins into the small intestine
in infected animals has been observed in many laboratories, including McMaster Laboratory. This leakage
c~mrnonlyleads to hypoalbuminaemia when synthesis of albumin in the liver is unable to match the rate
of loss into the intestine. This relationship between loss into the upper small intestine and protein
synthesis was clearly shown in guinea pigs infected with T. colubriformis. Membrane-bound rib0!3~me~
that synthesize circulating plasma proteins, including albumin, were stimulated by intestinal loss. This was
not due to anorexia which may, however, increase the rate of synthesis of liver structural proteins by free
ribosomes. The concentrations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) were
measured in most tissues. The fail in the RNA/DNA ratio in both skeletal muscle and liver was consistent
with the fall in muscle protein synthesis but not with the rise in liver. These apparent differences were
explained when RNA metabolism was examined. Poor skeletal growth in suckling guinea pigs infected
with T. colubriformis was due to both depress@ protein synthesis and the inclusion of new nuclei and
I I

, 1 1 ,
59 '
I
hence more cells. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of guinea pigs with trichostrongylosls decreased
with decreasing food consumption, but this was only partly due to anorexia. On the other hand, the rate
of liver protein synthesis increased as food consumption fell, but again, this was oniy partly due to
anorexia. The work on hormones was done by Dr R. Prichard and D. Hennessy. Corticosterolds rose,
whereas Insulin fell in the plasma of sheep infected with T. colubriformis. The former Is only partly
explained by anorexia, whereas it is entirely responsbible for the fall in Insulin. Whether those changes In
hormones are consistent with the changes in muscle and liver protein synthesis are uncertain.
Nevertheless, the dramatic rise of corticosteroids between days 15 and 20 of infection are consistent with
a catabolic effect on muscle protein and an anabolic effect on liver protein. The fall in Insulin Impairs
muscle protein synthesis and reduces catabolism in the liver. Total plasma thyroxine fell, but the
percentage of free thyroxine increased. This was not due t o anorexia, but its slgnlflcance to the
metabolism of infected sheep is uncertain. Comparisons were made by L E A Symons and his colleagues
between Intestinal parasitic infection and a coccidial and two bacterial infections because of the reported
similarity in protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and liver irrespective of whether the infecting agents were
worms, coccidia or bacteria. Muscle protein synthesis was depressed by the coccidian E.tenella In the .
caeca of chickens, a generalized infection of guinea pigs with the bacterium Y.~seudotuberculoslqand
probably in footrot of sheep due primarily to the bacterium F.nodosus. The effect on liver protein synthesis
was conflicting. It was unchanged in the coccidial infection, in wRich there was haemorrhage and
presumably loss of plasma, but was increased in footrot. It was unchanged In guinea pigs with yerslnosls.
In neither of the last two is there known to be a loss of plasma proteins. What could be looked upon as a
summary of these metabolic effects and as trials of the effect of progressively Increasing doses of larvae
from susceptibility t o resistance were run towards the end of the study of pathophysiology. Production
losses and metabolic responses of young sheep infected with five progressively Increasing weekly doses
of larvae of T. colubriforr& or 0. circumcincta that were within the range normally acquired, were run for
24 weeks. A concurrent infection with both parasites or with either parasite alone was run for 16 weeks.
The weekly doses were divided into three administered on alternate days. One group in all three
experiments was parasite-free. Briefly, altliough the number of larvae of 0. circumcOncta was about four
times the number of T. colubriforrnis, the latter had a more severe effect on food consumption, liveweight
gain, wool production, nitrogen retention and albumin metabolism. In general, these were affected by
only the highest number of larvae of 0. circumcincta. Also, in general, liveweight gain and wool
production fell and the sheep were resistant to infection with T. co~ubriformisby about week 16 and
infection with 0. circumcincta by about week 12. At the levels of infection administered neither parasite
had any effect on food consumption, productivity and metabolism, whereas concurrent infection had
marked effects. With Dr J C Boray I examined the anaemia of the infection of the liver of sheep with F,
Iiepatica and showed that this was entirely due to ingestion of blood by this parasite. Finally, it must be
recorded that research on the metabolism of infected sheep has only begun. If we are to understand fully
how productivity is affected oy parasitic infection, more research is necessary.
CHAPTER VI

Research Continued: External Parasitic Infestation, Bacteriology, etc.

As stated in the appropriate section of Chapter Ill and in the previous chapter not all researdh at the
Laboratory has been into aspects of internal parasitic infection. External parasites have been important
and bacteriology of sheep has been investigated since even before the Laboratory was built. Biochemical
pathology was emphasised for a few years after about 1955. There was some research In the early years
on biochemistry and nutrition and on wool and wool biology. There ls also brief mention of the crossing
of the Zebu with British breeds of cattle and of sheep breeding experiments at the F.D. McMaster Field
Station at Badgery's Creek. Although the unit was then largely independent it was administered from the
Laboratory. Research in these fields is included in this chapter. Although certain Important aspects of
sheep breeding were centred at this Laboratory for some years they are not included in this history
because the people concerned belonged to a separate group that eventually became part of the Division
of Animal Genetics.

External Parasitic infestation

Research on external parasites, almost entirely on sheep, continued for many years. This became a major
interest until, finally, in about 1983, research in this field moved to the newly created Division of Tropical
Animal Diseases in Brisbane that is primarily concerned with external parasites of cattle.

Despite this emphasis on external parasites of sheep, the first research work In the protection of the dog
against the dog tick was by Dr Clunies Ross on the aetiological factor responsible for tick paralysis. It was
found that there was a factor in the salivary glands of the female lxodes holocvclus responsible for this
paralysis. As hyper-immune serum could be used to protect and cure dogs there was a posslbllity of
lmmunislng them for protection. Some years later Dr. Judith Koch collaborated with the external parasite
unit in a study of the excretions of I. holocyel~. She also examined the biochemical changes in the tick
Infested dog. Aspects of these latter studies were pursued later in collaborationwith Dr 8. Goodrlch.

For several years research on external parasites of sheep in what could be called the first-stage can be
divided into three parts: first, the blowfly problem; secondly, the bionomics of the itch mite [Psoreraates
ovis), the sheep ked (Melophaaus ovinus) and lice, particularly the body louse (Damalinia ovis) and lastly,
--
the examination of methods for the control of these parasites. These studies were conducted by Norman
P H Graham (until he resigned in about 1947), Ian L Johnstone, 0-i-C of RPL, Armidale and Miss T Marion
Scott who resigned about a year after Knrman Grnham. In October 1951 Durno Murray was appointed as
head of the section on external parasites.

Fly strike was the subject of research at the Laboratory, at field stations and on sheep properties early In
the history of the Laboratory. The Division could not wait for results from the Division of Entomology In

61
I I I
Canberra where work on the biology of the blowfly had started. The general Interest at the Laboratory
was diseases of sheep and hence, was focussed upon fly strike itself and particeriarly the Mules operation
for the control and prevention of breech strike. This operation had been very successful in the field. Ian
Johnstone was appointed to assist Norman Graham in about 1939, but was transferred to Gilruth Plains In
Queensland in 1940, although he remained on the staff of the Laboratory. Gilruth Plains was the centre for
investigation of the Mules operation. The original operation was greatly improved and it was also found
that the length of the residual tail in lambs influenced the frequency of strikes. The desirable length for
docking was determined.

Body strike was found to be most common after rain and was also shown to be associated with fleece rot.
Dehorning of rams to control head Strike was also investigated.

In the early 1970's there was an investigation into the predisposing causes of fly strike of sheep In winter
rainfall areas. The importance of diarrhoea in breech strike was shown. Fleece rot, a bacterioioglcal
Infection predisposing to body strike, was examined and is told in the section under Bacteriology.

ltch mite, lice and keds

The ltch mite (P. ovis) was first discovered by Dr Carter of the Wool Biology Laboratory in Sydney.
Norman Graham developed the patch test to screen the efficiency of insecticides against this mite. E
-
ovis, which was found to produce a slight, but chronic irritation of the skin, occurs mainly in the cooler
southern region of Australia. It is transmitted when freshly shorn sheep are closely crowded.

'
Some aspects of the biology of the ked, M. ovinug, was determined before examination of the efficacy of
dipping for its control. This investigation commenced in about 1938 and Included the duration of the
pupal stage, the effect of temperature and humidify on pupae, sexual maturity, gestation and longevity of
females and miyralions of ked on the sheep.

The bionomlcs of the body louse (D. ovis) and the foot louse (Linoanathus ~edalls)were examined by
Marion Scott. The life cycle and distribution on the sheep of the body louse was investigated. The llfe
cycle of the latter was determined and its incidence in infestations of Romney Marsh sheep examined.
Infestations were found to be heavier in young sheep, particularly in iambs, and were heaviest In late
winter and early summer.

The effect of nutrition on the body louse and ked was also determined. Although there were few lice on
law plane of nutrition on sheep shorn in January tne number increased rapidly thereafter. In thcase on a
high plane, the number of lice fell rapidly until they were clean after about three months. All sheeo 991 a
low plane of nutrition gained little weight, whereas those on a high plane gained much more.
There was much research on control methods using dips, fogs and sprays and the chemicals tested
included arsenical compounds, rotenone. hexachloro-cyclohexan~,DDT. BHC, aldrin and dieldrin. The
I I
details of this research are lengthy and need not be given here, but included efficacy against partlcuiar
external parasites (including the various forms of blowfly strike), stripping from dlps and length of wool.
Dresslngs after lamb marking were also investigated. Most of this work with dlps, etc. came to an end
with the introduction of newer insecticides such as dieldrin. However, several years later, when Norman
Graham rejoined the Laboratory, he made another important contribution, a simple technique for the
replenishment of emulsion and compensated dips to prevent stripping. ,

A more thorough investigation of the itch mite of sheep was begun at the second stage of research with .
external parasites with Durno Murray in charge. This involved a study of the morphology, feeding habits,
distribution and movements of all stages from the egg to adult and the length of the life cycle of P. ovis.

A detailed study of the ecology begun in about 1953 with the discovery in Victoria of the face louse
(L.ovillus). This led to a profitable study of lice in general, more particularly the body louse (D. ovis).
These were concerned with the effects of changes of microclimates of the habitats and host behaviour on
louse populations. Models were developed t o estimate potential abundance of ectoparasites from a
knowledge of their fecundity, generation times and survival. Durno Murray was also involved In a study of
the ecology of lice on two species of seal, one at Macquarle Island in the sub-Antarctic and another in the
Antarctic. It was found that the same basic principles apply to these animals as they do to sheep and
other animals.

There was also an examination of demodectic mange on sReep and cattle. . L.

During this stage there were further investigations of the efficacy of insecticides in the control of louse and
mite infestations. Insecticides against blow flies were tested at the Veterinary Parasitology Laboratory at
Yeerongpilly, Queensland, during thls stage of external parasitic resealch.

Virus Infections and their vectors

Research on the distribution of lice on the host had gone as far as it could go with the equipment and
facilities then available. This then led to what may be called the third stage of external parasitic research
when the Division became committed to virobiological studies, including arbovirus infections of livestock.
Much of the research during this stage was in collaboration with the Divisional laboratories in Brlsbane,
Sydney and Melbourne as well as with other Divisions and the State Departments of Agriculture.

About thls time Blue Tongue, a virus disease often lethal to sheep, appeared In the Middle East, Pakistan
and India and thus became potentially relevant to Australia. For thls reason an examirlation was begun of
the distribution of biting midges in this country as they could be the arbovirus vectors for Blue Tongue and
other exotic arbovirus diseases.
,I

I I
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1
After the reorganization of the Division of Wildlife, Alan Dyce was transferred to the Divlsion of Animal
Health to investigate possible vectors of Ephemeral Fever, another virus disease of cattle. Initially surveys
were made In south western Queensland and north western New South Wales and, later, In Gippsland
and Tasmania. In 1967 a major outbreak of Ephemeral Fever moved rapidly in six weeks from the Gulf of
Carpentaria t o northern Victoria. It was shown that the vectors probably moved with the wind.
Consequently surveys of vectors were carried out over much of Australia. It took five years to complete
the survey throughout Australia, during which time the Departments of Agriculture greatly assisted the
Division. In addition, techniques to isolate arboviruses from midges were developed by Alan Dyce with
the Brlsbane team, which also commenced more intensive taxonomic studies of biting midges. Mike
Muller joined the staff as an Experimental Scientist during these studies.

When the Blue Tongue virus was found to be present in Australia in 1977, the survey data proved
invaluable in the initial decisions in emergency, the techniques for virus isolation were established and the
taxonomic studies clarified which species of vectors might be Invaivecf.

There is no need to go into the details of this outbreak because it is not part of the history of McMaster
Laboratory. However, the initial relevant sub-committees were made up largely, If not entirely, of
representatives from the Division of Animal Health. There was complete trust of the arbovlrus group of
which Durno Murray and Alan Dyce from this Laboratory were members. The Commonwealth had for
several years previously had advisory committees concerned with the welfare of livestock, one of which
was the Exotic Diseases Sub-committee on which Durno Murray served as veterinary entomologist.

Alan Dyce continued to collaborate closely with the virologists in Brisbane, although he remained on the
staff of the Laboratory. Durno Murray studied the ecology of Cusicoides brevitarsls, a vector of both Blue
Tongue and Akabane virus. New South Wales was the southern boundary of Akabane Disease. Detailed
field studies supplied data on factors influencing local dispersai and seasonal abundance of this vector.
These were applied studies on virus distribution and outbreak of Akabane Disease. Models designed to
define botanical systems were modified to predict the potential distributions of vector and virus. This
enabled a more critical analysis of epizootics to be made and, when an outbreak of Akabane Disease
occurred in 1983, it was possible to demonstrate the role wind must have played in dlspersing infected
vectors inland from the coastal psains of New South Wales.

Research into external parasitic infestations ended at McMaster Laboratory when ail such work was
transferred from the Division of Animal Heaith to the Divlson of Tropical Animal Science in about 1983.
Alan Dyce and Durno Murray became paying tenants in the Laboratory where they had worked for over 20
and 30 years, respectively.
Bacteriology ,
I ' 1

Bacterial diseases of sheep have been associated with the Laboratory since Rs inception. Most research
Into bacterial diseases is now located at the Animal Health Research Laboratory at Parkville In Melbourne.
There is, however, still some work on fleece rot and salmone~losisat the Laboratory despite the emphasis
upon internal parasitic diseases.

Perhaps research into caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) of sheep can be said to have commenced with H.R.
Carne (later Professor Carne, for many years head of the Department of Veterinary Pathology) before the
Laboratory was opened in 1931. ~ l t h o u never
~ h a member of the staff of the Laboratory, Dr Carne, as has
already been mentioned, had a major influence on its pianning. There was also some research in CLA
related to what became the Division of Animal Health of the CSlR.

Dr Carne was initially interested i n serological diagnosis of CLA and in its causative agent.
Corvnebacterium ovis, an organ/sm originally known as the Preisz-Nocard bacillus, was already
recognised to be the causative agent. W.I.B. Beveridge then joined the staff and examined in rabbits the
antigenic relationship betweerr C.ovis, C. diphtheriae and pathogenic diphtheroids from human throats.

It was shown early in investigations of CLA that wounds from shearing and lamb marking were by far the
most Important routes of infection. Other work included the antiseptic treatment of pus, the elaboration of
a diagnostic skin test, toxin and the disinfection of shearing handpieces. There was also some
work on prevention of the transmission of the disease by rugging newly shorn sheep and the release of
newly shorn sheep to spelled paddocks. Trials for vaccination of sheep to control CLA began In New
South Wales, but eventually continued from the Animal Health Research Laboratory in Melbourne but
were not encouraging. At that time the last research into this disease at McMaster Laboratory was
apparently in 1939. However, C.H. Gallagher showed, shortly after he joined the staff in about 1951, that
the immune response to C.ovis produced a greater reaction in lymph nodes and that the intraderrnal
injection produced a hypersensitivity.

Research began again with the appointment of B.H. Burrell in 1970 following a recommendation from
Norman Graham who had been asked on retirement to list in order of priority bacterial diseases
demanding research.

Further research was also stimuizt-ed by the decision of the USA in 1970 not to import meat from sheep
that may have had CLA. Doug Burrell began with a survey of the previous work at the Laboratory and at
Parkville to decide upon the most profitable poir~tat which to restart research. Most previous work was
with small animals. It was necessary to study the pathogenesis and vaccination in sheep.
He had commenced cannulation of the popliteal lymph node in the hind limb in research into footrot with
Dr. Egerton. This was fortunate because it was then possible to produce CIA experimentally in this lymph
node without seriously affecting the health of the animal. Hitherto it had been difficult to test a vaccine for
CLA in sheep, but now it was possible to do so. Pathogenesis of the disease could be studied at the same
time.

The first vaccine tried by Doug Burrell, which gave significant protection, was made entirely from antlgens
from cells of C. ovis and did not contain any toxin. In later experiments sheep serum containing a high
level of antitoxin gave passive protection against CLA when administered prior to and during challenge.
Dr. Carne had previously concluded that antitoxin did not protect.

Doug Burrell also demonstrated thdt the toxin and the haemo!ysin were identical despite the earlier belief
of Dr Carne that the two were not tho same. This observation was important because haernolysis was a
simple assay test for antitoxin, whereas hitherto only a complex test was available. This provided a simple
serum diagnostic test for CLA, but, more importantly, high yields of toxin could now be produced. In fact,
the concentration of toxin could be increased 16,000 times above conventional culture. This ensured that
toxin vaccine could be economic all^ produced by diluting a small volume of the concentrated toxin.
Subsequent highly protective vaccines from the Laboratory contained both toxins and antigens from
bacterial cells. On the other hand, in Western Australia it was believed that a vaccine did not require
antlgens from cells but has since given irregular results. However, since then, two commercial firms have
produced Doug Burrell's vaccine containing both antigens from cells and toxin. Doug Burrell agrees that
further work is necessary to facilitate quality control of commercial vaccines. He has also found that the
vaccine is effective in dairy goats in which CLA in prevalent.

Other research has shown that toxin produced from cultural supernatants could be used in a diagnostic
test of serum for CLA infections. He has also shown that alum adjuvants are all that are necessary. Oily
adjuvants do themselves cause damage to the sheep. lt was originally bel'leved that what was surface
lipid on C. ovis was directly related to virulence, but Doug Burrell has demonstrated that this is not
correct, for instance, attenuated strains can still produce high levels of surface "lipid" in culture under
appropriate conditions.

Footrot and foot abcess

Research into footrot and later, fleece rot of sheep, have been major projects for many years. Research at
the Laboratory into the control of fleece rot by vaacination continues to the present.

Footrot research really started before the Laboratory was opened, principally at the Veterinary Research
Institute of the University of Melbourne. Some work was done in New South Wales by Dr Carne, but
began at the Laboratory with the appointment of W.I.B. Beveridge late in 1931.
Investigation began with the immersion of sheep's feet in water, but it was soon shown that this did not
I

66
produce the disease.
I

Although Fusiformis necro~horuswas believed to be the causative bacterium, it was not possible to set up
footrot with this alone. Some years were spent looking for the causal agent or agents by examining
and F. nedro~horuswere
smears and sections. At one time it was believed that ~ ~ i r o c h a e~enortha
ta
responsible. Then a change was made for a search for a successful medium. A medium rich in sheep
serum was tried unsuccessfully, but success followed the chance substitution of horse serum. The agent,
first known as F. nodosus, but later as Bacteroides nodosus, was Isolated. Although this research had
taken about 4 1/2 years, it was found in this time that footrot is a transmissible disease, the organism of
which does not survive more than about three or four days in mud or faeces, but Is transmitted from the
feet of infected sheep. It may be carried in infected feet, even under dry conditions, though the sheep are
not lame. Furthermore, footrot could be controlled by disposing of infected sheep and movlng the
remainder to paddocks left empty of sheep for two or three weeks.

Dr Beveridge finally left the Laboratory in 1941, but, after the isolation of the causative organisms in about
1937, there was no further research into footrot until the appointment of J.H. Thomas In about 1954.

The sensltivity of B. nodosus to "'hrious substances, particularly antlbiotlcs, was examined by direct
treatment of infected feet or by intravenous and oral routes. It was also found that keratin was a
necessary growth factor. There was also histological examinations of the lesions of footrot in sheep on
pasture. I
I

A broth medium for the cultivation of B. nodosus was developed and the extracellular enzymes of the
organism were studied. These enzymes included proteases that hydrolyze the various forms of keratin. It
was also shown that sheep serum, particularly from uninfected sheep, inhibits tRe activity of proteases.
This presumably explains why sheep serum in the media of Dr Beveridge was unsuceessfuO.

When J.H. Thomas resigned in abodt 1962 his place was taken by J.R. Egerton in about 1965. He worked
I
closely with D.S. Roberts who had been employed since 1957. Although the latter was involved initially
with research on mycotic dermatitis (see below) he also worked with foot abscess which overlapped to
some extent with footrot. This overlapping was twofold. First, the pathogenic synergy, as David Roberts
n footrot between B,
called it, between F. necrolshorus and C. Dvoaenes in foot abscess also occurs O
~lodosusand F. necro~horum(as it was then called). F. necroohorum produces a leucoctdal toxin that
lrtdirectly lyses leucocytes so liberating their destructive contents. Secondly, B. nodosus suppiies a
similar factor for invasion by F. necrophorum.

John Egerton established that both B. nodosus a d F. necro~horumwere involved in the establishment of
the lesions in footrot and that wet conditions were necessary. The aetiology of footrot was then known
and the disease could be set up experimentally. Another big advance was that the organisms could be
given via the blood stream because they could then get very close to the skin. Furthermore, it was shown
that antibiotics given via the blood stream were effective. By this process a high level of antibodies could
be produced so that sheep could be immunized against footrot. However, because of the antigenic
diversity of B. nodosus a vaccine mbst allow for severai strains.

D.J. Stewart replaced Dr Egerton in 1973. His research was involved with the production of a vaccine for
footrot. David Stewart defined the protective antigens in 8 . nodosus, and in so doing defined the pllus
antigen involved. This finding was controversial in 1975, but by 1978 David Stewart and others had
confirmed that this was so. Since then it has been shown that there are at Beast ten strains of B. nodosus
with different pilus antigens, and that these are all necessary in an effectlve vaccine. He has since been
transferred to the Animal Health Research Laboratory in Melbourne where he has continued his research
lnto vaccines for footrot.
I

However, at McMaster Laboratory bavid Stewart also examined the diagnosis of footrot. tie established
that an elastase test distinguished between benign and pathogenic strains of 8. ndosus to a reasonable
degree. In this work he collaborated with the State Departments of Agriculture in New South Wales,
Victoria and Tasmania.

There has been no further research into footrot at the Laboratory since David Stewart transferred to
Melbourne.

In the 13th Annual Report of the CSlR for 30th June, 1939, It was first recognized that footrot and foot
abscess were two distinct diseases of sheep. Foot abscess, or infective burbar necrosis, was shown to be
troublesome in abnormally wet seasons.

There does not appear to be any further research lnto foot abscess until it is stated in the 8th Annual
Report of the CSlRO for year ending 30th June, 1956, that the sensitivity of F. necro~horumto antibiotics,
particularly chloromycetin, was examined in both the Laboratory and the field. Subsequently, whether
cracked or broken hooves predispose to foot abscess was investigated, and a selective medium for F,
necroehorum was devised. This medium was used to show that the organism could be isolated from the
faeces of infected sheep.

As several clinical entities of so-called foot abscesses were reported by wool growers it was uncertain
what was actually defined by the term. It was not until David Roberts worked with John Egerton, Norman
Graham and Ian Parsonson at the Animal Heaith Research Laboratory in Melbourne, on the gram-negative
anaerobes affecting the feet of sheep that critical advances were made on foot abscess.

It was then shown that the commonest form of foot abscess occurred most often in the hind feet of heavily
pregnant ewes because of the relative anoxia that facilitated invasion by F. necro~horumand C. Dvoaenes
from an initial interdigital dermatitis. This was an example of pathogenic synergy, that Is, the co-operative
action of the two causal organisms. C. ovoaenes on the other hand, produces a growth factor that
I

68 '
I
I

stimulates F. necro~horumto invade the tissues. F. necro~horumis also impervious to an immunological


response. The infection is only limited by the oxygen supply of healthy tissue. ,
I

After David Roberts resigned in 1969, C.R. Huxtable continued to search for and characterlse the toxin
produced by F. necro~horumbecause of its possible immunizing effect. This was unsuccessful by the
time he resigned in 1972. More work was done in 1974 by David Stewart who examined the toxin
produced in a broth culture and also showed that foot abscesses in the hind feet of pregnant ewes was
due to the lesion of interdigital dermatitis extending by ulceration of the skin-horn junction. He also found
I
that the possibility of immunization was remote.

There was no further research Into fbot abscess.

Mycotic dermatftls(hmpy wool) I

The causative bacterium of mycdtic dermatitis or lumpy wool of the sheep was originally known as
Nocardia
- - and then Dermato~hilusdermatonomus. Latterly, since it was shown that the same organism
could be isolated from similar lesions in different animal species, the original name of D. conaolensls has
been generally adopted. I

In the 7th Annual Report for year e&ding June 30th, 1955, there Is an account of In vltro tests of antibiotics.
N dermatonomus was shown to be sensitive to some, but only moderately sensitive to others. Some were
tested by intramuscular injection. As an antigen was isolated which detected antibodies there was a
possiblilty that immunity developed. By the 1I t h Annual Report of 1959 a motile coccoidal stage of Q
dermatanomus was shown to be responsible for the migration of the organism in the transmission of the
disease.

Mycotic dermatitis was also believed to be associated with shearing and dipping. Severe outbreaks in
lambs were associated with a high incidence in ewes. Mycotic dermatitis was studied In detail by D.S.
Roberts when he joined the staff in 1959. Others, notably Norman Graham, worked with him. Research
I

involved small animals such as rabbits and guinea pigs as well as sheep.

It was found that zoospores of D. conaolensis as the organism was now called, were released from scabs
when sheep were wetted so that they probably became a serious source of intection. The organism was
r ~ odetected
t in the SOP, but there was evidence that the disease could be transmitted by Insects such as
flies, and by wet pastures. it could also move from existing lesions when rain developed channels In the
fleece. It was unlikely tkat it spread by contact, for example, from ewes to iambs.

Natural infections probably commenced when the protective barriers of sebaceous wax or the stratum
carneum were damaged, for example, by shaaring. Details of the invasion of the epidermis were
examined. Branching filaments of D. c o n ~ o l e w
enter the epidermis througR wool follicles, but do not
penetrate the dermis, probably because of an inhibitory factor in the latter. New epidermis Is formed
beneath an exudate following an inflammatory response, which in turn is invaded and so on, hence the
term lumpy wool. The acute infection lasts about four days. D. conaolensis apparently does not produce
I
a toxin. I

There was much work on the immunology of mycotic dermatitis. In an acute infection the animal
produces an immediate cutaneous anaphylactic hypersensitivity. Chronically affected sheep, although
also hypersensitive, fail to heal for reasons which are obscure. The influence of circulating antibodies and
acquired resistance was also examined. However, vaccination for various reasons Is unlikely to be
effective.
I
I

External treatment of the lesions id also unlikely to be effective because of the thick and adherent scab
and the depth of the hyphae in tde follicle sheaths. On the other hand, treatment with the parenteral
administration of antibiotics was effective. The control of mycotic dermatitis was related to the factors
which caused an outbreak and could therefore be related to alterations of the times of shearing, dipping
and lambing. These would, however, have little effect after prolonged heavy rain. Although it Is
unnecessary to treat the acute infection, treatment of the chronic infection with antibiotics would be
effective. Eradication of the disease is probably impracticable.

The diagnosis of mycotic dermatitis was also investigated.

Fleece rot

There was reference to the incidence of fleece rot in the 1st Annual Report of the CSlRO for year ending
30th June 1949 over the past three years at the F.D. McMaster Field Station. This occurred when it was
continuously wet and atmospheric humidity was high. Fleece rot occurred more commonly in young
rather than old sheep. It was observed in subsequent years that tRere appeared to be an hereditary basis
for the disease and, most importantly, it was predisposing to blowfly strike.

There was little reported on fleece rot until the 8th Annual Report of June 30th, 1956. Then h was found by
J.H. Thomas that a diphtheroid bacterium could be isolated from dermatitis, which, however, did not set
up fleece rot unless it was in association with Pseudomonas aeruainosa, which, it was then believed, did
nor produce dermatitis.

Research on fly strike in sheep began agaln i n the early 1970's by M.D.Murray, head of external
parasitology. J.E. Watts, a veterinarian from ;he New South Wales Department of Agriculture was
seconded to work with Durno Murray in about 1973 and for some years carried out field work on all types
of fly strike. In 1976 George C. Merritt of the bacterbiogy section was added part time to the group to
study the role of micro-organisms in the formation of fleece rot and body strike. Dr. B.S. Goodrich
subsequently briefly examined wool wax of sheep susceptible and resistant to fleece rot.
i
In 1979 D.H. Burrell began research on fleece rot. He was a veterinary bacteriologist and was
independent of the external parasite group, although there was contact between them. By this time
research into fleece rot and its bacteriology was supervised by the Chief of the Division.

From 1976 t o 1979 Jim Watts and George Merritt isolated many strains of P.aeruainosa and other
organisms from sheep affected with fleece rot and attractive to blowflies. They were able to produce
fleece rot artificially under laboratory conditions using strains of P.aerualnosa. They also showed that this
was attractive to gravid Lucilia cu~rina,the rnajor cause of fly strike. R. E. Emmens, a Ph.D. student
working in this section, proved that odours from this lesion stimulated oviposition by these flies. Later,
isotope studies showed that proteip leakage occurred from fleece rot lesions where broken or damaged
wool follicles could be seen in histological sections from fleece rot areas.
I

A number (18) of fleece and skin characters from susceptible and resistant sheep were studied by Jim
Watts and George Merritt. A computerised, statistical analysis (discriminant analysis) of the data identified
those characters which could be significant and used in direct selection criteria in breeding sheep
resistant to fleece rot.

George Merritt believed that p.aerubinosq had only a secondary role in fly strike insofar as it provided an
odour which attracted blowflies whereas Doug Burrell subsequently demonstrated that P.aerualnosq is
directly responsible for the exudative derrnatitis of fleece rot which is primarily attractive to blowflies. He
showed that there are 32 other gram-negative species and that 22 gram-positive species, may alio occur.
Rarely is a pure culture isolated from the skin of affected sheep. A number of these may irritate the skln to
produce an exudative dermatitis. P.aeruainosa is merely the most important of these. Fleece rot is,
therefore, an infectious disease that can be spread by contact between sheep.

It was shown that fleece rot and askociated flystrike could be controlled by immunisafion with a vacclne.
Antigens have been characterised from P. aeruainosa. There are over 100 isolates of this specles wlth
!
about 14 serotypes. The serotypes on one property become complex if sheep are introduced from
another property. Doug Burrell has shown that P. aeruainosa and P. maltowhilia can be used to immunise
sheep, particularly if both species are used in a broad spectrum vaccine. lmmur~isationgives Indirect
protection against body strike when fleece rot is a predisposing factor in regions wlth regular rainfall.
Doug Burrell found that the P.aeruainosa vaccine also prevents the most common site of fly strike In the
breech of ewes, because it contains antigens in common with tRose found there.
Wmonellosis and pasteureIIosis

Dr. T.K. Mukkur is now working on the development of a vaccine against haemorrhagic septicaemia, a
disease due to a Pasteurella spp. This is specificalOy for use in South-East Asia, but Is of relevance to
I
Australia. !

He has developed a carbohydrate technology which not only applies to bacterial disease, but also to
larvae of parasitic worms. In future there will probably be research lnto attenuated gram negative bacteria
which will also be relevant to antigens of parasitic worms of sheep. This is expected to lead t o co-
operation between the immunology group in Program K and another Division of the CSIRO. These two ,

are examples of how there is often relevance of re~earchin one group being useful to another.
I
I

Dr. Mukkur Injtlally worked with Dr.A.K. Lascelles when he ceased to be Chief of the Division. They did
research into how sheep responded to a Salmonella mutant. He also worked on a vaccine for a
Salmonella spp. which he completed before he began research into a vaccine against haemorrhagic
septicaemia.

Other bacterial diseases of sheep have also been investigated, but to a limited extent. There was some
reference to 'scabby ulcers' of the vulva of ewes in the l l t h Annual Report of the CSlR of June 30th, 1937.
In the 14th Annual Report there was an account of balanitis (pizzle rot) sf wethers and rams. Research
into this disease was also reported in the 15th to 17th Annual Reports. In the 14th Annual Report there
was an account of infectious ophthalmia (pink-eye), with a Rickettsia as Its probable causative organism
and of its transmission. Account of research into this disease was also continued In the 15th and 16th
Annual Reports. Then in the 7th Annual Report of the CSIRO for year ending 30th June, 1955,there was
an isolated account of antibiotic eye ointments been used with orrly partial success against what was then
called contagious ophthalmia. ~ ~ i d i d ~ mof
i t irams
s was merltioned in the 5th Annual Report for year
ending June 30th, 1953. The possibility that BruceSIa aboflus was responsible was considered. However,
after the conference on this disease in Adelaide in December, 1953, further limited research was continued
at the Animal Health Research Laboratory in Melbourne.

Biochemical Pathology

Research in biochemical pathology was investigated by Dr. C.H. Gallagher who subsequently became the
Hughes Professor of Veterinary Pathology at the University of Sydney. An account of hls career is given in
Chapter IX. He was associated with Judith Koch, a medical graduate from Hungary and by a number. of
Experimental Officers.
I

Cliff Gallagher became involved with biochemical pathology after his Ph.D. with Sir Roy Cameron In ,

London. His first project was carbon tetrachloride poisoning of sheep that had been given the drug as an
anthelmlntic. He eventually showed that a radical change in diet caused susceptible sheep and other
animals to vary the quantity and activity of endoplasmic reticular enzymes. He also demonstrated that
pregnancy toxaemia of ewes was due to fatty oxidation in the liver.

Cliff Gallagher's interest in hepatoxic agents led to a major interest in plant poisonings, partlcularly that
due to phllaris grass which is a source of important sown pastures. He and Judith Koch, with the co-
operation of the Division of Plant Industry, made an in-depth study of the syndromes in sheep associated
with this pasture grass. They investigated the acute syndromes such as sudden deaths, central nervous
disturbances and heart failures, as well as 'staggers' in the chronic syndrome. They identified the toxlc
principles, the tryptamine aikaaloids. before he left the Laboratory.

This was an interesting disease which he would Rave liked to follow up. In fact, more work on the
toxicology of plants was planned, but was never done after Re left.
I

I
1 Biochemistry and Nutrition
I

Research, initially under the general title of biochemistry, but later and more appropriately, biochemistry
and nutrition, began with the appoi"tment of Dr M C Franklin in 1939. He was subsequently joined by R L
Reid until 1953. Bob Reid was granted a Ph.D. in about 1944. There were also others In the group. In
1953, Dr Franklin became the first William Mcllrath Fellow in Animal Husbandry from the University of
Sydney, but as he remained at the Laboratory until 1959 when he became the Co-ordinator of Beef
Investigations in the Southern States of Australia, his research has been included in this history. Research
began in 1939 with an investigation of occasional carbon tetrachloride poisoning of sheep after drenching,
the digestibility of the constituents of feed in parasitic disease of sheep and the biochemistry of pregnancy
toxaemia. ,

Pregnancy toxaemia
I

Research indicated a possible connection between pregnancy toxaemia and hypocalcaemla. The
aetioalogy of pregnancy toxaemia was investigated for some years. There was a possibility that it was
associated with a deficiency of vitamin B1 or with an endocrine disturbance, parficu9ariy of the anterior
pituitary gland. These two were examined with the col~aborationof outside organisations. Later it was
found that sudden or severe checks of food supply precipitated the disease, particularly in ewes carrying
Wins or triplets.
Mineral melabolim

Studies of mineral metabolism of sheep soon became a major project that began with a study of a
deficiency of lime in relation to phosphorus. This depressed appetite and hence, growth, including the
development of teeth. This project beveloped into an investigation of calcium metabolism.

There were a number of experiments with low calcium and high phosphorus and with finely and coarsely
ground limestone in the diet. Low calcium and high phosphorus in the diet Rad a strikingly adverse effect
on the appetite. Coarsely ground limestone had adverse effects on dentition, appetite, growth and wool
production, whereas finely ground iimestone prevented hypocalcaemia, but was not curative. Poor
utilization of calcium and phosphorous from meat and bone meal was probably due to the relatively
coarse bone particles. It was also shown that tRe adverse effects of wheaten chaff with oats, or of maize
or wheat were comparable with those on a diet low in calcium.

Pojsonous plants etc.


I

Other research showed that poisonous plants such as Qxalls cernua or Threlkedia proceriflora, both rich
in oxalic acid, precipitated hypocalcaemia.

The occurrence of urinary calculi ih sheep and loss sf rams O


n transit due to loss of appetite were also
investigated.

Drought feeding

However, drought feeding of sheeb became a major project and continued from about 1948 until 1959
I

when Dr Franklin became Co-ordinator of Beef Investigations in the Southern States. The work on
drought feeding was in collaboration with the New South Wales Department of Agriculture at the Glenfield
Veterinary Research Station and was supported by the Burdekin Bequest Fund from the New South Wales
Graziers Association. This invest'lgation included ewes, wethers and jambs and sheep of several ages and
covered many aspects of the problem. inclusion of all experiments and their results would take many
pages of this history and so can only be described in outline.

Drought feeding experiments could be divided roughly into the following parts:-

(1) The frequency of feeding low quality roughage. This included the constituents of this roughage
with the addition of finely ground limestone to correct the low calcium/phosphorus ratio in this
roughage. Feeding ground limestone was preferable to slaked lime. It was concluded that
feeding weekly was preferabse to daily feeding because the sheep put on more weight, their
survival rate was higher, they produced more wool and the cost was lower. Those fed dally ate
their smaller ration more quickly.
The effects of drought feeding Body weight was related to the tlme taken to eat the ration.
Quicker feeding may be a disadvantage in a totar drought, but an advantage in a more
moderate drought when sheep would be encouraged to seek food from pasture. After eight
months of drought feeding 4- to 6400th Merino wethers showed no permanent effect on growth
I

and development and a ration of 3 to it starch equivalents per week is adequate to maintain
store condition for at least seven months. Sheep shousd be exercised durlng drought-feeding O
n
pens.
I

Vitamin A requirements. brought fed sheep could become vitamin A deficient, but this was
alleviated with one large iingle dose of the vitamin that prevents fosses, partlcutarly of young
sheep, during prolonged drought. There was little difference between the absorption, storage and
utilisation of this vitamin in oil, in an emulsion or in a water soPuble dispersion. However, when
supplied by any of these routes it fell to a ! a v ~level after 22 weeks. Dosing with the vitamln
improved the rates of survival, growth and appetite of Merino lambs.
I
I
I
Protein suppiements to low'quality roughage. Supplements improved food value and paiatabllity
of a diet of roughage. However, there were severe losses of aduit wethers, although
they initially gained weight slightly. Another group with protein supplements had no adverse
effects after five months of drought feeding, except that they ate more roughage. It was
subsequently found that the supplement of linseed meal was more effective than supplements of
cracked wheat with or without urea and sulphate or a mlxture of supplements. Furthermore,
when low quality cereal straw was fed ad Iibi?um_but supplemented twice weekly with protein,
body weight, survival rates and general performance were satisfactory when equal nitrogen
intakes of some supplements were fed, but not with others.

The addition of sodium chloride to low quality roughage. The quantity required to be added to 50
to 100% oat grain ration td produce a gain in weight was estimated. The addition to drought
rations increased the rate of'consumption, which might sometimes be a disadvantage.

I
Utilization of low quality rbughage with and without protein supplement was examlned in a
number of experiments. i t was also e~aminedin sheep with free access t o roughage
supplemented with protein twice weekly.

The effect of early weaning from ewes fed low quality roughage. This may be disadvantageous
when few lambs survived a sudden change at an age when rumen development Is slight.
However, early weaning of Merino lambs on four properties with severe drought was as
successful as earlier experiments in smqB yards.

Post-drought feeding. Weaners previously fed drought rations thrived and grew well when
subsequently fed generously. Other sheep fed drought rations ad libitum f q eight months lost
1
I
weight, whereas those fed fortnightly gained weight when put out onto poor pasture.

Sundry experiments

Other experiments during this time included:-

(1) Metabolic studies. Fatty acids as a source of energy and nitrogen balance and digestibility of
straw alone when supplemented with protein were investigated.
I
(2) Vitamin D supplements. If weaners were grazed on green-feed crops (e.g. oats) for more than a
few weeks during winter a supplement was desirable, and a greater response mlght then be
expected when grazing prbrnoted rapid growth, especially if they were in poor condition at the
beginning of winter. ~esponseswere more likely if the winter had long periods of wet, overcast
weather which reduced ultraviolet irradiation.

(3) Rumen digestion in collaboration with the School of Agriculture, University of Sydney. Diets of
carbohydrate, protein and roughage in relation to fatty acids, changes in pH and ammonia were
examined. (4) Carbohydrate metabolism. This was examined in relation to the peripheral
utilization of acetic acid and the uptake of glucose. The normal oxidative pathways of
carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism undergo blockage when pregnant ewes are fasted.
The symptoms are indisti"guishable from those of pregnancy toxaernla. Carbohydrate
metabolism and the study of pregnancy toxaemia were transferred to the then Sheep Biology
Laboratory at Prospect In 1953. This was presumably with the transfer of Dr Reid.
I

(5) Nutrition and the breeding performance of ewes. This was examined briefly with two energy
levels, each with two levels of nitrogen.

Beef cattle

Beef cattle investigations began when Dr Franklin became the William Mcilrath Fellow in Animal
Husbandry in 1953. They were partly supported by the Australian Meat Board and with the co-operation
of the State Department of Agriculture. TRese investigations can be divided in the following parts:

(1) A survey of beef cattle production in Australia began and was concluded In about 1952.

(2) Research into bovine skin. This included hair follicles, glands, felting of halr, morphology of
fibres, thickness of skin and, finally, correldion of skin characters witR the adaptation of eattie to
the tropics.
(3) The feeding of beef cattle. This included nutrition and the growth curve, stall feeding and 'topping
off', stud cattle and yard feeding of steers. Supplementary feeding was examined In co-operation
I
with the School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney.
I I

(4) Carcass appraisal was investigated in some feeding experiments and on a property in New
South Wales.

(5) The successful use of hexoestrol and stilboestrol as a growth stimulant. Undersirable effects were
found in some animals. 1

(6) Seasonal variations in vitamin A and carotene and inorganic phosphorus were investigated in
Queensland. !

(7) Antipyrilre to measure water ingested in vivo. This was investigated in cattle, rabbits and goats
and subsequently used with,a number of cattle. ,

(8) An investigation of beef cattle in the southern states was apparently initially supported with
funds from the Australian Meat Board, but subsequently by a sub-committee on beef cattle
from the Australian Animal Production Committee. It was assisted by Dr Franklin at the Laboratory
and controlled by the ~ e ~ a r t m eof
n tAgriculture. Co-ordination of lnvestigatlons of beef cattle
In all States was attended by representationfrom the Laboratory.

I Wool and Wool Biology


j
Research into aspects of wool, paiicularly its chemical and physical characteristics was for many years
an important part of the Laboratory. It has already been noted that this work eventually led to the
formation of other Divisions, the most relevant of which was the Division of Textile industry of which Dr
Lipson, who worked at the ~ c ~ a ; t e rLaboratory for about two years from 1937, was the first Chief.
Even before the appointment in 193b of M R Freney to examine the chemistry of wool, some observations
were made at the Laboratory of the effects of nutrition and anthelmintics on wool growth at 'Frodsiey', a
property in Tasmania, Gur~dawringaand Merryville in New South Wales. However, fleece chemistry and
physics and fibre measurement became increasingly important after 1936. In about 1937138 the wool
biology group came into being.

The following were examined ovbr some years, but are not listed according t o the time of their
investigation.
I

It was shown very early that very careful sampling methods were essential If comparison of animals for
wool wax, suint, epithelial debris, fibre and 'dirt' were to be made. Samples were taken from five regions
of the sheep's body. The chemical characteristics of wool wax and suint were examined, as was the 'dirt'
I
in fleeces, which, although small, affected the susceptibility to blowfly strike. Ylelds in the field were also
affected by moisture, thae is, the relative humidity.
I

The seasonal variation of fleece weights and chemical composition and the effects of nutridon were
examined. It was shown that nutrition was important. Furthermore, the effect on wooi chemistry of good
and poor pastures was compared.

The effect on wool yield of wrinkl/ness was examined, as well as the susceptibility t o blowfly strike,
whether on the breech or body, and of fleece rot which predisposes to body strike.

A method was devised for the isolatfon of cholesterol from wool wax.

The story of the shrink-proofing of'wool has been told in more detail on the piece about Dr M Lipson In
Chapter IX. It is sufficient here to say that this successfui, but largely unofficial research, had far-reaching
effects on the future of the textile industry.

There were few studies of the physical characteristics of wool until the appointment of E H Mercer, a
physicist, in April 1939. An early investigation was of the comparison of yarns treated by the method to
prevent shrinking and felting and of untreated yarns. The former was better able to withstand stresses.
However, as the treated fibres were unable l o resist breaking any better than the untreated fibres, it was
concluded that the greater resistance of the treated yarns was due to increased friction between fibres.
Comparisons of treated and untreated fibres showed that shrink proofing only affected the surface of the
I

fibre. Observations were made on felting, tensile strength and elasticity of fibres.
I

Physical measurements of wool at the Laboratory ceased when E H Mercer joined Dr Lipson at the new
Division of Industrial Chemistry. The study of the chemistry of wool ended in 1941/42 when M R Rreney
was seconded to the Central Wool Committee as 8-0-C of the Testing House established to make
objective measurements related to the wartime disposal of the Australian wooi clip. .ep4

Wool biology unit

The wool biology unit was set up at the Laboratory about 1938-39 under the leadership of H B Carter. It
was designed to examine factors important to the quality and quantity of wool and involved the study of
many factors, particulariy in the Merino. Perhaps this can best be summarized by quoting the inltlal
statement in the relevant CSlR Annua! Report. This included a study of the pre-natal development of skin
and fleece, fleece density, wrinkliness, skin and fibre characteristics, classification according to the
I

development of skinfolds and the influence of nutrition on the structure of skin and fleece. Later, a
method of analysis of the main sources of biological variation within and between fleeces under controlled
conditions was set up. Observations were made! on skin and fleece characters on eight regions of the
body.
I
Nevertheless, research included a wider field than originally planned. These Included the effects of
internal parasitism, progeny testing of rams in relation ro fleece weight and staple iength as well as body
weight. Wool production was also compared between fine-wooled Merinos from Camden Park and
Corriedales.

Wool biology became a separate sbction elsewhere in Sydney in 1946/47. Thls eventually ended all wool
research at the Laboratory. However, this section and the Fleece Analysis Laboratory at Villawood,
formed about the same time, remained under the auspices of the Laboratory for some years until they
became part of the new Division of hnimal Physiology at Prospect on the outskirts of Sydney.

I
Zebu Crosses and Sheep ~ r e e d i n eat'^.^. McMaster Field Station

Zebu crosses with beef cattle is dealt with in that part on Dr. R.B. Kelley In Chapter lX. It is sufficient here
to say that he had a big part in introducing Zebu crosses with British breeds of beef cattle to Queensland
I

following his experience with Zebu crosses in the USA. Although he was the 0-I-C and Assistant Chief of
the Division at the Field Station, he, had many visits Po Queensland to see how the crosses were faring.
Despite initial opposition from graziers, in about ten years of their introduction about 90 per cent of beef
cattle in Queensland had some infusion of Zebu blood. it was eventually shown that Australian methods
were superior to those used in other countries. Dr. Kelley was also responsible for strain trials In New
Guinea with Zebus from Pakistan. 1

R.H. Hayman had much to do with the attempt to cross dairy cattle, particularly Jerseys, wlth Zebu but
this was largely unsuccessful. tiowbver, with another Zebu-cross an artificial insemination centre was set
up at Lisrnore in New South Wales. There was asso a study of sweating in dairy crosses.

Bob Hayman and others also did mbeh work on sheep breeding. This included studying an inbred flock
of Merinos, defective udders, fleece growth and characteristics, poliedness, abnormalities of fleece growth
and characteristics and skin wrinkles. They also looked at the occurrence and inheritance of fleece rot.
CHAPTER VII
I
' Ian McMaster Bequest
I

A brief account of how Captain Ian McMaster left his share of his father's estate to establish Fellowships
and Scholarships to the Laboratory is included in the introduction. The money was to 'provide the work
now done' and was paid to the University of Sydney that was ta pass it to the CSIR (later, the CSIRO)
when proposals for its use by the Laboratory were approved by the University. In fact, no proposals have
not been approved. I

At first there was some uncertainty about the interpretation d the expression 'provide the work now done*
in the will. However, after legal opinion was obtained this was interpreted liberally to cover almost any use
by the Laboratory.
I

In the early part of 1945 there was discussion on how the money was to be spent. Should It go towards
additions to the Laboratory, or on equipment, etc. Dudley Gill, then the 0-i-C., proposed that it be spent
on training scientists overseas or on visitors from overseas to work on projects undenvay or proposed.
Sir Frederick told the CSlR that were it needed he would provide money for additions to the Laboratory.
Finally, the proposal for Fellowships from the Ian McMaster Bequest as It was known, was put to Sir
Frederick, who liked the idea because it would perpetuate the memory of his son. This proposal was
agreed to by Dr L B Bull, Chief of the Division, by the Executive of the CSlR and by the University In about
October 1945.

However, It was finally agreed that the Bequest should be used to support both Ian McMaster Fellowshlps
and Scholars. The former carried niore status and distinction and shouid be used to bring distinguished
scientists from overseas. The lattel was for scientists under training and was relatively minor. In fact,
although the Fellowships and Scholarships have been maintained, in Dater years money from the Bequest
has been used for other purposes that are described below.

The first Fellow was Dr A E Pierce, then a Principal Scientific Officer of the Agrlcuitural Research Council
at Cambridge, who examined veterinary protozoology in Australia. This work entailed visits to othei
Stares, particularly Queensland where babeslosis occurs, but his headquarters were at McMaster
Laboratory. Dr Pierce was here from about August to November 1954, and presented a confidential
report entitled "The major protozoan diseases of animass In Australia". He later became the Chlef of the
Division of Animal Health and Production in 1966 and then held positions with the Executive in Canberra
where he now lives.

Dr E J L Soulsby was a Fellow wRo studied the mechanisms of the immurie reactions t o nematode
parasites, principally H. contortus, for about nine months from January 1958. He also submitted a report
of his Fellowship. Dr Soulsby came to Australia from the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of
I I
Cambridge, but went to the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, as Professor and Head of the
I

Department of Parasitology from 1964 to 1968. He eventually returned to Cambridge as Head of the
I I
Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, where he is at present.
I I

Professor W Mulligan was a Fellow in 1959 and 1960 who worked on parasite immunity with Irradiated
larvae of H. contortus. Dr Mulligan was Professor of Veterinary Physiology at the University of Glasgow,
Scotland, but has since retired and is now Emeritus Professor. He also submitted a report of his
Fellowship.
I

Dr F W Jennings from Veterinary Parasitology, University of Glasgow, was a Fellow for nine months from
1
August 1969.
I
Dr Brldget M Ogilvie, then from thb National Institute for Medical Research, London, was a Fellow for
about a year from April 1970. She is an Australian and an early graduate with honours In Rural Science a

from the University of New England, Armidale. At the Laboratory she studied the secretion of
acetylcholinesterase in nematode parasites and the mechanisms In the immunological rejection of N,
brasiliensis and submitted a report after her Fellowship.
I

Dr L F Le Jambre was a Fellow who spent most of his time at the Regional Pastoral Laboratory of the
Division at Armidale where he studied anthelmintic resistance of H. contortus and the speciation of this
J
parasite of sheep. He subsequent1 became a Research Officer at this Armldale laboratory and was 0-I-C
for nearly four years from 1983. ~ e remains
d with the CSlRO at Armidale. He is a veterinary graduate from
I
Cornell University, New York State. 1
I
Dr Philllpa R Cullen from CNRZ ~aboratoirede Genetlque Blochlmique. Jony-en-Josas. France, was a
I

Fellow for ten weeks from August 3rd, 1984 when she brought sera from sheep specific for the major
histochemical complex (MHC) Class 11 for iymphocyte typing with high and low responders of sheep
susceptible to T. colubriformis. Thiswas to assist with ilymphocyte typing by Dr P M Outferidge.
1

A Fellowship was given for a year from March 1987 to Elizabeth Barnes to work on mathematical models
for the epidemiology of T. colubriforhis. This was an unusual Fellowship because Iwas not granted to an
overseas visitor but to someone who has the degree B. App. Sc. twice, once each In biology and
mathematics, from the New South Wales University of Technology. Since then she has been awarded a
grant for two years from the CSlRO Information TechnoDgy Division Program 1988.

The first Scholar was P H Durie, whd for two years studied the life cycle of the snail that is the intermedlats
host of F. he~aticatRe liver fluke of sheep. He commenced this project sometime in 1946 and therefore
his appointmerlt as a Schoiar was considerably earlier than the first Fellow In 1954. Peter Durle spent
much of his time in the Arrnidale district. He was subsequently appointed as a Research Officer at the
Yeerongpilly laboratory of the Division of Animal Health and was eventually the 0-1-C of the Long Pocket
I

, 4
81
i
Laboratories at Indooroopilly. I
I

Vincent Massey was a Scholar for about a year from sometime in 1948 to work with Dr W P Rogers on the
intermediate metabolism of animkl parasites and on nutritional factors related to their resistance to
Infection. He was an honours gralduate in biochemistry from the University of Sydney. He became a
Research Officer for a year or so.
I
I
P R Whitfield, another honours graduate in biochemistry from the same University, also worked as a
Scholar with Dr W P Rogers for about two years from February 1950. He worked on nuclelc acid
metabolism and protein syntheses in relation to chemotherapy and pathology in helminth Infection. He,
too, became a Research Officer befbre joining the Division of Plant Industry.
I

A J Ryan, an organic chemist, was $ Scholar for about two years until sometime in 1958. He worked wlth
Dr C H Gallagher. He is now with the Department of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, where he now is a
professor.

Miss J C Andrews was a Scholar in parasitology for about four years from about 1961. She worked with Dr
J C Boray.
II
Miss J E Offner was a Scholar from February 1963 to the end of June 1964. Her subject was serology and
she worked with Dr J K Dineen.

I
Mrs C Bell was a Scholar for about a year from 1964. she was an immunochemlst who also worked wlth
Br J K Dineen.
I

D J Hulme, a veterinary graduate, was enrolled as a Ph.D student at the University of Sydney to study
molecular genetics and immunology, but who was a Scholar at tRe Laboratory under the supervision of Dr
P M Outteridge to examine the MHC Class I! genes of sheep resistant to parasites.

Diana J Oakes commenced as a Scholar in July 1987 and was expected to complete a Ph.D by about
June 1990 In collaboration with the parasitology gection of Veterinary Pathology and with the Veterinary
Laboratories, Glenfield, of the Department of Agriculture. She was studying the biochemical mechanisms
of salicyianiiide resistance in liver fluke. She was granted the ScRoParship to top-off grants from the Wool
Corporation and the Department of Agriculture. Because of this complex reiationshlp her supervisors
were Dr J W Steel from the Laboratory, Drs D H Collins and N C Sangster from the University of Sydney
and Dr J C Borw from the Veterinary Laboratories, Glenfield.

Money from the Bequest (although not granted ag Fellowships or Scho!arships) was alqo used to support
research in a number of fields.
Y

Before the first Fellowship was granted in 1954, W 0 Copland from Bristo! University, England, went to the
Regional Pastoral Laboratory, Armidale, to work on climatic factors affecting the development of free-living
stages of some common parasites. O-ie began work in June, 1952, and was In Australia for about a year
and finally presented a report.

Dr I W Parnell from Edinburgh, Scotland, where he had an ARC grant, after retirement undertook a study
of a method for screening anthelrnintics and other matters for three years from November 1955. ~ l t h o u ~ h
he was not a Scholar he was supported by money from the Bequest.

I
Dr J C Boray, a veterinary graduate from Budapest, Hungary, was a Technical Officer when he started at
the Laboratory in 1957 when he w i s granted money from the Bequest to begin his investigation of liver
fluke infection of sheep. He later joiried the research staff of the Laboratory.

T.L.W. Rothwell had a for three years from 1967 to supplement a teaching fellowship in
immuno-parasitology from the ~ n i v d r s iof
t ~Sydney. He completed his Ph.D. whlch was In part under the
supervision of Dr J K Dineen. He edentually joined the staff of the Laboratory as a Research Scientist, but
I

finally resigned in about 1978 to bebome a Senior Lecturer in Veterinary Parasitology at the University of
I

Sydney. He is now an Associate ~rdfessor.

One of the most noteworthy uses of the Bequest was for a study of the anthelmintic effect of
I

phenothiazine by Dr W P Rogers. This was later associated with the production of asymmetric ions for Dr
J H Koch, who studied their biologikal effect. This work was supervised by Dr Cymmerman-Craig of the
Department of Biochemistry of the,University of Sydney. This began at about January 1951 and was
discontinued in October 1956 when Dr E G Gyarfus, who was directly responsible for the production of
the ions, accepted an appointment id the U S A. TRe salaries of at least two asslstants were supported by
I
the Bequest that also paid an allowadce to Dr Gyarfus and for some equipment, etc.
I
I

The Bequest also paid for testing footrot vaccines and for four veterinary parasitologists to attend the
International Conference of the ~ o r / Association
d of Animal Veterinary Parasitologists In Sydney in July
1977. These parasitologists were of direct interest to the Laboratory. The Bequest aiso paid the salaries
of technical officers, etc. of some of the Fellows and Scholars, the wages of some animal attendants and
for some equipment etc. that was required from time to time.
CHAPTER Vllll

I
The Library

A laboratory depends very much oh the availability of journals and books that are relevant to its research
so that a library is essential. ~ c ~ d s t Laboratory
er is fortunate that it has an excellent library that is well-
known on the campus of the Univeisity of Sydney, at other Universities and amongst veterinarians. it has
a wide range of publications with emphasis upon parasitic Infection, both internal and external. In
addition, the Library subscribes to journals and possesses books that cover bacteriology and Immunology
as well as veterinary science, ge6eral anatomy, physiology and biochemistry, for Instance, that are
resevant t o its research. These include not only domestic animals and man and the more theoretical
aspects of each subject. Journals come from almost all countries and are therefore in many languages.
The Library also acts as the library for the Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) that subscribes to or
exchanges the Australian ~eterinarjJournai (AVJ) for many journals throughout the world. Thls inevitably
increases the journals that are availdble to the staff of the Laboratory.

Initially the Library occupied a r o o k on the upper floor opposite the head of the central stalmay of the
original building. Then an adjacent room was added, but this space was too restricted. However, it was
not until the Ian McMaster Wing wa$ opened in 1956 that a much larger space was available. The Library
then occupied rooms at the northeh end of the upper floor. Six three-fold cornpactuses were installed
together with other shelves, some of them free-standing against walls, to contain text books and some
journais. There is also a smaller room for many abstracting journals and a large office for the supporting
staff, including a part-time librarian for the AVA. (See below for an account of the association between this
library and McMaster Library). The Librarian has a separate office of her own, which connects directly
with the larger office. Nevertheless, even this larger space is now too small so that older journals wrapped
in brown paper are stored on shelves in the roof. This is not an entirely satisfactory arrangement, as the
atmospheric conditions are not suitable for books. Divisional librarians are now responsible for decisions
regarding the treatment of all library material constituting their Divisional library collections. The
Information Services Branch/Librarian Network Services in East Melbourne, previously the Central Library,
will only provide very limited storage facilities for very restricted types of material. There are guidelines for
disposal of other material. Older AVA material is stored commercialiy in Sydney.

The present Librarian understandably believes that financial restrictions have unnecessarily limited the
riuntber of journals subscribed to by the Laboratory and that the one assistant she has (apafl from the
AVA assistant) is insufficient for the efficient running of the Library. The journals subscribed to have varied
and dependcd upon the Interests of the research staff. incoming putllcatlons are now displayed for a
week in racks set aside for this purpose.

The journals and books are then distributed according to those who have indicated on a list of the staff on
each publication that they wish to read an article therein. Thls list also includes the names of some of the
staff of the Faculty of Veterinary Science. Some relevant jouhnals that were purchased by other
laboratories of the Division or b y other Divisions are also displayed and so avoids some duplicatlon
between libraries. I

But this relatively complex system of distribution of publications was not necessary In the earlier days of
the Laboratory. Dr. Helen Newton Turner, when she began as a clerk with Sir Ian Clunies Ross in 1931,
was aiso in charge of the then small library. Because the staff was aiso small, members merely read or
collected the journals in which they were interested. Later, wRen Dr Turner was absent on journeys in
which she was by that time involved, Mabel Thornby then did her work in the Library.

Miss Barbara Johnston became part-time Librarian at McMaster Laboratory and the Divlslon of Food
Preservation (as it was then) at Homebush. She usually spent two days at McMaster Laboratory and three
at Food Preservation and vice versa the following week. She had been given some training at the Head
Office Library in Melbourne where she worked from August 1939 until Christmas of that year and
eventually sat for tRe examination of the Library Association of Australia.

Miss Archer, In charge of the Head Office Library, after visiting libraries in England, where classified
subject catalogues were favoured rather than dictionary catalogues, decided to adopt them ln the Animal
Health Laboratory at Parkville in the late 1930s and the Sydney libraries being established in 1940. The
Universal Decimal Classification was used in Britain for the purpose in libraries specializing in the sciences
as It allowed more detailed subdivision than the Dewey Decimal Classification on whlch It was based, an
advantage where most publications were on closely related subjects. A copy of the complete 1927
French edition abridged English edition was transferred to the McMaster library. The full English edition
was not published until 1978, although the medical sections had been issued in 1968-70 and veterinary
medicine in 1978. This was probably the first use of UDC in New South Wales. At that time Research
Officers nominated journals they wished to see regularly and all issues were routed to them, the 0-I-C saw
all journals first. The library records sliowed the whereabouts of each issue during Its circulation. in those
days the staff usually made abstracts of the papers in whlch they were interested as there were no
copying machines.

After it was apparent that there wag too much work for a part-time librarian at these two Oaboratorles,
Barbara Johnston left to become full-time Libraripn at Food Preservation in about 1944, when she was
succeeded by Mrs Ruth McGiII.

Mrs McGill was only at the Laboratory for about a year before she left and was succeded by Miss Alma
Cuiey in 1946. Alma Culey had a long and distinguished career as Librarian at the hboratory. Perhaps
some saw her as a retiring, quiet pelson, but she had firm ideas about how such a llbrsry should be run.
She worked hard and expected the same from her staff, but as her successor, Miss Jill Franklin, has safd,
Alma Culey's thorough attention to detail provided a training in librarianship of a very high standard.
Originally Alma Culey was known as a Scientific Librarian, a person in charge of a scientific library, but ,
I
later the nomenclature was changed to Librarian 1, II or Ill. Alma Culey remained in charge of the Library
until she was seconded to the Australian Meat Research Committee In about 1967 t o complle a
bibliography on "The Biology of sheep and the Sheep Industry in Australia". Jill Franklin, now Jill Radford
since her marriage in 1989, then became Librarian-in-Charge. Although Alma Culey was fully involved with
the bibliography she was available for consultation. Another office outside the library was found for her.
She finally retired in 1969. Details of her histoty are included in Chapter IX.

There were inevitably changes to t Ae Library during Alma Cuiey's tenure. One of the most important of
these was the move from the cramped quarters in the original Laboratory to the more spaclous quarters in
the Ian McMaster Wing. This made a tremendous difference to the Library. Names of journals could be
attached to the shelves, the more recent publications were put into the front row of each compactus, the
older publications in the second row and foreign journals in the third. Alma Culey was proud of the fact
that no more staff were necessary td make the move into the new quarters and that because it was so well
planned, the Library did not have to close. Denise Linaker and Jill Franklin were her assistants and large
book trolleys were borrowed from Fisher Library. Denise and Jill moved the material.
I

There were also other Important evbnts during Alma Culey's tenure. First, the Wool Blology and Fleece
Analysis Laboratories were split off from McMaster Laboratory. The former became the Sheep Biology
Laboratory and subsequently the Division of Animal Production. Furthermore, the origlnal McMaster Farm
at Badgery's Creek, under Bob Hayman, also had a small local library. That part of the Division of Animal
Health and Production at Yeerongpilly in Brisbane also started its own library. Nevertheless, the Llbrarian
at McMaster continued to be responsible for purchasing and cataloguing for each of these Iibrarles, For
'
instance, appropriate cards had to be sent to the librarles, and Head Office in Melbourne had to be
notified of the whereabouts of each publication. The work for these subsidiary Dlbraries as well as for the
AVA took a large amount of the time available. Different coloured cataloguing cards had to be kept for
each library, which had to be visited from time to time to ensure that the untrained person O
n charge was
carrying out the correct procedures. This continued until the subsidiary libraries at Prospect, Armidale
and Yeerongpilly appointed their own trained librarians. The same procedures were used with the Unit of
Animal Genetics (at the University of Sydney) before it became the Divl'sion of Anlmai Genetics.

:+
At that time there was no assistant from the AVA to help with their library. This was accepted because A
had always been that way. ln general, the AVA ltbrary supplied the practical publications, whereas the
more theoretical were supplied by the McMaster Library. There was also a large circulation amorlgst
members of the AVA. As liaison through Dr Gordon was sound this operated to the benefit of the
members of the AVA.

Abstracting of papers for the ~ e t e r l n a Bulletin


r~ was another important service that involved Barbara
Johnston and, later, Alma Culey. Originally, Dudley Gill as 0-i-@
decided who should fibsiract each Hem,
but gradually Alma Cuiey accepted more responsibility as her experience grew until she virtually dld all the
allocating to staff members. Each abstract had tp go through the 6-i-C before it was sent to Britain, but
,

this became largely a formality. This abstracting continued until Alma Culey retired.

Jill Franklin succeeded Alma Culey as Librarian in 1967, but she had actually started at the Laboratory as
1
Assistant Librarian in October 1955.' after sorne time at the Dunedin Public Library In ~ e w ~ ~ e a l a nShe
d.
spent that time with relatives in New Zealand after her Leaving Certificate in Sydney. Later, she resigned
from the CSlRO for a year overseas in 1966, but Alma Culey persuaded her to come back to the
Laboratory to succeed her. Accordingly, in 1967 she was appointed as a Library Officer Grade 11,
although prior to her resignation she had been a Librarian Grade I. In 1966, the year she was overseas, a
rule came in that stated that the requisite qualifications for the librarian grades must be a degree plus
library qualifications. Within the organization there were several people O
n charge of libraries who did not
hold a degree with the library qualification. Eventually, In 1995 several of these people, IncDuding Jill
Franklin. were reclassified into the llbrarian range in recognition of their experience and responsibility of
being in charge.

The number of Library staff became more critical during the 1970s. First, the fourth member of the Ubrary
staff was eliminated, but the AVA agreed to pay a part-time assistant. Later, yet another person was
employed only part-time and then finally eliminated. This occurred despite the fact that the work of the
I

Library became further and further behind, particularly with the weeding of unwanted material that takes
up space. Despite this, cataloguing Into the card catalogue with card entries going to the Central Library
and the National Library, was kept up-todate. in 1980 CSIRB libraries started entering their monographs
and later periodicalsto a computerizbd system.

One attempt to cut cost was the avoidance of duplication with the AVA library. This was requested by one
0-I-C and has been largely succeskful. Nowadays there is a mutually beneficial system between the
libraries of McMaster Laboratory and the AVA. The McMaster Ubrary subscribes to many more titles than
the AVA, but the AVA receives more books than McMaster. These books received for review round out
the collection in a worthwhile manner.

1
There is also an effective circulation bystem with other CSlRO libraries, particularly between other libraries
d the Division of Animal Health, Animal Production at Prospect and Molecular and Cellular Biology (noy
the Dlvision of Biotechnrslogy) at North Ryde. The libraries of the University of Sydney provide a useful
back-up service for the staff at McMaster. The Library also uses the Biorriedlcal Library of the University of
I

Now South Wales. The Library used to keep many pamphlets and reprints of outside papers but now,
because of restricted space, only keips material which may be difficult to obtain quickly. On the contrary,
it Is necessary to constantly weed out unwanted material. There Is now insufficient space for the Library.
Shelving in the roof has been increaked so that older material can be transferred there, but this is not an
ideal place for publications.

While I was 0-i-C, I arranged that the Library use the Dialogue searching facility. However, these data
bases, although readily available, are used only spasmodically by the research staff unless, for instance,
they are changing their research or are writing a book or review article. The subscription to Biological
Abstracts was stopped at the end of 1986 and the lack of a hard copy of this valuable reference tool will
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generate more searches. I

Now, however, the CSlRO Library (Jetwork System (CLINES) is being Introduced. This will integrate the
services, collections and functidns of ail CSlRO libraries i n Australia on a single database via a
communications link. It is a complete library management system with online ability for selection of
materials, resource sharing, subscriptions to journals, exchange agreements, orders for books, financial
management, receipt of serials, cataloguing, circulation, collection management, statistics and
participation in the Australian Bibliographic Network. The system will function through the Geac Library
Information System which is owned by the CSlRO and wili considerably reduce the time taken to operate
facilities and their cost, although this is not yet proven. Research scientists will therefore have Immediate
access to all functions of CSIWO libraries. McMaster Library has begun the transfer to CLINES with
terminals connected to the Geac computer. Thus librarians shouYd have more time for assistance to the
research staff. !
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Nothlng has yet been said of the Parasitology Index. This card index has been compiled over many years
and is unique in the CSIRO. No other laboratories have such an In-depth index. However, typing out the
cards, etc., does take up a considerable amount of time of the library staff, although Dr Gordon has
compiled the subject headings ovei many years. Jill Franklin has done a great deal of the work on It at
home. It could be transferred to magnetic tape, for instance, if anyone had the time to do it. On the other
hand, it could now be stopped at any time now that the Dialogue computer system of CLINES could easily
be used to refer to any aspect of parasitology.

Jill Franklin readily acknowledges that the Officers-In-Charge of the Laboratory have been sympathetic
and helpful t o her problems. However, Alan Donald, while 0-i-C had t o reduce the number of
subscriptions to journals because of the financial restrictions on the CSIRO.

The story of the association between McMaster Laboratory and the AVA is lnterestlng. Even beforerhe
Laboratory was built Ian Clunies Ross was the Honorary Editor of the AVJ As books came for review and
journal exchanges were arranged, so the AVA library carne into being and was brought to McMaster
Laboratory when Clunies Ross became the first 8-i-@.
initially Re was Official Correspondent with the
Bibliography of Helminthology (later Helminthologicai Abstracts) until Re went to the international Wool
Secretariat in London in 1937. Dr. H. McL. Gordon then became OfficiaQCorrespondent, a position he still
holds. In 1961 the AVA library became tRe Max Henry Memorial Library to commemorate the first edltor of
the AVJ and founder of the library. Dr. Gordon has been Honorary Librarian for many years. His reviews,
or those by people he has persuaded to write them, are frequently published in the AVJ. The library is
used by the Veterinary School staff and undergraduates. The staff of the Veterinary School are most
helpful with recommendations for texts. The importance of the AVA library to the McMaster Library has
been described earlier In this chapter,
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Obviously the growth and sophistication of the Library parallells that of research in the Laboratory. As with
all libraries, space is eventually insufficient and this Library inevitably reflects the financial difficulties of the
Laboratory and the CSlRO as a whole. The Librarian often beiieves she has insufficient staff!

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CHAPTER iX

Some Personal ~istories- Former Staff no longer at McMaster Laboratory

Many members of the research, technical and administrative staff had a major influence on the story of the
Laboratory. Some were appointed to senior positions after they left. This chapter is an account of some
of those who were at the Laborat04 but went on either to other Divisions or outside the CSlR or CSIRO.
Included here are research staff and those that assisted them. They are listed in order of the date of
joining the staff. The research they did Is not included here but is given in Chapters V and VI. It Is
inevitable that there may be individuals who believe they should have been included in this chapter. I
apologize to these people because there are so many who made noteworthy contrlbutions that it is
sometimes difficult, and perhaps uniair, not to have included them. Where possible, ail these people have
read these accounts of their careers,

Sir Ian Ciunies Ross, Dr. Clunies Ross, as he was then, the first 0-I-C. of the Laboratory, was undoubtedly
the most distinguished member of the staff, not only because of his scientific contributions, but because
of his outstanding importance to the CSlRO and to science in Australia. HISresearch, both before and
after his appointment to the CSlR was noteworthy, but, as his son Anthony said, he was a good, but not a
great scientist. Others, too, have made similar assessments. Nevertheless, his son continued to say that
Sir lank reputation must rest principally on what he did as a scientific administrator and leader of opinion.
Here, too, everyone agrees.

Sir Ian was born in Bathurst, New South Wales, on February 22nd, 1899, and died in Melbourne on June
20th 1959. He accomplished a great deai in those 60 years. Dr Bull, then Chief of the Division of Animal
Health and Production, wrote an obituary for the Australian Veterinary Journal in which Re outlined Sir
Ian's career. He graduated B.V.Sc., with honours from the University of Sydney In 1921 as the only
student In the final year. (Sir [an subsequently tnodestly claimed that Professor 4. D. StewarP, then Dean
of the Faculty, decided to grant him honours to compete with other departments of the University!). He
was then appointed a Walter and Eliza Hall Veterinary Research Fellow in 1922. Some of the Fellowship
was spent in post-graduate work in parasitology in the School of Tropical Medicine in London and at the
Molteno Institute for Parasitology in Cambridge. In 1925 he was appointed lecturer in veterinary
parasitology in the University of ~ydrieyVeterinary School, and in 1926 became veterinary parasitologist
In CSIR. He was awarded the degree of Doctor of Veterinary Science in 1928 for his research on the
hydatid parasite.

From 1929 to 1930 he studied parasitology at the Research lnstitute of Infectious Diseases at the Imperial
University, Tokyo, with Professor Miyagawa. There he learnt Japanese and developed a great interest in
their art and culture. This led to a lang-lasting interest in the people and culture of Asian countries. He
made several more visits to this region. Iiis appointment as 0-I-C of the F.D. McMaster Animal Health
Laboratary in 1931 has already been described in Chapter I. Sir lan resigned in 1937 to become the
Australian member of the International Wool Secretariat in London and served as its Chairman until 1940.
While based in London, Re was a member of the Australian delegation to the old League of Nations In

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On his return to Australia in 1940 he was appointed as Professor of Veterinary Science at the University of
Sydney and did much to help expand and strengthen the faculty. From 9943 to 1945 he was Director of
Scientific Personnel in the Commonwealth Directorate of Manpower, as well as Adviser on the Pastoral
lndustry to the Department of War Organization of lndustry, while continuing to do some of the work
associated with his University appbintment. in June 1945, he was released from the University to assist
the GSiR make plans for new sheep and wool textile research. At this time there was growing concern in
Australia about the growth of the artificial fibre Industry.
Sir Ian had always displayed an :interest in international relationships, and In 1941 was elected
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Commonwealth Chairman of the ;AustraPlan institute of Pnternatlonal Affairs. Pn the early days of
broadcasting, before networks developed their teams of reporters, he was frequently in demand as a radio
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commentator on world events. I

In 1946 Sir Ian resigned from the University to become a full-tlme member of the CSlR Executive
Committee, and then Chairman of tile CSiRO when the former was reconstituted in 1949. He retained this
position until his death in 1959. '
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This outline of Sir lan's appointments before and after he left the Laboratory is little indication of his
Importance and influence on research In Australia. It was his idea that put Into law In 1946 that the L7
million from the sale of wool accumulated during the recent war should be held in a trust account for the
benefit of the industry with a prov)so that some be used for promotion and research. Furthermore.
promotion of the sale of wool and k o o l research should both be financed by a levy on the future sale of
wool. The money from the levy was to be matched by a government grant.

It was Slr lan's belief that genetics and animal breeding as well as wool technology In its widest sense
were critical to to the success of the pastoral industry and his support led to the eventual formation of the
CSlRO Divisions of Animal Physioi,ogy, Animal Genetics and Textile Industry. The laboratory for the
Division of Animal Physiology, as It was then, at Prospect, New South Wales, Is named after Sir lan
Clunies Ross. He was aiso closely involved with the decision to resume field trials on myxomatosls which
became so important in controlling the rabbit plague in this country.

Sir Ian had asso a significant part in the appointment of a five-member committee on Australian universities
(which was headea by Sir Keith Murray) and was one of the members. The Murray Report, as it was
called, was responsible for the establishment of the Australian Universities Commission in 1959.

Although an exceptional speaker, S'lr Ian aiso wrote extensively. Noteworthy amongst his writing was a
book on parasitology published with Dr Hugh Gordon in 1936, and a book he edited on the Far East for
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the Australian Institute of lnternatiodal Affairs in 1935.

These are some of the landmarksof Sir lan's career after Re !eft the Laboratory. As Sir Otto Frankel,
formerly Chief of the Division of ~ l a hIndustry,
t said, he was an administrator who inspired others, whether
at the laboratory bench or the exderimentai station. He was interested in people, their work and their
progress and made a tremendous effotl to bring the CSIRO before government, industry and the public.
He raised the morale and was an inspiration to all who worked for the CSIRO. Frankel and Helen Turner
have both said that he was an outstending leader.
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Dr Ian Clunies Ross was first made a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) and a
Knight Bachelor in 1954. He was awarded the Kendal! Medal and gave the Kendall Oration for the
Australian Veterinary Assoclation ht the ANZAAS meeting in Canberra in 1954. He was a Foundation
Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science. In 1955 he was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of
Laws by the University of Melbourne, and in 1956 the honorary degrees of Doctor sf Sclence by the
Universities of New England and Adelaide. The Royal Agricultural Society of England gave him Its Gold
Medal and the Royal Society of New South Wales the James Cook Medal. I n 1953 he became an
Honorary Associate of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons of the United Kingdom.

Sir Ian served as a member of the henate of the University of Sydney and was a member of the C o u n d
and later Deputy Chancellor of the University of Melbourne. He was a member of the Council of the
Australian National University.

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Sir Ian was President of the AVA in 1935/36 and a Fellow in 1949. Sir lan's name Is included in the flrst of
Pioneers of Scientific and Medical ~esearchamongst the 200 people who made Australla great that was
compiled to commemorate Australid's bicentenary in 1988. Aiso included in the list of Pioneers were the
names of two others of the CSIR, David Rivett and Lionel Bull.

The Ian Clunies Ross Memorial Foundation, a non-profit organization, was formed in 1959 after his death
to promote science and technology in Australia. The Foundation built Clunies Ross House, the National
Sclence Centre, In Parkville, Melbourne, that now contains a mural designed by the artist Robert lngpen
depicting aspects of the life of Sir Ian. The mural was completed and presented by the Australian
Veterinary Association.

Dr Hugh McL. Gordon was a member of the staff of the Laboratory for longer than anyone. He was born
at Armidale in 1909 and graduated in 1930 with BVSc with Second Class Honours with the William Cooper
and Nephews Prize for Parasitology and the 6t;ker and Ridley Memorial Prize for Animal Husbandry. In
n 1974 b@ has continued
1968 he was awarded the DVSc. All from the University of Sydney. He retired O
n Chapter II, but this is an
to work at the Laboratory at least once a week. He has told his story until 11937 O
account of his activities since then dnd, because he is an essentially modest person, this includes some
points that he may not have included in his original story.
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The account of his early years at thy F. D. McMaster Animal Health Laboratory he has outlined in Chapter
II.

In Chapter V, it was pointed out that Hugh's contribution to the epidemiology of internal parasitism,
particuiady of H. contortus, Oe. coDumbianum and Trichostronavlus spp. was critical. No research could
be done on control until epidemiology was understood. Later work on epidemiology is now continued by
others. Hugh also spent much time on the anthelmintic treatment of parasites, trying many substances
that were supplied by pharmaceutical firms. He was also responsible for much of the work on
phenothiazlne and thiabendazole add began some of the initial research on the benzlmldazoles. But this
is not the place to go into details of this research which is described in Chapter V.
Hugh is well known to graziers, stock inspectors, the Departments of Agriculture and veterinarians in all
States. He has influenced the ~epjartrnentsof Agriculture, as 1 knew when D was In the Department In
South Australia. He was readily available to speak on parasitic infection at many meetings, not only in
New South Wales, where he gave most of his addresses, but in other States.

Hugh was also well known for the Christmas parties at the Laboratory. These continued for many years.
A 'prize1 in the form of a notice whidh told of his or her activities was awarded to a member of the staff.
Some of the recipients may wish them to be forgotten! He was also responsible for 'Vox Taurus"h1ch
was published for many years and which told of the doings of individuals and outstanding events of the
past year.
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One of the Hugh's major contributions to the Library was his card system of parasitic infection. The
present Librarian has said that is no longer strictly necessary because of the present-day computer
system but, nevertheless, he still continues it with her blessing.

For many years after the resignatibn of Dr. Clunies Ross in 1937, Hugh lectured and gave practical
demonstrations in parasitic infection to veterinary students. Since the appointment of Dr. G.H. Collins he
has continued the practical classes, but was a lecturer in 1979-80. Since 1972, Hugh has been a Fellow of
the Australian Society for Parasitology and was President in 1964.

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Hugh has a close relationship with the Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) and became a Fellaw in
1959. He was Honorary Secretary of the New South Wales Division for eight years between 1933 and
1944 and was President in 1941-42. Hugh was President of the Federal body of the AVA in 1951 and
spent some years on the Council. He has been Honorary Librarian of the AVA since 1932. The library
remains at the Laboratory to this day. Although Hugh has reviewed many books himself many of the staff
and others havc been asked to review publications on Ris behalf. As has already been stated, staff at the
Laboratory have access to the AVA library.
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Hugh was Foundation Fellow of the Australian College of Veterinary Scientists and waa President In 1976;
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77. He was on the Council in 1971-72 and again in 1983-84. He has been Honorary Public Relations
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Officer since 1979.

Hugh is the Official correspondent since 1937 t o what is now the CAB International institute of
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Parasitology.
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Hugh was President of Section L 6eterinaty Science) of the Australian and New Zealand Assoclatlon for
the Advancement of Science in Hobart in 1949 and gave an address entitled 'Epidemiology and the
Efficient Parasite'. Up to 1983 he had attended all but one of the World Association for Veterinary
Parasitology (WAAVP) meetings in many countries and presented papers at all of them. The congress in
Sydney in 1977 was named in his hbnour. He was a member of the Executive Board of the WAAVP for a
number of years and was the firSt Vice-President In 1975. Hugh was a member of its Scientific
Programme Committee which organised the 8th Congress in Sydney. Hugh was President of the AVA in
1951/52 and a Fellow in 1959. ,
Hugh has visited many countries, including Britain, USA, Europe, South Africa and South American
countries. It is unnecessary to ehumerate ail of these, but is appropriate to mention some of the
highlights. in 1968, he delivered the Arnold Theiler Memorial Lecture at the University of Pretoria and has
attended and presented papers at several World Veterinary Congresses. He has lectured in USA and
South American countries.

Hugh has over 100 papers on parasitological subjects. He and Dr. Clunies Ross were co-authors In 1936
of the book entitled "Internal Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of Sheep". He also contributed a chapter to
the "Thapar Commemoration Volume" of 1953 to mark the 60th birthday of Professor G S Thapar of
Lucknow, India.
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A number of awards have been made to Hugh. fie won the Gilruth Prize of the AVA In 1955. He shared
the Payne Exhibition of 1958 wlth Dr. R. F. Riek for the most important contribution to veterinary science
during the past five years. In 1970 he was presented with the Order af the Golden Fleece by the California
Wool Growers Association, and in 1974 he won the Diploma from the Association Mexlcana de
Parasitologia "Por la investigation y Difusion de la Parasitologia". But more important than all these, Re
became a Member of the Order of Australia in 1986 for services to veterinary science.

Dr Helen Newton Turner was another very early member of the staff who had a most distinguished and, as
some wouid say, extraordinary career. She began as a clerical assistant at the Laboratory to become an
international authority on sheep genetics. She first graduated from the University of Sydney as a Bachelor
of Architecture with honours in 1930. Althxgh she was employed for a short time as an architect the firm
wlth whom she worked was overcome by the depression at that time, so she became a typist. After the
firm closed down she had a position for eight months In the State Office block registering optometrists
before applying successfully for the position as Dr Csunies Ross's secretary at the Laboratory.
She intended to go back to architecture, but never did. The mathematical side of architecture came mare
easily to her than design, and she became interested in the new discipline of statlstlcal design and
analysis of scientific experiments through typing the papers of Dr Carr Fraser, then a statistician at the
Laboratory. Dr Clunies Ross had arranged for her to spend a year's study leave in London with the
"father" of the new discipline, Professor (later Sir) R A Fisher, but when Csunles Ross left In 1937, Dr Bull,
Chief of the Division, asked her to postpone her study leave for a yeas to assist Dudley Gill, the new 0-I-C,
to settle in.
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In 1938-39 Dr Turner spent 12 moyhs on study leave including a 10-week Pour of research centres in the
USA. She was then appointed a" Assistant Research Officer (statistics). By 1940-41 she joined the
Section of Biornetrics. In 1942 shelwas seconded as a statistician with the Department of Home Securlty
where she remained for about a ear before she was then seconded, again as a statistician, t o the
Directorate of Scientif'rc Personnel 'In the Department of Manpower until the end of the war, However,
about 1944 she also worked part-titye at the Laboratory.
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Dr Turner was finally transferred td the Section of Mathematical Statistics that later became a Division,
until she was appointed as leaderlof the Animal Breeding Section that became part of the Division of
Animal Genetics in 1956. ow ever, through all these years she remained at the Laboratory untll the
Division acquired its own building inlNorth Ryde.
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During her early years at the ~ a b o i a t oshe


r ~ worked with the parasitologists as a statistician because it
was then iargeiy a sheep diseases laboratory. However, when Dr Keliey returned to the Laboratory in at
the end of the war and then became 0-i-C of the F D McMaster Field Station, she was consulted about
sheep breeding. Dr Turr~erbecame very interested in this, much of which she read herself. When Dr
Kelley retired in 1955 Dr Clunies Ross suggested she join Dr Duniop and others t o form the Sheep
Breeding Group at the Laboratory, which, as already recorded, eventuaily became part of the Divislan of
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Animai Genetics.

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During these years she developed ,her knowledge of the genetics of sheep until she became a world
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authority. She was awarded the degree of Doctor of Science by the University of Sydqey in 1970 for her
published work on "Quantitative ~en'eticsin Sheep Breeding". This thesis received the highest praise from
eminent examiners in Australia and overseas. Incidentally, there is a story that someone overseas said
that he knew who Turner was, but wi)o was B.Arch whose name appeared as coauthor of a paper?
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Although Dr Turner formally retired in 1973, she has been very busy ever since. She has retalned a room
In what is nDw known as the Division of Biotechnology at NortR Wycie. This was readily agreed to by the
authorities of that Division. ~ecausdshe has been as active since her retirement as before, there is little
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point in naming the conferences she has attended, her work with International and non-government
arganisations and the countries she has visited. The iist is far too great to give O
n detal, but includes the
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, many sheep breeding and other agricultural
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conferences and many countries throughout the worsd. The iatter include several Asian countries,
including China, several African and South American countries, Europe, including Britain, the USA and the
USSR, Israel and Arabian countries. ;She has also given lectures and advice in much of Australia.

Or Turner's list of honours Is also imbressive, but the most important of these Is undoubtedly Officer of the
Order of Australia (AO) which w a i awarded in 1987 for her contributions to science and the sheep
breeding Industry. She was also awarded the OBE in the New Year's Honours List of 1977 for services to
primary industry. Other awards include the Coronation Medal (1953), the Farrer Memorial Medal (1974)
and the Rotary Award for Vocational Excellence (1986). With other outstanding International women she
appeared as Ceres on the F A 0 ~ d d ain
l 1977. These last named medals are sold in support of FA0
projects involving women in developing countries.
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Dr Turner was an Honorary ~ssociaieof the University of Sydney from 1956 to 1959, and is an Honorary
Member of the AVA and an Honorary Member of the Indian Society for Sheep and Goat Production and
Utilization. She 1s a Foundation FePlow of the Australian Academy of TechnoPoglcal Sciences, and a
Fellow of the Australian Society of Ad'lmal Production.

Professor W I B Beveridge of the ~ d h o oof


l Veterinary Medicine of the University of Cambrldge until his
retirement, is another very early member of the research staff of the Laboratory with a distinguished
career. Ian Beveridge joined the Laboratory late in 1931, less than a year after graduating from the
Veterinary School of the University of Sydney. He has said that unlike the present staff who always spend
time In an 'apprenticeship' (earning a Ph.D, for instance), Re had no previous experience in research. Dr
Clunies Ross asked him casually on8 day whether he had any control sheep In his experiment with footrot.
When he said that he did not, Dr Clunies Ross said that he should have controls in all experiments. That,
claims Professor Beveridge, is the only research instruction he ever received.

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Dr Dan Murnane in Melbourne arid Professor H R Carne of the Veterinary School in Sydney, both of whom
had close associations with the Laboratory, had started work on footrot before Professor Beveridge joined
the staff of the Laboratory as a young graduate. The latter supervised his early work on footrot, the cause
of which was unknown at that time. TRe details of Professor Beveridge's successfui work on the cause of
footrot and his work on pizzie rot are described in Chapter Vl, but it is relevant here to say that he was
awarded a Harkness Fellowship in 1937 to work at the Rockefeller Institute at Princeton. He also worked
at the Bureau of Animal Industry in Washington, D.C. and was in the USA for two years.

Sometime after his return to Australia In 1939 Professor Beveridge resigned from the CSlR to work on
Influenza with Professor Burnet at the Waiter and Eliza Hall lnstitute in Melbourne.

After the war he went to the Pasteur institute in P ~ r i sfor six months. This was on an exchange between
the Walter and Eliza Hail lnstitute and the Pasteur Institute. Here he was to work on influenza and foot and
mouth disease, but it was not very satisfactory experience because materials, Including mice, were very
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difficult to acquire so soon after the war.

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Professor Beveridge was then appointed to the Chair of Animal Pathology at the University of Cambridge
where he remained from 1947 to hi; retirement in 1975. This was an important appointment because he
was to set up the Veterinary School at Cambridge. For some years much of his time was taken Llp by
administration. He had the ultimate responsibility for organislng the new school, including plans for the
buildings, the teaching program and the staffing. He had little time for work at the bench, but he did have
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research students whom he had to teach how to do research. His main research was on pneumonia of
plgs. He was responsible for the recognition of enzootic pneumonia as a specific infectious disease later
shown to be due to Mvco~lasmahvdo~neumoniae.

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Before he left Cambridge he spent bome time as a consultant to the World Health Organlzatlon so that
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after retirement he lived in Geneva'for some years to continue this association. Professor Beveridge
eventually returned to Australia to live in Canberra. Eventually Re went to live in Wentworth Falls in New
South Wales. I
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Professor Beveridge has seen how;much has changed at the Laboratory since he was there. He also
commented on the great change in Agricultural research generally since he joined the Laboratory in 1931.
He remembers the great enthusiasn! there was amongst the young research staff when Dr Clunies Ross
was 0-i-C of the Laboratory. I
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Professor Beveridge has written two widely acclaimed books on the way in which scientific discoveries are
made. 'The Art of Scientific lnvestigation' and 'Seeds of Discovery'. He believes that scientists should
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relate how their discoveries were made because Phis is helpful to young scientists starting research.

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Or R B Kelley was one of the distinguished men who was for many years with the CSlR and then the
CSlRO before he retired in 1954. He was born in Melbourne in 1898 and received his L.V.Sc. from the
University of Melbourne in 1914,late; hls B.V.Sc. In 1930 and finally his D.V.Sc. in 1937. He had been with
the Australian Veterinary Army corps in World War I when he took three shiploads of horses to Egypt.
Then he was Brigade Veterinary Officer with the 4th Australian Light Horse in the Middle East.

After the war he had several positions before Dr. Gilruth, then the first Chief of the Division of Animal
Health, asked him to go to Texas, USA to examine the advisability of introducing Zebu cattle into Austriilia.
This he did, and found that grazing 'cross-breeds matured earlier, did better on inferior pasture, dressed
out better and had a higher survival rate in droughts than did other breeds. They also carried relatively
few ticks.

Dr. Kelley joined the CSlR on a Senior Research Studentship in 1931. He then became a geneticist at the
F D McMaster Animal Health Laboratory in 1935 before going to the F.D. McMaster Field Station as a
Principal Research Officer and 0-i-C (animal genettcs) in February 1938. He became an Assistant Chief of
the Division in 1950 and finally retirid in 1954.
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Dr. Keiley is principally known as the man who, O
n 1933, introduced Zebu cattle and their crosses to
Australia, particularly to Queensland, from the USA. As one Queensiander said, "Few men there are who
will not agree that Dr. Kelley has made the greatest single contribution to Queensland's beef cattle
industry of all time'. Although statidned at the F.D. McMaster Field Station at Badgery's Creek, he work&
much in Queensland. Initially the& was a formal agreement with a small number of cattle properties in
that State to use and report on the use of Zebus crossed with British beef breeds. Dr. Keliey confirmed
the assessment of their uses in the USA. Restrictions on their disposal to other than the co-operating
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breeders was modified after consultation between the Minister for Agriculture In Queensland, Dr. LB. Bull,
Chlef of the Division of Animal ~ d a l t hand Production and the five co-operating breeders. This new
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restriction was lifted In about 1941 when anyone without obligation could purchase Zebu crosses. Since
then Zebu crosses have been used widely in Australia. An annual sale of Bos Ondlcus cattle in North
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Queensland was named for him as a mark of appreciation of his work.


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Apart from the use of Zebu crosses in the beef industry, attempts were made at Badgery's Creek to cross
Zebus with dairy cattle, but this wab apparently unsuccessful. The progeny were relatively wild and gave
little milk. This and other research at the F.D.McMaster Field Station is described in Chapter VI.

Dr. Keiley was awarded the OBE in 1954, the year of his retirement from the CSIRO. After retirement he
had appointments in Australia and Malaysia, but returned to Nambour in Queensland in 1962 and died In
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Perhaps it should be recorded that according t o Bob Hayman, his successor as 0-i-C of the F.D.
McMaster Field Station, and to others, his abiding interest was in sheep dogs, despite his importance to
the introduction of Zebu beef cattle crosses to Australia?

In addition to many papers on cattle and sheep breeding, Dr. Kelley wrote at least two books, one on
sheep dogs and another on native and adapted cattle in several countries.

Dudley A Gill (or Jim, as he was always known) was 0-i-C from 1938 to 1954, but had been Acting 0-I-C
after the resignation of Dr Ian Clunies Ross in 4939. He was Assistant Chief of the Division from 1946
responsible for this Laboratory as well as the Wool Biology Laboratory at Prospect (as it then was), the
RPL at Armidale and the Laboratory,at Yeerongpilly in Brisbane and then Chief of the Division from 1954
until his retirement In 1959. I
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Jim graduated as MRCVS from the Royal Veterinary College, Camden Town, England, O
n 1922, but then
gained the Diploma of Veterinary State Medicine from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. He joined
the New Zealand Department of Agriculture the following year and was eventually appointed Assistant
Director of Research, a position he held until 1933. ln 1934 he was seconded to the Faculty of Veterinary

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Science, University of Sydney, wheie he was acting lecturer in pathology, bacteriology and protozoology
I
during the absence of H.R. Carne bn sabbatical leave. Jim then returned to New Zealand in 1935, but
I
became a Research Officer at ~ c d a s t eLaboratory
r in 1937 and succeeded Dr Ian Clunles Ross as the
I
second 0-i-C.

Jim was known as an outstanding! scientific administrator. During his time as 0-I-C, the Laboratory
expanded considerably with his encouragement. But he is best known for his research that showed that
bacterial encephalitis of sheep was due to Listeria monocvfoaenes. Other work incsuded enterotoxin in
the small Intestine of lambs which ,caused so-called pulpy kldney, blowfly infestation of sheep and its
control by the Mules operation and a plan for the eradication of bovine pleuropneumonla in Australia. The
last named was a concerted plan fihanced by both Commonwealth and State Governments. His was a
critical part in the Division's acquisition of Chlswick. Armidale, then known as the Regional Pastoral
Laboratory. He also helped plan the Division of Animal Physiology at Prospect, New South Wales.

b
Jim was awarded the Gilruth Prize y the Australian Veterinary Association in 1962 for his research and
the administration of science. He was a councillor of the AVA and the President of the New South Wales
A
Division of that body. He was he vily involved with the Animal Production Committee and It was as
Convener of the Contaglous Bovin( Pleuro-Pneumonia Committee when the plan for the eradication of
this disease was concocted. Jim wds a member of the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney
for some years. He was admitted as a Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons in 1969.
j '1
!

Jim was twice in the Army. First, as1aprivate in the British Army from 1918 to 1919 and then as a Captain
in the Australian Army Veterinary coips in the early months of the Second World War.

1
General opinion appears to be tha although he seemed distant, he was, in fact, very approachable.
Some felt he was typical of the old School of veterinarians who found it difficult to delegate work to non-
veterlnarlans who might be more familiar with it. Nevertheless, many have said that he was a 'real
I

gentleman'. Many of us remember that he lectured on veterinary jurisprudence to students for some
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years.
!
Jim died In Sydney in May 1973. 1
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Dr M Llpson was yet another early research gcientist at the Laboratory who had a subsequent
distinguished career elsewhere in the CSIRO.

f?eJoinedthe Laboratory staff in 1937 from F W Hughes P r i Ltd where he had worked for about two years
after graduation as B.Sc. from the dniversity of Sydney. He was officially listed as an Assistant Research
Officer (chemistry of dips) but unofficially he continued from F W Hughes in what became a long and .
successful career on textile research by continuing his work on the shrink-proofing of wool. This was with
M R Freney, then on the staff of the Laboratory. Dr Lipson emphasises that this research was done In their
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99 I
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spare time. Because the CSlR was not then supposed to do any textile research, but confine itself to wool
production and leave processing to England, Mr Gill, then 0-i-C of the Laboratory, and the Executive had
problems with this work. The ~xecutivefinally reluctantly agreed to provisionally patent their new shrlnk-
I I

proofing method in December, 1938. This was the first patent application ever made by the CSIR, but
unfortunately they did not proceed with this provisional patent and allowed it to lapse. Although the
details are not the concern of this ktory, Holeproof Hosiery Ltd., of Melbourne, with the support of the
Australian Wool Board, eventually succeeded in opposing the patent for the process apparently taken out
I
by a British firm. Dr Lipson was involved in the legal hearing. The process was then freely used In
I
Australia.
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Nevertheless, Dr Lipson did do much successful official research at this Laboratory. Thls included the
chemistry of sheep dips, chemical studies on phenothiazine and related compounds, fleece chemistry and
the composition of wool wax. The results of this work is described in Chapter V. However, he left the
Laboratory to join the Division of Industrial Chemistry in 1939 to continue with shrink-proofing and other
research. From 1941 to 1945 he was Chief Chemist with the Central Wool Committee. From 9946 'to 1948
he was an International Wool secretariat Research Fellow at Leeds University. Then from 1948 to 1958 he
was 0-i-C of the CSlRO Wool Research Laboratory at Geelong before becoming Chief of the new Division
of Textile Industry from 1958 until 1976 when he retired. However, until 1985, Re was a Senior Research
Fellow with the Division of Animal Health, responsible for research on fleece rot. During this time he was in
Geelong, but occasionally visited this Laboratory. From 1997 to the present he is a University Fellow of
Deakin University.

Dr Lipson obtained the Ph.D at t h i University of Leeds and was later awarded an honorary D.Sc. by
Deakin University for his research leadership since initiating CSlRO activities In Geelong. He Is a Fellow of
the Australian Academy of Techno~ogicalSciences, the Textile institute (Manchester), and the Royal
Australian Chemical Institute. But the highest honour awarded Dr Lipson was Officer of the Order of
Australia (AO) in 1976 for his contributionsto wool textile research.

Dr Lipson has said that his time at the McMaster was probably the happiest and most productive in his
research career. Without any burden of administration, he couDd concentrate full time on research and
was rewarded with positive results in several fields.

Dr M C Franklin was another early member of the research staff of the Laboratory who will be
remembered by many for his friendly personality dnd fof his importance to the nutrition of cattle and
sheep. "Frankie", as he was known to everyone, joined the Laboratory as a Senior Research Officer
(biochemistry) in 1939, but was a New Zealander who graduated with a B.Sc. from Auckland University
College in 1926. A year later he was awarded an M.Sc. with First Class Honours and eventually a Ph.D.
from the University of Cambridge in 1933. He was the Lecturer-in-Charge of the Animal Nutrition and
Chemistry Departments of Canterbury Agricuitural College, University of New Zealand, before coming to
the Laboratory. In 1953, as a Principal Research Officer, he was appointed as the first William Mcllrath
I
Fellow In Animal Husbandry at the University of Sydney but remained at the Laboratory. Thk he held uhtil
1959. From 1959 he was Co-ordinator of Beef Cattle Investlgat'lons,Southern States of Australla, at the
I
request of the Australian Committee on Animal Production. His research at the Laboratory, partlculady,of
I I
drougRt feeding, is described in Chapter VI.

Dr Franklin and Professor T.J. Robinson of the Department of Animal Husbandry, University of Sydney,
successfully appealed for funds to establish a Meat Research Laboratory at the Camden ~ n i m a l
Husbandry Farm of the University. He moved there in 1959 and subsequently became Rs Director. This
laboratory was named the M C ~rdnklinLaboratory by the Senate In 1961. However, in 1961 Dr Franklin
went to the Cunningham Laboratory in Brisbane Po head a section of the CSlRO Division of Animal
Physiology. The section was formbd to study nutritional and reproductive problems of the cattle Industry
in Northern Australia. He coilabdrated with the Division of Tropical Pastures for the improvement of
pastures in the north. in 1964, at tde request of the Australian Meat Board, he was appointed as Executive
Officer of the Australian Cattle and Beef Research Committee that is now known as the Australian Meat
Research Committee. Dr Franklin occupied this position until his death in January 1967.

His research and interest in ntlritiob, particularly of cattle, was widespread. In addition to drought feeding
of sheep. it Included fodder consedation, growth and meat production, the feeding of stud beef cattle and
pasture improvement. He was Always available for nutritional advice t o scientific, grazing and
administrative people. Many of us /emember the lectures Re gave to veterinary undergraduates, and how
he went out of his way to assist any student in dHicuPties with nutrition.

t ~Anlmal Production in 1954-55 and was


Dr Franklin was Federal Pt'esidenj of the Australian ~ o c l eof
elected a Fellow in 1962. The ~ o c i bheld
t ~ the M.C. Franklin Memorial Symposium in Armidale in 1968 to
honour his contribution to the nutrition of cattle and sheep.
1
1
Ian L Johnstone had 15 years with the Division, first as a Field Officer at the Laboratory, then as a
Research Officer at the Nationas Fie(ld Station, Gilruth Plains, Cunnamulla, Queensiand, and finally as 0-1-
C.Regional Pastoral Laboratory, P(rmidale. New South Wales. His time at Armidale was interrupted by
about two years in the Australian scientific Liaison Office in London from the end of 1958.
I

Ian graduated B.V.Sc. from the University of Sydney in 1937 and had been two years in New Zealand
before coming to the Laboratory in 1939. As a Field Officer he was not attached to a group, but assisted
different Research Officers in various parts of the countryside. He was, for Instance, associated with
Norman Graham with lfeds and lice and CIA of sheep. He was also involved with the problem of blowfly
strike of sheep which he continued when Re was transferred in 1940 to Gllruth Plains where Dr J H Riches
was then the 0-I-C.
When he was transferred to QueensPand he continued his interest in blowflies and the mules operation.
I
The story of the latter has been told by F H W Morley and I L Johnstone in the Wool Corporation's Second
National Symposium on SReep Biowfly and Flystrike in Sheep of December, 1983. Details are not the
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concern of this account, but it must be recorded that Pan did have a part in its development In New South
Wales, where there was some opposition, but particularly in Queensiand. However, opposition In New
South Wales continued after Ian transferred to Armidale in 1944.

Before he left Gilruth Plains he d a s also involved in tail strike, the length of the residual tall and the
removal of some of the skin of the tail. Tail length work was the particular interest of Dr. Riches. Other
projects of Ian's while at Giiruth Plains and which were associated with McMaster Laboratory, were
calcium deficiency and pregnancy toxaemia of ewes for Dr Franklin. This also included the ecological
aspects of sheath rot In wethers in association with Dr. W.P.B.
Beveridge, progeny testing, external
parasites, dehorning of rams and the rabbit problem that included myxomatosls. During his time there he
vlstted many properties and met many identitites on both sides of the border between the two States.

Ian was posted to Armidale as 8-1-k after his marriage late in 1943. The story of that field station, later to
be known as the Regional ~astorbiLaboratory, is told In Chapter IV. The relationship with McMaster
Laboratory was close in the early years, but perhaps less so as officers of other divisions were stationed
there and the RPL developed more independence. Nevertheless, there was a close association with
parasitology, largely through the ihterests of Hugh Gordon. This included early trials with anthelmintics
and management in the control of parasites.

There was much discussion with the University of New England about the relationship with RPL. lan was
always of the opinion that the research and administration of the unit should be established on Chiswick.
In this he was unsuccessful, but ev6ntually achieved.

Ian, then a Senior Principal ~ e s e a l c hOfficer, resigned from the CSlRO in 1954. He then went into rural
practice. He later had a chair at the University of New South Wales and developed field stations of Merck,
Sharp & Dohme.
1
I

Professor C R Austin was another early research scientist on the staff of the Laboratory who subsequently
had a distinguished career at the University of Cambridge where Re was the Charles Darwin Professor of
Animal Embryology.

Professor (Bunny) Austin graduated in 1936 from the Veterinary School, but was subsequently awarded
the degrees of B.Sc.(1938), M.Sc.(1940) and D.Sc.(1954) by the University of Sydney. He was also
awarded the degree of M.A. by the University of Cambridge in 1967.

In his early years at the Laboratory, half his pay was from the CSlR and half from the University where he
was a lecturer. According to the records at the Laboratory he was a fulltime Assistant Research Officer
(Biochemistry) in 1940/41. He resigned from the CSIRO in about 1953, but was a lecturer at the
University all this time. Professor Gallagher, formerly at the Laboratory, and l certainly remember some
lectures from him when we were students at the Veterinary School.

102
Professor Austin resigned to join the staff of the Medical Research Council In London where he was
employed untll 1964, although he was also head of the Laboratory Animals Division of the atl lo rial
Medical Institute of Research in London from 1958 to 1961. After this he went to the USA where he heldl a
number of positions. He was a member of the teaching staff of the Marine Biological Laboratory, odds
Hole, from 1962 to 1968 and again in 1970, the Head of the Genetic and Development Disorders Research
Program at the Delta Regional Research Laboratory, Covington, from 1964 to 1967 and Professor of
Embryology at Tuiane University, New Orleans, from 1964 to 1967

I
He then became Professor of Animal Embryology at Cambridge in 1967 where he remained until 1981.

Professor Austin's research topics ban be divided into five categories:-


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(1) gamete form and function;


(2) mechanisms of sperm penbtration;
(3) reactions of the egg to spetm entry;
(4) cytology of fertilization and,cleavage, both normal and anomalous;
(5) fate and possible significadce of non-fertilizing spermatozoa.
1
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Thls research on fertilization was drirnarily with mammals, but included some non-mammals. The details
are extensive and need not be described here.

After retirement from Cambridge, he was editor of Bio!ogical Reviews for 32 years before returning to
Australia to live in Queensiand. ~ o h i t h s t a n d i n ~ he continues to be busy as an editorfa! consultant, a
this,
foreign correspondent, a co-organder of a symposium and a writer, etc.

His membership of scientific societies both in Australia and Great Britain is extensive. He has been a
member of many councils and cdmmittees in several countries and has been the chairman and/or
secretary and convenor of a numb$r. He has also been opening speaker, given a paper or been a guest
lecturer at meetings in Australia and' overseas.

Professor Austin is the sole author cjf three monographs, has been the edltor or co-editor of 18 books and,
needless to say, has been the author of about 160 research reports, abstracts, reviews and chapters, etc.

Emeritus Professor W P Rogers is yet another former member of the research staff of this Laboratory with
a subsequent distinguished career at the University of Adelaide.

Buddy Rogers is a Western ~ustralien.He graduated with a B.Sc. from the University of Western Australia
in 1936. Subsequentiy, he had a Commonwealth Postgraduate Award with wRich Re studied parasltoiogy
under Dr H W. Bennetts, a veterinary pathologist with the Western Australian Department of Agriculture.
He was awarded an M.Sc. in 1938. His papar on trichostrongyie larvae is said t o be a remarkable

103
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contribution so early in his career. He then held a Hackett Studentship from the University with which he
was awarded a Ph.D. in 1940 from khe London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine for a collection of
papers ranging from taxonomy to physiology. After an unsuccessful attempt at sewice ln the R.A.F. he
entered the Molteno institute at Cambridge as a Post-doctorai Fellow. During his time there Re took Part ll
of the Tripos in biochemistry at the University of Cambridge, which he says gave him a basis for
knowledge and biochemical understanding.
I
I

Professor Rogers returned t o Australia in 1946 when he was appointed as a Research Officer
(parasito!ogy) at the Laboratory. Before starting at the Laboratory, Dr Bull, then Chief of the Dlvislon, and
with whom he was very impressed, introduced him to some of the staff at Parhille and at other Divisions
in Melbourne and Canberra. His research at the Laboratory is described in Chapter V.

In 1952 he was appointed professor of Zoology at the University of Adelaide and served as Dean of the
Faculty of Science during his Perm bf office. He was appointed as Professor of Parasitology In 1962. Thls
was a personal cRair made possible by a research grant from the Public Health Service of the USA, part of
which paid half his salary. This enabled him to devote more time Po research and facilitate his transfer to
the Waite Agricultural Research institute in 1966, although he retained his appointment as Professor of
Parasitology. He retired in 1979 as Emeritus Professor. Thls was, in fact, a formal retirement as he
remained at the Waite as an ~ o n o r a r yResearch Fellow with grants from the World Health Organization
and the Australian Research Grants Scheme. Professor Rogers has recently retlred from research work
as he no longer has these grants. He now lives on a farm that Re has owned for some time in the Adelaide
Hills .

When he moved from the Laborat,ory to Adelaide, administration meant that his volume of work was
reduced, but, nevertheless, his ihfluence on the department was considerable. TRere was much
discussion on a wide range of topics, not only on parasitology. This discussion involved all staff, the only
criterion was that one's contrlbutioh had to be meaningful. As Professor of Parasitology he became less
invofved with administration. 8

Inevitably, he was free to develop his own ideas on the inter-relationship between the parasite and the
host when Re moved to Adelaide. Professor Rogers could then become more interested and involved
with the fundamental physiology and biochemistry of nematode parasites, particularly with the adaptive
significance of their blochemica! systems to the host-parasite relationship and its evolutlon. This Is not the
place to follow his hypotheses in detail but his work has led to an understanding of exsheathlng and,
hence, to the hatching process. The sequence of events within the infecflve stage Ras indicated that
enzymes and an endocrine s y s t e i are involved, together with an appropriate stimulus from the host.
Furthermore, he and a colleague became interested in changes in sets of genes in the parasite, with the
reversal of their inhibition after infection of tRe host.
Professor Rogers became a ello oh of the Australian Academy of Science in 1954. He received a D.&.
from the University of London in 1956 and is a Fellow of the Australian Society for Parasito!ogy, of whlkh
he was President in 1965-66. in August 1986, he was President of the Sixth internationas Congress of
Parasitology held O
n Brisbane. He has also President of Section D of ANZAAS in 1956 when he delivered
a paper entitled "The physiologicai basis of parasitism'. His book 'The Nature of Parasitism', which, In
fact, asked more questions than it answered, was published in 1962.

Dr I) F (Douglas) Stewart had a long career at the McMaster Laboratory and was appointed Associate
Chief of the Division in 1959. He was the son of J D Stewart who was the first Professor of Veterinary
Science, University of Sydney. douglas graduated with Second Class Honours from the Faculty of
Veterinary Science, University of sydney, in 1932 and was awarded the Cooper Prize for Parasitology.
I

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On graduation Douglas joined thei~epartmentof Agriculture. Queensland, from 1932 before becoming
the Walter and Eliza Fellow in Veterinary Science at the University of Sydney until 1936. With thls
Fellowship he went to the London school of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Pathology Institute of
the Royal Veterinary College in London. He was awarded the Academic Post-graduate Diploma In
Bacteriology by the University o i London in 1935. He and Dr T S Gregory were the first Australian
veterlnarians t o win this distinctibn. He then returned to Australia to join the research staff of the
Veterinary Research Station of the bew South Wales Department of Agriculture at Glenfield. He held thls
appointment until 1942, but this was interrupted by servlce as a Captain in the Australian Army Veterlnary
Corps between 1939 and 1942. d e n followed a secondment to the Division of Food Preservation. CSIR.
until 1945. Douglas then joined the staff of this Laboratory in 1946 as a Senior Research Officer. He was
awarded the degree of D.V.Sc., ~ h i v e r s i of
t ~ Sydney in 1953 for his studies on immunity to heimlnth
Infections. I
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He succeeded D A Gill as 0-i-C of the Laboratory in 1954, a positlon he held until his retirement In October
1974. Douglas was appointed ~shociateChief in 1959. The titie Associate Chief virtually meant that
Douglas was second only to the CHief of the Division and was ranked above Assistant Chief. He was the
first Associate Chief appointed by CSIRO. Douglas was also Acting Chief of the Division for several
lengthy periods. i

The research for which Douglas is best known is undoubtedly that of 'self cure', partlcular!y in parasitic '
infections of sheep with H. contortus, although its occurrence was also examined O
n other Infections,
notably with Trichostronavl~ssspp. The term 'self-cure'refers to the eradication of an infecting parasite
when a sheep ingests more larvae of that species. This phenomenon 1s dealt with In more detail in
Chapter V. He was best known fot his research in parasitology, but he was originally appointed 3s a
bacteriologist and was involved in research in several bacteria! diseases and recommenced work on
I
footrot of sheep, particularly its control by the topl~alapplication of antibiotics.
Douglas's important part in the two-way movement of promlsfng young research staff with Divisional
Studentships to appropriate institutions in Britain or the USA and that of distinguished Ian McMaster
Fellowships has been described in Chapter VIII. His comments on the management and use of industry
funds, particularly wool funds, that came to the Laboratory, are included in Chapter Ill.

;
Douglas as 0-I-C was well known for his loyalty to and encouragement of his research staff. Several who
knew him have remarked on the& characteristbs. He would loyally support the work and point d view of
a researcher when discussing him or her with the Chief. (Perhaps the nearest thing to crltlcism of thls
support of the staff was a suggestion by someone who said that thls loyalty could lead to Douglas's
supporting a person un)ustifiably.) Then he might suggest how its presentation in a paper might be
improved. A former member of tde research staff with experience of other laboratories has remarked on
the good co-operative spirit at thb McMaster Laboratory when he was a member of the staff. This was
largely due to Douglas's loyalty to his staff, for which he will be remembered.
I

He was awarded the Gilruth Prizd by the AVA in 1977 for meritorious service to Veterinary Science in
I
Australia. !
I

In 1959 Douglas was invited to give seminars at the Rockefeller institute and the New York Society of
Tropical Medicine.
I

In 1962 he was one of the nine from overseas invited to join an International Panel at the University of
Maryland on lmmunodiagnosis of Helminth infections. This panel was sponsored by the National
Institutes of Health at Bethesda, USA.

He led the Australian delegation to'the FAQ/OIE lnternatlonal Conference in Rome on Sheep Diseases in

In 1970 he was invited by N.O.E. (Rambouiilet) to visit France to advise on the control of sheep diseases,
particularly footrot.
I

In 1971 he was Animal Health Consultant t o F A 0 to survey and report upon the national veterinary
laboratories in Asia and the Far East. Although stationed in Bangkok he visited nine countries in the area.
I

In Australia, he was from 1966 to 1977 the first Chairman of the National Committee for Eradication of
Tuberculosis and Bruceilosis. This appointment was made by the Standing Committee on Agriculture.
Douglas wss also elected to a number of positions as a prominent veterinarian:-

He was Honorary Secretary of the AVA from 1954 to I958 and President in 1955-56and a Fellow from
1958.
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He led the Australian delegation tq the XVlth World Veterinary Congress in Madrld in 1959.
I

He was Honorary Secretary of thy National Committee of the World Veterinary Congress which was held
in Sydney in 1977.

He was a Foundation Fellow and first President in 1971 of the Australian College of Veterinary Scientists.

In 1961 he was President of ~ e c t i d nL of ANZAAS and President of the Medical Sciences Club in 1965.

In 1975 Re was made a Fellow of tlie Australian Society for Parasitology.


I
Douglas was also closely associated with the Faculty of Veterinary Science, UnbersRy of Sydney. He was
member of the Post-graduate ~orhrnitteefrom 1965-1977, and a member of the Faculty from 1961-1979.
The latter was as a member "Distinguished in Veeednary Science".
I

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After his retirement he was a conduitant from 1974 to 1976 with the Merck, Sharp and Dohme Research
I

Laboratories, Rahway, New ~ e r s d USA.


~ , In 1983 he was elected an Honorary Member of the World
Veterinary Association for the ~dvahcementof Veterinary Parasitology.
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Scientist who was 0-I-C of the Laboratory from July 1983 and
Dr John K Dineen was a Chief ~ e $ e a r c h
then Assistant Chief of the ~ i v i s i o d
from July 1986, until hls retirement in 1987. He was also Acting Chief
of the Division of Animal Health for Sometime before his retirement.
I
John was an Immunologist who graduated with a 8 . 5 ~ ln
. 1951 in microbldogy and Mochemistry. In 1956
he earned a Ph.D. O
n mlcroblology. in 1976 he was granted a D.Sc. in immunology. These three degrees
were from the University of ~delalcfe. *
1

John was employed at the Walter ahd Eliza Hall Institute in Melbourne where he worked on transplantation
immunity under the supervision of Sir McFadane Burnen. However, he joined the staff of the Laboratory
as a Senior Research Officer in Ahgust, 1961, to work on the immunology of endoparasitic infection,
especially an nematode infectiofls of sheep. AltRough much of his work could be described as
fundamental, he was very interested in the applied aspects of immunology, particularly of nematode
infection. Details of this research ark included in Chapter V.

He was well known at the Laboratory for his firm opinions about immunology and Its relevance to the
pastoral Industry. Many of the prese::: staff remember his discerssions on this subject, particularly those
with his friend and colleague Dr Alarl Donald.
He also collaborated with others, both inside and outside the CSIRB, namely, the Division of Proteln
Chemistry and the Department of Agriculture, New South Wales.

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John was an Associate of the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, and of the University of
New South Wales. He supervised two Ph.Ds for the University of Sydney and one for the University of
New South Wales, two M.Scs and a B.Sc. (Vet.) for the University of Sydney, and a M.Rur.Sc. for the
University of New England.

John formally retired in July 1987, but retained contact as an Honorary Research Fellow to oversee some
research at the Laboratory.
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He was a member of:- i

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Australian Society for Animal Production
Australian Society for lmmdpology
British Society for lmmunology
Australian Society of ~ a r a s i i o of ~ ~ he was President from 1987 - 1988.
~ owhich

John is the editor or author of a number of books, or part thereof.

Dr A.D. Donald has a distinguished career, but is not typlcal of those in this chapter as he remains in the
n 1961, but
CSIRO. His is a good example of a research scientist who began as an Experimental Officer O
who was granted a Divisional Studentship to the University of Brlstol in 1963 and who returned as a Senior
Research Officer in 1966. He was O-i-C of the Laboratory from 1981 to 1983, Chief of the Division of
Animal Health from 1983 to 1986, then Acting Director 0%the institute d Animal and Food Sciences from
1986 to 1987 and is now the Director of the institute of Animal Production and Processing that took its
place. I
I

Although an Australian citizen, Alan was born in Fiji. He graduated as a B.V.Sc. with Second Class
Honours from the University of Sydney in 1956 and won the Wiiliam Cooper and Nephews Prl;ze in
Veterinary Parasitoiogy in 1954. His first employment was as a Teaching Fellow in Veterinary Pathology at
the University of Sydney before becorning a veterinary pathologist with the Department of Agriculture In
Fiji. He was a pathologist with the Hydatid Research Unit of the New Zealand Medical Research Council
for six months before joining the staff of the Laboratory. As a Research Student he was awarded a Ph. D.
by the Department of Zoology of the University of Bristol. Alan eventually became a Senior Principal
Research Scientist in 1974.

At the Laboratory Alan's research was the study of the epidemiology, perhaps better described as the
ecology, of endoparasites of sheep, particularly of H. contortus T. colubriformis and Ostertaaia spp. (see
Chapter V). This also involved work In Canberra, O
n close collaboration with Dr. Morley and others of the
Division of Plant Industry in Victoria, at the Regionel Pastoral Laboratory at Armidaie, as well as at the farm
3
at Badgery9sCreek and elsewhere in New South Wales. He will also be remembered for his friendship
and collaborationwith Dr John Dineen, who was a wesi-known lmmuno~ogistof endoparasitic Infections.
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He was Acting Director of the Institute of Animal and Food sciences after the retirement of br. K.A.
I
Fergusson in April 1986. He then became the Director of the lnstitute of Animal Production and
Processing that at present is made up of the Divisions of Animal Health, Animal Production, Wool
I
Processing, Tropical Animal Production, Meat and Dairy Processing and Human Nutrition.

Alan is a Member or Fellow of a number of organizations, in some of which he has had or has an
executive position. He is a Member of the Australian College of Veterinary Scientists and a Fellow of tha
Australian Society for Parasitology, the lnstitute of Biology, the Australian lnstitute of Biology and the
Australian Academy of Technologi~alSciences and Engineering. He was the first Vice-President of the
World Federation of ~ a r a s i t o l o ~ i sfrom
t i 1982 to 1986, was an Executive Board Member from 1978 to
1986, a member of the Organizing Committee and Congress Treasurer of the Vlth lnternationa! Congress
I

of Parasitologists in Brisbane in 1986. He was a member of the World Association for the Advancement of
Veterinary Parasitology from 1975, t e Treasurer of its 8th International Conference On Sydney in 1977 and
has been an executive board rnedber since 1983. Alan was a Foundation Member of the Australian
Society for Parasitology in 1963, the Secretary in 1968 to 1970, the Treasurer In 1970-71, President-Elect
from 1978 to 1980, the President in 1b80-81 and the Vice-President in 1981-82.

i
Alan is also a member of the Aust alian Veterinary Association, the Australian College of Veterinary
Scientists, the Australian Society of Animal Production and the Australian Biotechnology Association.

He has also been closely associalad with veterinary science at the University of Sydney. He was an
Honorary Associate of the ~ e ~ a r t r h eof
n t Veterinary Pathology and has been a member of the Post-
Graduate Committee from 1979 and a Distinguished Member of the Faculty since 1983.

I
Alan is a member of the Wool Research and Development Council, a board member and member of the
Policy Advisory Council of the Australian Centre for lnternational Agricultural Research and a board
member of Sirotech Lld.; the Past two since 1988.

i
Alan is a Foundation Member of the Editorial Advisory Board of Veterinary ParasitoSoay, a journal
published by Elsevler, Amsterdam. He has been on the Panel of Referees of the Dnternatlonal Journal for
Parasitoloay since 1976 and a member of the Editorial Advisory Council since 1988. We Is the co-editor of
two books on parasitology and Ras supewised a number of theses for the Faculty of Veterinary Science,
University of Sydney.

H (Harry) A. Offord was a Senior ~ebhnicalOfficer when he retired in January 1975, but was on the staff
longer than almost anyone, except berhaps Or Hugh Gordon. He began at the University of Sydney in
1926 as a technical assistant to Dr Dodd. In January. 1931 he came to the Laboratory, and hence
joined the CSIR, as a Laboratory Technician with Dr Carne who, however, remained on the staff of the
University and who was working on CLA on sheep. Some equipment belonging to the CSIR came with a

them. Dr Carne 81Harry Offord continued the research on CeA for some time.
Harry started work in the sterilizind room which, with some modifications, remained his work place until
his retirement. Len Whitlock, later an employee of the University and eider brother of Harold Whitlock (see
below) was his first junior assistant. Harry was for sometime also In charge of tRe store. He spent much
of his time at the Laboratory sowing cultures and preparing media for a succession of researchers. These,
apart from Dr Carne, included Drs. Beveridge, Thomas and Egerton (footrot), Dr Roberts (foot abscess)
and, earlier, Dr Gregory. On fact, he estimates that he spent 44 years at McMaster Laboratory, although he
spent the war in various laboratories in New Guinea, etc., where he said he learnt some of the techniques
he subsequently used. Harry therefore had an important part in bacterloiogical research at the
Laboratory.

He worked with all the officers-in-charge from Dr Clunies Ross to Durno Murray. He was wlth Dr Helen
Turner who was then Clerical Assistant and with Tom Lewis as Laboratory Secretary. He saw
considerabie physical changes to the Paboratory, lncPuding the building of the Ian McMaster Wing. Harry
Offord did indeed have a Pong careel at the Laboratory.

Fred Hamilton was a Technical Officer at the Laboratory for about 30 years and well-known to all who had
anything to do with experimental animals and the Annexe. He began at the Veterinary School of the
University of Sydney in 1929 as what one might calP a general offsider, whicR means Re did odd Jobs for
everyone. Pn 1930 he spent much time assisting Norman Graham, then House Surgeon at the Veterinary
School, until he joined the staff at the Laboratory in 1931. For many years he cared for sheep and small
animals, built animal accommodation, and had a part in planning and replanning a succession of buildings
l

and laboratory facilities for the parasitologists. He had a major part In the deveiopment of the F.D.
McMaster Field Station and some part in the development of the original !an Clunies Ross Laboratory at
Prospect for the Division of Animal Physiology, as it was then.
I
To many of us he will be remembered for his important involvement wlth experimental surgery in the
Annexe. Fred became a skilled surgeon, particularly for the insertion of cannulae into the gastrointestines
of sheep. He was also a skilled anaesthetist. He was also involved wlth some of the early work on human
heart surgery which was, in fact, tried out with sheep at tRe Laboratory. h

He was finally in charge of all sheep in the Annexe. Fleld work and even shearing at Cunnamulla in
Queensland during a shearers' strike, as we%!as advice and help to many people at the Laboratory were
all part of Fred's activities. I

In 1959 he accompanied two live sheep cargoes from sydney to San Dlego, California, in the "Delfino".
His experience with feeding and ventilation as well as th$ general care of the animals, provided a useful
background of informationfor the later deve!opments in the export sf live sReep from Australia.

Fred left the CSlRO in 1962 to become a Technical Officer with Merck Sharp and Dohme Pty Ltd. Then,
finally, shortly before his death in 1976, he took care of experimental animals for the University of New
South Wales at Prince Henry ~ o s ~ i t a Fred
l. Hamilton had an important share in the development of
i
110' I
4
McMaster Laboratory.

E.(Ed) A. Parrish was first a bacteriologicaltechnician from 1931 and then a Technical Officer from 1935 to
1947/48 when he was invalided out of the CSlR because he was hunch-backed. He is best remembered
as the photographer. The Library has "A Photographic Record of Some Work Carried Out at the
Laboratory", dated 1940 and signed by E Parrish. This record includes photographs of the F D McMaster
Animal Health Laboratory, as well as early scientists, technicians, laboratory assistants at work, processes
in use or diseases encountered.

Despite his disability. Ed Parrish is remembered by Dr Hugh Gordon as a good tennls player and rMe shot
with considerable skil! as an afpist.
I
I

H V Whltlock was a technician $he played a major part in, as Dr Gordon said in his obituary in the
Australian Veterinary Journal. "establishing and embellishing the name of McMaster Laboratory...". Harold
joined the Laboratory in 1934 as akiboratory Technician to work with the 0-LC, Dr Clunles Ross, as he
was then. By 1937, when Dr Cldnies Ross resigned. Harold had a close working assoclatlon and
friendship with Hugh Gordon. Vnti his resignation from the CSlRO In 1959 to Jolna pharmaceutical firm.
he was responsible for much paras)tological work that included technical advances, teaching aids and the
design of laboratories. But he is best known round the world for the McMaster Worm Egg Counting
Chamber that underwent many mobifications from 1939. This method of egg counting was designed by
Harold because of the increasing number of sheep in parasltologicai trials. The final modification was
described in 1980 as the 'Universal Method'.

1
In 1956, while on the staff of t h Laboratory, Harold was seconded t o the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United ati ions to work in South America. He was to establish laboratories, to train
people in diagnostic and experimental techniques and to implement programs on the epidemiology of
helminth diseases. During this timd he worked in Uruguay, Peru, Chile and Ecuador. In 1976-77 Re Rad
leave from the University of Sydney, where he was then, to teach in the University of SBo Pauio, Brazil.
I
I

After working with a firm until 1968, Harold was employed by Troy Laboratories until he
had a severe Reart attack in 1971, after which he joined the University of Sydney In the Department of
Veterinary Surgery. In 1973 he was transferred to the Section of Veterinary Parasitology until his
retirement in 1980.
Harold also had such a fine voice that Re entered Eisteddfods. In one of these he was second only to
Joan Suthedand and was piaced ahead of June Bronhill. He also painted and etched and designed the
Bancroft-MackerrasMedal oi the Australian Society for Parasitology.

Harold died in May, 1985.


Alrna Culey was Librarian from 1d46 to 1967, but was then seconded to the Australlan Meat Research
Committee to prepare the "Australian Bibliography on the Biology of the Sheep and the Sheep industry".
She remained at the Laboratory unh! her retirement from the CSlRO in 1969, but could be consulted by Jill
I
Franklin, her successor. 1

Alma had her own original sclence degree and her MSc from the University of Sydney where she looked
after the llbrary in the Geology 6epartment, demonstrated and did some research. She was then
employed as a librarian for eight years at the Sydney County Council before jolnlng the Laboratory as
Librarian.

When she joined the staff at the Laboratory the library was housed in a small room at the top of the then
entrance stairs where the display rack took up most of the space. In 1952 the library expanded to Include
the small room at one end of the original room. Here the shelves extended from the floor t o the ceiling
and practically the entire floor space was occupied by one large reading table surrounded by chairs. The
llbrary was still too cramped, but there was no further change in accommodation until the completion of
the Ian WlcMaster Wing in 1956. The present library in Phis wing is descrlbed in Chapter VIII. Aima Is
proud of the fact that the library did not close during the move to new quarters. Thls has also been
descrlbed O
n Chapter Vl19.

Consequent on the expansion of @SIR in the early post-war years, new research centres (related to
McMaster Laboratory) came into being - Fleece Analysis Laboratory, Wool Biology Laboratory and
Regionaf Pastoral Laboratory at Armidale. Alrna was made responsible for the organisation of the nucleus
libraries of these new laboratories. This involved the ordering and processing of all books and periodicals,
and personal help was given the officer in charge of the small libraries. Catalogue cards of thelr holdings
were sent to the individual libraries and to Head Office Library, while a set was retained for the McMaster
Library Union Catalogue. When the new research centres had grown and were able to appoint trained
librarians the existing relevant records and library responsibility were transferred from McMaster Library.

Another interesting aspect of her work, which she enjoyed, concerned the assembling and regular
dispatch to the Veterinary Bulletin (Weybridge, England) of abstracts of Australian veterinary research
papers. Dudley Gill, when he became 0-i-C, took responsibility for this service. Originally he selected the
papers to be abstracted, and allotted them to veterinarians on his staff or the University of Sydney
Veterinary School. When Alma became familiar with this system, she was able to select the papers and
abstracters, without reference to higher authority, and Dater to write abstracts of certain papers herself.
Nevertheless, the 0 - i - C saw all the abstracts before they were sent to the Veterinary Bulletin. The
abstracting service ceased at about the time she retired.

Largely due to the interest of Ian Clunies Ross originally and the continued interest of Hugh Gordon
(Honorary Librarian of the AVA), the library holdings of the Laboratory and the AVA Rave always been
housed together at McMaster and function as one library. Thls has been descrfbed h Chapter VIII.
In Alma's years at the Laboratory, the AVA did not employ a separate librarian, all the library work being
done by the Laboratory staff. The liaison with Hugh Gordon was always very g o d .
I
I
1
I

Alma was the Librarian at the Laboratory for many years. She was quiet and efficient. Many of the older
staff, some now retired, remember her with pleasure.

George C Merritt was another person who was on the staff of the Laboratory for a long time. He had a
number of Officers-in-Charge, Chidis of the Division and worked w6h many different people. He also saw
major changes to the Laboratory ahd to animal accommodation, as well as the construction of workshops
l

and garages, etc. George also say major changes to the outlook of the CSiRO and to the employment
and status of the staff. He has opinions on all these changes and people.
I

George began as a Technical Assistant in 1948, but was an Experimental Scientist when he retired In
March 1985. When he joined the Laboratory from the School of Tropical Medlclne, University of Sydney,
he was on the final year of a five course at Sydney Technical College.

6
George became a Technical Offic r when, as was then the arrangement, he passed that flnal year. He
was originally an histologist and wdrked for Dr M C Fmnkiin, and later, for D r C R Austin. For the latter he
pioneered the preparation of sectidns of mouse eggs. D A Gill, who at that time was 0-LC, had hundreds
of agglutination tests lo examine fAr erysipelas, but, typical of him, believed that thk could only be done
by a veterinarian. However, circumstances made it necessary that George should do them. Although
Dudley Gill at first watched him v e d carefully, George could easily do many more aggiutinatlon tests than
were ever possible before then.

When Dr W P Rogers wanted some photography after the enforced retirement of Ed Parrlsh, George did
this in addition to the histology. <his continued for some years, but the section became so busy with
histology and some bacteriology that there were eventually four assistants.

i
Meanwhile, there were changes to t e technical and professional grades in the CSIRO. Technicians could
do conversion courses at technical colleges. George was one of those who did a diploma conversion
course in one year to qualify as a m/crobio90gist.

He then worked for Drs. Egerton and Roberts who were working on fooltrot and mycotic dermatitlb,
respectively, and who wanted sera separated into their globulin classes. Eventually, George was one of
those interviewed successfully to become an Experimental Officer. This was sometime in the year 1967 to
1968.

In about 1969 George became directly irlvoived with research with fDeece rot, which, because it was a
predisposing cause of blowfly strike and was under the control of M.D. Murray of the external parasites
group who wanted the microbiological aspects investigated. Thus, George was involved h initiating
research. He worked witR Jim watts from the New South Wales Department of Agriculture and with a Ph.
D. student from the Department of Veterinary Pathology of the University of Sydney. While working on
fleece rot his money for research came mainly from the Wool Board. George thus continued research
until his retirement. Details of this research are g'iven 'in Chapter V1.

Professors
I
An appreciable number of the reskarch staff left the Laboratory and eventually became professors at
various universities. Three of these were appointed to chairs in Sydney, one each in Adelaide, Melbourne
and Brisbane, two at the University of Cambridge in England, two in Canada and one each in Switzerland
and the USA.

The three in Sydney were Sir tan Clunies Ross, Dr @ H Gallagher and Br 4 R Egerton.

Sir Ian Clunies Ross, Dr Ian Clunies Ross as he then was, left the Laboratory in 1937 and eventually
became the Professor of Veterinary Science at the University of Sydney in 1940, a position he held until
1946. An account of his distinguished career is given in this Chapter.

Dr Cllff Gallagher graduated with first-class honours in Veterinary Science from the University of Sydney In
1952 and was immediately employed as a Research Officer at the Laboratory where he worked on a wide
range of projects in bacteriology, parasitology, pregnancy toxaemia and plant poisoning of sheep, but
was always interested In the underlying biochemistry. He earned a PR. D. with Professor Cameron at the
University College Hospital in London in 1955 and was awarded a D.V.Sc. from the University of Sydney
n 1962. In 1966 he was chosen as Chief of the Division of Animal Nutrition In Adelaide, but before he took
O
up that posRlon he was offered the post of the Hughes Prdessor of Veterinary Pathology at the University
of Sydney. He retired at the end of 1989.

Dr John Egerton graduated as a veterinarian from the University of Queensland in 1955, but came to the
Laboratory from New Guinea in 1964 for research in footrot of sheep. In New Guinea he was a Principal
Research Officer in the Department for Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries. He left the Laboratory In 1972 to
become Professor of Veterinary Medicine at tRe University of Sydney, and eventually one of the two
Professors of Veterinary Clinical Studies, a position he still holds. His principal research remains in
vaccines against footrot.

Dr W P Rogers, now an Emeritus Professor, is the one member of the staff who became a professor at the
University of Adelaide. He left the Laboratory in I952 to become Professor of Zoology and was at one
time Dean of the Faculty of Science. On 1962 he was appointed to a personal Chair of Parasitology at this
University until his retirement In 1979. An account of his career is outlined 'in this Chapter.
Dr R L Reid is the one research scientist from the Laboratory who became a professor h Melbourne. Hb
gained the B.Sc. Agr. from the University of Sydney with First Class Honours in Agricultural Chemistry
and the University Medal in 1944. He was awarded a Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge in 1948.
I I

Dr Reid became an Assistant Research Officer at McMaster Laboratory in February 1944, but left in
October 1953 to join the Division of Animal Physiology at the Pan Clunies Ross Animal Research
Laboratory. Whilst at the McMaster Laboratory Re participated In a number of research projects In
nutrition of sheep, mostly under the direction of Dr PA C Franklin.

I
He was appointed Foundation Profbssor of Agriculture at La Trobe University in Melbourne in January
1968 and was Dean of the School frdm 1968 to 1974. He retired from his Chair in 1978 to become the first
Emeritus Professor of the university, but has been a consultant in nutrition and behaviour in the School of
Behavioural Sciences and a lecturer in human nutrition In the School of Agriculture for the last four years.
I
i
Dr P.M. Outteridge was appointed ;the first Professor of Farm Animal Medicine and Production in the
Faculty of Veterinary Science at the bniversity of Queendand.

Peter graduated with a B.V.SC. in 1964 and a Ph.D. in 1968, both from the Unlverslty of Sydney. For about
four years he was with the Dairy Research Foundation of the University of Sydney at Camden, New South
Wales. He then had two years as a Post-doctoral Fellow with the University of California at Davis, before
being appointed in 1969 to the CSI~OAnimal Health Research Laboratory, Parkvllle, Victoria. Here he
worked on macrophage cellular ihmunity to bovine tuberculosis which developed into a study of
lymphocytes. In 1976 he went to tde ARC Institute of ~ n i m aPhysiology,
l Babraham, England to further
his study of lymphocytes. On his reiurn to Parhi!le, he developed his study of Pymphocfles in sheep and
pigs and applied this to tissue typing in cattle.
I
I

In 1980 Peter transferred to McMaster Laboratory with the lmmunology group to contlnue his study of
tissue typing in sheep, particularly in:high to low responders to infection with parasites. However, he also
co-operated with the Faculty of veteirinary Science, University of Sydney, that was working with footrot in
sheep, with Curtin University In Western Australia, with New Zealand and with others. It is this wide range
of domestic animals that interested the University of QueensOand.

Peter was a Principal Research Scientist when Re resigned to accept the appointment at the University of
Queensland in October 1989.

The two who b e c m e professors in England were Drs W 9 B Bever'ldge and C R Austln. An account of
thelr careers is given in this Chapter.

Dr tan Eleveridge !eft the Laboratory in 4939 and eventually became Professor of AnimaP Pathology at the
University of Cambridge in 1949 where he was responsible for setting up the Veterinary School. He retired
I
Dr 'Bunny' Austin left the Laboratbry in 1954 and held various positions until he became Professor of
Embryology at Tulane University, New Orleans, USA, in 1964, then in 1967, the Charles Darwin Professor
of Animal Embryology at Cambridge. He retired in 9981 and now lives O
n Queensland.
The two who became professors in Canada are Drs Margaret Hardy
and R K Prlchard. I

Dr Hardy was originally on the staff at the Laboratory before joining the Wool BioOogy Laboratory, which
was also part of the then Division of Animal Health and Production. She Deft that Laboratory sometime in
1952/53 t o eventually become, ds Hardy-Faiding (the latter Is her married name) Professor in the
Department of BiomedicaP science$ in the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. She retired In
September 1985 and is now ~rofeshorEmeritus, altRougR at the time of writing, she still! supervised some
post-graduate students.

Roger Prichard joined the Laboratory in 1970 after graduating B.Sc. with Second Class Honours in
Division II in 1966 and Ph.D. O
n 1969, both Drorn the University of New South Wales. He left the Laboratory
in May, 1984 to become Director of the institute of Parasitology and Professor of Parasitology at McGill
University, Montreal. He has since deen appointed Vice-Principal Research at the same University.

Dr J C Boray has a D.V.M. (1954) from Budapest, Hungary, and was a Senlor Lecturer after completing a
PH.D. on hydatid disease. He left Hungary in 1956 to come to Australia where he Joinedthe CSlRO at the
Laboratory. After working with the snail which Is the Intermediate host of F. he~aticahe left at the end of
1968 to work for about a year with Professor Enigk at the University in Hanovet-, West Germany, before his
appointment as Senior Lecturer arid later as Professor of Helminthology at the University of ZuricR in
Switzerland. Dr Eckert, now a professor, was head of the Depar?ment of Parasitology. Joe Boray
eventually returned to Australia in 1972 as Director of Research with Ciba-Geigy at Kemp's Creek, New
South Wales. He flnajfy 'left them in 1982 t o become a Principal Research Scientist at the Central
Veterinary Laboratory of the Department of Agriculture, Glenfield, New South Wales.

Dr. S.S.Y. Young graduated B.V.Sc. from Shanghai and eventually came to Australia Po learn about wool
as he already had experience of the wool buying business In China. Because Re did not wish to return to
China, he eventually became a Technical Officer In the Strain Trial with sheep. in 1956 he Joined the
Anlmai Breeding Section at the McMaster Laboratory. He then gained a CSlRO Scholarship to get a Ph.D.
from the University of Sydney and became a Research Officer with the Section. He also has a D.Sc. from
the Univershy of New South Wales. Dr. Young left Australia to take the chair of genetics at the Ohio Stztte
University at Columbus, USA. He has now retired.
CHAPTER X

Vlsitors

Visitors have always been important to the Laboratory. UndouMdiy the Laboratory was so well known
throughout the world that many came for that reason. UnfoflmnatePy it Is inevitable that some are missing
from the Pist because sources are incomplete or because there are statements in the annual reports such
as "...there were eight visitors to the Division during the year" but then are no names and where they went
during their time in Australia. The 1names of Fellows and Scholars are listed In Chapter Vll and are not
enumerated here. I am indebted to br. Hugh Gordon for visitors in the early years.

Graziers I
I

There were many visitors in the e&ly years who were friends of Sir Frederick McMaster or who had
contacts with the Laboratory. ~ h e d eincluded people who knew Dr. Clunies Ross, Norman Graham or
Hugh Gordon. Some came by invitation, some on their own volition. They came to seek information, to
I
renew friendships or to seek speakers to field days or other meetings of the grazing fraternity. They were
of tremendous value to the Laborajory and the CSlR as a form of public relatlons and as a boost to the
morale of individual research workers.

Japanese

Dr. Clunies Ross spent i;year In Tokyo In Japan in 1929 and 1930 at the Research institute of Infectious
Diseases. Here he made the acquaintance of numerous scientists, partYculaffy pamsiltolog9sts. As a result
there were visits by groups of scientists from Japan.
I

Parasitologists

i
There have a number of parasitologiAts over the Laboratory's existence.

E.L. Taylor came in an uncomfortable converted military aircraft In 1947 from the Central Veterinary
Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. He had a special interest in the epidemiology of
the gastrointestinal hesminthoses sf Cuminants and spent some time at this Laboratory but also visited the
'
CSlR at Armidale and Brisbane.

Professor T.W.M. Cameron, 'Director of the institute of Parasitoiogy zt Macdonald College of McGlll
University, Montreal, Canada visited the Laboratory In 1949.

Dr. R. Reinecke from the Ondersfepoorlt Veterinary Research Institute, South Africa, spent several months
here In 1959/60.
I

i
Dr. H.O. Monnlg from the same Institute visited the Laboratory briefly In 1964. It is worth noting that he
worked on the oesophageal reflex of sheep in the early 1930's at about the same time that work at this
Laboratory showed that this reflex rlespondedto copper sulphate.

I
Dr. H.D. Crofton from the University,of Bristol, England, came in 1968/69.

Professor E.G. Batte from the ~~ric'ulturai


Experimental Station, North Carolina, USA, came for one month

Dr. J.A. Annen from the Institute of Parasitology, Zurich, Switzerland worked for a year on immunology in
I

Dr. H. Dawklns, from the university of Western Australia, came for two years as a Queen Elizabeth II
Fellow to study helminth infections from 9982/83.
8

Dr. R.D. Bigalke, Director of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, South Africa, had
discussions on internal parasites of lheep in 1982183.
I

Of external paraslt1sm:-

Dr. B.C. Nelson, Post-doctoral Fellow of the National institute of General Medical Sciences, USA, came in

E.Nevill from the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, South Africa and Dr. J.R. Llnley from the
Entomology Research Centre, Florida, USA, both studied biing insects in 1972.

There were FA0 Fellows from 1959/60 to about 1973 from Rhodesia, Chile, Egypt, Malaysia, India, Israel,
Iraq, Argentina, Pakistan, Iran, ~ u r m aUruguay,
, Yugoslavia, Peru and Uganda.

There were also Colombo Plan visitors from 1965/66 to about 1973 from Sri Lanka, India, Singapore,
Burma, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, Peru, Uganda, Malaya and Israel.

n 1972. AIP these were


The Department of Foreign Affairs, Australia also assisted two people from India O
Interested in techniques of parasitology.

Other visitors

Professor S. Hoflund from the Royal Veterinary College, Sweden, came some time during 1963/64. Dr.
A.W. Kirsch studied the serologlca~identification of marsupial blood for three months in 1967/68.
Slr John Rltchie CB, Principal of the Royal Veterinary College, London, Dr J.T. Stamp, Director and J.G.
-
Brotherston, both from the Moredun institute, Edinburgh and Dr. K.F. Wells, Veterinary Director General
Department of Agriculture, Canada, ail visited the Laboratory in 1968/69.

Professor P.C. Doherty from the Wistar institute, Philadelphia, came O


n f980/81.
I

Fulbright Fellowships

Dr. R.T. Clark - the Coordinator Beef Cattle Breeding Research, US Department of Agriculture, O
n 1956/57.
I

Professor H.S. Cameron from the bchool of Veterinary Medicine, University of California. USA, made a
I
short visit in 1959/60. I
I

Dr. J.H.Turner from Beltsville worked with Dr. 4.K. Dineen on parasitic immunology for three years from
about 1964.
CHAPTER XI

Chiefs of Division and Assoclate Chief of Division, Officers-in-Charge and Head of


Laboratory, and Research Staff of the Laboratory to December 31st, 1989

The sources of these lists are the ahual reports of the CSlR and CSlRO of the DMslon, interviews, the list
to 1973 compiled by M.D. Murray, Digests and recoiDections of individuals. The years of appointment are
enumerated. The degrees, final or present appointments and, when It is known, the appointments for
which he or she left the Laboratory, are also inc!uded. Resignations, transfers and retirements as, for
example 1947/48, when the exack year is not known is based upon the last appearance In an annual
report or the staff list. Maie or female is not differentiated. CRanges In designation of research staff are
notable and are used throughout.
I
I1

Staff Included In Chapter 1X Is markdd with an asterisk.

I
Errors are Inevitable. I 46

Chiefs and Associate Chief of Division

J.A. Glruth, D.V.Sc., Acting Chief of the Division of Animal Health, 1930 to 1933. Chief of Division, 1934.

L.B. Bull, D.V.Sc., Division sf Animal Health and Nutrition, 1935 PO 1944. Division of Animal Health and
Production 1945 to 1954. Was awkrded a CBE in 1952 and was a Foundation Fellow of the Austraiian
Academy of Science. I

D.A. Gill, D.V.S.M., 1954 to 1959.

T.S. Gregory, D.V.Sc., Division of ~ n i m aHealth,


l 1959 to 1966.

A.E. Pierce, D.V.S.M., M.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc., 1966 to 1972.

A.K. Lascelles, M.V.Sc., Ph.D., 1973 to 1982.

A.D. Donald, B.V.Sc., Ph.D., 1983 to 1986.


I
L

M.D. Rickard, B.V.Sc., Ph.D., D.V.$c., 1989 to the present.

D.F. Stewart, D.V.Sc., Dip.Bact., Associate Chief of Division of Animal Health, 1959 to 1974.
There has been an Acting Chief of Division when the Chief was overseas or before the appointment had
been made.
Several Asslstant Chiefs have bee; appointed, but when this has involved people from this Laboratory
I
they have been included In the staff list or in personal histories.

Officers-in-charge and Head sf Laboratory

Dr Ian Clunies Ross was the first 0-I-C of the Laboratory from July 1931 to May 1937, before he became
the Australian representative on the international Wooi Secretariat in London and, finally, a full-time
member of the Executive Committee of the CSIR. His outstanding contribution to science In Australia Is
told In Chapter IX. I

As Dr Uonel Bull said in his obituary in the Australian Veterinary Journal, Sir Ian Clunles Ross was "quick
to apply modern methods in expeiimenta! studies" and he sewed with great merit In this position until
1937. At the Laboratory he extended his study of the dog tick (I. Roiocvcius), he encouraged the use of
improved pastures despite the fear4 d stockowners that this would Dead to heavier worm infestations, Re
was Interested in control of parasitic infections and he studied specific infections.
I
Apart fmrn research in which he wab involved, he had the ability to encourage others. Although I met him
only once, some years later when he was Chairman of the Executive of the CSIRO, D can vouch for his
encouragement and enthusiasm. 1
I
I

In collaboration with Hugh Gordon he wrote a book entitled The internal Parasites and ParasMc Diseases
of Sheep" which was influential with both students and woo!growers.

d
Dudley A Gill succeeded Dr Ian Cl nies Ross as 0-I-C In April 1938, after a period as Acting 0-1-C, and
held this position until June 1954. e,l was also Assistant Chief and then Chief of the Division from 1954 to
1959. A short notice of his career is given in Chapter IX. As it is said in that notice, he appeared distant
but was in fact very approachable. ,
I
I

Douglas F Stewart was the third 0-I-C from July 1954 to September 1974. Dougias was the first Associate
Chief appointed by the CSORO, an appointment he held in conjunction whh that of 0-i-C. Douglas was a
veterinary bacterioiogist, but later did research in internal parasitic infection. An account of his career is
also given in Chapter iX where his loyalty to and suppori of his staff is commented upon.

M Durno Murray succeeded Dr Stewart as 0-i-C In October, 1974, a position he held until September,
1977. Dr A K Lasceiles, then Chief of the Division, instituted a policy tRat the 0-9-C should hold this
p s l t l o n for about three years. Durno was the first of these. He was head of the group working on
external parasites so that his research is described in Chapter V. Durno had initially been asked by Dr
Stewart to be invoIved with McMaster Farm and animal accommodation in the Annexe before he became
0-i-C, but after he became 0-i-C he had an important part in finishing the construction of the small animal
unit at the Farm and the separation of the small animal unit from tRe sheep in the Annexe.
I
Isucceeded Durno Murray as 0-I-C from October 1977 Po February 1981. 1 was head of the group
working on the pathophysioPogy of internal parasitic Infection. Since my retirement in 1982, 1 was an
Honorary Research Scientist while 1 wrote 'Pathophysiology of Endoparasltic infection' for Academic
Press. Since then 1 have written this history of McMaster Laboratory.

Dr Alan D Donald succeeded me as 0-i-C in March 1981 until July 1983 when he became Chief of the
Division. A more detailed account of his career is given in Chapter IX, but he became 0-I-C at the
beginning of Important changes to the CSlRO generally and to the D N ~ s ~
ofoAnimal
~ Health in particular.
He was head of the group working on the ecology of parasites, both before and after they infected sheep.
He Is now Director of the Institute of Animal Production and Processing.

The next 0-i-C was Dr John K Dineen, the first non-veterinarianto be appolnted to this positlon. John was
a graduate from the University of Adelaide. At this Laboratory Re was entirely concerned with immunity to
internal parasitism, both the fundamental and applied aspects of this problem. John's professional
assoclatlon with Alan Donald was close as the ecology of parasites had an obvious relation to Immunity.
An account of his career is also given in Chapter 1X.

Dr Peter J Waller, who was a veterinary graduate from the Universlty of Sydney, was Acting 0-I-C for
about two years from 1985,but was finally 8-I-C for about I8 months until 1988 when he went to Denmark
as a visiting professor. He was interested in the ecology of internal parasitic infection. The funding and
management of the @SIR0underwent radical changes wRilst Peter was Acting 0-9-C. This is described In
Chapter 111. It meant that the position of 0-i-C changed because the Program Manager was responsible
directly to the Chief of the Division and, through him, to the Director of the Institute. The 0-I-C then
became almost solely responsible for the administration of the laboratory.

in July 1989,the position of 0-i-@became known as Head of Laboratory. Dr John W Steel, the second
0-1-C who was not a veterinarian, a blo~oglcalscience graduate from the University of New England, took
this position, which he still holds. John was originally appointed t o the team working o n the
pathophyslology of internal parasitism, but subsequently changed to resistance of sheep, to anthelmintlcs,
and to anthelrnintic kinetics. John is also Manager of Program K concerned with internal parasites.

John was appointed Assistant Chief of the Division in January 1990.

Research Staff

*I Clunies Ross, D.V.Sc.. Chief ~ a r a s i t o i o ~ i&s tOfficer-ln-Charge. Resigned to the lnfernatlonal Wool
Secretariat, London, 1937.
W A Carr-Fraser, D.Sc., B.V.Sc., ~akmatolo~ist.
Resigned 1933 to Vita-Lick Ltd.

N P H Graham, B.V.Sc.. Field Officer, seconded to George Aiien, bastoral Research Trust 1933 to 1937.
Reslgned as Senior Research Officer, 1948 to William Cooper and Nephews. Reappointed as Senior
I

Research Officer, 1956, Retired 1968.

G P Kauzal, D.Vet.Med. (Budapest) Assistant Parasitologist. Resigned as Research Officer, 1942 to set up
Taloil Industries.

*W 1 B Beveridge, B.V.Sc., Assistant Veterinary Officer. Seconded to Australian Pastoral Co., Noondoo,
1934-35. Reslgned as Senior ~esearchOfficer, D.V.Sc., to the Walter & Eliza Hail institute, Melbourne,

I
E Munch-Petersen, M.Sc., Assistant l~acteriolo~ist
(temporary). Resigned, 1934.

*H McL. Gordon, B.V.Sc., ~ssistankParasitologist. A Walter & Eliza Hall Veterinary Science Fellowship,
1931-33 at the F D McMaster ~ n i m aHealth
i Laboratory. Seconded to Grazcos, 4935. Retired as Senior
Prlncipa! Research Officer D.V.Sc., 1'974.

*R B Kelley, B.V.Sc., Veterinary Field Officer. Transferred to F e) McMaster Field Station as Principal
Research Offices and Officer-In-Charge, 1938, D.V.Sc., Assistant Chief of Division, 1950. Retired, 1954.
I
I

L W N Fitch. B.V.Sc., Assistant ~actdrido~lst.


(only entry).

J A Dumaresq, B.V.Sc., Assistant Bacteriologist (on9y entry).

M R Freney, BSc., Assistant Research Officer. SeconcSed to the Central Wool Committee, Officer-ln-
Charge of the f esting House, 1941/42.

R H Watson, B.Sc.Agr., Assistant Research Officer. Transferred to Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Adelaide.
0

-
1937

*D A Gil!, D.V.S.M., Acting Officer-in-Charge, 1937. Officer-in-Charge, 9938. Assistant Chief of Division of
Animal Health and Production, 1950. Chief of Division, 1951. Retired, 1954.

H E B Shaw, B.V.Sc., Veterinary Field Officer. Transferred to F D McMaster Reld Station, 1937-38.

T S Gregory, B.V.Sc., Principal Research Officer. On military leave 1948-41. Did not return to F D
McMaster Animal Health Laboratory, but transferred to Animal Health Research Laboratory, Parkville,
about 1946.

IW Montgomery, B.V.Sc., Assistant Research Officer. On military leave as Research Officer, 1941-42. Did
not return to F D McMaster Animal Health Laboratory but jo'lned ICI.

*M Lipson, BSc., Assistant Research Officer. Transferred to Division of Industrial Chemistry, 1939.

*M C Franklin, M.Sc., Ph.D., Senior Research Officer. As Principal Research Offlcer was appointed
William McilrathFeliow in Anima! Husbandry, 1953, but remained aft F D McMaster Animal Health
Laboratory. Became Go-ordinator of Beef Cattle Investigations, Southern States of Australia, 1959.

H B Carter, B.V.Sc., Research Officer. Transferred as Senior Research Officer and Officer-in-Charge, of
Wool Biology Laboratory, 1946-47.

L K Whftten, B.V.Sc., Assistant Research Officer. Resigned 1939-40.

E H Mercer, B Sc., Assistant Research Officer. f ransferred to Wool Research Section, Dkrisiom of Physics,
1939-40.

*H Newton Turner, B Arch. Assistant Research Officer. Transferred to Section of Mathematical Statistics
as Principal Research Officer. See Sheep Breeding investigations.

*IL Johnstone, B.V.Sc., Assistant Research Officer. Transferred as Research Officer to Regional Pastoral
laboratory, Armidale, 1946. !I
F H Wad, B.V.Sc., Assistant ~eseaichOfficer. Resigned 194-45.

*C R Austin, B.V.Sc., Asslstant Research Officer (part-time, later full-time). Reslgned as Senior Research
?.
Officer, M.Sc., 1953154 to the Medical Research Council, London.

1943-44

J F Barrett, B.V.Sc., Asslstant Research Officer. Transferred as Research Offlcer t o Reglonal Pastoral
Laboratory, Armidale 1946-47.

*R L Reid, B.Sc., Agr., Assistant Research Officer. Transferred as Senior Research Officer Ph.D., to Sheep
Blology Laboratory, Prospect, New South Wales, 1953.

T M Scott, B.Sc., Asslstant Research Offlcer. Resigned as Research Offlicer 1951/52 to ICI.

P M Sarnbell, B.A., Assistant Research Officer. Resigned as Research Officer 1951-52.

*M H Hardy, M.Sc., Assistant Research Officer. Transferred as Research Officer t o Wool Biology
Laboratory 9946-47. Back for a year at McMaster Laboratory with PR.D. as Senior Research Offlcer
1953/54.

1945-46

*W P Rogers, M.Sc., Ph.D., Research Officer. When Senior Research Officer was appointed as Professor
of Zoology, 'University of Adelaide, 1952.

P Davidson, B.Sc., Assistant Research Officer. Transferred when Research Officer Po Woo! Bloiogy
Laboratory, 1946-47.

*D F Stewart, B.V.Sc., Dip. Bact., Senior Research Officer. When Senior Principal Research Offlcer and
D.V.Sc., was appointed as Officer-in-Charge. Associate Chief of the Division of Animal Health from 1959.
Retired, October, 1974.

W K Whitten, B.V.Sc., B.Sc., Research Officer. Resigned 1948/49.

M. Lazarus, B.Sc.,Research Officer. Resigned 1947/48.


A C Jennings, B.Sc., Research Officer. Resigned 1947/48.

V C McClymont, B.Sc., Research Officer. (only entry).


I

1948-49

B A Forsyth, B.V.Sc., Research 0f'fic;r. Resigned 1952 to fC1.

H B Essermann, B.Sc., Research officer. Resigned 1951/52.

V Massey, B.Sc., Ian WOcMaster Scholar. As a Research Officer accepted studentship at Cambridge
University, 1950, but did not return to the Laboratory.

W K Warburton, LL.B., B.Sc., Research Officer. Resigned with Ph.D., 1956-57.

A W H Braden, B.Sc., Research 0fficbr. Resigned 1954155. Had a Wool Studentship.

P R Whitfield, B.Sc., Ian McMaster bcholar. Transferred as Research Officer with Ph.D., to Division of
\
Plant Industry. 1956-57.

R I Sommerville, M.Sc.,Agr., Research Officer. Resigned as Senior Research Officer to Department of


Zoology, University of Adelaide 1962-63.

P K Briggs, B.Sc. Agr., Ian McMaster Scholar. Resigned as Research Officer, 1959.

M D Murray, B.Sc., (Vet. Sc.), ResearcR Officer. Senior Principal Research Scientist when Officer-in-
Charge October 1974 to 9 977. Transferred to Division of Tropical Animal Science, Brisbane, 1983, but
remained in Sydney.

*C H Gallagher, E.V.Sc., Research Officer. When Senior Principal Research Sclentlst with Ph.D., l3.V.s~.
appointed as Hughes Professor of Veterinary Pathology at the University of Sydney, 196f3.

J H KocR, M.D. (Munich) Research Officer. As Principal Research Scientist was transferred to Division of
Animal Genetics, 1966.
i

A G Lyne, B.Sc., Research Officer. Transferred to Sheep Biology Laboratory, Prospect, New South Wales,

B A Panaretto, B.V.Sc. As Research Officer and Ph.D. transferred to Dfvision of Animal Physiology, 1960-

L E A Symons, B.V.Sc., Research btticer. A Senior Principal Research Scientist, D.Sc.. Officer-in-Charge
from October 1977 to February, 1981. Retired 1982.
I

J H Thomas, B.V.Sc., Research Officer. Resigned, 1961-62.

I
A E Pierce, D.V.S.M., M.Sc., Ph.D., Ian McMaster Fellow, Chief of Division of Animal Health 1966 to 1972.
Appointed Member of CSiRO Executive.

IG Pearson, B.V.Sc., Research Officer. Resigned to Parke Davis R y Ltd.

A J Ryan, B.Sc., Ian McMaster Scholar.

D S Roberts, B.V.Sc., Research Officer. Resigned as Principal Research Scientist, D.V.Sc., Ph.D., 1969.

K J Farrington, B.Sc., Experimental Officer, resigned 1963-64.

*J C Boray, D.V.M. (Budapest). Experimental Officer. Resigned as Principal Research Scientist, 1970, to
Institute for Parasitology, Zurich, Switzerland.

T J Grainger, B.Sc., Experimental Officer. Resigned, 1959-68.

E J LSoulsby, M.A., Ph.D., D.V.S.M., tan McMaster Fellow.

Y V Merry, B.Sc., Experimental Officer (only entry).


B M Wagland, B.Sc., Experimental Officer. As Senior Research Officer transferred to Long Pocket
Laboratories, Brisbane, 1970. Transferred back to McMaster Laboratory with Ph.D., 1978 as Senior
Research Officer. Now Principal ~dsearchScientist.

*A D Donald, B.V.Sc., Experimental Officer. Senior Principal Research Scientist, BR.D., Officer-in-Charge,
1981 to 1983. Chief of Division of Animal Health, 1983 to 1986. Acting Director of the institute of Anlmai
and Food Sciences 1986-1987. Director of the institute of Animal Production and Processing.

*J K Dineen, B.Sc., Ph.D., Senior Research Officer. As Chief Research Scientist D.Sc., Officer-in-Charge,
1983 to 1986. Assistant Chief of Division of Animal Health 1986. Acting Chief of Division, 1987. Retired
1987.

J C Andrews, B.Sc., Ian McMaster Scholar until 1965-66.

1962-63

A L Dyce, B.Sc.Agr., Senior Research Scientist. Transferred from Division of Wlldlilfe Research.
Transferred to Division of Tropical Animal Science, 1983, but remained in Sydney.

J E Offner, B.Sc., Ian McMaster Scholar.

J Chia, B.Sc., Experimental Officer. Resigned, 1965-66.

D K Ginsberg, B.Sc., Experimental Officer (only entry).

F A Happich, D.V.M. (Hanover). Experimental Officer. Resigned, March 1967.

W 0 Jones, B.Sc., Experimental Officer. Now Senior Experimental Scientist.

J A Roberts, B.V.Sc., Ph.D., Senior Research Scientist. Transferred to Veterinary Parasitoiogy Laboratory,
Rrisbane, 1965-66.
I

*J R Egerton, B.V.Sc., Dip, Bact., Experimental Scientist. Resigned as Principal Research Scientist as
Professor Veterinary Medicine, University of Sydney, 1972.

C Bell, M.Sc., Ph.D., Ian McMaster Scholar.

1965-66

B S Goodrich, B.Sc., Ph.D., Research Scientist. Transferred as Senior Research Scientist to Division of
Wildlife Research, 1976. I

J T McL. Neilson, B.Sc., Ph.D., Research Scientist, resigned 1968-69 and returned to the USA.

M J Heath, B.Sc., Experimental Officer Transferred to Division of Animal Genetics, February 1967.

J C Patterson, B.Sc., Ian McMaster Scholar.

T J Hodges, B.V.M.S. (Glasgow) Experimental Officer (only entry).

D B Adams, B.V.Sc., Experimental Officer. As Senior Research Scientist transferred to the Division at
Division at Armidale, May 1978.

P L Cox, B.V.Sc., Experimental Officer. Resigned 1968-69.

*G C Merritt, A.A.I.M.I., Experimental Officer. (promoted from Senior Technical Officer). Retired as
Experimental Scientist, 1985.

F B Rosehy, B.Rur.Sc., Experimental Officer. Resigned 1969.

J W Stee!, B.Sc., Ph.D., Experimental Officer. Senior Principal Research Scientist and Head of Laboratory
from 1989.

P J Waller, B.V.Sc., Experimental Officer. With Ph.D., Acting Officer-in-Charge, 1986, Officer-in-Charge,
1987 to 1989. Now Senior Principal Research Scientist.
*R K Prichard, B.Sc., Ph.D., Research Scientist. Resigned as Principal Research Scientlst, as Director of
lnstitute of Parasitology and Professor of Parasitology, McGill University, Montreal, 1984.

D H P Burrell, B.V.Sc., Experimental Officer. Now M.V.Sc., Ph.D., and Principal Research Scientist,

K M Dash, B.V.Sc., Experimental Officer. Transferred as Senior Research Scientist to Pastoral Research
Laboratory, Armidale, 1976. Transferred to McMaster Laboratory, 1985. As Principal Research Sclentist
seconded, to lnstitute of Animal Production and Processing, 1988.

R J Love, B.V.Sc., Experimental Officer. Resigned, to Veterinary Clinical Studies, Camden, Unlverslty of
Sydney, 1975.

T L W Rothwell, B.V.Sc., Ph.D., Research Sclentist. Resigned when Principal Research Scientist to Faculty
of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, December 1978.

C R Huxtable, B.V.Sc., Experimental Officer. Resigned with Ph.D., Research Scientist, 1971.

B M Ogilvie, B.Rur.Sc., Ph.D., Ian McMaster Fellow.

D R Hennessy, Dip. Tech. (Sci.,) Experimental Officer. Novv M.Sc., Ph.D., Senior Research Scientist.

M J Muller, B.Sc.,Agri., Experimental Officer. Transferred to Long Pocket Laboratories, Brisbane, 1976.

J E Watts, B.V.Sc., Experimental Officer. Returned to New South Wales Department of Agriculture, April
1977.

P G Gregg, B.Rur.Sc., ExperimentalOfficer. Resigned, 1975.

D J Stewart, B.V.Sc., Experimental Officer. Transferred as Senior Research Scientist Ph.D., t o Animal
Health Research Laboratory, Parkville, 1980.
K J Beh, B.V.Sc., Ph.D., Senior Research Scientist. Now Principal Research Scientist.

R G Windon, B.Sc., Experimental Officer. As Senior Experimental Scientist with Ph.D., transferred to
Pastoral Research Laboratory Armidaie, 1989, but remained in Division.

R J Dobson, B.App.Sc., Experimental Officer. Now Senior Experimental Scientist.

-
1978

A C Postle, M.Sc., Experimental Officer. Resigned July 1980.

T K S Mukkur, M.Sc., Ph.D., Senior Research Officer. Now Principal Research Scientist.

S Faulkner, B.Sc., Experimental Officer (only entry).

-
1980

*P M Outteridge, B.V.Sc., Ph.D., Senior Research Scientist. Transferred from Animal Research
Laboratory, Parkville. Resigned, appointed as Professor of Farm Animal Medicine and Production, Faculty
of Veterinary Science, University of Queensiand, October, 1989.

A K Lascelles, M.V.Sc., Ph.D., Chief Research Scientist. Formerly, Chief of Division of Anlmal Health.
Retired, December, 1988.

E Lacey, B.Pharm., M.Sc., Ph.D., Research Scientist. Now Senior Research Scientist.

1984-85
7-

W N Grant, B.Sc., D.Rur.Nat., Research Scientist. Transferred to Regional Research Laboratory, Armidale,
1988, but remained in Division.

J A MacDiarmid, B.Sc., Experimental Scientist.


1985-86

N A Roughley, B.Sc., Experimental Scientist. Resigned 1988.

G L Willis, M.Sc., Experimental Scientist (only entry).

D L Emery, B.Sc.(Vet.), B.V.Sc., Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist. Transferred from Animal Researct~
Laboratory, Parkville. Now Principal Research Scientist.

E H Barnes, B.App.Sc., ~xperimentalScientist.

R C Foley, B.,Sc., Experimental Scientist.

S J McClure, B.V.Sc., Ph.D., Research Scientist

D N All, B.Sc., Experimental Scientist

M J Callaghan, B.Sc., Experimental Sclentist

J H Gill, B.Sc., Ph.D., Research Scientist, but here for three years previously on an agreement between
University of Sydney and Dr E Lacey.

J A Godwin, B.V.Sc., Experimental Scientist (only entry).

F.D.McMaster Field Station, Badgery's Creek

*R €3 Kelley, D.V.Sc., Principal Research Officer and Officer-in-Charge. Assistant Chief of Division of
Animal Health & Production, 1950. Retired, 1954.

H E B Shaw, B.V.Sc., Assistant Research Officer. Resigned, 1941.


J A Robotham, Assistant Research Officer (only entry). No degree included.

J H Riches, B.Sc.(Agr.), Ph.D., Senior Research Officer. Listed In Survey of Fine Wool Production, 1950.

W A Beattie, B.A., LL.B., Senior Research Officer. Listed in Survey of Beef Cattle Production, 1950.

R H Hayman, B.Agr.Sc., Research Officer. Officer-in-Charge with M.Agr.Sc., 1954. Was Officer-In-Charge
when that part of the Farm was trankerred to the Division of Animal Genetics.

R A Bettenay, B.Sc. (Agr.), Research Officer. Resigned 1948/49.

J A Morris, B.Sc. (Agr.), Research Officer. (Only entry)

In about 1953 this part of the Farm came under the control of the Animal Genetics Section. The
Parasitology Block remained with McMaster Laboratory and was enlarged and directly controlled from
McMaster Laboratory.

Sheep Breeding Investigations

This was part of the Animal Genetics Section which became the Division of Animal Genetics, but remained
at McMaster Laboratory until that Division moved to North Ryde in 1963.

A A Dunlop, M.Agr.Sc., Ph.D., Research Officer. Senior Research Officer, 1963.

*S S Y Young, B.Agr.Sc., Experimental Officer. Research Officer, Ph.D., 1963.


N Hemingway, B.Sc., Research Officer. Resigned, 1959.

*H A Newton Turner, B.Arch., Principal Research Officer. Senior Principal Research Officer, 1961.

G M Tallis, M.Sc., Ph.D., Research Officer, 1963.

G H Brown, B.Sc., Dip.Ed., Experimental Officer.

R W Moore, B.Agr.Sc., Experimental Officer


APPENDIX I

PAMPHLETS AND BULLETINS

Some of the early research at the McMaster Laboratory is recorded i n the series of pamphlets and
bulletins issued by CSIR. Note that Ian Ciunies Ross was appointed Parasitologist to CSIR in 1926 and
that some of his early research (tick paralysis, echinococcosis, fasciolosis and some of the early work on
kidney worm) was carried out in the Veterinary School, before the McMaster Laboratory was built.

PAMPHLETS

No. 5 Llver Fluke Disease in Australia; its Treatmen! and Prevention. I. Csunies Ross

No. 65 Survey of the Sheep and Wool Industry In NE Asia, Special Reference to Manchukuo, Korea and
Japan. 1936. 1. Clunies Ross

No. 71 Grazing Sheep on improved Pastures: its Effect on Superfine Wool. 1938. 1. Clunies Ross, H. N.
Turner, H.B. Carter, H. Munz. 1937.

No. 74 Studies on the Chemotropic Behaviour of Sheep Blowflies. M. R. Freney. 1937

No. 94 Some Effects of Alkaline Reagents on Wool; 1. Chemical Studies with Special Reference to Felting
and Shrinkage. M. R. Freney, M. Lipson. 1940. 2. Preliminary Note on the Physical Properties of Aikali-
Treated Wool. M. R. Freney, E. H. Mercer. 1940

No. 108 Studles on Some Ectoparasites and Their Control. 1. Observations on the Bionomlcs of the
Sheep Ked (Melo~haausovinus). N.P.H. Graham, K.L. Taylor, 1941. 2. Chemlcas and Bloioglcal Studies
on Certain Arsenical Dipping Fluids. M. R. Freney, M. Lipson, N.P.H. Graham. 1941.

BULLETINS

No. 40 Observations on the Hydatid Parasite (Echinococcus aranulosus) and the Control of Hydatid
Disease in Australia. I. Clunies Ross. 1929

No. 43 bionoics of Fasiola he~aticain NSW and of the Intermediate Host Lvmnaea brazieri. 1.Clunies
Ross, A.C. McKay 1923

No. 58 Life-Cycle of Stephanurus dentatus, Kidney Worm of Pigs. !. Clunies Ross, G.P. Kauzal. 1932.

No. 130 Chemical Investigations on the Fleece of Sheep. M.R.Freney. 1940.


No. 140 Footrot in Sheep. A Transmissible Disease due to infection with Fusiformis nodosus. Studies on
its Cause, Epidemiology and Control. W.1.B Beveridge. 1941

No. 164 Studies on the Biology of the Skin and Fleece of Sheep. H.B. Carter, 1943.

No. 240 Studies on Dietary and Other Factors Affecting Serum Calcium Levels of SReep.Parts 1-6.
M.C.Franklin, R.L.Reid, I.L.Johnstone. 1948

No. 252 Influence of Diet on Dental Development in the Sheep. M.C.Franklin. 1950

SOME SPECIAL PUBLlCATlONS

Epidemiology and Control of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Sheep in Australia. 1978. (Eds. A.D.Donald,
W.H. Southcott, J.K. Dineen.)

Biology and control of Endoparasites. (McMaster Laboratory, 50th Anniversary), 1982. (Eds. L.E.A.
Symons, A.D. Donald, J.K. Dineen.)

Epioderniology and Control of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Cattle in Australia. 1983. ' (Eds. N.Anderson,
P.J. Waller.)

-
lmrnunogenetic Approaches to the Control of Endoparasites With Special Reference to Parasites of
Sheep. 1984. (Eds. J.K. Dineen, P.M.Outteridge.)

Resistance in Nematodes to Anthelmintic Drugs. 1985. (Eds. N.Anderson, P.J.Waller.)

SPECIAL REVIEWS

Anderson, N., Barger, I.A. and Waller, P.J. Impact of Gastrointestinal Parasitism on Pasture Utilization by
Grazing Sheep. Temperate Pastures, pp.555-566.

Boray, J.C. 1977. Fascioliasis in Australia. bull.Off.in?.Epiz.87:675.

Donald, A.D. 1967. The control of internal parasites with particular reference to larval ecology and pasture
management. In: Parasitism and Economiu Livestock Production. Proceedings of a Symposium.
University of New South Wales under the auspices of the Australian Society of Animal Production (NSW
Branch), pp.13-23.
Donald, A.D. 1983.Australian Research in Relation to Helminth Control and Grazing Systems. In: Facts
and Reflections IV. CEC Workshop, Lelystad, The Netherlands (1987)pp. 187-198.

Donald, A.D. 1983.In the same publication: Tlie Development of Anthelmintic Resistance in Nematodes of
Grazing Animals, pp.15-28.

Donald, A.D. 1986.New Methods of Drug Application for Control of Helminths. Vet. Parasitol. 18:121-1 37.

Gordon, H.McL. 1953 Discussion on Epidemiology, Resistance and Anthelmintic Treatment of


Helminthoses of Ruminants in Australia. Thapar Commemorative Volume.

Gordon, H.McL. 1955.Some Aspects of Fasciolosis. Aust.Vet.J. 31 :182-189

Gordon H.McL. 1957 Helminthic Diseases. Adv.Vet.Sci. 3288-351

Gordon, H. McL. 1968. Sir Arnold Theiier Memorial Lecture, University of Pretoria.
J.S.Afr.vet.med.Ass.40:207-226

Gordon H.McL. 1973 Epidemiology and Control of Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes of Ruminants.

Lacey E, 1988.The role of the cytoskeletal protein, tubulin, in the mode of action and mechanism of drug
resistance to benzimidazoles. International Journal for Parasitology j8,885-936.

Morley, F.H.N. and Donald, A.D. 1980. Farm Management and Systems of Helminth Control. Vet.
Parasitol. 6:105-134.

Symons, L.E.A. 1969.Pathology of Gastrointestinal Heiminthiases. Int. Rev. Trop. Meal. 3:49-108.

Symons, L.E.A. 1976.Malabsorption. In: Pathophysiology of Parasite Infection. Academic Press.

Symons, L.E.A. 1985.Anorexia: Occurrence, Pathophysiology and Possible Causes in Parasitic Infections.
Adv. Parasitol. a:103-128. L

Waller, P.J. and Donald, A.D. 1983. New Perspectives in Helminth Control. Merck Sharp and Dohme.
ACVET Sympn~ium,World Veterinary Association, Perth. Proc. pp.215-2~1;.

Waller P.J. 1986. Anthelmintic Resistance in Nematode Parasites of Sheep. In: Agricultural Zoology
Reviews 1: 333-373.

I
Waller P.J. 1987. Anthelmintic Resistance and the Future for Roundworm Control. Vet. Parasitol. 25:177-
191.

Waller, P.J. 1989. Convener. Working Party for Animal Health Committee of Standing Committee on
Agriculture. SCA Technical Report Series 28. Anthelmintic Resistance.

Windon, R.G. 1990. Selective Breeding for the Control of Nematodlasis In


Sheep.Rev.sci.Tech.0ff.inst.Epiz. 9:555-576

RECENT CHAPTERS IN BOOKS

Dineen, J.K. The role of homocytotropic antibodies In immunity and pathology of helmlnthlasls with
special reference to the induction and potentiation of IgE production. In: Immediate Hypersensitivity:
Modern Concepts & Developments, pp.211-257. (Ed. M.K. Bach). New York, Dekker. 1978.

Beh, K.J. Sites of development of isotope-specific B cells. In: The lmmune System, 2,390-396. (Eds. C.M.
Steinberg & I Zefkovits). Basel, Karger. 1981.

Lascelles, A.K., Beh, K.J. and Mukkur, T.K.S. Techniques for immunological studies of the gastrointestinal
tract with particular reference to sheep. In: Techniques in Digestive Physiology, pp.1-18. (Ed. D.A.
Titchen). County Clare, Ireland, Elsevier. 1982. (Techniques in the Life Sciences)

Murray, M.D. External parasites of sheep and goats. In: Sheep & Goat Production, pp.193-203. (Ed. I.E.
Coop). Amsterdam, Elsevier. 1982. (World Animal Science, v.CI).

Mukkur, T.K.S. Thermodynamics of hapten-antibody interactions. Critical Reviews In Biochemistry, 16,


133-167. 1984.

Lascelles, A.K., Beh, K.J., Mukkur, T.K.S. & Watson, D.L. The mucosal immune system with particular
reference to ruminant animals. In: The Ruminant Immune System in Health & Disease, pp.429-457. (Ed.
W.I. Morrison). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 1986.

Waller, P.J. & Prichard, R.K. Drug resistance in nematodes. In: Chemotherapy of Parasitic Diseases,
pp.339-362. (Eds. W.C. Campbell & R.S. Rew). New York, Plenum. 1986.

Donald, A.D., Morley, F.H.W., Axelsen, A., Donnelly, J.R. & Waller, P.J. Integration of grazing management
and anthelmintic treatment for the control of nematode infections in young sheep. In: Temperate Pastures:
Their Production, Use & Management, pp.567-569. (Eds. J.L. Wheeler, C.J. Pearson & G.E. Robards).
Melbourne, Australian Wool Corporation & CSIRO. 1987.
Outteridge, P.M.& Lee, C.S. The defence mechanisms of the mammary gland of domestic ruminants.
Progress in Veterinary Microbiology & Immunology, 4, 165-196. 1988.

Clark, B.L., Vaughan, J.A. & Emery, D.L. The isolation & identification of Fusiform necro~horum.In:
Footrot & Food Abscess of Ruminants, pp.105-115. (Eds. J.R. Egerton, W.K. Yong & G.G. Riffkin). Boca
Raton, Florida, CRC Press. 1989. i
APPENDIX 2

Science Sheep Show

The New South Wales Sheep Breeders' Show in 1961 was designated the Science Sheep Show. The
Division arranged extensive exhibits to demonstrate the range of research in progress. This was organized
by Hugh Gordon, Fred Hamilton, Harry Wilson, Ian Pearson and Joe Boray.

The exhibits included the application of molluscicides for the control of Lvmnaea tomentosa, the life-cycle
of the Liver Fluke, administration of anthelmintics, the effects of parasitic diseases on the productivity of
sheep, population dynamics of the louse (Damalinia ovis), the control of hydatid disease, the life-cycle of
the itch mite (Psorernates ovis), development and pathogenesis of mycotic dermatitis and the prevention
of blowIiy strike.

There were diagrams, photographs and specimens in a freezing cabinet. There was a large collection of
drenching implements, both historical and modern.

It was a tour de force and attracted much attention.


Page Nos.
Acknowledgements ii

Administration 20-21

Agriculture, State Departments of iv, v, 1, 10, 13-15, 30, 34, 42, 44-45,63-64, 68, 70, 74,
76-77, 82, 93, 103, 105, 106-108, 114-116, 130, 199

Animal Accommodation and Management 26-33

Animal and Food Sciences, Institute of 17

Animal Health, Division of 1,2,4,6,7, 16, 17, 18,23,24,29,30,31,32,42,64,65,


81, 87, 97, 100, 107, 108, 120, 122, 125, 127, 128, 131

Animal Health and Nutrition, Division of 33

Animal Health and Production, Division of 7, 16, 29,31, 32, 80,86, 90,98,116, 120, 124

Animal Products and Processing, Institute of 17

Animal Research Committee 17

Annexe

Appendix 1

Appendix 2 140

Austin, Professor C.R. ii, 102, 103, 113, 115, 116, 125

Australian Meat Research Committee 18,86, 101, 112

Australian Wool Research Committee 18,19

Australian Veterinary Association 81Journal 84, 90, 92,93, 99, 109, 111, 121

Beveridge, Professor W.I.6 O


,i8, 10-14, 26, 65-67, 96-97, 102, 1 10, 115, 123, 136

Books Iv, v, 94, 97, 122, 136


Carne, Professor H.R. 5, 6,8, 9, 12,35,65,66, 96,99, 109, 110

Chiefs, Associate Chiefs & Assistant Chiefs 120-121

Chiswicl<,Armidale 3 1 -33

Clunies Ross, Sir Ian i,5,7,8,9, 10, 11, 13, 14,15,16,20,35,36,38,40,57,61,


85, 88, 90-99, 110-112, 114, 115, 117, 121, 122, 135, 141

CSIR/CSIRO, renaming 16-17

Cu!ey, Miss Alma ii, 85-87, 112, i t 1

Dineen, Dr. J.K. ii,iv,82,83,107,109, 119,122,128,136,138

Donald. Dr. A.D. il, iv, 17, 20;24, 28, 36, 42, 45, 48, 88, 107, 108, 120, 122,
128, 136-138

Donations of sheep
\

Field work, early (Dr H. McL. Gordon) 13-15

Finances 18-20

Foreword i

Franklin, Dr. M. C. 57, 73, 74, 76, 77, 85, 86-88, 100-102, 1 13, 115, 124

Gill, Dudley A. 7,9, 16,20,27,29,31,80,86,95,98,


100, 105,
112-113, 120-121, 124, 132

Gilruth, J.A. 13, 16, 29, 97, 120

Gordon, Dr. H. McL. i, ii, 86, 88, 92, 102, 109, 111-113, 117, 121, 123, 137, 140

Hamilton, Fred 8, 12, 110

Hinchinbrook iii, 9-13, 28-29

Ian McMaster Bequest iv, 7, 80-83

Introduction iii

Johnstone, Ian L. ii, 101, 124, 136

Kelley, R.B. 13, 29, 79,95,97,98, 123, 132

Library 7, 80-89, 93, 111-112

Llpson, Dr. M. ii,77, 78, 99, 100, 124

Merritt, G. C. ii, 113, 129

McMaster Animal Health Laboratory, F.D. i, iii, iv, 1-7, 8-15, 29-30

McMaster, Captain Ian 1, 7

McMaster Farm 12-13,29-31

McMaster Laboratory i, iii-v, 3, 7, 8-31

McMaster, Sir Frederick i, 1, 7, 12-13, 28-29, 80

McMaster Wing, Ian iii, 1-9

Officers-in-Charge& Head of Laboratory 121-122

Offord, H.A. ii, 8, 109

Older laboratories iv

Parrish. E.A.

Professors from McMaster Laboratory

Relationship with laboratories

Research
Bacteriology
caseous lymphadenitis
fleece rot
footrot & foot abscess
mycotic dermatitis
salmonellosis & pasteurellosls
sundry
Biochernical pathology
Biochemistry & ~Intrition
beef cattle
drought feeding
mineral metabolism
poisonous plants
pregnancy toxaernia
sundry experiments
External parasitology
itch mite, lice & keds
virus infections & their vectors
General comments
Internal parasitology
abomasal histology, exsheathment
& in vitro cultivation
anthelmintics (H.McL. Gordon)
anthelmintics, resistance to
epidemiology (ecology)
fasciolosis & liver fluke disease
immunology
parasite physiology & toxicology
pathophysiology
Organization of Research
Research Prior to F.D. McMaster
Animal Health Laboratory
Wool & wool biology
Zebu crosses & sheep breeding

Research staff

Rivett. Dr A.C.D.

Rogers, Professor W.P ii, 28, 103-105, 113-114, 125

Science Sheep Show Appendix 2

Sir Frederick McMaster Bequest lii, iv

Some pamphlets, bulletins, special reviews,


Recent chapters in books Appendix I

Specific Parasite Free Unit (SPF) 30-31

Stewart, Dr Douglas F. ii, 7-8, 16-18, 20, 23, 36,52,90, 105, 120-121, 125, 130

Theiler, Sir George iv, v

Turner, Miss Helen Newton O,i 9, 11-12, 15-16, 20-21, 33,85,92,94-96, 110, 124, 134

University of Sydney

Visitors

Whitlock. H.V.

Wilson, H.H.