April 10


Basics of Computer

In this booklet I have tried my level best to provide basic information about computer for beginners.

2 Introduction to Computer Science

Computer is an electronic machine, which accepts data, process on that data and provides suitable result and store data for the future use. The word ³COMPUTER´ is derived from Latin word ³COMPUTE´ which means to ³CALCULATE´ THERE ARE THREE MAIN PARTS OF COMPUTER 1. INPUT UNIT a. Keyboard b. Mouse c. Scanner 2. CPU= CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT It is Composed of Three Unit  CU= Control Unit  ALU= Arithmetic Logic Unit  MU=Memory Unit (RAM, ROM) Brain of Computer 3. OUTPUT UNIT a. Monitor b. Printer c. Speaker THERE ARE TWO MAJOR COMPONEN TOF COMPUTER 1. Hardware 2. Software 1. HARDWARE The physical component of computers and other attached input / output devices are called hardware. OR The equipment associated with computer system is called Hardware Example: Keyboard, Central Processing Unit, Monitor, Mouse etc. 2. SOFTWARE The set of instruction that tells the hardware what to do is called software Example: Ms-Office, Photo shop, Coral Draw Etc There are two main types of software 1. System Software 2. Application Software 1. System Software That software by which computer boot is called system software The program directly related to the hardware of computer and which perform the fundamental tasks is called system software. A number of programs may be included in system software but following are essential for any computer.  Operating system e.g. Windows Xp ,Unix etc  Editors we can typed, modified program  Language Translators Compiler, Interpreter, Assembler.  Utilities Debuggers, defragmenters, memory managers, virus detectors etc

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Linkers Create best link to object program  Loaders Load the program form disk to memory for execution System perform to basic functions  It create environment b/w user and computer  It maintain all the resources of computer

2. Application software That software by which user achieve his own task is called Application software There are two main types of Application software 1. General purpose 2. Special purpose 1. General purpose Application software To perform general task or by using such software we can fulfill our general need. Such Ms Office, graphical animation Photo shops etc that is called general purpose application software. 2. Special purpose Application software Such Software that is developed for the specific needs and requirement for an organization or company is called special purpose application. For example Bank software, Medical store software. Insurance company¶s software etc DATA Collection of raw facts and figures are called Data Unprocessed data or any thing before processing is called Data. Data can exist in many forms Computers can handles four types of data. Text, graphics, audio and video data. INFORMATION Collection of meaningful data is called Information Processed data or meaningful data or any thing after processing is called information Data + Process (Structure) = Information IMPORTANCE OF COMPUTER OR WHERE COMPUTER IS USED Today Computer Are Used In  Accounting  Record Keeping,  Education,  Science,  Biomedical,  Aerospace  Business,  Etc In Industry computers are used in manufacturing units for control it. Like computerized printing machine in which special purpose computer is used to work speedily, save time and money. Also X-rays machine and wheel balance machine etc. are the example of special purpose computer which pays important role in our life. In business, Computer is used for record keeping, for inventory control etc. In the modern age of computer, we can see all aerospace companies have their computerized system. Aero- plane flies with the help of computer. For link in between one plane to another or plane to tower we use satellites for which computer is essential. Also computer can be a used in science and biomedical field for researches computer saves our time, which is also prime importance. The various fields computer are used some are given as under 1. Scientific

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a) Predication of weather b) Predication of earth quakes c) Satellite Controlling

2. Engineering a) Design of car, airplane or ship b) Design of a building or bridge c) Design of a new tool 3. Business a) Word Processing b) Record Keeping c) Inventory control d) Pay roll processing e) Forecasting f) Planning g) Accounting h) Auditing i) Stock Marketing j) Ticket Reservation 4. Robotic a) Welding or heavy machines b) Soldering or electronic components c) Fabricating a microprocessor d) Loading and unloading parts from machines e) Searching defects in an item f) Move item from one place to another place 5. Education a) Learn Alphabets or numbers b) Describing the human biological system c) Describing the basic arithmetic operations d) Solving statistical problem e) Solving complex mathematical problems 6. Law a) Keeping Record of criminal b) Keeping Record of courts c) Keeping Record of decisions 7. Publishing a) Compile news paper b) Design books, Brochures, posters, etc. c) Design wedding ,eid or visiting cards 8. Graphics a) Prepare titles or slides for TV commercial b) Prepare cartoon films c) Preserve paintings d) Drawing maps

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9. Entertainment a) Play simple game b) Play video and audio songs

10. Home computing a. Business work done at home b. School works c. Communication (E-mails) 11. Government a. Population, b. Taxes , c. Military d. Police Etc

Advantage of Computer or Capabilities of Computer
Some important capabilities or advantages are defined below. 1. Speed The most important advantage of computer over the human being is the speed with which it perform Instructions. An older computer is capable to perform several thousand instructions per second. While a latest computer is capable to perform several million instruction per second. 2. Accuracy The result of computer are much accurate than manual work. If one uses a computer to perform some calculations the answer obtained would be accurate up to seventh decimal place 3. Storage Capability Computer system can store tremendous amount of data which can be located and retrieved efficiently. The capability to stored volume of data is especially important in an information age 4. Diligence Computer is performing repetitive jobs benignly it means computer never board with repetitive jobs 5. Run for Long Period Computer can operate with out failure for long period of time while a human has to exhaust after a certain period of time. 6. Automatic Operation In automatic mode the sequence of these operation stored in memory as a program 7. Decision Making Capability It is true that the computer can not think but the computer can take simple decision such as 15 is greater than 10 or not. In the same way computer can decide that two values are equal or not. 8. Variety of Task The computer is capable of performing a wide variety of tasks

Computer can be classified according to function, according to size and capacity and according to purpose. That is defined below.

Classification of Computer According To Function or Types of Computer
According to Function There are three major types of Computer. 1. Digital Computer 2. Analog Computer 3. Hybrid Computer 1. Digital Computer

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Those computers, which deals with discrete data, is called Digital Computer. Digital computers are high-speed programmable electronic machine that perform mathematical calculation. Example: - Microcomputer, Mini Computer, Mainframe Computer and Super Computer are the example of Digital Computer

2. Analog Computer Those computers, which deal with continuous physical data, are called Analog Computer. An Analog Computer is an electronic machine that measure physical values such as temperature or pressure that all along a continuous scale, Circular motion, distance, velocity of sound and voltage. Example: - A service station petrol pump contains an analog processor that converts fuel flow measuring in quantity and price. 3. Hybrid Computer Hybrid Computer is the combination of Analog and Digital Computer. Hybrid computer represent data both discrete and approximately. Hybrid computers contains feature of both analog and digital computer Example: - ECG machine, Electronic fuel pump, digital speedometer, Electronic weight Balance etc

Classification of Computer According to Size and Capacity
When we classify the computer According to size and capacity there are four major computers are included. 1. Micro Computer 2. Mini Computer 3. Mainframe Computer 4. Super Computer 1. Micro Computer Microcomputer is sometime called personal computer. It is small in size and capacity. A microcomputer consists of two basic systems. One is central processing unit. And other is peripheral subsystem. The Central Processing Unit composed of internal memory (RAM -ROM). Arithmetic logic unit and control unit. The peripheral subsystem consist of input, output and mass storage device. Microcomputer is used in small companies. Banks, educational institution and at home Note Book (Laptop computer) handheld computer, desktop computer are types of microcomputer 1000 dollars to over 5000 dollar speed depends on processor installed in the computer (30 million instructions per second) approximately Size Desktop Processing Memory: 4- 128MB Cost: Speed: 2. Mini Computer Minicomputer has small storage capacity and slow processing speed comparatively Mainframe computer and much more storage capacity and high processing speed comparatively Microcomputer. Minicomputers are used to perform intensive calculation let many terminal to share the same data Cost: 25000 dollars to over 150,000 dollar Speed: 150 million instructions per seconds Size Filling cab net size Processing Memory: 32- 256MB

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3. Mainframe Computer Mainframe computers are large in size, storage capacity and high processing speed. The mainframe computers are designed to handle tremendous amount of input, output and mass storage. A mainframe computer has more than one arithmetic logic unit and control unit. IBM-370, DEC-10000, IBM ES-2 are some mainframe computers. Mainframe computers are used in large organization such as Bank, airline, and insurances companies, government agencies, universities, and college for processing million of transaction. Cost: Several thousand dollars Speed: 250 million instructions per seconds Size Refrigerator Size Processing Memory: 64- 1024MB 4. Super Computer Super computers are the largest, fastest and most expensive computer. Supercomputer can handles over 10,000 users. Super computer are based on the principle of parallel processing. Super computers have capabilities to understand the symbol, graphs and even human speech. A supercomputer may have many processing units which working together to perform a billion of instruction or more scientific arithmetic operation in second. Super computer are manufactured by Cray Corporation in USA. They are  Cray-1, Cray-2, Cray-3, Cray-xmp, Cray-T90, Cray-C90, Cray-T3-E, Etc Super computer are used for solving the complex application such as global weather forecasting, creating graphic images, engineering design and testing and space exploration. Super computer are also used for top secret weapons, researches, calculation of governments, scientific laboratory Super computer are designed to process scientific applications Cost: Several Million dollars Speed: 60 Billion instructions per seconds Size Automobile or Refrigerator/Box size Processing Memory: 8- 192 GB

Classification of Computer According to Purpose
When we classify the computer according to purpose then there are two major purpose of computer 1. General Purpose 2. Special Purpose 1. General Purpose of computer General Purpose of computer is those computers which have a many to task to perform at a time. Just like our PC (Personal Computer) systems which can perform multiple task for example it can solve the mathematical calculation and it can process on word through word processors. It can be used in many fields like health, financial Institutions, Industries. Military ETC. 2. Special Purpose of Computer Special purpose computer are those computers which can perform on task at a time. These computer were built for only one purpose, For Example Petrol Pump machine, it can measures the petrol that how much petrol wastage. X-rays machine and wheel balance machine etc. are the example of special purpose computer

Generation of Computers
Each new generation has seen the following changes in computer characteristic.  Increase in speed  Increase in storage capacity

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Increase in Reliability  Reduction in system cost 1. First Generation of computer (1942-To-1955)  Vacuum tube technology was used in first generation of computer  Machine language and Assembly language was developed.  Magnetic tape was used for external storage.  Punch card used for feeding information.  Punch card used also for getting result. Typical computer  Mark-1 (1944)  EDVAC=Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (1945)  ENIAC= Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator (1946)  EDSAC=Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer (1949 )  UNIVAC-1 (1950)  IBM-650 (1953)  ETC 2. Second Generation of computer (1955-To-1964)  Transistor Technology was used in 2nd Generation of computer  High Level Languages like FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, PL/1 & others were developed. Typical computer  IBM 1400 series and 700 series, IBM 7030  Generic Electric-635, CDC -6600, and control data 3600 3. Third Generation of computer (1964-To-1975)  Integrated Circuit (IC¶s) technology was used in 3rd generation of computer.  Monitor and keyboard were introduced for data input and output Typical computer  IBM 360 series ,ICL 900,PDP-5,PDP-8 4. Fourth Generation of computer (1975-To-1990)  The microchip (microprocessor) technology was used in 4th generation of computer. Which consist of LSI , VLSI  Very High Level Language or problem oriented language, SQL, intellect, NOMAD, Focus, Query language was developed in 4GL. Typical computer  IBM 370 and IBM 4300  Cyber205,Apple,commodore ETC 5. Fifth Generation of computer (1990-To-onward)  Natural Language ,human like language was developed  The focus of fifth generation computer is connectivity.

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HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER Or GENERATION OF COMPUTER 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd Generation Period 1942-1955 1955-1964 1964-1975 Vacuum Tube Transistors Integrated Internal Circuit (LSI) component of computer Tech: Very Large Smaller than Much smaller Size of computer Mainframe 1st Generation than 2nd computer computer generation Computer speed Ten time faster 100 time faster Speed of the Low computer than 1st than 2nd computer generation generation Magnetic Tape Magnetic tape Magnetic Disk Storage Device Hard Disk Magnetic ROM PROM Main Memory Drum RAM DRAM Level Much Easier Language used Machine and High Language High Level for Programming Assembly language Fortran, PL-1 Language OOP, C++ Cobol, Basic IBM 1400, IBM 360 Typical Computer Mark1EDVAC, IBM 700, ICL 900, EDSAC, Generic PDP-5, ENIAC, Electric-635, PDP-8, UNIVAC-1 CDC -6600 ETC IBM-650 and control data 3600

4th Generation 1975-1990 Microprocessor VLSI

5th Generation 1990-onward Further improvement Microprocessor Very Small Tiny Computer Computer Diary Laptop


10 time faster than 3rd generation Disk storage Floppy Disk EPROM SRAM Very High Level Language Query language VB,SQL ETC IBM 370 and IBM 4300 Cyber205, Apple, commodore ETC

Much faster than 4th generation Floppy Disk, Disk Storage, CD-ROM EPROM SIMM Artificial Intelligence Natural Language

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CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) CPU is the Abbreviation of Central Processing Unit. The CPU is the brains of the computer. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a complex set of electronic circuitry that executes program instruction. The CPU is the most important element of a computer system. The entire CPU is a single unit called microprocessor. This Unit is divided into four main parts as described. 1) Control Unit (CU) 2) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) 3) Memory Unit (RAM, ROM) 4) Register 1) Control Unit (CU) The control unit directs and coordinates all activities of a computer. The control unit is the most important part of the CPU. It controls and co-ordinates the activities of all other units such as ALU, Memory Unit, Input and Output Unit. It is the control unit which interprets instructions and transfers data from the main memory to the ALU for processing. 2) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) The Arithmetic logic unit performs actual processing of data which includes addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. This unit also performs certain logical operation such as comparing two numbers to see one is greater than other or they are equal. In this way computer is able to make simple decision.
3) MEMORY UNIT (MU) In a computer, memory is one or more set of chips that store data or program instruction either temporarily or permanently. Memory Unit is divided into two parts 1. RAM= Random Access Memory 2. ROM= Read Only Memory 1. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) RAM is an abbreviation of Random Access Memory. Memory that provides temporary storage for data and program instruction is called Random access Memory. RAM memory is a volatile meaning that if a computer loses power, shut off the contents of its memory are lost. Therefore it is important frequently save any valuable work to secondary disk storage. Random Access means that because each memory location has an individual address the computer can go directly to the instruction and data it wants. Using the address rather than searching individual location one after another (Sequentially). RAM has a tremendous impact on the speed and power of computer. RAM memory is both readable and writable meaning that contents of any memory locations can be changed and or read at any time.

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There are two main types of RAM 1. SRAM ( Static Random Access Memory) 2. DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)

Static RAM (SRAM) Static RAM is a type of RAM that holds its data without external refresh, for as long as power is supplied to the circuit. SRAMs are used for specific applications within the PC, where their strengths outweigh their weaknesses compared to DRAM:
y y y

Speed: SRAM is faster than DRAM. Cost: SRAM is, byte for byte, several times more expensive than DRAM. Size: SRAMs take up much more space than DRAMs

Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Dynamic RAM is a type of RAM that only holds its data if it is continuously accessed by special logic called a refresh circuit. The reading action itself refreshes the contents of the memory. If this is not done regularly, then the DRAM will lose its contents, even if it continues to have power supplied to it. This refreshing action is why the memory is called dynamic.All PCs use DRAM for their main system memory, instead of SRAM, In fact, DRAMs are both more complicated and slower than SRAMs. DRAMs are smaller and less expensive than SRAM. 2. READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)

Computers almost always contain a small amount of read-only memory that holds instructions for starting up the computer. ROM chip store fixed startup instruction. Unlike RAM, ROM cannot be written to.  PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory): A PROM is a memory chip on which you can store a program. But once the PROM has been used, you cannot wipe it clean and use it to store something else. Like ROMs, PROMs are non-volatile.  EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory): An EPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light.  EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory): An EEPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge

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Input Device
Any machine that feeds data into a computer is called Input Device. Input device are categorized as three types. 1. Keyboard 2. Pointing Device 3. Source Data Entry Device

A keyboard is a device that converts letters, numbers and other characters into electrical signals that can be read by the computer¶s processor. Desktop computer consist of 104-108 keys and Notebook computer consist of 85 keys.  TYPES OF COMPUTER 1. QWERTY KEYBOARD QWERTY keyboard developed by Sholes in 1868. 2. DVORAK KEYBOARD DVORAK keyboard developed by DR. August Dvorak in 1936 But still QWERTY Keyboard is official standard computer keyboard (ISO 9995) Due to the best Alpha Keys arrangement. KEY CATEGORIZED OF KEYBOARD  The Alphanumeric Keys It consist Alphabet and Number keys  The Modifier Keys These keys modifies Input, shift, Alt(Alternate),ctrl (Control) keys  The Function Keys These keys used for input command directly.F1, F2 «F12.  The Cursor Movement Keys  Numeric Keypad  Special Purpose key star key, short cut keys KEYBOARD WORKING When a key press, Keyboard controller (a tiny chip) records the key and place its code in keyboard buffer (its memory) and sends a signal to system then system reads the code of key from location of keyboard buffer and process the request.

Pointing device control the portion of the cursor or pointer on the screen and allow the user to s elect options displayed on the screen. It uses physical gesture, point, click and drag.

Types of Pointing Device 
      Mouse Trackball Touchpad Pointing Stick Light Pen Touch screen Joystick

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In computing, a mouse (plural mice or mousse) functions as a pointing device by detecting two-dimensional motion relatives to its supporting surface

Types of Mouse
y y


Mechanical Mouse: - It uses one ball and two rollers with one spring for movement observation. Optical Mouse: - it uses a light emitting diode and photodiodes to detect movement relatives to the underlying surface, rather than moving some of its parts- as in mechanical mouse. Optical mouse sensor processes 1512 frames per second. It has image processing chip to process frames on the basis of these frames coordinates are being calculated. LASER Mouse:- It uses a small laser instead of an LED which increase the resolution of the image taken by the mouse

A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball house in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes. OR The Track ball is movable ball, mounted on top of a stationary device that can be rotated using your finger or palm. y It mostly uses for CAD, as it can draw fine then mouse y In Air Traffic control, Submarine. y Public Terminals, as easy to fix then mouse.

A touchpad is a pointing input device commonly used in laptop computers. They are used to move the cursor, using motions of the user¶s finger. They are a substitute for a computer mouse.  Capacitive sensors are re-laid out along the horizontal and vertical axes of the touchpad.  The location of the finger is determined from the pattern of the capacitance (electric charges) of finger.

A Pointing Stick is an input device commonly used in laptop computers. They are used to move the cursor. A pointing stick looks like a pencil eraser protruding form the keyboard between the G, H, and B keys. When you move the pointing stick with your finger, the screen pointer moves accordingly. IBM developed pointing stick for use with its notebook computers. The pointing stick operates by sensing applied force. y The velocity of the cursor depends on the applied force. y Pros over mouse and touchpad.  Very near to keyboard.  Cursor¶s motion is not dependant to on finger¶s motions

A light pen is a pointing input device in the form of light sensitive wand used in conjunction with the computer¶s CRT monitor. It allows the user to point to displayed objects, or draw on the screen. OR

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The light pen is a light sensitive pen-like device that uses a wired connection to a computer terminal. Light pens are used by engineers, graphic designers and illustrators. Not for LCD screen, projections or other display devices.The light pen works by sensing the sudden small change in brightness of a point on the screen when the electron gun refreshes that spot.Cons: holding arm in front of the screen for long periods of time.

A touch screen is a video display screen that has been sensitized to receive input from the touch of a finger. Touch screen device accept input by allowing user to place a finger trip directly on the screen. Touch screens also have assisted in recent changes in the design of personal digital assistant (PDA), satellite navigation and mobile phone devices, making these devices more usable

A joystick is a control device consisting of a handheld tick that pivots about one end and transmits its angle in two or three dimension to a computer.  Joy sticks are often used to control games.  Joy sticks are also used for controlling machines such as elevators, cranes, trucks and powered wheelchairs.

Microphone, sometimes referred to as a mike is an acoustic to electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. It takes analog signal, sound waves and transfer to computer A sound Card is required for converting signal from analog signal and digital format. This process termed as digitizing. Used for audio recording and video conferencing.

A web camera (or Webcam, real camera) is a real time camera (usually, though not always a video camera) whose image can be accessed using the world Wide Web, or a PC video calling application like Video conferencing. It can be using for image as well a video transfer.

   Scanner Barcode Reader Mark & Character Recognition Devices Fax machine

A scanner converts graphic and pictorial data to digital (binary form) which can be directly feed and store in a computer. Scanners or Optical scanners are use light sensing (optical) equipment to translate images of text, .photos into digital form. In computing, a scanner is a device that analyzes images, printed text, or handwriting, or an object (such as an ornament) and converts it to a digital image. There are three types of scanner y Flatbed Scanner y Sheet feed Scanner y Handheld Scanner FLATBED SCANNER A flatbed scanner or Desktop scanner which works much like a photocopier. The image being scanned is placed on a glass surface, where it remains stationary, and the scanning beam moves across it. They are used to scan simple drawing. Graphs, charts etc. Flatbed scanners are costlier and more powerful. SHEET FEED SCANNER

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In a sheet feed scanner motorized rollers feed the sheet across the scanning head Larger scanners include machines into which you can feed sheets of paper. These are called sheet-fed scanners. Sheet-fed scanners are excellent for loose sheets of paper, but they are unable to handle bound documents.

HANDHELD SCANNER Handheld scanner is very small in size .the picture is place on a flat surface and the scanner is moved downward by hand onto that picture to start scanning. Hand-held scanners are adequate for small pictures and photos, but they are difficult to use if you need to scan an entire page of text or graphics. BARCODE READER A barcode reader (or barcode scanner) is an electronic device for reading printed barcodes. Like a flatbed scanner, it consists of a light source, a lens and a photo conductor translating optical impulses into electrical ones. Barcode Readers are photoelectric (optical) scanners that translate the symbols in the bar code into digital code. in this system, the price or a particular item is set within the store¶s computer. MARK-RECOGNITION AND CHARACTER RECOGNITION DEVICE These are three types of scanning devices that sense marks or characters. They are usually referred to by their abbreviations- MICR, OMR and OCR.  Magnetic - Ink Character Recognition (MICR)  Optical Mark Recognition (OMR)  Optical Character Recognition (OCR) MAGNETIC - INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR) Magnetic Ink Character Reorganization, or MICR, a character recognition technology adopted mainly by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of cheques. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, or MICR, is a character recognition system that uses magnetizable ink ad special character. OPTICAL MARK RECOGNITION (OMR) Optical-Mark Recognition (OMR) uses a special scanner that reads ³bubble´ marks and converts them into computer ±usable form. The best well known example is the OMR technology used to read GRE and SAT Test. Or multiple choice question. In these cases the scanner read pencil marks that fill in circles or bubbles, on specially designed documents. OMR is also used in form and surveys. OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR) Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is the mechanical or electronic translation of images of handwritten or typewritten text (usually captured by a scanner) into machine-editable text. Or Software converts scanned text from images (picture of the text) to an editable text format (usually ASCII) that can be imported into a word processing application and manipulated. OCR characters appear on utility bills and price tags on department store merchandise. The wand reader is a common OCR scanning device. FAX MACHINE A fax-machine or Facsimile transmission machine scans an image and sends it as electronic signals over telephone lines to receiving fax machine which prints out the image on printer. Fax-machine Short for facsimile machine, a device that can send or receive pictures and text over a telephone line fax machine translates a picture into a series of zeros and ones (called a bit map) that can be transmitted like normal computer data

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Output Device
All those devices which is used to see the result (output) of the computer is called Output device. The output device can be divided into two categories. 1. Soft Copy Device 2. Hard Copy Device Soft Copy device Soft copy is data that is shown on a display screen or is in audio or voice form. It exists electronically. This kind of output is known as not tangible or it can not be touched. Monitor, Display screen is an example of Soft copy device. Hard Copy device Hard Copy is printed output. Hard copy is data that is shown on a Printer as printed form. This kind of output is known as tangible or it can be touched. Printer is an example of hard copy device.

A display screen used to provide computer output to user is called Monitor Example include Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Monitor, Flat Panel monitor and Liquid Crystal Display Monitor Quality of monitor is determined by two hardware 1. Monitor itself 2. Video Controller There are two Categories by the way monitor display color 1. Monochrome monitor 2. Color Monitor 3. Gray Scale Monitor MONOCHROME MONITOR A monitor that display only one color (such as Green, Amber and White) against contrasting background which is usually Black COLOR MONITOR A computer monitors whose screen can display data in color. A Color¶s monitor capabilities are based on a variety of factors current high resolution color monitors can display more than 16 million colors but they also can be set to display as few 16 color or varying shades of gray. GRAY SCALE MONITOR A monitor that display shades of gray on white or off-white background.

There are basic two types of monitor 1. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitor 2. Flat Panel Display/ Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

A Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube used as a display screen in a computer or video display terminal. OR A Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) is a type of monitor that uses a vacuum tube as a display screen. CRT monitor are mostly & commonly used with desktop computer

A thin, light weight monitor is used in Laptop computer and notebook computer. Most Flat panel display uses LCD Technology. Several types of Flat Panel but most common used is Liquid Crystal Display (LCD).

17 Introduction to Computer Science LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD).
A flat panel monitor on which an image is created when the Liquid Crystal Display becomes charged used primarily in Notebook. LCD uses a special kind of liquid crystal display that is normally transparent but becomes opaque when charges with electricity.

Printer is an output device that produces text and graphics on paper. A printer receives the information from the computer and prints that information on the paper.

Printers are classified into two categories. 1. Impact Printer 2. Non- Impact Printer

Impact Printer is a printing device that prints the information by striking against the paper. Impact printers include all printers that work by striking an ink ribbon. Daisy wheel, dot matrix, and line printers are impact printers. 1. DOT MATRIX PRINTER 2. DAISY WHEEL PRINTER 3. LINE PRINTER

Dot Matrix Printer Creates characters by striking pins against an ink ribbon. Each pin makes a dot, and combinations of dots form characters and illustrations. OR A type of printer that produces characters and illustrations by striking pins against an ink ribbon to print closely spaced dots in the appropriate shape. Dot-matrix printers are relatively expensive and do not produce high-quality output. However, they can print to multi-page forms (that is, carbon copies), something laser and ink-jet printers cannot do. Dot-matrix printers vary in two important characteristics: Speed: Given in characters per second (cps), the speed can vary from about 50 to over 500 cps. Most dot-matrix printers offer different speeds depending on the quality of print desired. Print quality: Determined by the number of pins (the mechanisms that print the dots), it can vary from 9 to 24. The best dot-matrix printers (24 pins) can produce near letter-quality type, although you can still see a difference if you look closely.

Daisy-wheel printer - like a typewriter but with the preformed letters on the ends of spokes to form a wheel. The letters strike an inked ribbon onto paper. They are very slow 1/2 PPM (page per minute). Very noisy and can only print the characters provided on th wheel and no e graphics (line drawings, pictures).

A line printer can print an entire line at a time, which normally covers 80 or 132 characters per second. Therefore these printers have 80 or 132 printing head for each character. A normal line printer can print 2500 line per minute PLOTER A plotter is a printer that interprets commands from a computer to make line drawings on paper with one or more automated pens. Unlike a regular printer, the plotter can draw continuous point-to-point lines directly from vector graphics files or commands. They are used in engineering applications where precision is mandatory.

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A printer that prints without striking the paper; for example, a laser printer or an inkjet printer. Non-impact printers are quieter than impact printers, OR A type of printer that does not operate by striking a head against a ribbon. Examples of nonimpact printers include laser and ink-jet printers. The term no impact is important primarily in that it distinguishes quiet printers from noisy (impact) printers. 1. LASER PRINTER 2. INKJET PRINTER 3. THERMAL PRINTER

Laser printer is a type of printer that utilizes a laser beam to produce an image on a drum. The light of the laser alters the electrical charge on the drum wherever it hits. The drum is then rolled through a reservoir of toner, which is picked up by the charged portions of the drum. Finally, the toner is transferred to the paper through a combination of heat and pressure OR Laser printers are non-impact printers which can print text and images in high speed and high quality resolution, ranging from 600 to 1200 dpi. The LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Rays) printers are quiet and produce high quality output. Laser printer use toner (Black or Colored powder) instead of liquid inks. A laser printer consists of these major components: drum cartridge, rotating mirror, toner cartridge and roller. The drum cartridge rotates as the paper is fed through. The mirror deflects laser beam across the surface of the drum. Laser beam creates charges the causes the toner to stick to the drum. As the drum rotates and presses on paper, tone to paper. Colored laser printers add colored toner in three additional passes

Ink jet printers are non-impact printers which print text and images by spraying tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. They are the most popular printers for home use. Inkjet printers are a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. Inkjet printers spray onto paper small, electrically charged droplets of ink from four nozzles through holes in a matrix at high speed. The ink jet printers have a dpi 300 to 2400 and spray ink onto the page a line at a time, in both high quality black and white text and high quality color graphics. There are three main technologies in use in contemporary inkjet printers: thermal, piezoelectric, and continuous.

Thermal printers are using colored waxes and heat elements to produce images by burning dots onto special. Thermal printer used ribbons that hold the ink (a wax binder ), and as the hot pins in thermal print head press the ribbon against the paper the wax melts and the ink in transferred to the paper. SPEAKER Speaker is an output device. An electro-acoustic transducer that converts electrical signals into sounds loud enough to be heard at a distance

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Storage devices
A storage device is a hardware device designed to store information. There are two types of storage devices used in computers; a 'primary storage' device and a 'secondary storage' device. PRIMARY STORAGE A storage location that holds memory for short periods of times. For example, computer RAM is an example of a primary storage device SECONDARY STORAGE A storage medium that permanently holds data and information as well as. For example, a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive is an example of a secondary storage device.

A floppy disk often called a diskette or simply disk is a removable flat piece of Mylar plastic packaged in 3.5 inch plastic case. Data and programs are stored on the disk¶s coating by means of magnetized spots. Floppy disks are slower to access than hard disks and have less storage capacity, but they are much less expensive. And most importantly, they are portable. Floppies come in three basic sizes:  8-inch: The first floppy disk design, invented by IBM in the late 1960s and used in the early 970s as first a read-only format and then as a read-write format. The typical desktop/laptop computer does not use the 8-inch floppy disk.  5¼-inch: The common size for PCs made before 1987 and the predecessor to the 8-inch floppy disk. This type of floppy is generally capable of storing between 100K and 1.2MB (megabytes) of data. The most common sizes are 360K and 1.2MB.  3½-inch: Floppy is something of a misnomer for these disks, as they are encased in a rigid envelope. Despite their small size, microfloppies have a larger storage capacity than their cousins -- from 400K to 1.4MB of data. The most common sizes for PCs are 720K (doubledensity) and 1.44MB (high-density). Macintoshes support disks of 400K, 800K, and 1.2MB.

A magnetic disk on which you can store computer data is called Hard Disk. Hard disks hold more data and are faster than floppy disks. A single hard disk usually consists of several platters. Each platter requires two read/write heads, one for each side. All the read/write heads are attached to a single access arm so that they cannot move independently. Each platter has the same number of tracks, and a track location that cuts across all platters is called a cylinder. Hard disks are thin but rigid metal, glass or ceramic platters covered with a substance that allows data to be held in the form of magnetized spots. Hard Disk stores and provides relatively quick access to large amounts of data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set of surfaces. Today's computers typically come with a hard disk that contains several billion bytes (gigabytes) of storage. Computer's main storage media device also called a hard disk drive or abbreviated as HD or HDD. The hard drive was first introduced on September 13, 1956. FLASH MEMORY Flash memory is non-volatile computer memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. It is a technology that is primarily used in memory cards, and USB flash drives (thumb drives, handy drive, memory stick, flash stick, and jump drive) for general storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital products.

20 Introduction to Computer Science
MAGNETIC TAPE Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. Magnetic tape used for video, audio storage or general purpose digital data storage Magnetic tape is thin plastic tape coated with a substance that can be magnetized spots (representing 1¶s) or non- magnetized spots (representing 0s). Today magnetic tape is used for backup and archiving that is for maintaining historical records where there is no need for quick access. In computing, magnetic tape was first used to record data and programs in 1951 as part of the UNIVAC 1 system. It was very popular as a storage medium for external memory in the 1950s and 1960s. OPTICAL DISK An optical disc is an electronic data storage medium that can be written to and read using a low-powered laser beam. Originally developed in the late 1960s, the first optical disc, created by James T. Russell, stored data as micron-wide dots of light and dark. A laser read the dots, and the data was converted to an electrical signal, and finally to audio or visual output. An optical disk is a removable disk usually 4.5 inches in diameter and less expensive than onetwentieth of an inch thick, on which data is written and read through the use of laser beam Optical disc storage, is non-volatile and sequential access. The following forms are currently in common use: [4]  CD, CD-ROM, DVD: Read only storage, used for mass distribution of digital information (music, video, computer programs)  CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R: Write once storage, used for tertiary and off-line storage  CD-RW, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM: Slow write, fast read storage, used for tertiary and off-line storage There are two common types of optical technology. The most widely used type is compact disk (CD) Technology which is used in CD-ROM, WORM, and CD-Recordable. The other type which has been steadily gaining in popularity over the fast few years is a hybrid that combines magnetic and optical technology. These devices are known as magneto ±Optical Drive.

CD-ROM Pronounced see-dee-rom. Short for Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory, a type of optical disk capable of storing large amounts of data CD-ROM (Compact Disc, read-only-memory) is an adaptation of the CD that is designed to store computer data in the form of text and graphics, as well as hi-fi stereo sound. CD-ROMs are popularly used to distribute computer software, including games and multimedia applications CD-ROM discs are read using CD-ROM drives, which are now almost universal on personal computers DVD- ROM DVD (also known as "Digital Versatile Disc" or "Digital Video Disc´) is a popular optical disc storage media format. Its main uses are video and data storage. DVD-ROM has data which can only be read and not written, DVD-R can be written once and then functions as a DVD-ROM, and DVD-RAM or DVD-RW holds data that can be re-written multiple times. MAGNETO- OPTICAL DRIVE Magneto ±Optical Disk combine some of the best features of both magnetic and optical recording technologies. An MO Disk is the capacity of an optical disk but can be written with the ease of a magnetic disk. MO disk are available today in various size and capacities. A magneto-optical drive is a kind of optical disc drive capable of writing and rewriting data upon a magneto-optical disc. . The technology was introduced at the end of the 1980s

21 Introduction to Computer Science

Operating system is a set of program that lies between application software and the computer hardware. It is the fundamental software that control access to all other software and hardware resources. OR Those software which boot the computer machine and manages all the hardware and software resources. Operating system provides an environment between the user and computer where desire task/goal can be achieved. Operating System consists of master system of programs that manage the basic operation of the computer. Operating system perform the following tasks  Co-ordinate processing  Manage the use of main memory  Allocates use of peripheral devices  Check equipment mal function and display error message  Manages file stored on disk

There are two types of operating system 1. Single user operating system 2. Multi user operating system SINGLE USER OPERATING SYSTEM Those operating system which do not provide multi-user environment because of not having networking feature Example DOS.

DOS stand for Disk Operating System. DOS is a single user operating system DOS is primarily use on IBM & IBM compatible microcomputer. DOS uses a character user interface (CUI). It is text user interface operating system. There two version of DOS. 1. PC ± DOS Personal Computer DOS made for IBM Computer 2. MS- DOS Microsoft DOS, developed for 16-bit microcomputers MULTI USER OPERATING SYSTEM Those operating system which provide multi-user environment because of having networking feature is called multiuse operating system Example Windows, Unix, Linux. 1. WINDOWS Windows is an operating system made by Microsoft Company that lays graphical user interface shell around the MS-DOS and PC-DOS and extend the Dos¶s Capabilities. Windows is a multi-user, multitasking operating system. Windows operating system is designed to support desktop and portable computer. Windows is Graphical User Interface (GUI). That enable user to select menu option by choosing picture called icon that correspond the appropriate processing option. The most widely used version of the Microsoft Windows family is Windows XP, released on October 25, 2001 Example: Windows 95. Windows xp, windows vista etc

UNIX is a multi-user centralized operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McElroy Unix was designed to be portable, multi-tasking and multi-user in a time-sharing configuration. UNIX is an operating system for multi-user and with built-in networking capability the ability to run on all kinds of computer from micro to mini to mainframe computer. The primary user of UNIX is large corporation and Banks etc

22 Introduction to Computer Science 3. LINUX
LINUX is a full 32-bit, multi-tasking operating system that supports multiple user and multiple processors. LINUX can run on nearly any compute and can support almost any type of application. Linux uses a command line interface but windows based GUI environment called shell are available. Linux kernel and other components are free and open source software

Programs that help people accomplish specific tasks are referred to as application software These programs, called application software are designed and created to perform specific personal, business, or scientific processing tasks, such as word processing, tax planning, computer games, spreadsheets, data base management software, Graphics multimedia, presentation application, utilities and communication software. WORD PROCESSING SOFTWARE Word processing software provides an extensive set of tools for working with text it is used to create all kinds of documents, from the simplest notes to complete books containing hundreds of pages, every day, millions of people use word processing software to create and edit memos, letter brochures, resumes reports and many other kinds of documents. Commonly used word processor MS-WORD. SPREADSHEET: A spreadsheet is a software tool for entering, calculating, manipulating and analyzing set of numbers. Spreadsheets have a wide range uses from family budgets to corporate profit and loss statements. You can setup a spreadsheet to show information in any number of ways, such as the traditional row-and ±column format or a stick report format with heading and charts. Commonly in used spreadsheet Lotus 123 and MS-Excel. DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A database is a repository for collections of related data or facts. A database management system (DBMS) is a software tool that lets users add, view, and work with the data in a database. Large databases and DBMS¶ are commonly used by companies, but many productivity applications are built around database concepts Commonly used Database management system is MS-ACCESS, ORACLE, SQL Etc. The main working of Database is Creating Database Tables, Viewing Records, Sorting Records, Querying a Database, Generating Reports PRESENTATION PROGRAM Presentation programs are used to create slides±single-screen images that contain text, graphics, charts, and more. A collection of slides is called a presentation. A presentation program lets you create a set of slides and show (present) them to an audience. Presentation programs provide many of the same editing and formatting tools found in word processors and other common applications commonly presentation program is MS - POWER POINT.

23 Introduction to Computer Science HIERARCHY OF LANGUAGES :
Languages are types of application software and consist on three types as mentioned bellow. MACHINE LANGUAGE: This is the language, which can be directly understood by the computer. Earlier programmers wrote their programs in machine language. Any information or instruction in this language is to be represented in terms of 0s and 1s. The digits 0 standing for the absence of an electric pulse and 1 for the present of an electric pulse. As a computer a is able to recognize the presence or absence of an electric pulse, it is able to understand the machine language. Each instruction in the machine language was usually broken into two parts which are known as operation code (p-code) and the operand. The operation code specified the operation to be done, and the operand gave the location or address of the data to be processed. If there is only one address of a memory location in an instruction then such an instruction is called a single address instruction. If there are two addresses of memory locations following the operations code then this instruction is called as two address instruction. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE: Here the sequence of zeros and ones that serve at operation codes in machine language are replaced by mnemonics¶ (memory aid or alphabetic codes). The operands are symbolized temporarily in later choosing by the program. Each assembly language instructions may have three parts, not all of which need occur in a given instructions. These are the first part is the label or tag. These are the programmer defined symbols that give the address of the instructions. Then follow the OPS code and the operand as with the machine language instruction. LOW LEVEL LANGUAGE: Low level language is machine oriented language. Which require extensive knowledge of computer circuitry? For Example the number of bits required to represent one instruction is determined by the word length of a location in central memory. Norm ally, an instruction of low level language consist of two parts, which are known as a function part (i.e. do some activity) and an address part (i.e. using the contents of an address location). The number of bits in the function part will determine. The number of possible unique instruction a computer can obey. The number of bits for the address part must complete the overall size (word) of the central memory. To prevent insanity on the part of the people who program at this low level, different mnemonics are used to represent the different binary patterns for each machine codes instruction. When using these machine mnemonics instead the pure machine code, this method of programming is called Assembly language programming. Therefore, the low level language further divided into machine language and Assembly language. HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE: Today one normally writes computer programs ³almost in English´ computer languages such FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC and other many, These are called High Level language to distinguish them from the low level languages that is machine and assembly languages. They are also called compiler languages, since the each require a special program called a compiler which translates programs written in that language into machine language. The original program written in high level language is called sources program and its translation in machine language is called object program. High level language shares three important advantages. Simplification Standardization Diagnostic error decision

24 Introduction to Computer Science
Since the terminology in high level language is almost the languages can be easily read and understood. Infect most people can write simple programs after few days study. The high level language has been standardized. Thus programs written in FORTRAN can be understood by people throughout the world. In particular these languages are machine independent. In so far as a high level language program can be accepted by any computer which has a compiler for that language. Each high level language has its own syntax or set of rules that govern the writing of the statements in the languages. Hence, before a program is translated and executed, the compiler checks the each statement in the program for syntax errors. All such errors are output and translation is not begun by the complier until all the errors have been correct by the programmer. FORTRAN: (Formula Translation): FORTRAN developed in 1957 was one of the first high level languages. As its name suggests, it syntax is similar to that of mathematically formulas, and scientific application, FORTRAN¶S primary advantages or its excellent mathematical capability and its compactness. Further more its compiler needs a relatively mall amount of memory and this can be used in the smaller computer. COBOL: (Common Business Oriented Language): COBOL was developed in the late 1959 as a universal for business applications. There are three advantages of COBOL as follow. It closely resembles English, so that programs written in COBOL can be followed by nonprogrammers. It can easily manipulate alphanumeric data example it can easily convert 0123456 to $ 123456 in COBOL, while it is difficult to do so in FORTRAN. It can handle I/O operations. Thus it is particularly useful for processing large data files. A disadvantage of COBOL is that it compiler requires a large amount of memory and so the use of COBOL is limited to medium and large computer. BASIC: (Beginners All Purposes Symbolic Instructions Code): Basic was developed in the late 1965 at DARMOUTH COLLEGE mainly to make it easier for student to use the computer for simple problem. It is similar to FORTRAN With slightly more English like qualities and with more ease and handling input and output data. An important advantage of BASIC as it is an interactive language .The programmer can directly interact with the computer via a keyboard terminal quickly writing, correctly and obtaining partially results of its program. Finally we not that basic is the language normally use with micro computers.

25 Introduction to Computer Science DATA COMMUNICATION
DATA COMMUNICATION Data Communication is the transfer of data from on device to another device via some form of transmission medium NETWORK Network is a group of interconnected computer system. Sharing services and interacting by means of shared communication link is called network TYPES OF NETWORK LAN =Local Area Network MAN = Metropolitan Area Network WAN= Wide Area Network

A Local Area Network (LAN) is a group of computer and network communication device interconnected within a geographically limited Area Such as Building or Campus or between near By building OR A LAN is a data communication system within building, plan, campus or between near by building. A LAN tends to use only one type of transmission medium (Cabling)

A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a group of computer and network communication device interconnected within a geographically limited Area of City. A Metropolitan Area Network can interconnect with local area network that uses different hardware and transmission medium. A MAN is a data communication system covering an area the size of town or city.

A Wide Area Network (WAN) interconnects with LANS OR MANS. A Wide Area Network (WAN) may be located entirely within a state or country it may be interconnected around the world. A WAN is data communication system spanning states, countries or the whole world

Network Topologies for LANs
A network's topology is the layout of the cables and devices that connect the nodes. The four most common network topologies are: Bus. Each node is connected in series along a single conduit. Star. All nodes are connected to a central hub. Ring. Nodes are connected in a circular chain, with the conduit beginning and ending at the same computer. Mesh. Each node has a separate connection to every other node.

The word MODEM stands for MOdulator, DEModulator. A modem is a device that converts digital signal to Analog signal and vice versa. PROTOCOL A protocol is a set of rules that govern how computers talk to each other.


26 Introduction to Computer Science
TCP/ IP Stand for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. TCP / IP is a widely used popular protocol. DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Project Agency) was an agency who developed the TCP/IP suite protocol and implemented in internet work called ARPANET (Advance Research Project Agency Network). By TCP/IP different computer system can reliable to exchange data on an interconnected network. It also provides a consistent set of application programming Interfaces to support application development. This means that software programs can use TCP/IP to exchange data. An example is web server and web browser

HTTP stands Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. HTTP is the set of rules for exchanging files (Text, graphic image, sound, video and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web (www). Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is the main protocol that is used to access the data on the World Wide Web. HTTP transfer data in the form of plane text, hypertext, sound, video& so on. How it is called Hyper Text Transfer Protocol because it use in hypertext environment where there are rapid jumps from one document to another

The Internet was created by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and the U.S. Department of Defense for scientific and military communications. It was conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. government in 1969 and was first known as the ARPANET The Internet, sometimes called simply "the Net," is a worldwide system of computer networks - a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer (and sometimes talk directly to users at other computers) The Internet uses high-speed data lines, called backbones, to carry data. Smaller networks connect to the backbone, enabling any user on any network to exchange data with any other user WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW) The World Wide Web is a part of the Internet, which supports hypertext documents, allowing users to view and navigate different types of data. A Web page is a document encoded with hypertext markup language (HTML) tags. HTML allows designers to link content together via hyperlinks. Every Web page has an address, a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) ELECTRONIC MAIL (E-MAIL) Electronic mail (e-mail) is the most popular reason people use the Internet. To create, send, and receive e-mail messages, you need an e-mail program and an account on an Internet mail server with a domain name. To use e-mail, a user must have an e-mail address, which you create by adding your user name to the E-mail server's domain name, as in jalbanishazad@yahoo.com Web Browsers: Web Browsers are applications used to navigate and view documents on the Web. There are two browsers commonly used in the world. Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet

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