Cuba and the Cold War

CUBA:

Fulgencio Batista

Fidel Castro

Che Guevara

Raul Castro w/Fidel & Che

USA:

Dwight Eisenhower

John F. Kennedy

Robert F. Kennedy

Robert McNamara

Dean Rusk

Adlai Stevenson

Maxwell Taylor

Curtis Le May

USSR:

Nikita Khrushchev

Andrei Gromyko

Anatoly Dobrynin

including freedom of Cuba to negotiate treaties.): leader of July 26th Movement goal to overthrow Batista regime 1st attempt 26 July 1953 arrested. ITT. Coca-Cola & Hershey s American organized crime heavily involved in Cuba Fulgencio Batista (1901-1973): y y y y leader of Cuba. 1933-1944 & 1952-1959 dictator whose 2nd period of rule incredibly repressive & corrupt supported by US govt. & transfer of land to foreign power except USA  MOST IMPORTANTLY gave US right to intervene in Cuban affairs  1902: Cuba gains independence from US United States in Cuba: great amount of influence and some interventions in Cuban affairs economic influence on Cuba: largest source of investment in Cuba and export market for Cuba many major US corporations influential in Cuba. later exiled returned to Cuba 1956 w/brother.e. Cuba s debt policy. i. convicted. Texaco. which has colonized Cuba 1901-1902:  1901: Platt Amendment terms for transfer of power to Cuba  granted US considerable influence over Cuba. Che & supporters begins insurgency against Batista based in Sierra Maestra Mountains victory on 1 January 1959 .BACKGROUND: Spanish-American War (1898):  US defeats Spain. including owning Cuban land and operating plants: Standard Oil. and number of companies relied on Cuban sugar. Esso. several major US banks. US business & Mafia lost American support in 1958 after forced to hold elections where most Cubans refused to vote Fidel Castro (1926.

1960: Soviets open market to Cuban sugar US fears Cuba would become Soviet ally Castro continues to nationalize and redistribute land feared US intervention Oct. 24 October 1963 "I believe that there is no country in the world. I am in agreement with the first Cuban revolutionaries. when he justifiably called for justice and especially yearned to rid Cuba of corruption. The Times. October 1962 "Our revolution is endangering all American possessions in Latin America. o support for Castro in Cuba Castro continues to confiscate US assets influence of Raul & Che played a role as well seek o relations w/USSR July 1960: Khrushchev declares willingness to defend Cuba nukes Sept. Kennedy interview with Jean Daniel. We are telling these countries to make their own revolution.´ Source: Che Guevara interview with Henry Brandon. including any and all the countries under colonial domination. I will go even further: to some extent it is as though Batista was the incarnation of a number of sins on the part of the United States. humiliation and exploitation were worse than in Cuba. I approved the proclamation which Fidel Castro made in the Sierra Maestra.probably not Marxist until after came to power Source: John F. In the matter of the Batista regime. including the African regions. in part owing to my country¶s policies during the Batista regime« I can assure you that I have understood the Cubans. little or no compensation land redistribution cleaned out mafia confiscated assets from US corporations & landowners (about $1 billion of a total of $25 billion) US responded with trade restrictions Feb. 1960: Castro denounced Yankee Imperialism US placed embargo on all trade with Cuba late 1960: two US diplomats expelled from island ." Cuba under Fidel: expropriated private property. where economic colonization. 1960: Eisenhower bans all exports to Cuba Cuba o relations with USSR Khrushchev seizing new opportunity excited by revolution reminiscent of Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 March 1960: CIA begins training Cuban exiles as potential invasion force to topple Castro 1960: Soviets begin supplying advice & weapons to Cuba µ March 1960: Le Coubre incident US blamed. Now we shall have to pay for those sins.

1961: US withdrew recognition of Cuba. ending diplomatic relations 20 Jan.3 Jan. Kennedy becomes POTUS . 1961: John F.

supported by CIA. 1961: Kennedy Administration publicly announced that any missile gap that existed actually favored USA not USSR May 1962: holiday on Black Sea contemplated US missiles in Turkey just beyond the horizon made connection to Castro s o requests for more help decided to deploy strategic missiles to Cuba probably thought would remain secret until fait accompli . invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs Ó utter & complete failure US hoped would lead to internal uprising against Castro solidified Castro s popularity even further huge propaganda victory drove Castro even further into Soviet arms Kennedy. Flexible Response & Cuba covert action to topple Castro: Operation Mongoose sabotage. economic troubles & struggling reforms Feb. especially Ulbricht (GDR) o competition from China for support from developing nations false reports & alarms about US 1st Strike on USSR domestic criticisms for cutting defense budget. organize antiCastro movement. 1.Bay of Pigs: Ó 17 April 1961: c. & probably assassination economic & diplomatic isolation: expanded & continued embargo. maneuvered to expel Cuba from Organization of American States (OAS) military pressure: ORTSAC war game designed to overthrow an imaginary dictator Khrushchev & Cuba: Berlin Wall Crisis heightened tensions both w/USA & some Eastern European allies.400 Cuban insurgents.

3) air attack on missiles. who claim missiles for defensive purposes only. termed as a quarantine US Joint Chiefs. awareness & unwillingness to be seen as Appeasers (influence of appeasement in 1938) ExComm s possible courses of action: 1) do nothing. 4) full-scale military invasion. not offensive weapons . including Maxwell Taylor & Curtis Le May. 16: ExComm (Executive Committee of the National Security Council) convened ExComm: ploy by USSR for advantage in Berlin?. 16: US surveillance shows build up of missile sites in Cuba. 5) naval blockade of Cuba. 2) use diplomatic pressure to force USSR to remove missiles. 18: Kennedy meets with Anatoly Dobrynin & Andrei Gromyko. including SAM (surface-to-air missiles) Oct. 1962 closest world came to nuclear war between US & USSR changed the course & tone of the Cold War Oct. or.Cuban Missile Crisis: 16-28 Oct. recommended military action Oct.

requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union. if needed. This quarantine will be extended. to other types of cargo and carriers.Oct. 20: ExComm vote in favor of blockade or quarantine Oct. 22: JFK informs the American public ³It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack on the United States. if found to contain cargoes of offensive weapons. 24: Khrushchev ordered Soviet ships en route to Cuba to turn around or stop construction of missile site sped up however enough missiles already in Cuba . be turned back. however. All ships of any kind bound for Cuba from whatever nation and port will.´ ³To halt this offensive buildup. denying the necessities of life as the Soviets attempted to do in their Berlin blockade of 1948´ Oct. We are not at this time. a strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba is being initiated. 23: JFK considers trading US missiles in Turkey (slated for removal) for missiles in Cuba US relying on backchannel diplomacy Oct.

Oct. and undertake. shift in power??? New message from Khrushchev arrives during EXCOMM meeting Khrushchev: seemingly confirms the Radio Moscow offer Oct. You will declare that the United States will not invade Cuba with its troops and will not support any other forces which might intend to invade Cuba. report that Khrushchev sent telegram to JFK stating that US pirate actions would lead to war & US blockade was an act of aggression Oct. 24: Soviet news Agency. 27: Radio Moscow broadcasts message from Khrushchev offering a trade of missiles in Turkey for those in Cuba EXCOMM debates why the change disagreement in Politburo. to halt the further introduction of such weapon systems into Cuba. for our part. the key elements of your proposals which seem generally acceptable as I understand them are as follows: 1) You would agree to remove these weapons systems from Cuba under appropriate United Nations observation and supervision. B-52s deployed with nukes in put on 15 minute notice Aleksander Fomin. 26: message apparently from Khrushchev arrives: "I propose: we. 25: US Ambassador to UN. 2) We. will declare that our ships bound for Cuba are not carrying any armaments. 27: US U-2 shot down over Cuba US & USSR official meet to discuss missile trade EXCOMM meeting where JFK convinced to ignore 2nd message and respond to 1st emotional message: "As I read your letter. would be interested in a diplomatic solution becomes basis for settlement Night of Oct. to ensure the carrying out and continuation of these commitments (a) to y . KGB Station Chief in Washington. with suitable safe-guards. on our part." terms conveyed by Fomin but letter seemed emotionally charge giving uncertainty to its veracity Oct. lunches w/John Scali of ABC News to ask if Scali s friends in State Dept. Adlai Stevenson. 26: US goes to Defcon 2 (only confirmed time in history). demands USSR admit there are missiles in Cuba Oct. Then the necessity of the presence of our military specialists in Cuba will disappear. TASS. would agree upon the establishment of adequate arrangements through the United Nations.

but USSR promise to keep this aspect of the agreement a secret AFTERMATH y y y y y y y Hotline Agreement--direct communication link between Moscow & Washington 1963: Nuclear Test Ban Treaty--prohibited all nuclear tests except those below ground USSR determined to equal US nuclear weapons in quantity (achieved 1973) China accused USSR of being a Paper Tiger Khrushchev position weakened inside USSR Politburo US became convinced USSR would not go to war over a communist country--Vietnam Castro more secure in his rule . has issued a new order on the dismantling of the weapons which you describe as 'offensive' and their crating and return to the Soviet Union. not to intrude themselves and not to permit our territory to be used as a bridgehead for the invasion of Cuba. its sovereignty. The U. plans for how to respond to the Soviet Union in Europe." Basis for the deal that will end the crisis however.S. because we're going to need one. territory or from the territory of other countries neighboring to Cuba. over missile exchange (Cuba for Turkey) continued Khrushchev response in letter transmitted via Radio Moscow: "the Soviet government.S. He continued this with a formal letter: "I consider my letter to you of October twenty-seventh and your reply of today as firm undertakings on the part of both our governments which should be promptly carried out. either from U. in addition to previously issued instructions on the cessation of further work at the building sites for the weapons. and will restrain those who would plan to carry an aggression against Cuba..." JFK agreed that US would abandon any effort or plans to invade Cuba now and in the future Khrushchev promised to remove the missiles from Cuba US agrees to removal of Jupiter missiles in Turkey. that it take the pledge not to interfere in internal affairs. not without potential problems: put Khrushchev in a bind.remove promptly the quarantine measures now in effect and (b) to give assurances against the invasion of Cuba. and secondly." JFK immediately responds calling Khrushchev's letter was: "an important and constructive contribution to peace". y negotiations between two govts. because sure as hell they're going to do something there". will make a statement in the framework of the Security Council in reference to Cuba as follows: it will declare that the United States of America will respect the inviolability of Cuban borders. who knew what was happening w/power in USSR military preparations for an invasion continued Defense Secretary Robert McNamara stated that they had to "have two things ready: a government for Cuba.

Smyser: "The total victory that Kennedy could thus claim in Cuba had a dramatic effect in Berlin. Khrushchev's and Ulbricht's threats had lost credibility." begins steps that would lead to Detente . and West Berlin no longer needed attention.y y Cuba & Berlin entrenched as outposts of their respective bloc--W.R.

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