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NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
i NASA SP-142

A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

"...fo_thebenefe'tof
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Space Applications Programs Office


Office of Space Science and Applications

Scientific and Technical Information Division


OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION April 1967
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
Washington, D.C.
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents,

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402


Price 70 cents
FOREWORD
The second half of the 20th century is characterized by an explosive in-
crease in the powerful instruments available to mankind in the shaping of its
destiny, for either good or for evil. New technologies have grown so rapidly
as to offer a wide array of capabilities from which the leaders of the society
are able to choose their tools in the pursuit of their goals. Significant among
these are the teclmologies that have been expanded or created in response to
the drives for the exploration of space, an exploration not yet 10 years old.
But, if our age is characterized by the burgeoning of new forms of power,
so has the history of our Nation always reflected the search for wisdom in the
use of that power. One of the major avenues of intellectual and program
effort that have guided the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
has been the concept, at first unproved but now clearly valid, that space sys-
tems can provide unique, direct benefits to man, benefits not before possible or
economically feasible. We do not yet know the full range and scope of the
possibilities that manned and unmanned spaz_cra_ open for the service of
man. Those few particular applications upon which the United States has
concentrated in the past have borne out that promise: Communications, navi-
gation, geodetic, and meteorological space systems are operational today and
their existence, once exotic, has already become woven into the permanent
fabric of our society.
It is clear that many potential applications exist; it is not clear today
which of these should be pursued, nor on what time scale, nor at what cost.
Beginning in the summer of 1967, the National Academy of Sciences is con-
ducting a study that will bring to bear upon these questions eminent inde,
pendent scientific and technical talent. NASA is pleased to encourage and
participate in such a searching inquiry, since only through such a free ex-
change of ideas in a free society can true progress be made or a sound basis
for the major decisions of the future laid down. This survey of space appli-
cations for the benefit of man represents the current NASA thinking, has in-
corporated as many as possible of the views of our colleagues working in those
areas which we feel space can s_rve, and is published as a source and docu-
ment baseline for continuing discussion and inquiry in this important area.

JAMES E. WEnB,
Administrator,
NationaZ A eronautics and Space Administration.
°°o
11|
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We wish to express our grateful appreciation to those individuals from
other Agencies who assisted in the preparation and editing of various parts
of this Survey, particularly th_ following:
A. G. Alexiou ........... Naval Oceanographic Office.
W. Fischer ............. U.S. Geological Survey.
Dr. Richard Hallgren___ Environmental Science Services Adminis-
tration.
A. B. Moody ............ Federal Aviation Agency.
Dr. A. B. Park .......... U.S. Department of A_owiculture.
Robert Porter .......... Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare.
We wish also to acknowledge the efforts of many others within and out-
side of the Government who contributed to the preparation of this document.
iv
D

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
I. Introduction ............................................... 1
II. Communications ........................................... 11
Introduction ............................................... 11
Small Terminal Multiple Access Communications ............... 11
Broadcast Satellites ........................................ 18
Satellite Aids to Lunar, Planetary, and Deep Space Communica-
tions .................................................... 26
Data Collection and Retrieval ................................ 29
Data Relay Satellites ....................................... 33
III. Earth Resources ............................................ 37
Introduction ............................................... 37
Agriculture and Forestry Resources ........................... 38
Geology and Mineral Resources .............................. 44
Geography, Cartography and Cultural Resources ............... 50
Hydrology and Water Resources ............................. 56
Oceanography .............................................. 62
IV. Geodesy ................................................... 73
Introduction ............................................... 73
Geometric Geodesy ......................................... 73
D Gravimetric Geodesy ....................................... 80
V. Meteorology ............................................... 87
Introduction ............................................... 87
Weather Observation and Prediction .......................... 88
Weather Control/Modification ................................ 98
Air Pollution ............................................... 105
Atmospheric Structure for Model Atmospheres ................. 111
VI. Navigation ................................................. 119
Introduction ............................................... 119
Position Determination ...................................... 119
Traffic Control and Search Rescue ............................ 125
VII. Future Applications ......................................... 131
Introduction ............................................... 131
Reusable Aerospace Transports ............................... 131
Orbital Recovery of Material and Equipment for Examination
and Rescue .............................................. 132
Space Environment for Therapeutical Purposes ................. 133
Industrial Applications of Space Resources .................... 134
V

D
I. INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE this growth will continue at the same pace.
This document is a basic contribution of the That this may be the case is indicated by the
National Aeronautics and Space Administra- intense interest in potential applications ex-
tion to the projected 1967 summer study on hibited in several diverse fields of interest, and
space applications. The objectives of this sur- by the rapid advances in space technology.
vey are: In view of this rapid expansion of space tech-
1. To focus attention on the real and nology and of applications thereof, it is con-
sidered desirable at this time that the NASA
potential applications of space technology
to civil needs, and program, and our estimates of future applica-
2. To summarize work done to date, ef- tions, be subjected to a critical and impartial
review. The results of such a review will be
fort under way, and program plans; to
identify policy and technical problems yet of great help in pursuing objectives which stem
to be resolved; and to provide a selected from functions assigned to NASA under the
bibliography. National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958.
These objectives are:
SUMMER STUDY OBJECTIVES To develop and test procedures, instruments,
The objectives of the summer study are to subsystems, spacecraft, and interpretive tech-
gain the results of a searching interdisciplinary niques in the various applications areas.
inquiry by highly qualified independent scien- To accomplish long-range studies of the
tists, engineers, and selected experts and gen- potential benefits to be gained from_ and the
eralists into: problems involved in, utilization of space activi-
1. The feasibility and practicality of ties for peaceful and scientific purposes for the
benefits of mankind.
using space systems for meeting existing
and foreseen needs on the Earth. A comprehensive and meaningful space ap-
2. The economic tradeoffs of providing plications program can help to maintain U.S.
for such needs with space systems, with scientific, technological and economic leader-
conventional techniques, or of not provid- ship and give the space program expression in
ing for them at all. terms readily understandable by laymen and
3. The direction and priority of existing, statesmen as well as scientists and engineers.
planned, and recommended U.S. research, The U.S. has established an unequalled record
development, and operational activities in of scientific achievement in space. EquMly
this field. important is a U.S. role in space applications
This inquiry must be made in the light of the which is appreciated by policy maker, business-
many policy, legal, social, and political factors man, and taxpayer. Return on dollar invested
that impinge upon the use of space systems for has a down-to-earth connotation_ and space ap-
civil applications. plications can demonstrate dollar returns in
many of its discipline areas.
BACKGROUND
As will be evident throughout this paper,
The timeliness of a space applications sum- space applications are unique in that the NASA
mer study is attested to by the unexpectedly applications R. & D. program, leading to the
rapid growth of applications during the first development and demonstration of a particular
years of the space era, and the probability that technological capability, is only the beginning
2 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

of a chain of events involving continued use of jor areas of interest are agriculture and forestry,
the technology by other agencies to gather data geology and mineralogy, hydrology and water
(e.g., meteorological satellites) or to provide a resources, geography and and cartogTaphy, and
service (e.g., communications satellites). Be- oceanography.
yond the user of the space technology is a cus- Geodesy determines the location of every
tomer who benefits from the improved service point on the surface of the solid Earth and of
resulting from the use of satellites. These dis- the oceans in a common coordinate system, and
tinctions become particularly important in as- monitors the time variability of the location of
sessing the economic benefits of space applica- these points with the maximum accuracy tech-
tions, and in determining the relationships of nology allows. While geodesy is a science in
the Agencies involved. its own right, it is included here as an appli-
At the time of writing, space technology has cation because it provides an important service
already been applied operationally to communi- to geographers, cartographers, navigators and
cations, navigation, meteorology, and geodesy. others involved in sp'_ce applications.
In each case, operational application has been Meteorology covers global and local obser-

preceded by an extensive research and develop- vation of day and night cloud cover, quantita-
tive measurement of atmospheric structure and
ment progr,_m which demonstrated the tech-
nical feasibility of using satellites. Now, spac_ radiative flux (both contributing to more accu-
rate and longer range weather forecasting), de-
applications are being considered in areas where
the experimental background is less extensive, tecting and analyzing air pollutants, and
weather modification and control.
or non-existent. Thus, coverage in the various
chapters of this document will vary from ex- Navigation provides, with satellites, a com-
munications and traffic control (position deter-
trapolgtion from an extensive experimental
base to speculative extrapolations. Speculation mining) capability for ships and aircraft supe-
has been employed deliberately, in assessing rior to that now possible with the low, medium,
future possibilities, to stimulate thinking on the and high frequency systems which must be used
directions in which space applications might on or over the open ocean.
Future applications reflects NASA thinl<-
proceed.
ing far into the future when the role of nmn
APPROACH in space becomes clear and prolonged nmnned
The discussion in this survey is divided into missions are possible. It considers such appli-
these major sections, within each of which cations as space transportation, industrial pos-
several specific applications are discussed: sibilities, and discovery and exploitation of re-
Communications. sources on oIher bodies in the Solar system.
Earth resources. Each of the individual applications discus-
sions is organized along the same lines, viz:
Geodesy.
Meteorology. 1. Status and prospects of existing methods.
Navigation. 2. Possible space applications.
Future applications. 3. Assessment of potential economic bene-
fit.
Communications includes the use of satel-
4. Assessment of other implications.
lites not only for the kinds of service normally
5. Background.
provided by common carriers and by broad-
casters, but also for the kinds of communica- 6. NASA plans.
7. Associated studies and activities.
tions and allied services provided by govern-
8. Suggested additional studies.
ment and private agencies for the aeronautical
9. Bibliography.
and maritime services, and for other communi-
cations services. 1. Status and Prospects of Existing (Non-

Earth resources involves the teclmology for space) Methods


surveying the Earth's natural and cultural Existing methods are examined to determine
(man-made) ro._ources from space. The ma- their capabilities in terms of timeliness, accuracy
INTRODUCTION 3

and geographic coverage. These capabilities 3. Assessment of Potential Economic Bene-


are weighed against user requirements. Fi- fits
nally, an e_timate is made of the degree to which Usually, there are two separate and distinct
existing methodology can be improved. If there aspects of this matter. One is the relative cost
is still a substantial gap between capabilities of acquiring data by satellites as compared with
and requirements, the applicability of space other means. The other is the economic benefit
techniques is considered. to the user of the processed data. For example,
Problems of existing methodology range from it will cost more to collect, analyze and distrib-
adequacy of synoptic coverage and data reduc- ute worldwide meteorological data using satel-
tion to the economic feasibility of surveying or lites than it now costs to collect meteorological
gathering data from extensive land masses and data on 10 to 20 percent of the Earth's surface.
ocean areas. For example, to attempt to give However, the economic benefit to the consumer
either the meteorological or oceanographic ana- derived from longer range weather forecasts
lysts the kind and type of data coverage desired ma.de possible by availability of worldwide data
is economically unfeasible using conventional may outweigh by far the relatively minimal
techniques such as surveillance aircraft, or additional cost of data collection, analysis, and
ocean surface vessels, or even deep sea buoys. distribution.
Benefits should not be construed too nar-
2. Possible Space Applications
rowly; in some cases, it will cost more to collect
The applicability of satellites for earth- data using satellites than is now being spent on
oriented applications is their ability to see and nonsatellite means. However, the benefit to the
be seen by large areas of the Earth--simultane- consumer may far outweigh the greater cost to
ously from high altitude, sequentially from low the user.
altitude. Satellites can survey polar regions, In the Earth resources area, enormous eco-
other uninhabited or uninhabitable areas and
nomic benefits may be realized when it becomes
the vast oceans, storing the data acquired over feasible to survey the Earth's natural and cul-
these regions for readout at some later time. tural resources from space. While the cost to
Geostationary satellites can provide uninter- the user--the surveyor--may be considerable,
rupted service to or observation of vast areas of the use of spacecraft to survey Earth resources
the Earth, while low altitude satellites can pro- should become more economical with time, as
vide detailed observations of the Earth, its at- the survey (sensory) capability of individual
mosphere and its oceans with a frequency and spacecraft and systems grows beyond a single
clarity never before possible. disciplinary area.
Satellites can be equipped with a wide variety In some areas, the Summer Study Group may
of electromagnetic sensors at visual, infrared, or have to make its own assessment of benefits, be-
radio waveleng_chs. In fact, sensors already in cause such information has not yet been devel-
use or under consideration span the entire EM oped.
spectrum--long-wave radio receivers to monitor Wherever possible, potential economic bene-
sferics (static caused by lightning) ; microwave fits should be "quantized" to demonstrate spe-
radiometers; infrared sensors at various wave- cific economic advantages of the satellite
lengths; and cameras for photographing cloud approach.
cover.
Satellites can also carry radio repeaters, for 4. Assessment of Other Implications
a wide variety of communications services rang- This section considers political, social, and
ing from the already-existing intercontinentM other aspects of space applications, both pro
common carrier service, to the collection and and con.
relay _o processing centers of data from sensors The benefits which have resulted from com-
in fixed or moving platforms located on the munications and meteorological satellites in the
Earth's surface, on or in the ocean, or in the form of improved communications and under-
atmosphere. standing and in timely warnings of weather

259-790---_7_2
A SURVEY
OFSPACE APPLICATIONS

phenomena are well known. Even so, the full search on new materials, processes, and tech-
potential of meteorological and communica- niques applicable to space activities, and
tions satellites is still unrealized as the follow- development of sensors and spacecraft to dem-
ing sections of this prospectus will attest. onstrate technology usable in one or several
The benefits which can be realized from the specific applications. Research activities are
remote sensing of the Earth's natural and cul- not necessarily applications oriented; precise
tural resources are expected to be substantial spacecraft stabilization is equally use:ful whether
especially for developing countries. The ex- the spacecraft is looking outward at space or
ploding world population creates an urgent re- inward at the Earth.
quirement for better methods to uncover the
7. Contributing Studies and Activities
Earth's resources. Only through a current and
complete inventory of the Earth's full resources This section complements sections 5 and 6,
can improved and more efficient resources man- by presenting current and planned activities
agement be applied. To realize such benefits, known to be underway outside of NASA, both
it will also be necessary to resolve complex prob- domestic and foreign, which are considered rele-
lems of territorial access, international use of vant to the study. It includes the related activ-
survey data, etc. ities of other V.S. Government agencies such
Broadcast satellites can open new vistas for as the FAA, ESSA, U.S. Geological Survey,
mass information and education, but broadcast and Director of Telecommunications Manage-

satellites will raise new problems of assuring ment; known activities of private industry and
international order, if their emissions are not academic or nonprofit organizations; and
confined to national boundaries. applicatiolrs-oriented programs in foreign
countries.
5. Background
8. Suggested Additional Studies
This section deals with the previous activity
This section indicates those elements of infor-
which is the basis of our current program and
of our predictions for the future. In some mation which will probably not be available as
areas, there is an extensive background of space a result of current or previous efforts by NASA
experiments and space-oriented research. This or others, so that those who will participate in
is particularly true in the area of communica- the study may take steps beforehand to fill these
tions and meteorology, where space flight pro- gaps in the input.
grams date back 5 years or more. In other 9. Bibliography
areas, the background is less specific; however,
This includes not only technical references,
visual and infrared pictures acquired in the
but references dealing with economic, political,
meteorological and manned space flight pro-
social, and legal aspects of space applications.
grams have already provided valuable inputs to
In addition to Ol)en literature items, it refers to
our study of the Earth resources survey pro-
intern./1, unpublished material not available for
gram, and pictures from high altitude aircraft
general distril)ution.
have provided valuable correlation with pie-
There is some redundancy and repetition in
tures from space.
these discussions due mainly to the common-
6. NASA Plans ality of sensors and of spacecraft to more than
This section outlines not only the current, one al)plicatiolL For example, the Applica-
approved NASA program in each area, but also tions Technology Satellites discussed in Chal)-
outlines the future possibilities for applications ter l I: "Colnnnlnications," will also (.arry me-
teorological and navigation experiments; and
as we see them, based on currently available
evidence. The summer study will assess these future Applications Teclmology Satellites are
possibilities, and others, from all standpoints, intended to I)e even more versatile experimen(s
and provide guidance on the most promising platforms. Sensors developed initi'dly for me-
avenues for future work. NASA's current teorology are already finding application in the
and l)lanned l)rogr.tms consist of advanced re- Ealcch resources ai_a. In fact, an iml)o_ant
INTRODUCTION 5

objective of NASA's space applications effort sors. On the other hand, data transmission
is to provide multipurpose sensors and space- capability from manned spacecraft to ground
craft. Translated to operational systems, this may be quite limited, especially the capability
will spread costs over a larger area of applica- to physically return records to earth. This pro-
tions per system, and reduce the cost to a par- vides additional impetus for selective observa-
ticular user. tions as opposed to continuous recording.
In assessing opportunities and techniques, Policy Considerations.--In the bTational
one should keep constantly in mind an extreme- Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, Congress
ly important problem faced in both experi- declares that it is the policy of the United States
mental and operational systems--that of com- "that activities in space should be devoted to
municating and processing raw data and dis- peaceful purposes for the benefit of all
seminating processed results. Should the sen- mankind."
sor collect and transmit data continuously or Satellites are by their very nature interna-
selectively ? What format should be used to tional, and NASA has made agreements with
facilitate automatic processing? Will the vol- many foreign countries for participation in
ume of communications overload available fa- NASA experimental programs for communica-
cilities? Are frequencies allocated or allo- tions, meteorology, tracking, geodesy, etc. A
cable for the type of service envisioned? Dif- complete catalog of NASA international agree-
ferent applications will have different require- ments is contained in (9). Examples include
ments. Meteorol%o T requires several synoptic the U.S.-U.S.S.R. bilateral cooperation in com-
pictures each day, while some Earth resources munications and meteorology (8), contributions
applications may have renewal rates of days, to the plans of the _Vorld Meteorological Orga-
weeks, or months. The equipment, manpower, nization (WMO) for an advanced international
and dollar costs for timely collection and con- meteorological program (world weather watch)
version of sensory data into useful informa- (4), and the agreements under which a dozen
tion, and distribution of the information, are countries constructed earth stations to partici-
essential elements of the overall evaluation. pate in testing experimental communications
The discussions do not include consideration satellites (9).
Df possible military utilization of the tech- In the applications area, the United States
nology, or of the data from particular appli- has now joined in a cooperative venture with
cations. This is because (1) unique military many other nations (the international telecom-
requirements are being met with unique mili- munications satellite consortium--Intelsat) to
tary systems, and (2) "common" requirements build a global communications network (6).
are furnished by DOD to the cognizant non- Our TIROS cloud pictures have been made
military Government agency (e.g., FAA, available on a real-time basis to any country
ESSA) and incorporated into their overall sys- willing to make a small investment in ground
tem requirements. readout equipment. Potential users are inves-
_Vhile the utility of man in space is discussed tigating a common satellite navigation system,
in the individual sections, it should be noted while the question of educational TV satellite
that man's role is still being assessed very de- systems is being widely debated.
liberately and is subject to further findings Space technology now promises help in tack-
concerning man's capability for prolonged work ling an even greater task--the gathering of
in the space environment. information about the Earth resources that man
Man may play a vital role in some applica- must be able to find and use if lie is to live
tions, either by augmenting programed scan- decently on this planet as its population grows.
ning with information from manually operated But while the potential uses of these new
sensors concerning areas or features of particu- technologies generated by the space program
lar interest, or by providing information--such excite the imagination and promise direct eco-
as sea-state information--which may prove very nomic and social benefits to mankind, they
difficult to obtain with remote unmanned sen- nonetheless carry important policy implications.
6 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

Relationship Between R. & D., Exploita- other users--for example, NASA supports the
tion, and End Use.--Extending the range of Communications Satellite Corp. with tracking,
applications of satellite technology necessarily communications, and computing services during
poses new problems for the relationship between the initial phases of new Comsat missions.
research, exploitation, and the role of the end NASA launches TIROS operational satellites
user. Institutional arrangements will vary in and makes comprehensive tests in orbit before
each particular case, depending upon whether turning the satellites over to the Environmental
the function (1) can be developed as a com- Science Services Administration (ESSA), and
mercial enterprise such as communications; if an operating satellite malfunctions, control
(2) is a public service like weather information reverts to NASA for engineering analysis.
or aids to navigation; or (3) involves the col- Thus, there is a close and continuing interplay
lection and dissemination of commercially val- between development, demonstration, test, and
uable information as in the case of agriculture, operation.
oceanography, or geology. For example, the Sensitivity of Findings.--When the identity
evolution of the institutional arrangements for of the ultimate user of satellite-supplied infor-
exploiting communications satellite technology mation becomes more apparent, and when it be-
illustrates the complex relationships existing comes more apparent how that information is
between the initial R. & D. effort (NASA), the intended to be used, a whole range of political
exploiting function (Comsat), and the end user and economic questions may arise that will call
(common carriers and the public). for further investigation in depth. For ex-
In the ease of the TIROS weather satellites, ample, neither the Department of Agriculture
the requirements justified establishing a special- nor the Geological Survey would necessarily be
ized system so that a single agency (ESSA), the only end users of information gathered in
as the primary end user, could assume complete their respective fields; they may use this d_tta
operation and control. Under such circum- in pursuit of their missions and in developing
stances, the interagency relationships are rela- national policy, but they would also dissemi-
tively simple and have administrative proce- nate certain information of commercial value
dures evolving along with the technology. on crops and resources. Such information could
This pattern might not hold with future systems have significant economic, political, .md even
and particularly with the Earth resources sys- internatiomtl implications. Consequently, con-
tems which concurrently se_we a number of sideration needs to be given to the manner of
agencies and end users by means of multipur- release to assure public access on an equitable
pose sensors. basis as well as respecting privacy rights.
International Faetors.--The international
NASA's role h'ls been to develop space tech-
nology for actual or potential space applica- arrangements made by NASA in connection
tions (and this may in some instances necessi- with experimental programs, and the interna-
tate postulating requirements in order that the tional aspects of initial applications programs
teclmology can be advanced on a broad front). in communications and meteorology, have al-
Exploitation of space technology and developed ready been mentioned. Details on these ar-
calmbilities has chiefly been the responsibility rangements will be found in the cited references.
of user agencies, governmental and private. As Other international activities which might be
part of this exploitation, the user agencies have reviewed in preparation for the Study are: (a)
usually assumed the function of operating the the NASA/French agreement for Project
applications satellite systems. It can be noted EOLE, an experimental data-gathering satellite
that NASA, through the operation of its to operate in conjunction with balloons, (b) the
manned and unmanned missions undertaken to Indian Ocean and Inter-American experimental
advance space science and technology, has de- meteorological sounding rocket programs--
veloped great experience in and facilities for with their implications for future global net-
operational control of satellite systems. This works, and (c) other foreign national interests
operational capability is a beneficial adjunct to and capabilities in meteorological soundings.
INTRODUCTION

On the communications side, the status of tional contacts or in stimulating foreign expec-
INTELSAT, current planning for global and tations of benefit.
regional service, the necessity to review the (c) Careful consideration must continue to
Interim Agreement in 1969, and the problems be given to foreign participation and data shar-
and progress of ground terminal installations ing in earth sensing programs. The implica-
in developing areas, should be taken into tions of conduct, participation, and sharing
consideration.
must be distinguished as they may relate respec-
The actions of the U.N. Committee on the tively to hardware, raw data, digested results,
Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and of the Inter- and the analysis process itself. This problem
national Civil Aviation Organization in the is discussed further in a subsequent section on
area of navigation and air traffic control satel- legal factors.
lites should be reviewed. The current status (d) Given the considerations noted in (b)
and interest of international organization for and (c) above, a certain degree of foreign par-
geodetic satellite observation would be pertinent ticipation in early experimental work appears
as well. to be desirable in attesting to the bona tides of
With special relevance to the broad problems the program and U.S. motivations.
of developing international earth resources sur- (e) Where there is any prospect of a com-
veys, particular attention should be given to mercial character in future practical applica-
initial arrangements for international partici- tions, careful thought should be given to the
pation in airborne tests of remote sensors. Con- positive and negative experience which has been
crete examples of international interest in the had in organizing international participation in
first early products of earth photography in the commercial satellite communications.
Gemini program should also be noted (South (f) Consideration needs to be given to the
Africa, Peru, Sudan_ etc.). rights and obligations of the United States with
Interest has been stimulated on the part of respect to the collection, analysis_ dissemination,
developed countries in the NASA technology and use of data relating to foreign resources of
utilization program, particularly in France_ commercial value or potential. These rights
Belgium, and Euratom, and a policy has been and obligations may differ as between data of
formulated to govern the release of the pro- commercial interest in foreign national terri-
gram's products abroad and, at the same time_ tory, on the high seas or in Antarctica, or in
to promote the establishment of similar pro- outer space. The cost, locus, and staffing of the
grams overseas. In developing countries, such analysis process will all be of concern to other
as India, Pakistan_ and Brazil_ there is specific nations as well as to the United States.
interest in the possible use of satellite technologT (g) Consideration of satellites for broad-
for practical national applications. Paren- casting--to community or home receivers as dis-
thetically, the ELDO program and the French tinguished from use of satellites for network
Guiana range both hold special interest for program distribution--involves availability of
practical applications launchings. frequencies and broadcasting across interna-
Considerations for Future International tional boundaries. These problems may exert
Activity.--(a) It will be important :to preserve considerable influence on the technology re-
a careful distinction between the experimental quired, such as highly directive antennas to
period and any operational-commercial period confine illumination to one country or subcon-
in designing future programs since the types of tinent.
arrangements which are possible and appro- (h) International and national plans and
priate may differ very significantly in the two policies concerning frequency utilization for
periods. space applications will be a factor in all appli-
(b) The fact that remote sensing and earth cations areas. Allocations made by the Inter-
resources surveys from satellites have not yet national Telecommunications Union in 1963
been demonstrated on a significant scale should (2) are largely shared with similar terrestrial
dictate great caution in establishing interna- services. Sharing requires limitations (on
8 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

radiatedpower,frequencyassignment, flux den- al law upon earth-oriented data collection from


sity,antenna pointing)whichinhibit thegrowth outer space ? What legal obligations are placed
of both the spaceand terrestrial servicesin- upon a nation gathering data to share that in-
volved. TheSummerStudyGroupshouldbe- formation with other nations? Does any such
comefamiliar with the principal Reportsand obligation depend upon where the data is ob-
Recommendations of the InternationalRadio tained-from the sovereign territory of another
Consultative Committee in thisarea(atitsXIth state rather than from the high seas, for ex-
PlenaryAssembly,Oslo,1966)(3), andwith ample ? Can information obtained by satellite
relevantdomesticstudiessuchas thoseper- be exploited in some fashion to the detriment of
*..... _ by kJLD_IIAUI.'U
XOLllltt_t_. o.... _ ...........
/_ttDt2_tI'(31l ", , aIl_ by
JLll_tlbUbt5 the state yielding up the information ?
Jansky and Bailey for the Director of Tele- It is clear that a consensus on the foregoing
communications Management (1, 5). questions has not been reached; in fact, they
Legal Factors--Since the start of the space have not been the subject of much formal dis-
age, a legal regime governing activities in outer cussion in international forums. One of the
space has been taking shape. The legal prin- most important statements by the United
ciples have emerged in several ways. Certain States relevant to these issues was made by
principles have been established by tile action Senator Gore on December 2, 1962, as a mem-
and inaction of space and nonspace powers, ber of the U.S. delegation to the United Na-
thus taking the form of customary interna- tions, when he offered the view that observation
tional law. A wide international consensus on from outer space is as consistent with interna-
basic principles has found expression in resolu- tional law as is observation from the high seas.
tions of the General Assembly of the United "With malice toward none, science has decreed
Kations. Finally, the Test Ban Treaty and the that we are to live in an increasingly open world,
treaty governing the exploration and use of like it or not, and openness, in the view of
outer space (7), including the Moon and other (the United States) Government, can only
celestial bodies, signed January 26, 1967, by the serve the cause of peace."
Secretary of State, place a number of important It seems likely that the development of a con-
obligations and limitations upon signatory na- sensus regarding information-gathering from
tions engaged in space activities as well as con- outer space will not follow the relatively easy
ferring significant rights upon parties to the course of earlier principles of law governing
treaties. activities in outer space. It may well be easier
The emerging legal regime for outer space to reach a consensus on international arrange-
activities is, of course, superimposed upon the ments covering the conduct of such activities
universally accepted regime of national sover- than upon the basic rights and obligations that
eignty over the land, the continental shelf, the exist as a matter of law.
territorial seas, and the air space. However, Equally complex legal issues are posed in
where national sovereignty prevails, a nation connection with the use of communications
can largely control information-gathering with- satellites, particularly with regard to direct
in its borders and thus guard one of the most broadcast. Similarly, the uses to which knowl-
highly prized of its resources--its privacy. edge regarding weather may be put in the form
The principles of law that are emerging in re- of weather modification and control pose im-
spect to activities in outer space, which pro- portant legal questions. The framework within
claim freedom to explore and use outer space which these questions will be resolved is as yet
and deny such concepts as national appropria- not clear.
tion and sovereignty in outer space, in com-
To preclude any misunderstanding concern-
bination with the potential of satellites for
ing the intent of the summer study, this intro-
earth-oriented data collection, give rise to
duction will conclude with the observation that
challenging questions relating to this prized
the inquiry should not be considered as an effort
resource of privacy.
Among the questions posed are the follow- to justify the application of space _chniques
ing: Are there any limits placed by internation- to functions or services now performed with
INTRODUCTION 9

terrestrial means. The proposition for using alysis of the relative priority of a need, ,the
space teclmiques must withstand a critical an- ease of meeting it, and the cost of meeting it.

Bibliography

(1) Atlantic Research Corp. (Jansky & Bailey Divi- nomics," study for the Director of Telecom-

sion), "Space Service Spectrum Saturation," var- munications.

ious reports on a study for the Director of Tele- (6) U.S. Department of State, "Communications
communications Management. Satellite Corporation (COMSAT)--Agreement
(2) International Telecommunications Union, "Final Between the United States of America and Other

Acts of the Extraordinary Administrative Radio Governments, and Special Agreement Concluded

Conference to Allocate Frequency Bands for by Certain Governments and Entities Designated

Space Radiocommunication Purposes," Geneva, by governments," treaties and other interna-

1963. tional acts, series 5646.


(7) U.S. Department of State, treaty governing the
(3) International Telecommunications Union, Inter-
exploration and use of outer space.
national Radio Consultative Committee, "llth
(8) U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on
Plenary Assembly of the CCIR, Oslo, June-July
Science and Astronautics, staff study on future
1966, documentation to be available by June 1967.
national space objectives, July 1966.
(_) Interagency Committee for International Mete-
(9) U.S. Senate, "Texts of Executive Agreements,
orological programs, "Proposed U.S. Participation Memoranda of Understanding, and Other Inter-
in an International Meteorological Program," national Arrangements, 1959-65," staff report,
report, January 10, 1966. Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences--
(5) Stanford Research Institute, "International Tele- U.S. International Space programs.
communications Policies, Technology and Eco- (10) Ibid., p. 409.
II. COMMUNICATIONS
Introduction Sources of prime power having greater
Satellites are already an important adjunct capacity than solar cell power supplies.
to other means for common carrier communica- More precise spacecraft attitude control
tions. As the capability and versatility of satel- and station keeping techniques.
lites increase, we can foresee their application Better understanding of propagation
to a much broader field of communications. In through the ionosphere and atmosphere.
Better definition of the Earth's noise en-
this chapter, we consider the application of
vironment.
space techniques in five other areas. These are:
Apparatus to exploit the use of milli-
Point-to-point systems providing com-
meter, submillimeter and optical wave
munications among many small inexpensive
lengths.
transportable and fixed terminals having
Generation of high power RF energy in
simultaneous aceessibility to the satellite.
Broadcast satellites. This includes not space.

only the function of network program dis- Small Terminal Multiple Access
tribution, but also satellites broadcasting Communications
directly to communities (educational or
As used here the area includes, the conveying,
otherwise) for limited local distribution,
by satellites relay, of intelligence (aural, visual,
and eventually for broadcasting directly to
data, signal, or record traffic) from point-to-
individual home radio or television re-
point on the Earth's surface between ever in-
ceivers.
creasing numbers of small, inexpensive mobile
Satellites to relay communications be-
and fixed terminals having simultaneous or mul-
tween the Earth and lunar planetary and tiple accessibility to the satellite. Communica-
deep space missions.
tion with aircraft, ships, balloons, buoys, etc. is
Satellite communications systems to covered in other sections.
collect information from remote data gath-
ering stations (oceanographic, meteorolog- 1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
ical, hydrological, etc.), and relay this HF and VHF radio relays, UHF tropo-
information to centers for processing and spheric scatter links and submarine cables are
analysis. the principal ground based communications
Satellites in earth orbit to relay data systems utilized for long distance point-to-point
and/or voice communications from other communications today. HF radio, while still
mission spacecraft to mission control cen- in use, is not a dependable service because it is
ters, thus providing greater continuity of subject to the vagaries of the ionosphere and
communication and control. in locations where more than one reflection is
In each of these areas, technological advances involved, the multipath effect sometimes causes
will enhance the technical feasibility of the pro- severe fading of the received signal. VItF
posed service and influence the cost effective- radio is limited to line of sight distances, and
ness. The more important advances considered is therefore unsuited for long distance com-
in this chapter include: munications. The state of the art in UHF
Large structures erectable in space, for tropospheric scatter systems has advanced sig-
large antennas, large solar power arrays, nificantly in recent years. A chain of UHF
and solar concentrators. scatter links over a northern route does provide

11
12 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

channels across the Atlantic Ocean but the qual- access communications problem, the applica-
ity is dubious, the available bandwidth is lim- tion of space technology is considered to have
ited, and the cost is great. Moreover, such the greatest potential for solution to this
links would not serve for some transoceanic problem.
routes due to excessive distance between poten- a. A satellite, because of its high altitude, will
tial station sites. permit coverage of very large areas, thus ena-
While submarine cables currently in use are bling the establishment of communication links
distinctly limited in bandwidth to 128 voice between widely separated users. If the syn-
channels, cables utilizing advanced solid state chronous orbit is used, the area of coverage pos-
_ihla i_ nanrlv harni_nharla. Nearlv complete
repe_.ter technology h:ve been d_velopad.
These cables are reportedly capable of televi- earth coverage is possible with only three equally
sion bandwidths or 800 or more voice channels. spaced geostationary satellites.
A.T. & T. made application to tile Federal Com- b. The communications links between earth
munications Commission recently to connect terminals and satellites are inherently reliable
Jacksonville, Fla. with the Virgin Islands using because the propagation of electromagnetic
this kind of cable. Of the various existing waves in the region of the frequency spectrum
comnmnications methods, these advanced cables allocated to space communications is not ad-
offer the best prospects for high capacity point- versely affected by anomalies of the ionosphere
to-point communications. For short haul, high nor does it limit wideband transmissions.
deusity routes, such cables could probably com- Faraday rotatioll is not a problem and cosmic
pete with all other communications services. noise contributions are minimal at these
For longer distances, they may well run into frequencies.
economic or technical restrictions. It is noted c. If the satellite is truly geostationary, a
that cables can only serve users having access tracking capability is not required, thus per-
to fixed cable terminations, thereby limiting mitting the use of low cost, fixed antenna in-
potential user accessibility. Cables are also stallations on the ground.
limited in accommodating changing traffic d. Satellites can be designed for a number of
patterns. multiple access modulation teclmiques. If
All of these facilities except HF radio are time division multiplex (TDM) techniques are
constrained by their economics to service be- used, the user will receive all of the radiated
tween points having relatively large traffic re- power from the satellite. TDM seems to have
quirements. HF radio can provide telegraph the highest potential for communications be-
and limited telephone service almost, without tween small and mixed size terminals.
geographic restriction, but the telephone serv- e. If passive reflector communications satel-
ice in particular is substandard in quality and lites are utilized, the bandwidth available is
continuity due to ionospheric effects. almost unlimited because it is a linear device;
it can be used simultaneously in many ways, at
2. Possible Space Applications
many frequencies, and at different power levels
The capability for providing high quality without crosstalk. Terminal configurations,
communications links for transmitting voice, capacities and modulation/multiplexing tech-
television and data traffic between a few large,
niques can be changed at will.
sophisticated, and expensive earth terminals by f. In the future, satellite systems will be
satellites has been developed, demonstrated, and
required to accommodate an ever-increasing
reduced to commercial operational practice. number of smaller and smaller terminals of re-
Refinement and utilization of that capability is
duced cost. This can be provided by either
beintz carried out by the Communications Satel-
increasing the power handling capabilities of
lite Corp. and its foreign counterparts in
Intelsat. the satellite or by being able to direct energy
back to the users with increased precision, or
While existing terrestrial and satellite com-
nmnications methods fail to provide satisfac- both. Rapid progress is being made in both
areas under NASA and the Communications
tory solutions to the small terminal multiple
COMMUNICATIONS 13

Satellite Corp.'s flight programs. Further adequate or nonexistent. (Obviously some


advances might be constrained more by inter- trunk facilities are necessary in any case to
national regulations concerning frequency provide access to any Earth station from beyond
sharing than by technological limitations. its immediate vicinity.)
3. Assessment of Potential Economic Benefit e. It must be noted that large-scale multiple
access may also create new problems of its own.
Assessments of the potential economic bene- Widespread access to the spacecraft repeater
fits of point-to-point satellite communications will upset long-established patterns for central-
have been made by many authors. Less atten- ized control and routing of communications
tion has been given to date to satellite com- traffic; and may present problems in determin-
munications economics for small users than in
ing and charging for use of the system on an
the case of large users of major communication equitable basis. Access by many small termi-
routes. In the latter instance, the space seg- nals may result in less efficient use of the fre-
ment costs are small when compared to the cost quency spectrum. This depends, of course, on
of a few sophisticated, large earth terminals the methods of modulation and RF multiplex-
such as the Andover and Pleumeur Bodou facil-
ing employed.
ities. For small terminal multiple access com- d. Small terminal multiple access communi-
munications via satellite, the cost of the ground cations techniques and methodology could con-
segment is spread among many small terminals, tribute to those aspects of navigation, traffic
and the cost of the space segment is likely to control, air-sea emergency rescue operations
be as much as an order of magnitude greater (see ch. VI) which involve the transmission of
than Intelstat II. The potential economic intelligence to and from small terminals, such as
benefit to be derived is dependent on the number ships, aircraft, and emergency craft.
of small users, an unknown entity. A con-
certed economic assessment of the benefits is 5. Background
discussed later on in section 8, as a candidate a. Historlzal Development to Global System
for additional study. The need for communications satellites de-
4. Assessment of Other Implications veloped as a result of increasing world require-
ments for long-distance, real-time communica-
a. Existing communications satellites and
tions. In 1945, Arthur C. Clarke proposed a
those planned by the Communications Satellite
relay station in orbit as an artificial earth satel-
Corp. within this decade are not expected to
lite; however, this solution aroused little inter-
satisfy the needs of all small users. Some
est and lay dormant for more than a decade.
underdeveloped areas of the world may not be
By 1955, many technical solutions to the need
served by the commercial global satellite system
for long-distance communications had been ex-
(unless they have terrestrial connections to a
ploited, but all represented compromise of some
regional Earth station); and, it appears un-
form and most were limited by their very ter-
likely that all the underdeveloped areas of the
restrial nature. Clearly, the communication
world will be able to use the commercial system.
satellite was a better method, and in 1959 the
b. Exploitation of this application of space
National Aeronautics and Space Administra-
could result in important political and socio-
tion initiated a program to develop the necessary
logical benefits, demonstrate the vigor of the
technology.
sp_e effort on behalf of those unable to partic-
Echo I, a passive reflector balloon, was
ipate in the commercial system, and promote
the prestige of the United States in the under- launched August 12, 1960. This satellite has
developed areas of the world. been called one of the best ambassadors the
Large-scale access would also alleviate United States ever had inasmuch as it has been
another problem, that of providing long dis- clearly visible to millions of people throughout
tance terrestrial trunks for distribution of traf- the world.
fic to and from a few large regional earth Between July 1962 and August 1964, NASA's
terminals. In many cases these trunks are in- program resulted in the successful launches of
14 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

two A.T.&T. Telstars (July 10, 1962 and May signatories to an Agreement * * * '_* * * to
7, 1963), two relays (December 13, 1962 and establish a single global commercial communi-
January 21, 1964), another Echo (January 25, cations satellite system as part of an improved
1964), and three Syncoms (February 14, 1963, global communications network. * * *" Each
July 26, 1963, and August 19, 1964). signatory has designated a communications en-
Relay I provided the first satellite communi- tity to actually participate in the system. This
cations link between North and South America. Consortium of communications entities is
known as Intelsat. The U.S. member of the
With a history of 81 TV demonstrations, Re-
Consortium is the Communications Satellite
lay I has operated through more than twice its
designed lifetime, it ceased operations in t_orp. ( tJomsa_), WIIICII was O.XSb_blOllI$110._Al lit U_LA)-

February 1965. ber 1963 pursuant to the Communications Satel-


Syncom II, also operating beyond its design lite Act of August 1962. Comsat is also man-
life, has made outstanding contributions to the ager for Intelsat of the space segment of the
knowledge of gravitational anomalies. Syn- global system.
corn II has recorded more satellite communica- It is U.S. policy to support the single
tions, "ON" time than all other communications global commercial system concept. Under the
satellites combined. It continues to function concept of a single global system for commer-
after over 2 years in orbit. cial use, it will probably become desirable to em-
ploy a number of different types of satellites be-
Relay II has successfully conducted many TV
demonstrations and communications experi- cause there are unique requirements for domes-
tic and/or regional usages which are not easily
ments, and continues to function satisfactorily
in orbit. accommodated with a single satellite type. The
U.S.S.R. has already established an experi-
Syncom III was the first satellite to be suc-
mental-operational system using Molniya I
cessfully boosted, attitude controlled, injected,
satellites for intra-Soviet communications, and
and maneuvered into a preselected station in
there have been discussions of international use
geostationary orbit, requiring most precise
of this system. (The Soviets have reported
orbital control to accomplish.
that Molniya I because of its high power
Demonstrations have shown the feasibility
and directive antennas, makes use of smaller
and value of a communications satellite in gee-
earth terminals than is possible wi_h IT.S.
stationary orbit to provide multichannel voice
satellites.) Serious consideration is being
communications, multichannel teletype, and
given in the United States to domestic systems
TV, with and without simultaneous voice.
for TV program distribution, air traffic control,
Syncoin III successfully relayed the Olym-
and other uses. France has proposed an experi-
pics from Japan to the United States in Octo-
mental system for communications between
ber, 1964. Both Syncom's were turned over to
France, Africa, and South America. Several
the Department of Defense for operation on
other countries are known to be considering use
April 1, 1965. of satellites for domestic communications as
With regard to the status of foreign partici- well as for "external" traffic.
pation in communication satellite activities,
since 1961 foreign governments have been par- b. Multiple Access lrmpllcat_on._ and CCIR/
ticipating in the NASA experimental communi- I T U Regulation Constraints
cations satellite program. Bilateral agree- At the present stage of development, com-
ments have been made between NASA and munications satellites are power limited; that
Brazil, Canada, France, Federal Republic of is, the ratio of RF bandwidth to base b.aadwidth
Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Scandinavia, must be large to realize high quality traffic
Spain, the United Kingdom, and the Union of channels in spite of the low power output capa-
Soviet Socialist Republics. (The first phase bility of satellites.
of cooperative U.S.-U.S.S.R. experiments in In 1963, a total of 2,800 Mc/s was allocated by
communications satellites was executed in 1964 the International Telecommunications Union
using Echo II). Fifty-four nations are now (ITU) for communications satellite use pri-
COM_IUNICATIONS 15

marily in bands already allocated for terrestrial ping frequency coverage. This allows greater
point-to-point radio relay services. Such flexibility in "repeating" the use of the same
shared allocations were based on extensive frequencies.
studies by the ITU members, from which Another approach is the use of modulation
evolved specific conditions under which such techniques--such as pulse code modulation
sharing could succeed. (PCM)---having a greater tolerance for co- and
The principal criterion for sharing is that the adjacent-channel interference than wideband
flux density at the earth's surface shall not ex- FDM/FM.
ceed -159+ (s_/15)dbw/m2/4 KHz (s_ being The subject of frequency utilization is an ex-
the elevation angle of the satellite above the tremely complex one, involving tradeoffs among
horizon). many factors, not all of which are technical.
The introduction of new communications The factors which must be considered include
satellite services, at different frequencies, such the probable distribution of earth stations; the
as air traffic control services at VHF, and pos- required location(s) of satellites to serve these
sibly TV program distribution services at fre- stations; the degree of multiple acce_ that is
quencies other than those now allocated for feasible to serve the requirements; the traffic
so-called point-to-point services, may require volume and its variability in time and routing;
development of a new set of sharing criteria and the extent to which communications by
suited to the particular characteristics of the satellites will be applied to services other than
systems involved. "common carrier" communications.

As noted above, today's power-limited satel- 6. NASA Plans


lites employ frequency modulation with a large
a. Objectives of the Current Progranv
modulation index, so that RF bandwidth is
• To insure that the technology required in
several times greater than the baseband width.
the nationM interest for the establishment of
As the demand for satellite communications in-
future small terminal multiple access commu-
creases, so will the RF bandwidth requirement.
nications satellite systems is developed.
One can foresee the time when present alloca-
• To study the requirements for, and tech-
tions become inadequate. There is a require-
nically assess the applicability of satellites to
ment, therefore, to make better utilization of
the future needs of small terminal multiple
available frequencies.
access communications systems.
One avenue is increased ERP from the satel-
• To fulfill NASA's responsibilities under
lite-allowing reduction of modulation index. the Communications Satellite Act of 1962.
This avenue ends when the flux density limit is
• To flight test communications technology
reached.
for the geostationary orbit which is common to
Another is reuse of the same frequencies. a number of small user applications.
With the narrow beams characteristic of 40- to
• To conduct communications experiments on
85-foot earth station antennas, the same fre- the Applications Technology Satellite series of
quencies can probably be used for different satel- launches.
lites separated by 4 degrees or more as seen from
The last two objectives are the principal com-
the Earth. However, the trend is to increase
munications objectives of the current Applica-
satellite ERP to permit reducing the cost and tions Technology Satellite (ATS) program,
complexity of Earth stations. This will result discussed in the next sect ion.
in smaller antennas with wider beams, raising (1) Applications Technoloyy Satellites.--As
the angular separation between satellites neces- part of its program to develop and test space
sary to reuse the same frequency. technology for satellite communications, NASA
Still another way to improve frequency utili- plans to flight test various concepts of space-
zation is to design repeaters to pass only a por- craft stabilization and orientation techniques,
tion of the allocated band. Other satellites high gain phased array antenna of large size,
located in the same vicinity (within 4 degrees as and other communication techniques, including
seen from the Earth) could employ nonoverlap- millimeter and laser technology.
16 A SURVEY OF SPACE A_PLICATIONS

ATS flights in 1966 and 1967 will test tech- services is to employ frequencies above 10 GHz
niques for directing antenna beams from spin- for satellite communications, as exclusive allo-
stabilized spacecraft in geostationary orbit. cations in this range may be possible. ATS-E
ATS flights in 1967 will yield design data and will include a multimeter-wave propagation ex-
criteria for gravity gradient stabilization at low periment, as noted above, to explore the utility
altitudes, and in 1968 for synchronous altitudes. of these higher frequencies. NASA is also in-
The principal characteristics of the communica- vestigating the matter of experiments to pro-
tions related experiments on the ATS are vide additional data on the feasibility of shar-
summarized as: ing between proposed domestic communications
• Communications service quality consistent satellite systems and terrestrial radio relay sys-
with International Radio Consultative Com- tems in the 4 and 6 GHz bands. This work is be-

mittee (CCIR) recommendations. ing done at the request of the Director of Tele-
• Dual-mode transponders-frequency-trans- communications Management, Executive Office
of the President.
lation mode, 25 MHz bandwidth; SSB/PM
mode for multiple access, 5 MHz bandwidth. b. Future Possibilities
• 6,000 nautical-mile, three-axis gravity A follow-on Applications TechnologT Satel-
gradient experiment; launched April 5, 1967. lite (ATS-F/G) program to the present ATS
• Synchronous-equatorial, spin-stabilized A-E series of launches is planned. Broadly
spacecraft; ATS-I, launched December 1966, stated the ATS-F/G objectives are to develop
and ATS-C, to be launched in late 1967, with technology commonly required for several space
electronically despun phased array antenna applications and to provide for early flight test
(ATS-I), mechanically despun antenna (ATS- of experiments representing promising ad-
C), and VHF spacecraft to aircraft communi- vanced concepts for several different space ap-
cations experiment (both). plications. The effort is specifically directed
• Synchronous-equatoriM, three-axis gravity toward the geostationary orbit, which has many
gradient stabilized spacecraft; launch readi- advantages for space applications.
ness: ATS-D (mid 1968), ATS-E (late 1968). Specific technical objectives of ATS-F/G
• Ground terminals at Moj'tve and transport- are:
able station at Toowoomba; 40-foot parabola
• Large (30 foot) space-erectable parabolic
with Cassegrainian feed; 5.6 MtIz SSB trans- antenna with surface good to 10 GHz
mitter (1,o-00 channels) ; 240 channel multiplex
• Accurate (0.1 °) long-lived, three-axis
receiving equipment. Primary ground terminal
stabilization
(Rosman II) at Asheville, N.C., 85-foot parab-
• Antenna steering capability (across whole
ola with Cassegraini'tn feed; 5.6 MHz SSB
Earth in one-half hour)
transmitter (1,200 channels); 1,200-channel
• High gain (3040 db) multibeam antenna
multiplex receiving equipment.
• Precision radio interferometer
• Communications experiment-multichannel
• Other experiments requiring precise sta-
one-way telephony; multichannel telephone-
bilization
multistation loading ; high speed data transmis-
sion; color TV; VHF experiment; millimeter Among other things, these techniques would
wave propagation experiment (16 and 35 Gttz). contribute to the capability for communications
(2) Passive Satellites.--A study is underway among a number of small Earth terminals on
which will compare cost-effectiveness of active a multiple-access basis.
and passive communications satellites for vari- ATS flights in 1970 and 1971 will test active
ous applications considering recent advances in three-axis stabilization in a synchronous
modulation teclmique_% si_ml processing meth- equatorial orbit to 0.1 ° and to increase the or-
ods, availability of large boostel% and new mate- bital lifetime of such systems to at least 2 years.
rials, erection systems, and structural concepts. A 30-foot or larger diameter parabolic antenna
(3) Frequency Utilization.--One solution to will be on board and will be deployed after the
the problem of sharing frequencies with other satellite is placed in synchronous orbit.
COMMUNICATIONS 17

The high-gain, multibeam steerable phased --Notice of inquiry (Docket No. 16495),
array antenna, currently being developed, March 2, 1966, on establishment of domes-
would contribute to small terminal communi- tic noncommon carrier communication sat-
cations and their accessibility to satellites; the ellite facilities by nongovernmental en-
large parabola would also contribute by pro- tities.
viding high gain for spacecraft-to-ground --Notice of inquiry (FCC Docket No. 16979),
communications and a large receiving aperture November 10, 1966, regulatory and policy
for low-power ground transmitting. problems presented by the interdependence
NASA plans to utilize the technologies and of computer and communications services
teclmiques under consideration to demonstrate and facilities.
the capability for small terminal communica- 8. Suggested Additional Studies
tions on a multiple-access basis to detelanine
the optimum combinations for providing A comparison and tradeoff study of socio-
services to users. economic and political benefits and problem
areas would be useful to the planning for small
7. Associated Studies and Activities
terminal multiple-access communications sys-
.d a. A d Hoe Intragover_mental U ommwnicatio_s tems of the future. Studies of this kind should
Satellite Policy Coordination Committee be updated periodically and refined because by
(OTM) their very nature they defy precision.
The committee is examining policy questions Bibliography
relating to Government procurement of com-
(1) Aein, M. M., "Multiple Access Capability of a
munications services, utilization of satellites for Hard-Limiting Communications Satellite Re-
domestic services, U.S. leadership in communi- pea,ter With Spread-Spectrum Signals," Insti-
cations satellite technology exploitation and use, titute for Defense Analyses, Washington, D.C.,
April 1964, 43 pp.
Government funding of supporting research
Bedrosian, E., Feldman, N., Northrop, E., Soil-
and technology contributing to communications (2)
frey, W., "Multiple Access Techniques for Com-
satellite development, and adequacy of pro- munication Satellites--Survey of the Problem,"
grams in research and development to meet na- Rand Corp., Santa Monica, Calif., September 1964,
tional objectives. The Director of Telecom- 134 pp.
Bell Telephone Laboratories, "Special Issue on
munications Management is conducting a study (s)
Telstar I," Bell System Technical Journal, vol.
of frequency requirements through 1980_ and
XLII, July 1963, No. 4, pts. 1, 2, 3.
the results should be available in time for the (4) Bell Telephone Laboratories, "Special Issue on
study. Project Echo," Bell System Technical Journal,

(1) The Communications Satellite Corp. has vol. XL, July 1961, No. 4.
"Communications Satellites," a Continuing Bib-
conducted and is still conducting studies on both (5)
liography, NASA Office of Scientific and Technical
frequency division and time division multiplex Information. NASA SP-7004. Covers the period
(TDM) techniques for multiple access. A suc- 1957 to January 1966.
cessful demonstration of a TDM system was (6) "DOD-NASA Review of Communications Satel-

conducted in July 1966 through Intelsat I. lite Technology," J. R. Burke and J. Kaiser, Sep-
tember 1963, IDA/Hq 63-1870.
Also, Comsat has studied the application of
(7) Enloe, L. H., "Decreasing the Threshold in FM by
communications satellites to domestic common-
Frequency Feedback," Proceedings of the Insti-
carrier service, and other domestic and inter- tute of Radio Engineers, January 1962.
national services. (s) Erhardt, H. R., et al., "The Advanced Syncom

(5) The Federal Communications Commis- Communication Antenna System--A Directive


Array for a Spin-Stabilized Satellite," Hughes
sion has conducted several inquiries applicable
Aircraft Co., Culver City, Calif., In IEEE New
to these matters : Links to New Worlds, 1963 National Space Elec-

--Notice of inquiry (Docket No. 16058), tron. Symp. 1963, 33 pp.


Final Report on the Relay I Program," NASA
June 16, 1965, authorized entities and au- (9)
Special Publica,tion SP-76, GPO 1965.
thorized users under the Communications (10) Gay, A. C., and Greenberg, T. S., "The Potentials
Satellite Act of 1962. of High-Power Satellites for Communications,"
18 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

Radio Corporation of America, Princeton, N.J., programing material in terms of direct broad-
Systems Engineering and Space Tech., 1964, pp.
cast, community broadcast and distribution
40-43.
satellites. The direct broadcast satellite ampli-
(11) Greenbert, J. S., Gubin, S., and Handelman, M.,
"Overseas Commercial Communications Satellite fies and retransmits the standard TV signal for
Systems," Radio Corporation of America. reception by individual home radio or television
(12) International Radio Consultative Committee receivers of the conventional variety. (This
(CCIR) : Documents of the XIth Plenary Assem- type of reception could imply the use of a spe-
bly, Oslo, 1966 (particularly the documents of
cial antenna and preamplifier, but these would
Study Group IV, Space Systems and Radio-
astronomy). be of modest cost.) Satellites from which pro-
(13) Jaffe, L., Smith, T. A., and Attaway, L. D., "The gram material is received by more elaborate re-
Impact of Communications Satellites on the Less- ceiving equipment than the currently available
Developed Areas, Science, Technology, and home receivers are called community broadcast
Development." U.S. papers prepared for the
satellites. To complete the definitions, satellites
United Nations Conference on the Application of
from which program material is received by
Science and Technology for the Benefit of the
Less Developed Areas, vol. XII, GPO, January complex earth terminals, and delivered to the
1963. consmner via wire or rebroadcast by conven-
(14) Lutz, S. G., "Multiple Access Satellite Communi- tional local broadcast stations--are called d;_'-
cation," Hughes Research Labs., Malibu, Calif., tribution satellites. Community broadcasting
Final Report, Aug. 20, 1962-Aug. 20, 196:5. 74
and distribution sa.tellites might use nonconven-
pp. Refs NASw-495.
(15) Mueller, George E., "Satellites for Area Com- tional nmdulation techniques.
munications," Space Technology Labs., Inc., Re- 1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
dondo Beach, Calif., Astronautics and Aerospace
Engineering, vol. 1, March 1963, pp. 66-69. Television is discussed first because it is what
(16) NASA Techni_.,ql Report TR R-233, "Syncom most people think about. Until quite recent-
Engineering Report," Syncoln Proj. Office, God- ly, the television sign.tl that came into the home
dard Space Flight Center, vol. 1, March 1966.
was carried on an electromagnetic wave radiated
(17) Nichols, R. T., "Submarine Telephone Cables and
from a local television station's transmitting
International Telecommunications," The Rand
Corp., RM-3487-RC, February 1963. antenna. With the passage of time, many iso-
(18) Reiger, S. H., "A Study of Passive Communica- lated trod remote communities are now being
tion Satellites," Rand Corp., Santa Monies, C'llif., served by community antenna (CA'FV) systems.
N-63-13030, February 1963.
Direct transmission of instructional, educa-
(19) Reiger, S. H., Nichols, R. T., Early, L. B., and
tional programs to schools and univeluities, over
Dews, E., "Communications Satellites: Technol-
a five-state area in the midwest, is being carried
ogy, Economics and System Choiccs," The Rand
Corp., February 1963, RM--34S7-RC. out by Midwest Program Airborne Television,
(20) Schwartz, M. L., and Goldson, J. M., "Foreign Inc. (MPATI) using a high flying aircraft.
Particilmtion in Communi(.ations Satellite Sys- Since the major sources of television program-
tems: Implications of the Communications Satel-
ing material originate in a few cities, mainly
lite Act of 1962," The Rand Corp., February 19(;3,
RM 3484-RC. New York City and Los Angeles, a vast sys-
tem of broadcast networks has evolved over the
(21) "Spacecraft Antenml Systems," Finql Engineer-
ing Report, Hughes Aircraft Co., NAS5-3545, Oc- past twenty years. The means for distributing
tober l_363-January 1966. commercial program material to affiliated net-
(22) "Syncom II and III Evaluation Report," U.S. work stations are achieved primarily by micro-
Army Satellite Communication Agency, Nov. 30, wave relay and land cables. To satisfy the
1_4.
needs of those localities (beyond the range of
(23) "VHF Air('raft Satellite Relay," Final Report of
Flight Test, Bendix Radio Div., Bendix Corp., TV broadcasting) stations, CATV systems have
April 1965. moved into communities large enough to sup-
port the required investment. There are more
Broadcast Satellites
than 1,800 CATV installations in operation
To 'rid in discussing this space al)plication , it within the coterminus United States, which
is (lc_iral)h_ to define communications satellites utilize sufficiently elaborate antennas to pick
devoted to the service of delivering "broadcast" up weak signals from remote and shielded
COMMUNICATIONS 19

broadcast stations and feed signals into homes wave ( 3 to 30 MHz) and VHF (87.5 to 108
of the communities served using coaxial cables. MHz).
The sources of educational program material For aural transmissions in the HF shortwave
are much more limited in number than com- bands the dynamic fading effects which show
mercial television and only seven of the 115 or up as a distinct flutter of the voice program ma-
so educational television (ETV) stations are teriM is characteristic of long distance transmis-
regularly interconnected. Program material is sion. Such dependence on transmission by
put on video tape and mailed to the ETV sta- reflection from the ionosphere causes "Dead
tions. Facilities do not exist, as yet, to put Spots" (so-called skip distances) and prevents
color programs on video tape for distribution. reception in many areas. Because of the va-
Further, nearly all ETV stations would have to garies of the ionosphere transmission paths are
be modified to handle color programs. useful for only certain periods during a day.
In the United States, the technology and All these effects when combined with contiml-

existing methodology for monochrome and color ally increasing frequency assignment require-
television broadcasting is mature; for all prac- ments result in a mammoth frequency manage-
tical purposes the central problem is one of ment problem and unsatisfactory reliabili.ty.
cost. Microwave relay over subcontinentM For aural transmission of frequency modula-
distances is limited to approximately thirty mile tion programs, in the VHF band, presently used
hops, and they are costly and must be serviced transmission systems are limited in geographical
and maintained. Television bandwidth land distribution, have undesirable effects in fringe
cables are widely used, but they are costly and areas, with weak signals, and are subject to
limited by the number of channels which can be multipath effects in both urban and fringe areas.
passed. The introduction of FM-multiplex for stereo
Inasmuch as cost is the central problem in transmission requires an even stronger signal
television program distribution in the United and is also more susceptible to multipath effects
States, other solutions, such as satellites, are from both stationary and moving reflectors.
being considered by the networks and ETV be- 2. Possible Space Applications
cause the cost may be less when satellites are
a. A satellite, because of its high altitude will
used than with microwave relays and land permit coverage of very large areas, thus ena-
cables.
bling the establishment of a television program
The annoyance of "ghosting," particularly in distribution system capable of serving both
large cities, due to signal reflections from tall commercial and noncommercial (ETV) broad-
buildings, is an important transmission defici- cast outlets of subcontinents, such as the United
ency. The quality of color reception is degraded States. This particular application is con-
eveu more than monochrome television because sidered distribution communications and within
state of the art.
of smearing due to multipath. A solution to this
problem is transmission via wires, and the custo- In fact, much attention is being given to this
mer will be expected to pay for the service as subject in the United States, and four proposals
in the case of CATV. have been made to the Federal Communications
Commission (in response to FCC Notice of In-
Outside the United States, construc.tion of
quiry, Docket No. 16495, referred to in the pre-
microwave relays and/or land cables over un-
ceding section) for establishment of domestic
favorable terrain and a general lack of an ade-
communications satellite systems. The Ameri-
quate technology base pose very formidable
can Broadcasting Co. and the Ford Foundation
problems, particularly in the underdeveloped proposed systems exclusively for TV program
areas of the world, notwithstanding the eco- distribution, while the systems proposed by
nomic aspects. A.T. & T. and the Communications Satellite
In the related field of radio broadcast, radio Corp. would handle both TV program material
program material is transmitted on three fre- and common carrier communications. In Jan-
quency bands: HF (560 to 1760 KHz), short- uary 1967, the Carnegie Commissions recom-
20 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

mended a large-scale program for educational cally despun phased array antenna or a mechan-
TV, including the use of comnmnication satel- ically despun parabolic derived reflector
lites as appropriate. The most recent impetus antenna could be utilized to direct the radiated
to the program was President Johnson's mes- energy to the desired geographic areas.
sage to Congress on February 9_8,1967, concern- c. For underdeveloped countries, the instal-
ing health and education in which he recom- lation of a nationwide communication system
mended creation of a Corporation for Public capable of transmitting television program ma-
Television. The President said that one of the terial by use of radio relay and coaxial cables
Corporation's first tasks should be to study the could take more than a decade. A possible
practicality and the economi_ .qdvantages of solution is the installation of a distribution sat-
using communication satellites to establish an ellite to effect this TV distribution. This satel-
educational television and radio network. lite would have a visual channel and several
b. Most probably the earliest capability for associated voice channels. These voice chan-
effective space TV broadcasting would be based nels could be in several languages or dialects
upou the community broadcast satellite ap- when associated with the TV program material
proach. A community broadcast satellite, in or could carry independent radio program ma-
geostationary orbit, offers the potential for dis- terial. Such a system need not be limited to a
semination of instructional television directly small geographical area, and in fact could be
to educational facilities and communities. The tailored to many different geographical areas of
use of a satellite for this purpose appears to be almost any desired size and eonfigalration.
a natural followon to the MPATI program An alternative solution is the community
using aircraft. A more elaborate receiving broadcast satellite. Such satellites could be
system would be required, but the area of cov- effectively used to disseminate television pro-
erage could be extended from 5 States to 48 gram to educational and community facilities
States. For example, if one would pernfit the over subeontinental areas. A space capability
design of a new receiver, making use of fre- could be realized in the early 1970 time period,
quency modulation techniques instead of ampli- if it is desired.
tude modulation techniques, and permit the d. A direct bro'td('ast TV satellite, in geo-
use of a special outdoor antenna connected to stationary orbit, offers the potential for provid-
the receiver--then the following could be done. ing a new dimension in mass information dis-
pensing to entire populations. By its very na-
• Spacecraft weight and size could be main-
ture, a single geostationary satellite could serve
tained within the limits of proven launch
vehicle combinations. geographical areas of one to 3 million square
miles; and quality of reception improved over
• Spacecraft components and subsystems re-
terrestrial broadcasting because signal degrada-
quired for community broadcasting could
tion factors such as reflection, terrain absorption
make use of technology which is either
and nmn-made noise might be greatly reduced
flight proven or in an advanced state of
because of the high angle of arrival and uni-
development.
formity of sigmal strength potentially possible
• The development time required for estab-
with a geostationary satellite. The high arrival
lishing an operational capability could be
angle of signals from the satellite should also
as much as one-half that needed for direct
reduce nmltipath effects and ghosting, a prime
broadcast satellites.
source of picture degradation or smearing in
The teelmology for such a joint space-ground color reception, and permit satisfactory recep-
system is within reach within this decade. For tion in mountain areas where conventional cov-
examl)le , one spacecraft design concept would erage is spotty or poor. Antennas used with
be basically an outgrowth of NASA's current home TV receivers, and at earth terminals used
A1)plication Technology Satellites (ATS) to transmit program material to the satellite
which utilizes an expanded cylindrical solar could be fixed, thus reducing the cost and com-
cell array to increase available solar power with plexity associated with tracking antenna sys-
miuimal weight increase. Either an eleetroni- tems.
C01_EVIUNICATIONS 21

The satellite system will have to be technically tional FM and/or shortwave radios could be
compatible with contemporary receivers in its used to overcome the deficiencies in existing
area of coverage : that is, it will have to employ methodology. Shortwave transmission from a
the same standards as terrestrial transmitters, broadcast satellite located over the desired geo-
so that the viewer needs only a single receiver. graphical area such that its transmissions will
Where more than one political subdivision is to penetrate the ionosphere would provide a signal
be served, the satellite design will be more com- without as much fading and flutter effects.
plicated if television standards of the subdivi- .Frequency modulation broadcasting of multi-
sion are different. channel voice programs could be likewise dis-
There are no frequency allocations, as yet, for tributed over much larger geographical areas
satellite broadcasting services. Because of the than at present, eliminating the so-called fringe
high signal strength required, it may not be areas that surround metropolitan areas and
feasible to share frequencies now assi_md to providing a signal free of multipath and there-
terrestrial communications services. Exclusive fore more suitable for FM-multiplex transmis-
allocations may be difficult to obtain at fre- sion of stereophonic programs.
quencies where competition is intense. Radio broadcast satellites are beyond the state
A direct broadcast TV satellite will have to of the art because ¢he gain of the spacecraft
radiate a great deal of power so that the signals and ground-receiving antennas must be limited
it retransmits will be strong enough to be picked to manageable dimensions. Hence, the space-
up by conventional home TV receivers. Such craft transmitter power must be of the order
satellites would require primary power sources of a few kilowatts if the transmitted signals are
considerably beyond the 35-kilowatt capabilities to be strong enough to be received by conven-
of even the nuclear-turbealternator of the
tional radios. If desired, a space capability
SNAP-8 class, the largest for which technology could be demonstrated in the early 1970's.
is under development, unless the conventional
3. Assessment of Potential Economic Benefit
TV receiver is equipped with a directive antenna
augmented possibly by a preamplifier. In such Assessments of potential economic benefits of
an approach, the onboard satellite power re- broadcast satellites have been made by a number
quirement could be reduced to about 20 kw. No of investigators. The most recent and most
such power sources now exist, but there is work publicized assessments were submitted to the
underway on nuclear and even solar power sys-
Federal Communications Commission by the
tems at this level. The direct broadcast TV
Ford Foundation and others in response to the
satellite would also require the development of
Commission's Notice of Inquiry of March 2,
a large-space erectable antenna that could be
1966, in the matter of the "establishment of do-
accurately pointed at a particular geographical
mestic noncommon carrier communications-sat-
area. Some preliminary work is now underway
ellite facilities by nongovernmental entities,"
on space erectable antennas. If the necessary
power source and antenna development pro- Docket No. 16495. The Commission's inquiry
grams are vigorously pursued, this kind of satel- was initiated as a result of an application by
lite capability might be possible in the mid- the American Broadcasting Co. to own and op-
1970's. Techniques must also be developed for erate a communications satellite for network

generating the requisite RF power, cooling the distribution of television program materials to
high power components, and efficient means its affiliated stations. The Ford Foundation in-

found for dissipating the heat losses in these dicated that the toll receipts from audio and
components. The Apollo Applications pro- visual transmissions during 1965 were $65 mil-
gram may provide the requisite capability for lion. While ABC's figures were somewhat
placing such heavy payloads in orbit, whether lower, both entities estimated that substantial
manned or unmanned. annual savings could result from the use of com-
e. Direct broadc_t radio satellites capable of munications satellites for network distribution.

transmitting aural program material to conven- (A detailed discussion of these proposals, and
22 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

the related question of subsidizing distribution 4. Assessment of Other Implications


of ETV program material, is beyond the scope Broadcast satellites could do the following:
of this doctunent. The proposals have been
a. Show how advanced space technology
quoted extensively in the press, and will prob-
might help speed up the socio-economic devel-
ably be the subject of hearings before the Sub-
opment in critical areas of the world.
committee on Communications of the Senate
b. Further associate the United States with
Commerce Committee.)
the peaceful exploitation of space and, at the
The Radio Corp. of America completed a
same time, project the U.S. concern with help-
study of TV broadcast satellites in the sum-
..... of _"_ TT-_ India as an exampl e, a •._$ .... _upmg areas of the world.
_" .coup. Ublllg
satellite broadcast system would require 20 e. Properly timed, be a bold and imaginative
percent of the cost required by existing political gesture toward a particular country or
area.
methodology.
In May 1966, Mr. Vincent Rock, in a speech d. Bring the advantages of modern mass com-
delivered at the AIAA Communications Satel- munications to regions lacking ground telecom-
lite Systems Conference, stated that "satellite munications or broadcast networks.
educational and informational television is e. Bring modern teaching techniques to areas
leading the edge of a trillion dollar market for where educational facilities are limited or non-
communications and educational systems. This existent, promote health and hygiene, and pop-
market is to be found among the 2 billion ulation control.
people of the developing nations of Asia, f. Provide news and informational facilities
Africa, and Latin America." previously lacking in underdeveloped regions.
In another speech, on the same conference,
g. Fortify tendencies toward national unity,
Mr. R. Burns presented an econometric analy-
provide more widespread cross-cultural fertil-
sis of a satellite system for educational TV,
ization, and promote the utilization of a single
considering several countries. For India, he
language in areas where multiple languages or
estimated that the total annual cost for the
dialects are used.
space-ground system would be $10.43 million.
h. During emergencies, provide vital services
Using an estim'tted 89 million students, by 1970,
as a supplement to terrestrial communications
the annual cost per student would be $0.12.
systems such as civil defense warning.
Under a NASA sponsored contract, Jansky
and Bailey made a study of the "technical and Under certain conditions, broadcast satellites
cost factors affecting the reception of television could possibly affect U.S. interests in an adverse
from a synchronous satellite." The study con- sense, especially if improperly introduced.
sidered costs of receiving systems as a function Appropriate and adequate consideration to the
of effective radiated power (30 to 90 DBW) nontechnical problems of providin_ for such
from a satellite over the frequency range, 0.2 services can produce technical solutions which
to 10_ GHz, and for quantities of 1, 100, 10,000 minimize political and international concerns.
and 1 million receiving units. A companion There are other questions which need answer-
study of the technical and cost factors affecting ing. For example, would satellite broadcasting
the transmission of television program material
make more efficient use of the frequency spec-
from synchronous satellites is being made by
trum, thus freeing presently allocated broad
NASA.
frequencies to other services, or would frequency
The potential economic benefits to be derived
from broadcast satellites is dependent upon allocation problems be compounded? Another
question is whether or not. exclusive frequency
many fatting, and the purposes for which they
are intended to serve. A concerted economic allocations would be required or will it be pos-
assessment of the benefits is discussed later on sible to share frequencies with terrestrial broad-
in set, t ion 8, as a candidate for additional study. cast systems?
C01VI1VIUNICATIONS 23

5. Background for direct broadcasting from space. However,


a. Historical Development of Bro '_lcast Satel- the ITU does recognize the possibilities, and its
lite Systems Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) is
studying the technical aspects of the matter in-
The general subject of using satellites as
cluding what frequency bands are technically
broadcast stations is by no means new. In fact,
suitable; whether space and terrestrial broad-
it was the mission envisioned by Arthur C.
casting can share frequencies; the criteria for
Clarke in his original paper on extraterrestrial
sharing if it is deemed feasible; and the pre-
relays which appeared in the literature in 1945.
ferred technical characteristics of satellite
Since then, the subject has been widely discussed
broadcasting service.
by many authors. While the concept is now 22
The lack of allocations for space broadcasting
years old, it is only recently that space technol-
is not an impediment to experimentation to this
ogy has developed to a point where it is prac-
ticable to consider the development of such area. Paragraph 115 of the ITU radio reg-
satellites within the foreseeable future. Most ulations allows use of frequencies in deroga-
of the historical development of communica- tion of the allocations if such operation does
not cause harmful interference. Paragraph
tions satellites described in section A (5a) of the
118 allows member nations to make special
communications area is applicable here.
agreements for suballocation of frequencies
The U.S.S.R. has already established an
(e.g., the United States and Canada might
experimental-operational system using Molniya
I satellites for intra-Soviet communications. agree to use one TV channel for space broad-
The first satellite Molniya I was launched into casting). Paragraph 700 enjoins experi-
an elliptical orbit on April 23, 1965. The orbit menters to avoid harmful interference.
inclination was 65 ° , and the period about 12 ITU allocations to the broadcasting service
hours; apogee over the Northern Hemisphere are listed below for information:
was 40,000 km. and perigee above the Southern Region I 1 Region _ Region S
Hemisphere, 500 km. (The inclination of the 11, 700-11, 975 Kgz
15,100-15, 450 KHz
17, 700-17, 900 KHz
orbit enhanced the stability of the line of 21,450-21,750 KHz
apsides.) Three more of these satellites were 25, 600-26, 100 KHz
41-47 MHz 44-50 MHz
47-68 MHz 54-68 MHz 54-68 MHz
launched during 1965 and 1966. The trans- 68-74. 6 MItz
75. 4-88 MHz
mitter power output is 40 w. and the spacecraft 87. 5-100 MHz 88-100 MHz 87-100 MHz
100-10_ MHz 100-108 MHz
antenna has a gain of 18 db. At the XI 170-174 MHz
174-216 MHz 174-216 MHz 174-216 MHz
Plenary Assembly of the CCIR, Prof. N. 210-223 MHz
470-960 MHz 470-890 MHz 470-585 MHz
Kaplanov reported on the numerous communi- 11.7-12. 7 GHz

cations experiments, voice and television, which i A map showing the boundaries of these regions is on p. 450 of the radio
regulations (Geneva, 1959). Region 2 includes North and South
the Soviets had conducted with Molniya I America.

satellites between Moscow and Vladivostok;


Frequencies at which community broadcast-
and on experimental transmissions of color tele-
ing might be possible are the frequencies now
vision programs from Moscow to Paris using
allocated domestically for TV field pickup, TV
frequency modulation techniques and the
studio-to-transmitter links or ETV. These are
French color system, called Secam. On other
942-952 MHz, 1999-2101.5 MI-Iz, 2450-2690
occasions the Soviets have reported _hat
MHz, 6887.5-7112.5 MHz, 10,567-10,678 MHz,
Molniya I, because of its high power and direc-
12,719__-13_237 MHz.
tive antennas, makes use of smaller Earth
terminals than is possible with U.S. satellites 6. NASA Plans
for transmission of television program material.
a. Objectives of the Current Program
b. ITU Position
(1) To insure that .the technology required
The International Telecommunications Union in the national interest for the establishment of
has not made any specific frequency allocations future broadcast satellite systems is developed.
24 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

(2) To study the requirements for, and tech- the study contractors. Each contractor is study-
nically assess the applicability of satellites to ing the technological and costs factors which af-
the future needs of broadcast communications fect the feasibility of direct voice broadcast
systems. satellites capable of transmitting aural program
(3) To conduct flight tests in the geostation- material to conventional FM radio and/or
ar T orbit applicable to broadcast satellites. shortwave receivers. Final reports will be is-
(4) To conduct communications experiments sued in February 1967 and these will be made
on the Applications Technology Satellite series available to the Summer Study group.
of launches. (2) Two or more studies are being under-
taken in 1967 on the technical and cost factors
b. Future Possibilities
that affect the transmission of television pro-
A followon Applications TechnologT Satel- gram material from synchronous satellites.
lite (ATS-F/G) program to the present ATS These will be companion studies to the Jansky
A-E series of launches is planned. The ATS- and Bailey study on receiver costs.
F/G program objectives are given in paragraph (3) Supporting research and technology ef-
6c of the preceding section II-A. forts, initiated in 1966, will contribute to a
The high-gain, multibeam steerable phased better understanding of the noise environment
array antenna, curren'tly developed, could con- throughout the VHF and UHF frequencies of
tribute to distribution broadcast satellite appli- interest; comparisons and trade-offs will be
cations and their accessibility to satellites; the made of various kinds of space power supplies
large parabola could also contribute by provid- which could satisfy broadcast applications; as-
ing high gain for direct voice/TV broadcast sessments will be made of existing technology,
applications. and problem areas will be defined in the high
NASA plans to utilize the technologies and power component and subsystem areas.
techniques under consideration to demonstrate (4) Advanced research areas have been iden-
the capability for distribution satellite applica- tiffed in the transmitting tube area. Studies
tions. should be undertaken to improve the efficiency
Under consideration for possible implementa- of operation, to increase the lifetime of high
tion in the Apollo applications program are emission density cathodes, and to investigate
plans to place a manned spacecraft in synchro- present techniques and new concepts applicable
nous orbit which would serve as a communica-
to efficient cooling of high power tube compo-
tions laboratory. Although the initial stay time
nents and means of dissipating heat losses.
of the astronauts would be limited, the labora-
tory would be revisited on subsequent missions. 7. Associated Studies and Activities
On these visits, additional equipment and con- a. Interagency Committee
sumables would be delivered, repairs would be
The committee has been studying modes of
effected, and experiments would be altered in
delivering educational material to entire popu-
accord with the results achieved previously.
lations so that the peoples of the world can bene-
The use of the Saturn V launch vehicles permits
fit. Broadcast satellites are being considered as
payloads in the 50,000-pound class which re-
a possible delivery mode, among other ap-
lieves many of the previous constraints on trans-
proaches. The results of this effort may or may
mitter powers. The use of astronauts permits
a greater latitude of adjustments, repairs, large not be available for the summer study.
erectable structures, and flexibility in conduct- b. Ad Hoc Intragovernmental Communications
ing experimeuts. Satellite Policy Coordination Committee
c. Broadcast Satellite Studies (OD_M)
Discussed in paragraph 7 of preceding section
(1) NASA has two ongoing studies in the
II-A.
voice broadcast satellite area. The Radio Corp.
of America and the General Llectrlc " (30. are
_' c. The Federal Communications Commission
COMMUNICATIONS 25

has conducted several inquiries applicable to Bibliography


these matters, as cited in II-A-7.
(1) Atlantic Research Corp., Jansky and Bailey Sys-
d. Carnegie Commission on Educational Tde- tems, "Technical and Cost Factors that Affect

vision Television Reception from a Synchronous Satel-


lite," ARC TR-PL-9037 for NASw-1305, June 30,
This commission, sponsored and financed by 1966.
the Carnegie Foundation, conduc£ed a broadly ($) Burns, R. F., Delfico, J. F., Hauer, S., Kestle, W.
conceived study of noncommercial television It., Hughes, "An Economic Analysis of an Educa-

and reached the unqualified conclusion that a tional TV Distribution System," American Insti-
tute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper No.
substantially larger, more pervasive and effec-
66-321.
tive educational TV system must be brought (3) Communications Satellite Corp., "Technical Plan
into being (9). of Communications Satellite Corp. for ,the Provi-
sion of Satellite Services To Meet Various Domes-
e. CCIR/ITU Study Activities
tic Communications Requirements," FCC Docket
CCIR Study Group IV Space Systems and 16495; filings Aug. 1, 1966, and Dec. 16, 1966.
Radio Astronomy, Study Group X (Br_d- (4) Ditchett, H. S., GE, "Economic Appraisal of a
casting) and Study Group XI (Television) General Purpose Direct TV Satellite," ASR Memo
106, GE, Philadelphia.
have been requested by the International Tele-
(5) Ford Foundation, "Comments in Response to
communications Union (ITU) to expedite its
FCC Notice of Inquiry on: Establishment of
studies relating _ all aspects of aural and _ele- Domestic Non-Common Carrier Communications-
vision broadcast from sa_llites. Many docu- Satellite Facilities by Non-Governmental Enti-

ments have been written on broadcast satellites, ties," FOC Docket 16495; filings Aug. 1, 1966, and
including consideration of broadcast satellite Dec. 16, 1966.
(6) Halsey, A. G., "Space Age Radio-Frequency Allo-
feasibility, orbits, transmitter characteristics,
cations," Astronautics and Aeronautics, May 1966.
preferred frequency bands, sharing with ter- (7) Haviland, R. P., "GE--Proposed Space Telecast-
restrial services, and world-wide standards. ing Standards," Proceedings of GLOBECOM
Reference to these documents have been placed VI, Philadelphia, June 1964.
(8) Haviland, R. P., "GE---Selected Studies of Space
in section 9 (Bibliography).
Broadcasting," 15th Congress, IAF, Warsaw, Sep-
f. Studies of Broadcast Satellite Feasibility and tember 1964.
Economic Assessments (9) Carnegie Commission, "Report and Recommenda-

Numerous studies have been made in this area tions on Educational Television," Report to the
President, Jan. 25, 1967.
by various industrial organizations such as Gen-
(10) Herbstreit, J. W., "Propagation Factors for Satel-
eral Electric, Radio Corp. of America, TRW, lite Broadcasting," NASA Colloquim on Satellite
Philco, Fairchild-Hiller, Hughes Aircraft and Broadcasting, Washington, Oct. 8,1965.
the Communications Satellite Corp., to mention (11) Hornig, Donald F., "Communications and Civili-
zation," address by Special Assistant to the Presi-
a few. Studies have been made by the broad-
dent for Science and Technology, IEEE Interna-
cast networks and the Ford Foundation. Some
tional Conventional Banquet, Mar. 23, 1966.
of these activities have been reported in terms (12) Kelly, Charles M., "Goodyear, Potential Passive
of responses to the Federal Communications Satellite Communication System for all Nations,"
Commission "notice of inquiry," Docket No. 15th Int. Astro. Congress, September 1964,
Warsaw.
16495, March 2, 1966. Six'teen responses were
(13) Marsten, R. B., "Operational Telecasting by
turned in to the Commission on August 1, 1966.
Spacecraft by 1975," AAS 1966 Meeting on Practi-
8. Suggested Additional Studies cal Space Applications, Paper 66-24, Feb. 23, 1966.
(14) Martin, E. T. and Jacobs, G., "Some Technical
A policy study of socioeconomic and political Factors Affecting the Feasibility of Direct Broad-
benefits and problem areas would be useful to casting From Earth Satellite," USIA, Journal of
assist in planning broadcast communications the SMPTE, vol. 71, June 1962, p. 436.
satellite pro_oTams of the future. Studies of (15) Rosenberg, L., "Economics of Worldwide Tele-
vision," Communications Central, March 1966.
this kind should be updated periodically and
(16) Underhill, Bradford B. and Little, A. D. "Home
refined because of their very nature, they defy
TV via Satellite," Electronics World, p. 39, May
precision. 1966.
26 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

(17) NASA Colloquium on Satellite Broadcasting, present techniques is inadequate. However,


Washington, D.C., Oct. 8, 1965. narrow bandwidth communications, e.g., voice
(18) American Institute of Aeronautics and Astro- and telemetry links, can be supported on Mars
nautics (AIAA), annual meeting, 1966.
missions ush_g presently available techniques.
(19) American Rocket Society, 17th annual meeting,
The situation could be even more difficult for
Los Angeles, November 1962.
(20) International Radio Consultative Committee planetary landers, manned or unmanned, of
(CCIR), Documents of llth Plenary Assembly, planetary ionospheres and/or atmospheres con-
Oslo, 1966, particularly documents IV-1004, 1006, tribute additional path attenuation.
1026, 1030, 1052, 1053, and XI-1022.
For lunar missions, the Unified S-Band
(USB) system developed for the Apollo
Satellite Aids to Lunar, Planetary and
manned lunar landing program, can provide
Deep Space Communications
bandwidths which will allow slow-scan TV,
Satellites in Earth orbit or in planetary orbits and reasonable improvements in the system
may find importaI_t application as data relays should overcome any shortcomings.
to improve the communications capability be- Surface-to-surface communications between
tween the earth and lunar, planetary and deep explorers on the Moon's surface are strictly
space missions. limited to the line of sight (which is short be-
1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods cause of the Moon's diameter). The alternative
of HF communications is ruled out by the ab-
Present technology will probably preclude
sence of a lunar ionosphere.
near term, high capacity, real-time communica-
It is of course not possible to communicate di-
tions directly between the surface of the earth
rectly between Earth and satellites occulted by
and sophisticated planetary and deep space mis-
the Moon, or between Earth and stations on the
sions. Data rates from planetary distances are
back side of the Moon.
presently very low, due to limited RF power
generating capabilities on board the spacecraft 2. Possible Space Applications
(a few hundreds of watts, at most) and the lim-
The use of satellites in orbit around the Moon,
ited size of antennas which can be enclosed in
at Earth-Moon stable points, in orbit around
the nose fairing of the launch vehicle. For ex-
Mars, and in orbits around other planets to sup-
ample, with 85-foot antennas at the Earth sta-
port future missions, is a means for both in-
tions and a 50 ° K. system noise temperature, and
creasing the communications capabilities of
with a 20-w. transmitter, a 3-foot diameter an-
manned and unmanned flybys, orbiters, and
tenna and the modulation techniques employed
landers, and minimizing their required com-
aboard Mariner IV, the data rate from Mars
munications payload.
was only Sl/t bits per _c_nd. With the 210-foot
The use of a relay satellite at or near the
antenna now in operation at Go]dstone, the data
Earth-Moon stable point located 60,000 km. be-
rate at Mars distance could be expected to be
hind the Moon could provide communications
50-70 bits/seconds. Moderate improvements in
with lunar orbiters, landers, and explorers on
spacecraft ERP can be expected (one or two or behind the back side of the Moon. This ca-
orders of m'tgnitude), and further iInprovement
pability could also be provided by relay satel-
(perhaps as much as one order of ma_o_itude) lites in orbit around the Moon, although there
might be realized by using complex data process-
might be brief interruption of communications
ing on board the satellite, but the additional to the Earth due to occultation.
complexity might not be tolerable.
In general, it is not practical to use very short
Assuming linear increase in data rate, these wavelengths in communicating from the sur-
improvements would raise the capability at
face of the Earth to space. However, it will be
Mars distance to perhaps 50,000 bits, equivalent possible to use millimeter, submillimeter, and
to a baseband of 25 KHz. Assuming that, for perhaps optical wavelen_hs for communica-
future manned missions to Mars the desired tions from the Moon or Mars to the relay satel-
communications capability is nearly live tele- lite, as atmospheric attenuation is inconse-
vision, it is obvious that the growth potential of quential. Furthermore, since millimeter and
COM_V_CATIONS 27

submillimeter wavelengths are greatly attenu- 4. Assessment of Other Implications


ated in passing through the Earth's atmosphere, Even if there should be no net economic
there would be little or no likelihood of inter-
benefit from using satellite relays, there are
ference between Earth and space use of these
other benefits accruing from the use of these
wavelengths. techniques to improve communications with
The very accurate spacecraft stabilization lunar, planetal_] and deep spac_ missions.
techniques and electronic beam steering ex- There is the national prestige associated with
pected to be achieved in the later Applications the superior scientific results which are almost
Technology Satellites F and G and other flight certain to be obtained with greater communica-
programs would permit these short wavelengths tions capability; and we can certainly expect
to be efficiently utilized. an enormous popular demand for television
The use of the Moon as a shield against the from manned planetary missions.
entire spectrum of emissions from the Earth From the standpoint of mission effectiveness,
could ensure that signals received from space and safety of astronauts on manned missions,
are not contaminated by emissions of terrestrial a substantially higher data rate would permit
origin. This shielding could be useful for the telemetering of much more information on
scientific exploration of the universe since the status of the astronauts and of the spacecraft
atmosphere on the Moon is very thin, and could and its subsystems. This would improve the
also lower the noise environment when relay- capability of mission control to monitor and
ing signals from spacecraft deep in space and in analyze mission progress, and make changes to
effect obtaining clear channel reception. Com- optimize a mission or even to forestall failure.
munication stations thus shielded from Earth
could be located on satellites in low selenocen- 5. Background
tric or other special orbits and could relay Experience with ground control of manned
(store and forward) information to Earth (5[ercury and Gemini) missions, unmanned
when they are not occulted by the Moon. Com- lunar (Ranger, SumTeyor, Lunar Orbiter, and
munication stations on the back side of the lunar some Explorer satellites), unmanned plane-
surface would need a communications relay, tary (5_ariner, Pioneer), and numerous un-
such as a communications satellite in lunar or- manned Earth orbital missions, has provided
bit, in order to relay their signals to Earth. an extensive and invaluable background of ex-
3. Assessment of Potential Economic perience on both ground and spacecraft
Benefit technology" for communications with these
Two areas of economic benefit are involved. spacecraft.
One is the relative cost of increasing the data This experience has led to the development
rate with and without using satellite relays (if of the Unified S-Band (USB) system, which
indeed the desired capability can be realized at uses a single RF system for all spacecraft track-
any cost within reason without a satellite relay). ing and communications functions. It is cur-
The other benefit, less easily evaluated, is the rently in use in the Manned Space Flight
amount of data retrieved per unit of time. Network (MSFN) to support the Apollo
Savings can be moderate, by decreasing the op- program in both earth orbital and lunar mis-
erating time for support of a given mission, or sions, and in the Deep Space Network (DSN)
substantial, if the increased data capability al- to support unmanned lunar, planetary, and
lows a reduction in the total number of mis- deep space missions.
sions. The USB system utilizes a narrow band,
Naturally, these savings must be weighed phase-modulated carrier to provide coherent
against the additional cost of the satellite relay two-way doppler tracking, pseudo-random-
to determine if there is any net economic bene- noise (PRN) ranging, two-way voice, updata,
fit. No cost effectiveness studies have been and telemetry communications. Primary sup-
made in this area, so quantitative comparisons port of the Apollo lunar missions will be pro-
cannot be made. vided by the three MSFN stations having
259-790---67------3
28 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

85-foot antennas. These stations are located at and communications from Earth to the back
Goldstone, Calif.; Madrid, Spain; and Can- side of the Moon.
berra, Australia. Colocated DSN 85-foot an- Technology derived from future programs
tennas provide backup for the primary MSFN will be applicable especially to precise attitude
stations. Each station can provide tracking stabilization and precise pointing of narrow-
of and communications with two spacecraft beam antennas. However, technology for
simultaneously, provided both are within the stabilization and antenna pointing, and retro-
beam width of a single antenna. In addition directive antenna techniques, and generation of
to the primary coherent PM mode, each station tens or hundreds of watts at millimeter and stib-
can receive wideband FM with a baseband of millimeter wavelengths, may be limiting factors
up to approximately 1.5 MIIz. in achieving such a capability.
Additional 85-foot antennas (equipped with
7. Associated Studies and Activities
USB but not with the peripheral equipment for
Apollo support) are also available at the DSN There have been a number of company-
stations. There is also one 210-foot antenna in sponsored studies of the applicability of lasers
the Deep Space Network at Goldstone. Dur- to deep space communications. The more sig-
ing the earth-orbital phase of the manned mis- nificant of these are listed in the bibliography.
sions, 11 additional ground stations employing Some of these studies include comparisons with
30-foot antennas plus five ships and eight air- microwave (S-Band) systems, but few consider
craft are available for communications support. the relative capabilities of systems at inter-
mediate (millimeter) wavelengths.
6. NASA Plans
8. Suggested Additional Studies
a. Ourrent Plans
A useful study would be to survey and collate
The current program consists of completing
the literature in this area in order to evaluate
the USB system and designing and incorpo-
the utility of relay satellites, and the growth
rating into it improvements within its growth
poten_tial for nonrelayed systems.
potential.
Concurrently, NASA is conducting several Bibliography
system comparison and tradeoff studies to deter- (1) AIAA/AAS Stepping Stones to Mars Meeting,
mine the effect on system effectiveness of vary- Baltimore, March 1966, and AIAA Communica-
ing the operating frequency, the data rate, tions Satellite Systems Conference, May 1966.

transmitter power levels, antenna gains, and (2) Brady, M. E., and Davis, R. C., "Moon-Moon and
Earth-Moon Communication by Lunar Satellites,"
other parameters. Contractors include Hughes
Paper presen,ted at 10th National Communications
Aircraft Co. and the Bell Telephone Labora- Symposium, Oct. 7,1964.
tories. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has (8) Brinkman, K. L., and Stokes, L. S., "Deep Space
also conducted such studies, and is investigating Communication: System Tradeoff Parameters,"
on a continuous basis coding and transmission Winter Conference on Aerospace and Electronic
of information to reduce error rates at low Systems, Los Angeles, 1966.
($) Chen, R. K., Coombs, E. M., and H ihbert, J. J.,
signal-to-noise ratios. "Lunar Farside Communications," Bellcom Re-
Space General is studying the possible use of port TR--64-215-2, November 1964.
a low altitude (500-mile), Earth-orbiting satel- (5) Clemens, G. W., et al., "A Feasibility Study of a
lite, with a large parabolic antenna (85-foot or Communications Satellite for Deep Space Mon-

larger) for relaying to deep space missions. itoring," December 1965, NASA TN I)-3155.
(6) Dabul, A., "Information Transfer Systems in
b. Future Possibilities Space Communications," May 1966, NASA TN D-
Future plans include a study of the feasibil- 3405.
(7) Glenn, A. B., "Communication System for Mars,
ity of using a communications satellite in a
Voyager-Lander Direct Communications Link,"
Mars orbit to enhance our capability to retrieve RCA. To be presented at National Electronics
data from a Mars lander. Also, we p|an to Conference, Oct. 3, 4, 5, Chicago 1966.
study a communications satellite in Lunar orbit, (8) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Technical Memoranda
for point-to-point communications on the Moon and Reports, TR 32-772, 32-825, 32-836, 32-722,
COMNIUNICATIONS 29

32-782, 32-848, 33-77, 32--30, and TM 33-228, plines. One can use satellite navigation tech-
33-133. niques to provide the position of the moving
(9) Kalil, F., "Optical and Microwave Communica-
platforms, and satellite communications tech-
tions, a Comparison," GSFC, March 1966, Report
X-507-66-173. nology to relay the platform or ground station
(10) Lenett, S. D., "Apollo Digital Updata Link De- data to a central collection center in real or near
scription," October 1965, NASA TM X-1146. real time where analysis and forecasting occur.
(11) Lewis, J. L., and Wheelwright, C. D., "Lunar
Landing and Site Selection Study," September 1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
1965, NASA TN I)--2999.
a. Meteorology
(15) Painter, J. H., and Handros, G., "Unified S-Band
Telecommunication Techniques for Apollo," April World Meteorological Organization studies
1966, NASA TN D-3397. indicate that 90 percent of the Earth's surface
(13) Petrovick, N. T., and Kamnew, Y. F., "Problems has an inadequate number of upper air observ-
of Space Radio Communication," January 1965,
ing stations (9). These stations take observa-
NASA TTF-336.
(1_) "Deep Space Communications Navigation Sys- tions of a great number of parameters; e.g.,
tem Comparison and Tradeoff Study," Contract pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind
NAS 5-10293. speed and direction, and other supplementary
(15) "Space Communications Systems," lecture notes data. These are regularly spaced observations,
on lunar communications satellite, George Wash-
usually at 6- or 12-hour intervals. These ob-
ington University Lecture Notes, Engineering 243,
Jan. 7, 1966.
servations are coded and transmitted either by
(16) "Space General Corp. Study of Deep Space Moni- radio or land lines to central collection agencies
tor Communications System Using a Single Earth for analysis. The existing communications net-
Satellite," NAS 2-3179. works for transmitting these data are often
(17) "The Application of Mutual Acquisition Between crowded, and there is a never-ending demand
Retrodirective Antennas to Space Communica-
to funnel more information from place to place.
tions," NAS 2-2934, System Sciences Corp. Final
Report, April 1966. In addition, meteorologists frequently complain
(18) "Lunar Surface Studies, a Continuing Bibliog- of a lack of data, particularly over oceanic and
raphy (January 1962-March 1964)," NASA SP- sparsely populated or underdeveloped regions
7003, 1964. of the world.
(19) "Space Flight Handbooks (Lunar and Planetary
Trajectories) ," NASA SP-85, pts. 1, 2, and 3. b. Oceanography

Data Collection and Retrieval At the present time, civil oceanographic re-
quirements generally do not include real-time
Data collection and retrieval is defined as the acquisition, largely because of the inherent dif-
recovery of information from remote data ficulties of obtaining such data.
gathering stations (such as oceanographic buoys However, a present assessment of the field of
and ships, automatic meteorological and hydro- oceanography indicates that an approach
logical stations, weather balloons, research air- toward gathering synoptic data will have to be
craft, etc.) and its transmision to appropriately implemented before significant advances in the
located central data centers where it is used or state of the art can be accomplished. The need
disseminated. exists for a rapid increase in the number of
The development of space technology, data real-time observing stations by providing a
processing equipments, and sensory develop- facility for retrieving data from automatic
ments has created unprecedented opportunities platforms located in remote regions of the
to provide information previously unavailable oceans. This could lead to the establishment
to the scientific community. The timely collec- of several buoy fields composed of from a few
tion of in situ scientific data from instrumented to about 100 automatic sensing stations. Un-
mobile platforms (balloons, buoys, ships, air- doubtedly, such buoy networks can be used to
craft) and fixed ground stations located in re- provide synoptic oceanographic data for analy-
mote areas is critically needed to aid the sis on a research basis and, ultimately, for the
disciplines of meteorology, hydrology, geology, processing of oceanographic data on a hemi-
oceanography, and other geophysical disci- spheric or gIobal basis. Data on this time and
3O A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

space scale have never been available to the beast's body, use of radio transmitters, etc.,
oceanographers. have not provided satisfactory results. Tag-
ging and painting results in the recovery of
c. Geophysics
small amounts of data on a random basis.
High-Mtitude ballast balloons are currently
Radio methods do not provide the lifetime or
being used in cosmic ray studies. HF telem- distance of coverage desired.
etry, used in retrieving data from the balloons
and in direction finding to determine the bM- 2. Possible Space Applications
loon's location, is unreliable. A need exists to Satellites have--
supplant the present tracking and telemetry (1) Th_ .qhHi_-v I-o r_oav_T.._nc] st,ora d_fa.
procedures with a more satisfactory facility for from remote areas, which may be wholly
acquiring these data over all regions of the or partially inaccessible by other means.
Earth. (o_) The global capability to gather observa-
d. Hydrology tions from a large number of dispersed
stations for consideration at some central
River forecasting and flood-warning services
location.
rely on the regular input of information on
(3) The capacity for locating mobile or mov-
precipitation and streamflow. This is some-
ing or drifting stations which may or
times difficult to obtain, particularly in un-
inhabitated or inaccessible areas. This is may not be employed in making other in
situ observations.
especially the case of snowpack data from the
remote headwater areas in mountains. Where In meteorology, a data-collection satellite
normal telephone and telegraph communication could collect data from areas (both land, sea,
facilities are not available, a number of remote and air) as part of, or extension to, the current
techniques for observation are in use. These network of surface observing stations. Such
stations could be automatic weather stations
include automatic rain and stream gages, which
are read remotely by radio or radar transponder capable of operating untended for long periods.
techniques. To observe the snowpack, periodic They could also take various forms of partly
surveys are made on foot, which is difficult and manned or tended units as might be used in
time consuming. ships, aircraft, or remote but inhabited areas.
Not only can such a satellite gather new data,
e. Iceberg Reconnaissance but it can be used as tim data-collection system
There is a present requirement for the U.S. for the existing observing network. Data col-
Coast Guard to track icebergs as an aid to mari- lection from constant-level balloons would per-
time safety. This task is presently accom- mit determination of upper winds and tem-
plished via aerial reconnaissance and ship peratures.
sightings. Ship sighting reports are sent to In oceanography, a data-collection satellite
appropriate shore stations via HF radio which could facilitate the collection of data in virtu-
is unreliable. The area of coverage required is ally real-time from remote buoy stations. This
great and reports have been made of icebergs would be valuable in developing synoptic con-
being found close to and in the commercial cepts in oceanographic observation. The meas-
shipping lane. A need exists for obtaining urement of ocean currents by tracking drifting
improved iceberg position and velocity infor- buoys far out into the oceans would also be an
mation at more frequent intervals and by a important application.
reliable method. The data-collection satellite could be of use in
f. Traclcing o/Animals number of other geophysical observation pro-
Interest in the tracking of migratory birds, grams. For example, it could be valuable in
animals, and fish over long distance (thousands tracking and collecting data from balloon-borne
of kilometers) and time (1 year or greater) has observation platforms used in cosmic ray and
been expressed by biologists. Presently used upper atmosphere research, or the collection of
methods, such as tagging, painting of codes on data from observational networks in remote or
COMIVIUNICATIONS 31

inaccessible areas for a variety of geophysical Navy's navigation satellite (Transit). The
researches. The contribution of the data-collec- first phase of the project is to demonstrate the
tion satellite in these applications is at present_ validity of this position fixing technique utiliz-
however, dwarfed by its much greater scope in ing ground-based methods.
the service of meteorolog-y and oceanography.
3. Assessment of Potential Economic
Some of the space techniques which are under
Benefit
development presently in the data-collection
area are: The Project Strobe report, bibliography (7),
states :
a. Interrogatioq_, Recording and Zocation Sys-
Based on Transosonde experience, the annual recur-
tem (IRES)
ring costs of ground tracking of constant level balloons
This technique will be tested as an experiment for the area of the North Pacific alone have been esti-
on the Nimbus B and D spacecraft in 1967 and mated as about $28 million. On a worldwide basis,
1969, respectively. It utilizes a sequence of the costs would be several times as great--probably
ranging signals transmitted between the satel- between $100-$200 million, even if the necessary facili-
ties were already in existence. However, in many
lite and platform, to determine the platform's areas they are not and in some cases there is a lack
location. Data are transmitted to the satellite of suitably located islands on which to erect them.
on the returning range signal. The ranging in- The problems of initial capital costs, initial and re-
formation and the geophysical data collected are curring logistical problems, and requirement of ade-
stored on tape in the satellite and_ upon com- quate numbers of competent personnel willing to serve
repeated tours of duty in remote locations are all major
mand are transmitted to the data center.
considerations that cannot be disregarded.
b. Omega Position Zocation Experiment The various pros and cons of poss.ible alternative
approaches for balloon tracking are summarized in
(OPLE)
bibliography (7).
This technique uses the phase coherent, VLF,
The Panel on International Meteorological
transmissions from the Navy's Omega Naviga-
Cooperation in bibliography (9) said:
tional System for platform position determina-
tion. The phase difference of the Omega The potential economic benefits occurring from im-
provements in long-range weather forecasting has been
signals received at the platform from two pairs
estimated at $2 billion.
of stations provides sufficient information to
generate hyperbolic lines of position. Phase Collection of in-situ meteorological data via
difference information can be transmitted from satellites will provide inputs to the long-range
platform to satellite and relayed to a ground weather forecasting. These benefits may be
station where platform position can be calcu- realized as a result of an improved ability to
lated. An experiment involving a transponder plan and schedule agriculture, water manage-
will be located on ATS-C to test the technique. ment, energy distribution, and transportation
practices.
c. EOZE-Freneh Satellite Project An estimate of savings that improved flood,
An agreement has been signed between the earthquake, and volcano predictions may pro-
French Government's space agency and NASA vide is discussed in the Earth resources survey
for a three-phase project having as its objective sections of this document.
the determination of the in-situ meteorological
4. Assessment of Other Implications
parameters needed to describe the structure of
the atmosphere. The project plans to launch The data collection and retrieval technology
a type of data collection satellite, and somewhat developments will provide new scientific infor-
later, about 500-1,000 instrumented balloons. mation in the meteorology, oceanography, geol-
The data collection technique involves determi- ogy, and other discipline areas for dissemination
nation of the Doppler shift between the satellite to various foreign nations. Such information
and the balloon. The Doppler data will be may aid the advancement of these nations. It
stored in the satellite and transmitted upon may improve and strengthen U.S. international
command to a French operated ground station. space cooperation and provide new areas of com-
In essence, this technique is the reverse of the mon space activities with allied countries. The
32 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

data obtained, whether it be for weather fore- Air Weather Service airplane, a l_ational Sci-
casting, tsunami warning, earthquake predic- ence Foundation ship to be located in the Ant-
tion, volcano activity, or iceberg movements, arctic, and an ice floe in the Arctic. These
may aid in saving lives and property. Im- varied locations will provide a technological
proved weather forecasting will provide support evaluation of the IRLS experiment. Various
to agriculture, commerce, and industry. oceanographic research oriented organizations,
The information afforded by the collection of such as the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries,
meteorological data on a global basis may pro- Navy's Oceanographic Office, and Wood's Hole
vide long-range weather predictions of up to Oceanographic Institute: have plans to pur-
2 weeks. Such predictions will enable more chase IRLS platform equipment and place it on
effective agriculture and water management free-floating buoys to obtain water velocity and
planning practices to be established. other oceanographic data.
Properly designed and implemented, a satel- Supporting research and technology work is
lite data collection system could reduce the spec- underway to increase the operating life and
trum space required for such services. The utility of IRLS and OPLE platform equip-
satellite system concept envisages a time divi- ments. Development of a microminiature plat-
sion, discrete address system which addresses form electronics system, including antenna and
all platforms on one frequency channel, and power subsystems, will aid in reducing poten-
receives all responses on another channel. This tial balloon hazard to aircraft.
is in contrast to the many channels in the HF Studies are underway to investigate the use
and VHF bands, now employed for limited-area
of OPLE as an aid to high-speed aircraft con-
data collection.
trol. The effect of the Doppler shift on the
5. Background Omega accuracy when received at an aircraft is
A data collection and dissemination capability being considered.
is the natural outgrowth of the general advances Development of the required ground-based
which have taken place during the first 10 years geophysical platform sensor instruments to
of communications satellite era. Techniques operate with satellites is the limiting factor in
for communicating with smaller and smaller the areas of volcano activity, and earthquake
Earth _erminals lead to applications involving and tsunami prediction.
the use of small unattended land stations, ocean Suitable frequencies for communicating data
buoys, and balloons to collect data which can
from balloons, buoys, and animals to a satellite
be relayed by satellite to processing centers, and
in all regions of the Earth may be difficult to
the resulting analyses disseminated to "users."
obtain.
Considerable interest has been expressed in
the potentialities of these techniques. For b. Future Possibilities
example: The practical application of this technology
• The U.S. Geological Survey is interested in will become useful when the weight and size of
using satellites to collect hydrology data the platform equipment is reduced to 3-5
from stations located throughout the pounds. The major weight contribution is the
United States.
power supply. Long-life, low-weight power
• Those concerned with the science of migra-
sources capable of 24-hour capability are
tory animal, bird, and marine life have re-
needed. Improvements in the platform an-
quested and received briefin_o_s on technical
tenna, rf transponder and digital logic are
capabilities of space data collection tech-
needed prior to operational use.
niques.
Development of superpressure balloons which
6. NASA Plans
can stay at altitude for 6- to 12-mo_th periods
a. Current Program is needed for the meteorologists. Electronics
The Goddard Space Flight Center has ar- suitable for long duration times in a salt water
ranged for IRLS platforms to be placed on an environment is needed for the oceanographers.
COMMUNICATIONS 33

7. Associated Studies and Activities (5) Cressey, J., and Hogan, C., "The IRLS Experi-
ment," 1965 National Telemetering Conference--
The National Center for Atmospheric l_e_ Session VI, 1965.
search (NCAR) has been performing balloon (6) "Description of Experimental Omega Po_ition
tests in the Southern Hemisphere during 1966 Location Equipment," (OPLE), GSFC Report X
to obtain information on balloon lifetime at alti- 731-66-20, January 1966.
(7) "A Proposed System for Satellite Tracking of
tude, and clustering problems. NCAR is also
Balloons and Emergencies," JMSAC.
studying balloon materials and techniques for (8) Lally, V. E., "Satellite Satellites---A Conjecture
reducing the cost of manufacturing balloons on Future Atmospheric Sounding Systems," Bulle-
suitable for carrying various data collection tin of the AMS.

packages. (9) "The Feasibility of a Global Observation and


Analysis Experiment," National Academy of
Essa has contracted for a study of balloon-
Sciences, Publication No. 1290.
borne electronics packages. The study is to (10) "Program Definition Study for a Satellite Data
examine techniques for providing low-cost, low- Collection System (Datacol)," Sylvania Elec-
weight electronics suitable for balloon-satellite tronic Co., National Aeronautics and Space Ad-
operation. ministration, vol. 1 X 64-13065, vol. 2 X 64-13066,
vol. 3 X 64-13067, 1963.
The Geological Survey has contracted for a
study to examine the technological and eco- Data Relay Satellites
nomic aspects of various techniques, including
Data relay satellites are satellites which re-
satellites, to transmit hydrologic data from re-
ceive data and/or voice transmissions from
mote ground sites to a central station. Pro-
other Earth-orbiting satellites committed to
posals have been written by various biologists to
specific missions (and here called mission space-
utilize the IRLS experiment as an aid to the
craft) and relay these data to central ground
tracking of elephants, green turtles, and bears.
stations.
FAA is investigating the use of OPLE for
air traffic control and for relay of pertinent 1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
meteorological and aircraft data to a ground Data are relayed between mission spacecraft
station (e.g., data from aircraft flight-recording and control centers via ground stations which
instruments, as an aid in determining condi- communicate with the spacecraft via radio.
tions before and during an emergency). Communications between each ground station
8. Suggested Additional Studies and the control center use any available com-
munication means meeting the bandwidth re-
(a) Studies of the potential applications of
quirement of the mission--usually combinations
satellite data collection and techniques to other
of HF radio, submarine cable, land line, Com-
discipline areas. Included herein should be
sat, etc.
the required needs.
The time during which an individual ground
(b) Economic and social benefits of the data
station can communicate with a mission space-
being obtained from unmanned stations, located
craft is a function of the orbital geometry. It
in remote areas, in near real time.
is a strong function of orbital altitude and is
Bibliography also a function of other orbital characteristics
(1) "Ghosts and Scomo Preliminary System Defini- such as inclination and nodal rate. For space-
tion Study," Aerospace Corp. Report ATR--65 craft in low altitude inclined orbits--i.e., a few
(7060) 3, Apr. 14, 1965.
hundred miles, total communication time for a
(2) "Some Prospects for Using Communications
single ground station would be only a small
Satellites in Wild Animal Research," American
Institute of Biological Sciences, July 1, 1966. percentage of each day. As an example, for a
(3) Carr, A., "The Navigation of the Green Turtle," mission spacecraft in 160- to 200-mile orbit in-
Scientific American, May 1965. clined 32 degrees to the equator (similar to the
($) Collis, R. T. H., and Nagle, R. E., "Survey of Mercury/Gemini type of flights), a ground
Requirements for a Geophysical Data Collection
Satellite System," Stanford Research Institute,
station on the equator would have a maximum
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, communication time of 49 minutes per day.
Washington, D.C., 1963. To increase the time, a number of ground sta-
34 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

tions have been established in various parts of to-point communications satellite systems is
the Earth including stations on ships; however, well established; four satellites have been
even with the number of stations now estab- placed in geostationary orbit since 1964, and
lished by NASA (143) the contact with lower two of these (Syncom III and Intelsat I) have
altitude spacecraft is only for short intermit- operated successfully for extended periods.
tent periods. Full-time communications with Intelsat 1I-1 and II-_ were placed in orbit in
the spacecraft can provide a substantial increase January and March 1967. Geometrically, such
in mission effectiveness in emergency situations, a system could simultaneously substitute for the
by immediate provision of data from the con- ground station network, and for almost all of
trol center. Assistance in spacecraft location the communications net connecting the ground
in the case of an abort, and potential early de- stations with the control centers.

tection of system malfunctions by continuous _Vhile orbital geometrical capabilities re-


ground monitoring and computer analysis of quired for establishment of a real-time orbiting
telemetry are also potential benefits of full- data relay system have been established by test
time communications. in space, the communications capability re-
In the case of unmanned missions, it is not quired for the link, relay satellite/mission
possible to receive data from mission space- spacecraft, has not been established or tested.
craft in positions not visible to a ground sta- Existing geostationary satellites have effective
tion; as a consequence, data received by space- radiated powers of a few watts, requiring large
craft in these "blind" positions must be either and rather complex receiving stations on the
stored on board the spacecraft or lost. The ground. To permit communication with the
equipment required for data storage on board a kind of receiving station which might be ex-
spacecraft is complex and represents an addi- pected on mission spacecraft would require
tional cost clement and potential reliability effective radiated power from the data relay
problem. Missions in which all or part of the satellite of hundreds of watts for rather low
orbits are at low altitudes are planned as far data rates, and thousands of watts for the kinds
in the future as can be foreseen at this time; of data rates desired for the nmnned missions.

prospects for reasonably continuous data ex- The existing point-to-point satellites were
launched on rather small launch vehicles and
change between this type of spacecraft and its
control center ,tre limited by practical economic hence their power systems were weig!lt limited.
[imitations on the number of ground stations, TechnologT developments and flight projects
_nd of ship stations which are particularly ex- are currently underway to increase the weight
pensive. In the latter case, communications capability by a factor of 10, power supply capa-
satellites of the conventional type offer in them- bility by a factor of 8, and effective radiated
selves the only link from ground station to power capability by a factor of 100. Successful
control center of adequate reliability. completion of these efforts would provide radi-
ated power levels of the magnitude required for
2. Possible Space Applications the satellite data relay function.
The most desirable system for data exchange 3. Assessment of Potential Economic
between mission spacecraft and their control Benefits
centers would be one in which continuous, real-
The potential economic l)enefits of data relay
time exchange between the two _-ould be possi-
satellites are twofold. First, neither a real-time
ble. A system with geometl T which would nor a wide band capability for data relay is
allow this for all low-orbit spacecraft with in-
practically possible with existing approaches
clinations less than 60 degrees is conceptually and capability. A satellite system to return the
possible through use of three geostationary data from the ground stations to the control
satellites, 'rod this could allow a reduction in centers (as in the Intelsat II system) could, if
the number of surface stations, and obviate the extended to all ground stations, improve wide
need for instrumentation aircraft. The con- l)and capability and reliability, but wouhl not
cept of geostatiolmry satellites for use in l)oint- change the orbital geometry limitations on corn-
COlVIIVIUNICATIONS 35

munications time. Second, the existing net, Co. conducted successful tests with the Syncoms
even at the current, rather limited, capability in full duplex voice communication, through
(including ship stations), is expensive to main- a 10-foot-diameter ground antenna. The Air
tain and operate. Obviously a large number of Transport Association with NASA cooperation
ships would be required for full-time coverage. conducted two-way low data rate (25-word-
The I%ASA Office of Tracking and Data Ac- per-minute TTX) experiments between ground
quisition is now conducting a detailed study of stations and commercial aircraft via the Syn-
those present system costs which could be saved com III VHF telemetry transponder. The
by a data relay satellite system. There are no DOD through Lincoln Laboratory has con-
definitive results of this study available at this ducted ground/air communications experi-
time. ments via the LES-3 satellite. The most

4. Assessment of Other Implications recent and most comprehensive tests have em-
ployed the ATS-I VHF transponder for good
A major potential benefit of a data relay quality voice communications to and from
satellite system could be a reduction in the commercial aircraft using standard VHF
number of ground stations in foreign countries equipment with appropriate modifications
along with attendant limitations on constraints. (phase modulation, phase-lock demodulation,
Negotiation of new station sites and retention 100-w. transmitter, and 2-5 db antennas). All
of present ones may become much more of these experiments have demonstrated that
difficult with the passage of time.
there is no basic scientific reason why satellite
Another potential benefit of a data relay communications cannot be carried out between
satellite system would be to make more effec- a central ground station and a very small station
tiveness of the radio frequency spectrum be- such as could be carried by a mission spacecraft.
cause the use of satellites would allow a wider
choice of frequencies, throughout that portion 6. NASA Plans
of the spectrum usable between Earth and space a. Current Plans
vehicles. However, this requires further study
The current ATS flight project included on
concerning propagation, sharing with other
two flights (ATS B and C), experiments in full
space or terrestrial radio services, and other
factors. duplex voice communications (at VI-IF) be-
tween ground stations and aircraft in flight.
5. Background The aircraft stations are somewhat larger than
could be practical for mission spacecraft but of
The technology of point-to-point satellite
the same general nature. There are three cur-
communications is well established, and flight
experiments and operational satellites have been rent NASA contracts (to Fairchild-Hiller,
Lockheed, and General Electric) for mission
flown by NASA (Echo I, II; Relay I, II;
Syncom II, III), private industry (two feasibility studies directed toward investigation
and study of ATS spacecraft (F and G) with
Telstars, Intelsat I, and two of the Intelsat II
large (30-foot diameter) antennas and the re-
series), the Department of Defense Courier,
quired orientation accuracy to usefully point
West Ford, interim defense satellite program
such an antenna (0.1 degree). This kind of
(IDCSP) and the U.S.S.R. (Molniya).
antenna represents an essential element in pro-
Syncom III, Intelsat I and II satellites, and ducing satellite radiated power and receiving
the IDCSP satellites are in geostationary or sensitivity in the range required for data relay
near geostationary orbit. All of these have satellites. Electronically steerable, high-grain
been very successful and have established the antennas, also applicable to data relay satellites
spacecraft and launch vehicle technologT for are being studied under the three contracts.
the geostationary orbit. The DOD has carried Two further study contracts (with Lockheed
out an extensive series of small ground station and Radio Corp. of America) have been placed
tests with the Syncom satellites using antennas to investigate the geometrical and systems as-
as small as 6 feet in diameter; Hughes Aircraft pects of a data relay satellite system.

259-790--67_
36 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

b. Future Possqbilitles in section A-7 are equally applicable to data


If successful, these studies could lead to con- relay satellites.
sider_tion of the development, in _he 1970 time
8. Suggested Additional Studies
frame, of a data relay satellite. Limiting
technology for data relay satellite systems lies Additional studies which would be very use-
in the areas of ful in this area would be:
hSpacecraft antenna gains and antemaa • Studies of optimum multiple access systems
pointing accuracy for simultaneous communication with a
--Spnce, h_rna receiver sensitivity number of mission spacecraft with rather
hl_cfultiple access techniques small data rates;
--Reliability of power supply and stabiliza- • Studies of frequency utilization for data
tion systems relay satellites, directed toward optimum
In addition to the projects described above, functional performance, combined with
an operational experiment is planned in the maximum spectrum conservation; and
Apollo applications program to use the Unified • Studies of the long-term need for data relay
S-Band links developed on the Apollo program satellites with emphasis on projections of
to permit communications and tracking of a continued utilization of low-altitude space-
manned spacecraft in low altitude orbit by the craft.
Manned Space Flight Network through a relay 9. Bibliography
in synchronous orbit.
There is a wide background of publications in
7. Associated Studies and Activities the overall communications satellite area; spe-
Data relay satellites are specialized versions cialized papers in the small station area are in-
of small station satellite communication stations_ cluded in the bibliography of the first section
and will require related multiple access tech- on "Communications, Small Terminal Access
nology. Associated studies and activities cited Communications."
III. EARTH RESOURCES
Introduction tion of man's activity, rural and urban settle-
ment patterns and land use, transportation net-
The overall objectives of the Earth resources
Cartography is the science of mapmaking.
survey program are to determine those earth
Both developing and industrial nations require
resource data which can be best acquired from
accurate and current maps depicting the re-
space and to develop technological capabilities
gional geographic location of natural resources,
for the acquisition and utilization of such data.
cultural features, and topography.
Five broad areas related to the Earth's re-
Hydrology and Water Resources.--Hydrol-
sources have been identified as potentially suit-
works, and related data.
able for the application of space technology: ogy is concerned with the study of the distribu-
Agriculture and Forestry Resources. The tion, composition, quality, and quantity of sur-
ultimate responsibility of adequately feeding, face water and ground water on the land areas
clothing, and sheltering today's expanding pop- of the Earth. Because water is generally a
ulation rests in large part with the agricultural dynamic resource, it should be continuously
and forestry community. Since the land, water, evaluated, with respect to climatic and physical
and mineral resources are finite quantities, these factors and human use. The availability of
resources must be utilized efficiently to meet water is essential to the continuous human oc-
present and future needs. The broad objectives cupancy of any land area on the globe and an
are: (a) increasing the yield/quality from abundance of water is needed for vigorous in-
lands in cultivation; (b) decreasing losses in dustrial or agricultural progress.
production, such as from infestation and forest Oceanography.--Oceanography is concerned
fires; and (c) increasing the quantity of land with the understanding of the oceans. By its
in cultivation. very nature, it is closely allied to a large num-
Geology and Mineral Resources.--Geology ber of separate scientific disciplines including
is the science of the earth, its composition, struc- biology, hydrology, geology, physics, meteorol-
ture, stratigraphy, and history. Mineral re- ogy, chemistry, and geodesy. Our knowledge
sources include ores such as iron, copper, and of the oceans is not increasing commensurately
gold; oil and gas; and nonmetallic deposits such with our ever-increasing activity on and within
as sand, gravel, and limestone. The main ob- the ocean itself. A major objective of this pro-
jectives in this program of spacecraft-borne re- gram will be to develop the economic potential
mote sensing instruments are: (1) to develop of the oceans including the increased production
of fish and the increased reliability of predict-
means of mapping the geology and geophysics
ing sea-state conditions.
on a regional basis; (2) to develop methods of
In order that the capabilities being developed
monitoring natural disturbances; (3) to delin-
may meet the requirements of those who need
eate regions of mineral potential for subsequent
Earth resource data, the NASA Earth resources
detailed study ; (4) to provide new methods of survey program is being developed as a national
investigating major structural units. program in cooperation with such cognizant
Geography, Cartography, and Cultural Re- U.S. user agencies as the Departments of Agri-
sources.--Geography is specifically concerned culture (Agricultural Research Service, Eco-
with the spatial relationships of human activity nomic Research Service) and Interior (U.S.
and natural processes. This includes the static Geological Survey). The following sections of
and dynamic patterns of the spatial distribu- this document have been prepared with the as-

37
38 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

sistance of the cognizant U.S. agency for each supporting sensors. Candidate instruments in-
resource area. clude cameras, radars, infrared devices, micro-
In order to use space for Earth resource pur- wave sensors, television systems, magnetom-
poses, a number of advanced sensor instruments, eters, and gravimeters covering the spectral
electro-optical and electromagnetic, will be range from VHF to ultraviolet. A summary
required. of the instruments being considered and the
Studies are being made of the utility of many resolution requirements, as stated by the user
such instruments to determine sets of mutually community are noted in the following table:

Tns/rnm.enlat_:on potentially required af Earth r_.qn_Jret_._ s_lr,_y8

Operating spectral Spatial resolution '


SeFtsor range (from 125 nautical Sample Applications
miles)

AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY PRODUCTION

Metric camera .......................... 0. 3--1.0 u ............. <12 m ................ Gather data on phmt vigor and disease in order to aid in
Panoramic camera ...................... 0.35--1.5 u ............ <4m ................. the increase of agriculture and forest production.
Multispectral tracking telescope ......... 0. 35--I. 5 u ............ <2 In .................
Multiband synoptic camera ............. 0.35--1.5 u ............ <3O m ................ OEO(]RAPI{Y, CARTOGRAPHY, CULTURAL RESOURCE

Radar lmager ........................... 0.8 ge ................. 15 m )< 15 m .......... Gather data to permit better use of rural and metropolitan
Radar altimeter/scatterometer .......... 0. 4 & 0. 8 gc ........... 10 m (vertical) ........ land areas and to update topographic b_).so maps and census
Wide range spectral scanlmr ............. 0.32--14. 0 u ........... 200--330 m ............ inventories.
IR radiometer/spectrometer ............ 8--16 u ................ 1250 m ................
GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES

Microwave imager ...................... 9 gc ................... 3 km .................. Gather data to aid in (1) the discovery and exploitation
Microwave radiometer .................. 0. 4--21 cm ............ 3--7 km ............... of mineral and petroleum resources; (2) the prediction of
Laser altimeter/scattcromcter ........... Visible ................ 2. 5 m (vertical) ....... natural disasters.

Ultraviolet spectrometer imagcr ........ >3900._/3500/_ ......... >10._--<20 m ........ IIYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES

Radio frequency reflectivity ............ 75--450 mcs ........... 6--60 m ............... Gather data to aid in the location and better usage of
Absorption spectroscopy ................ UV, VIS, & IR ....... 60 m .................. water resources.
Magnetonmtcr .................................................. 0. 6 kin ...............
Gravity gradiomcter ............................................ 5 X lff q2 gals/cm ...... OCEASOGR._PUV
Vicwfinder ' ..............................................................................
Earth-based sensors 2..................................................................... Gather data to aid in ocean transportation and to aid in
Advanced TV system ................... 0. 3--l. 0 u ............. 30--100 m ............. more etncient utilization of fisheries.

1 This instrument augments an astronaut's vision with optical power placed on or near the Earth's surface for detecting, recording and trans-
and directional data. The astronaut can utilize the viewfinder by itself mitting a variety of Earth resources phenomena of interest to a large
or in conjunction with otller directional type sensors. number of users.
2 Tbese Earth-based sensors may include a number of fixed and mobile s These resolutions tlave been advanced as predictions of requirements
Instrnnleuts, such as buoys, seismographs, stream gages, and so forth, by the user community (see preceding page).

AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY b. Aircraft Methods


RESOURCES
Aerial photographs have been used in many
I. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods ways to assist in obtaining data in agriculture
a. Field Metllods and forestry. The Soil Conservation Service
In general, there are two basic types of data (USDA) uses aerial photos as base maps for
needed to oversee, sustain, and phm efficient soil surveys, and the Agricultural Stabilization
agriculture. These are (a) compiled statistical and Conservation Service uses them for deter-
information, and (b) data displayed on maps mining field boundaries and measuring acreage
to show distribution, pattern, and geographic of specific fields for Govermnent compliance
location. Compiled data, typified by the agri- determinators. The USDA Forest Service uses
cultural census, are obtained by complete field aerial photos in forest fire detection, surveying,
surveys, sampling surveys, mail questionnaires, and in planning for rephmting new forest
and by personal interview with farmers, county tracts.
agricultural agents, and agricultural business- Up-to-date photography on several scales is
men. Agricultural data displayed on maps, generally required if such methods are to be
typified by soil nmps in colors, are generally valuable in the inventory and assessment of crop
based on detailed fieldwork. Estimates of growth, insect damage, and so forth. The small-
potential crop yields, best selection of types of est scale photographs are used for making topo-
crops _o be grown, and nature of fertilizer re- graphie maps and for regional soil studios.
sponse ean be made for each soil. Photographs of highest resolution (large seMe)
EARTI-I RESOURCES 39

are required for identification of specific crops, the countries have a coordinating organization
for _he d_ection of insect infestation, and so to review needs for imagery and to promote
forth. multipurpose use of coverage by all Government
For purpose of use, photographic coverage is agencies.
classified in three categories: small, medium, Although aerial photography and the other
and large scale. methods currently in use will continue to be
• Small-Scale Photographs--(1:30,000- important for local agricultural and forestry
1 : 60,000) provide for general topographic purposes, the slowness of data acquisition by
mapping and geomorphologicM studies and these methods limits their usage for timely in-
aid in making general surveys of soil, geol- ventories of crop and forest conditions on a
ogy, and land use. national and global basis.
• Intermediate-Scale Photography-- 2. Possible Space Applications
(1 : 10,000-1 : 30,000) are valuable for agri-
Accurate, timely, and broad-scale surveys of
cultural studies since they provide sufficient
agricultural and forestry resources on a peri-
detail for obtaining data on land use and
odic basis by Earth-orbital remote sensing will
capability, detailed soil surveys, forest in-
ventories, vegetation mapping, and other become increasingly important in future years.
items. These techniques combined with automatic pat-
• Large-Scale Photographs-- (less than tern recognition methods will yield information
necessary to allow improved productivity, de-
1:10,000) are used for detailed studies of
velopment, and utilization of agricultural
crops and for use in preparing engineering
resources on a worldwide basis.
plans and in hydrologic evaluations.
Results of such surveys should yield informa-
Nearly all countries in the world have some
tion useful in the areas listed below:
aerial coverage of their agricultural and for-
Soil classification.
estry resources. Typically, the coverage is dis-
continuous and confined mainly to developed Land use capability.
areas. In many countries the scale of photog- Land use changes. _
raphy is small since the airphotos were ob- Natural vegetation.
tained primarily for the preparation of maps. Range surveys.
Crop identification.
For the most part, the photography is black and
white, although several countries have infrared Crop disease and insect invasion detection.
Flood control survey.
photography of special areas, usually for forest
Watershed and hydrologic studies.
surveys.
Recreation site evaluation.
Use of aerial photographs in agriculture and
Wildlife habitat studies.
forestry provide data on production as an aid
Forest species identification.
in inventory, planning, and development and
Forest fire detection.
has increased throughout the world, particular-
Forest disease and insect invasion detection.
ly in recent years. In many countries, especial-
Soil conservation programs.
]y in the less developed countries, use of air-
Irrigation development.
photos is just beginning, and it is expected that
Agricultural development projects.
this use will increase as they form the base for
Crop acreage control programs.
planning and implementing agricultural de-
velopment. Other potential uses of Earth-orbiting remote
There is much variation in the procurement sensing systems for agriculture and forestry in
of imagery. Recently, the trend in most coun- various regions of the world may be cited. In
tries is toward obtaining imagery by contract- monsoon regions, such as India, crop yields are
ing with private organizations. Generally, very much a function of the calendar date of
this coverage is being obtained on a project basis initial rainfall preceding the monsoon season.
for carrying out inventory and planning for This date may vary up to several weeks over
development of natural resources. Several of scattered areas. Rainfall patterns of interest
4O A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

cover from 5 to 10-square-mile areas and are It is expected that remote sensing techniques
characterized by tens of degree surface tem- will be applied to supplement, accelerate and
perature drops. A capability to efficiently map refine the present systems of information gather-
monsoon regions during the critical period ing and processing. Remote sensing techniques
would significantly enhance yield prediction offer the most economical way to cope with the
capabilities in those portions of the world. increased requirement to gather data which will
When temperatures of 100 ° Fahrenheit or exist in future years.
more occur within a period of from several days Although an exhaustive study of potential
to a week immediately after corn tassels, polli- economic benefits has not been completed, there
nation is inhibited and crop yields are signifi- are many specific examples in agriculture and
cantly reduced. Efficient methods to identify forestry in which the application of remote
regions where tasseling occurs and the subse- sensing techniques are expected to reap substan-
quent monitoring of temperatures in these tial economic benefits:
regions can provide an important input into • World and U.S. cotton production in 1964
yield predictions. Similar phenomena also was 81 million and 14 million bales, respec-
hold for sorghum pollination. tively (Ag. Statistics, USDA, 1965). Ap-
3. Assessment of Potential Economic proximately 40 percent (5.6 million bales)
Benefits of the U.S. production was grown under
irrigation. One of the potential applica-
Timely estimates of agricultural production tions of remote sensing is the monitoring
affect a number of agricultural areas such as of soil moisture conditions and the dates to
transportation, storage, processing, financing, irrigate crops. If this proves feasible, an
marketing and distribution of food as well as increase in yield of cotton of only 10 per-
the ultimate price to the consumer. cent due to these techniques would amount
In the United States, information on crop to an annual economic benefit of more than
status is collected and prepared by three $100 million.
agencies : • Weed infestations of croplands cause an
• The Crop Reporting Board, a unit of the estimated loss of $3.8 billion to American
Statistical Reporting Service of the USDA, agriculture annually (Crop Res. Pub. ARS
with statutory responsibility to issue crop 34-23). Remote sensing techniques could
forecasts and estimates for major crops, be developed for locating and assessing the
currently maintains 43 field offices engaged degree of weed infestations. If the use of
in collecting, summarizing, and reviewing these techniques could contribute a 10-15
this information. Total cost of these agri- percent reduction in losses caused by weeds,
cultural statistical activities is approxi- the economic benefits would be $300-$400
mately $40 million 1 annually. million per year. Comparable potential
• The Agricultural Stabilization and Con- benefits would accrue from the application
servation Service of the USDA administers of remote sensing to the detection and
and checks compliance with production ad- definition of insect and disease invasions.
justment and conservation assistance, as • In 1965 the total number of cattle in the
well as price and market stabilization pro- U.S. was reported to be 107 million (Agric.
grams. Expenditures for field work of the Statistics Report, USDA, 1965). The
ASCS amount to approximately $40 mil- number of range cattle is estimated to have
lion 1 per year. been 35 million. If remote sensing could
• The Bureau of the Census prepares an be applied to detect and assess nutrient
agricultural census every 5 years, at a cost deficiency areas, overgrazing, brush and
of approximately $20 million. 1 weed infestation, and other range manage-
1 The cost figures cited were developed by IBM (1) and the
ment problems, it is reasonable to assume
University of Michigan (5) and represent their analyses of that the carrying capacity could be in-
extensive financial and operational data made available to
them from the USDA and the Bureau of the Census. creased by an average of 10 percent on U.S.
EARTH RESOURCES 41

rangeland. This could mean an annum in- tion can be made. This could increase
crease of 3.5 million more calves. At pres- timber production only a few percent above
ent feeder cattle prices this economic benefit present yields, its economic benefits would
could amount to $350 million annually. amount to tens of millions of dollars.
• The annual loss in the United States caused
4. Assessment of Other Implications
by flooding has been estimated to be $1 bil-
lion, about two-thirds of which is agri- The potential other benefits in the application
cultural land (Water Facts, USDA, 1957). of remote multispectral sensing are countless.
More than half of this damage occurs in the Today more than two-thirds of the world's peo-
12,711 small upstream watersheds. Moni- ple suffer from hunger or malnutrition. The
toring of small watersheds by remote major political and social concerns of many
sensing in order to locate and identify in- national governments revolve around _he prob-
adequate surface cover, uncontrolled lems of feeding their peoples. A host of inter-
erosion and other watershed management national, regional, national, and private organi-
problems might well contribute a 10 percent zations are engaged in "food for peace" and
reduction in the losses caused by flooding, "freedom from hunger" campaigns. All these
or an annual economic benefit of $100 activities have political and social as well as
million. economic implications.
• Preliminary studies (USDA Rpt. to The economic development of African, Asian,
NASA, 1966) indicate that remote sensing and South American countries is highly depend-
in the future may be used to determine ent upon improvement in their agriculture.
acreages planted to various crops and to The Advisory Committee on Private Enterprise
estimate the potential yields of these crops. in Foreign Aid chaired by A. K. Watson states
Although it is very difficult to assign a spe- that "the desperate race between population
cific value to the economic benefits of such growth and food production in the less de-
information, this data is of vital impor- veloped countries is so well known and docu-
mented that we need not labor it here. So criti-
tance in world trade negotiations, planning
for transport and storage, and in planning cal is this problem that it justifies the greatest
attention of USAID. Where industrial feasi-
for famine prevention in the food deficit
nations. The Food and Agriculture Or- bility studies are concerned_ those which relate
ganization presently utilizes crop yield esti- to expanding the supply of fertilizer or insec-
mates to determine the needs of food grain ticides, or which relates to the transport and
import to the deficit nations. Further re- processing of foods will merit an especially high
finements in potential yield estimates can be priority." On the magnitude of the task ahead
of great importance. the committee states "Over the past months as
• There are 508.8 million acres of commercial we worked to relate foreign aid and private ini-
forests in the United States. By conven- tiative, we came to believe that no matter how
tional survey methods the cost of surveying carefully our aid dollars are invested and no
and preparing a national forest inventory matter how wise and energetic USAID_s per-
for the United States is $10.7 million. The sonnel may be, there is still not enough money
use of remote sensing could reduce the cost nor people to accomplish the vast task the
of this survey considerably. It is esti- United States has undertaken. It is only
mated that the use of remote sensing from through private resources, our own and those
spacecraft could permit an 8 percent reduc- of developing countries themselves, where the
tion in the area of forests damaged or de- additional resources are potentially adequate to
stroyed by fire. If the capability of remote meet the challenge."
sensing to detect nutrient deficiencies_ for- All programs of agriculture development
est species, and other information vital to involve data gathering and processing. In the
forest management can be established, food-and-fiber surplus countries a continual
significant contribution in timber produc- search goes on for refinements and improve-
42 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

ments in their survey and analytical methods. tions, providing records kept at the station,
In many food-and-fiber-deficient countries, pro- manpower, and equipment for making related
grams are being initiated to develop systems "ground truth" measurements. This combina-
of data gathering and analysis. In both groups tion of efforts resulted in a minimal airborne
of countries remote sensing techniques could remote sensing program in 1964 and included
greatly accelerate and expand the processes of flight missions during the summer growing sea-
data gathering and processing. son over the Purdue experiment stations.
Notwithstanding the potential benefits as dis- In 1965 the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
cussed above, the realization of a satellite data- in accordance with a formal agreement with
NASA, established a Laboratory for Agricul-
lems covering acquisition and dissemination of tural Remote Sensing at Purdue University
the data. As was noted in chapter I, it seems and a Laboratory for Remote Sensing in For-
likely that development of a consensus regard- estry at the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range
ing information gathering from outer space Experiment Station, Berkeley, Calif., to assist
will not follow the relatively easy course of in carrying out this effort.
earlier principles of law governing activities 6. NASA Plans
in outer space.
a. Current Progra_
5. Background
The current research program has as its pri-
The present NASA/USDA program has its mary objective to conduct research activities to
beginning in two, initially unrelated, activities: establish feasibility of remote sensing from
One at the National Academy of Sciences, the space useful to the solution of problems in agri-
other at NASA headquarters. In 1961, the culture/forestry. The U.S. Department of
NAS-NRC committee on "Aerial Survey Meth- Agriculture coordinates these related activities
ods in Agriculture" was formed. The purpose being carried out at Purdue University and the
of the committee is to formulate plans for and University of California and also conducts
stimulate research to develop improved meth- activities at the USDA Soil and Water Conser-
ods of applying aerial survey methods to agri- vation Research Division Station at Weslaco,
cultural problems such as land use and crop Tex., and within the U.S. Forestry Service.
distribution, crop yield estimations, species This phase is primarily one of experimenta-
identification, disease detection, etc. By 1963, tion from aircraft (NASA and other) to deter-
the committee had formulated a research pro- mine signatures of agriculture and forestry
gram and received academy approval of it. A phenomena. Carefully selected and controlled
part of the program was a multispectral crop test sites are being utilized and the acquired
sensing plan. In 1963 the committee became data is being analyzed to obtain a basis for re-
aware that within NASA headquarters the lating these data to spacecraft altitude data.
biosciences and the manned space sciences divi- Some orbital altitude data from space flights
sions were formulating experiments to develop such as the Nimbus and Gemini operations are
techniques for sensing the Earth, Moon, and now available and being correlated with the
other planets for the detection and analysis of aircraft-acquired data.
biological and geological information. A re- A number of principal objectives can at this
mote sensing program was then formulated and
time be associated with the experiment pro-
funded to meet the needs of both organizations.
gram. First, it will be necessary to record
Also the U.S. Army, through its electronics
spectral signatures of commercially important
command, having an interest in the same type
agriculture and forestry species. The data so
of data, agreed to support the program by mak-
obtained will be used to recognize productivity,
ing available aircraft and sensing equipment
existing under Project MICHIGAN. The Pur- distribution, and the effects of natural and man-
due University Agricultural Experiment Sta- made phenomena. Also, it will be necessary
tion agreed to support the program by making to determine how the extended field of view
avtfilable a number of diverse experimental sta- (synoptic) available from an orbiting space re-
EARTH RESOURCES 43

hiele may best be utilized to perform surveys quantitative measurements of the radiation
useful for agriculture/forestry. emanating from objects at visible and near
This program presents the preliminary re- infrared wavelengths.
search and development step needed before the
7. Associated Studies and Activities
creation of an operational space system. In
particular, it will adapt developed signature/ For many years the Soil Conservation Serv-
correlation techniques to the increased altitudes ice of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and
and other differing observational factors asso- university soil classification personnel have used
ciated with orbital deployment. aerial photography routinely for mapping and
Usually, reflected and/or emitted radiation is classifying soils. The U.S. Geological Survey,
recorded in photographic form; a human inter- using aerial photographs, prepared topographic
preter then extracts the desired information con- maps and a number of other specialized maps,
tent from the imagery. The large quantities of i.e., geological maps.
such data which can be collected on single mis- The International Center for Aerial Surveys
sions over extended regions necessitates a high in the Netherlands has conducted a number of
degree of automation in the interpretation of geomorphology and soil studies in different
data if it is to be accomplished in a timely man- countries.
ner. If full advantage of future space sys- Following the 1960 earthquake in Chile, the
tems is to be realized, remote sensing techniques Organization of American States and the Gov-
which require minimal human participation to ernment of Chile initiated the "OAS/Chile
reduce collected data to information appear im- Aerophotogranimetric Project" to conduct a
perative. Currently_ the most promising of land resources survey to be used as a basis for
these is a technique which records the relative national planning for reconstruction. It also
amplitude of spectral components of the elec- served as a basis for a more equitable system of
tromagnetic radiation emanating from a source taxations for land reform, for planning, and for
and applies automatic pattern recognition tech- completion of roads and irrigation works.
niques to automatically reduce the data to In July 1966, the Food and Agriculture Or-
desired information. Nevertheless, the out- ganization (FAO) of the United Nations began
standing capabilities of the human interpreter operation of a sizable project in Argentina
cannot be matched for small data loads, and with the objective of surveying the natural re-
programs to develop enhancements, screening, sources of the vast Patagonian region. The
recognitions and interpretation aids for the survey will be utilized in assessing the potential
interpreter are also being investigated. capability of Patagonia to produce mutton and
Man may be an important factor in acquisi- wool. Aerial photography and photointerpre-
tion as well as interpretation of data. The ration are tool% which will play vital roles in
human ability to recognize unusual phenomena, this project.
and select areas and conditions to be observed The International Rice Research Institute in
could reduce greatly the volume of raw data to the Philippines, to which the Ford and Rocke-
be interpreted. feller Foundations have contributed millions of
b. Future Possibilities dollars_ was established to serve as a training
Particular problem areas requiring further and research center for the rice-producing areas
research that are important for achieving pro- of the world. A very important activity of this
institute is that of gathering and analyzing
gram goals include the following:
climatic soils, crop% and other pertinent infor-
Automated pattern recognition proeeduress
both in flight and on the ground, require much mation from the areas of rice production.
additional study if they are to become opera- USAID has made a number of natural re-
tional in the near future. source surveys in other countries. Such a sur-
A research effort should be instituted to de- vey was made of the potential agricultural
velop controls and procedures to allow photo- resources of the Dominican Republic and a more
graphic systems to be used to effectively obtain complete resources survey_ including agricul-
44 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

ture, was made of San Salvador. The docu- and Specific Weed Problems," Crop Research Pub-
ments resulting from these surveys give com- lication, ARS-34--23, March, 1962.
(4) "Foreign Aid Through Private Initiative," Report
prehensive examples of the type work product
of the Advisory Committee on Private Enterprises
which should result from countrywide surveys in Foreign Aid, Agency for International De-
using remote sensing and other tools. Various velopment, Washington, D.C., July, 1965.
consulting firms operate internationally in (5) "Peaceful Uses of Earth-Observation Spacecraft,"
Vol. I, II, and III, University of Michigan, Febru-
carrying out resource surveys. For example,
ary, 1966.
a rather complete survey of natural and cul- (6) "Water Facts," PA-337, USDA, SCS, August, 1957.
tural resources of the valleys of the Colorado (7) "Soil and Water Conservation Needs---A National
and .Negro Rivers in South America was con- Inventory," Misc. Publ. 971, USDA, Washington,
ducted by ITALCONSULT, a private Italian D.C. 1965.
firm. (8) "U.S. Department of Agriculture Annual Report
of Progress in the Study of Potential Space Appli-
It also served as a basis for a more equitable cations for Agriculture and Forestry in the NASA
system of taxation, for land reform, for plan- Earth Resources Survey Program," Unpublished
ning and completion of roads and irrigation report, 1966.
works.
Geology and Mineral Resources
8. Suggested Additional Studies
1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
a. A study of the economic significance of
Geological observations are made by field and
global inventories of agricultural and forest
resources. laboratory methods and by airborne geophysical
instruments. These observations are commonly
5. The feasibility of famine prediction on a
synthesized and presented as geologic maps.
global scale by using space-obtained data. Can
The data used in developing geologic maps in-
pertinent data be collccted and analyzed rapidly
clude those related to composition, magnetic
enough to plan for alleviating food shortages.
field strengths, structure, temperature, and his-
c. A study of the problems relating to distri-
torical development of rocks, minerals, and ter-
bution of pertinent agricultural data to the rain.
users. This would include what data to whom,
rapidity and frequency of distribution, means a. F_eld Methods
of data transmission, and the formats required Field methods have become more efficient
by the various users. through the saving in time resulting from the
d. A study of the human skills needed to ob- use of helicopters and other rapid means of
tain maximum agriculture and forestry infor- transportation, and have become more effective
mation from observations from spacecraft; and due to new knowledge and techniques and to
for interpretation of spacecraft-acquired data. application of information obtained from air-
e. A study comparing the future needs of the borne observations. An example of new tech-
United States for agriculture and forestry prod- niques is the measurement of phenomena that
ucts with that of expected availability from are transient, such as temperature, by sensors
both foreign and domestic sources. placed on and below the gTound surface to deter-
f. A study identifying the world areas most mine the effects of short-telan variations. Fur-
critically in need of improved agriculture and ther improvement in this technique is expected
forestry resources and a priority listing of prod- through improved drilling methods and im-
ucts and improvements needed. proved instrumentation for observation and
readout.
Bibliography
b. Laboratory Methods
(I) "ORL Experiment Program," Vol. B, Part 1, Agri-
culture/Forestry, NASA Contract NASw-1215 to
Laboratory methods are becoming increas-
IBM, February 21, 1966. ingly more rapid through the introduction of
($) "Economic Research Service," Agricultural Sta- automatic spectrographic and other semi-auto-
tistics Reports, USDA, 1965. matic methods for chemical analyses of rocks
($) "A Survey of Extent and Cost of Weed Control and minerals. Laboratories are also being
t
EARTH RESOURCES 45

made more mobile; hence the time required to will serve to guide future surface and aircraft
introduce analytical data into an exploration studies and hence make these observations mor_
program is being reduced. The parameters meaningful.
that require analysis, however, are increasing. Some specific examples of possible geologic
c. Aircraft Methods applications of oribital data follow:
Aircraft observations include those that a. Geologic Mapping
relate to absorption/emission/reflectance of Global geologic mapping from space will
electromagnetic energy, intensity of force fields, increase our ability to map at small scales, elim-
and electrical properties of rocks and terrains. inate inherent biases that accompany reduction
One must use wide angle observation systems from large-scale maps, and .thereby enable us
for economic reasons. Requisite analysis scales to increase our understanding of the geology
for many problems can be matched only by of the earth.
mosaicing or synthesis; because of altitude lim- b. Mineral Resource Investigations
itations, the variable effects of solar radiation
Photographs from space have, for the first
and angle of illumination on observations of ter-
time, enabled man to see entire mountain ranges
rain characteristics are often so severe as to re-
(Himalayas from Gemini IV and Andes from
quire smoothing or degradation of mensuration
Gemini IX). Studies of such broad features
data. The time required for passage of air- with knowledge of their component parts (dis-
craft over large areas precludes full descrip-
tribution of folds, faults, intrusive masses,
tion of short-term variations unless coupled
mineral belts) will provide new insight on the
with a dense network of controlling observa-
distribution, relationships and geologic origin
tions. Instrumentation such as infrared and
of metallogenie provinces, oil provinces and
ultraviolet spectroscopes and airborne gravim-
mineral deposits. In addition, they should
eters will likely contribute significant data for contribute to the aforemen¢ioned observations
geological analysis in the near future. Lim-
in understanding the internal structure and
itations imposed by goniometric _ variables (use constitution of the Earth.
of wide angle systems), terrain proximity and
lengthy observational time, however, seem in- c. Thermal Activity Preceding Volcanic Erup-
tions
surmountable and not solvable as long as ob-
servations are limited to aircraft techniques. Thermal activity preceding volcanic erup-
tions may be detectable using infrared observa-
2. Possible Space Applications
tions from space _in the 4.5-5.5 micron range).
Optical observations from space of reflected/ This will permit study of anomalous thermal
emitted electromagnetic energy will contain activity of the Earth's surface and thermal
fewer variables (Sun angles, diurnal, thermal, regime, thereby leading to a greater understand-
and moisture changes, and so forth) than sim- ing of the internal thermodynamics of the
ilar observations made from aircraft. As a Earth, and particularly volcanism. Studies of
result, large structural or other anomalies will specific active volcanoes with repeated observa-
be more easily recognized from space ,than from tions from space could lead to a monitoring sys-
aircraft.
tem by which it may be possible to predict forth-
Observations of the strengths of force fields coming eruptions throughout the world. The
made from orbital platforms will form a frame- feasibility of utilizing relay satellites and tele-
work of geophysical knowledge against which metering devices on land-based radiometers and
to contrast surface and aircraft measurements.
tiltmeters should be investigated as part of such
Such contrast will enhance our ability to "view"
a study. (S_ Section II-D, Data Collection
the earth's crust in the third dimen_Aon. In
and Retrieval.)
addition, global space surveys of force fields
d. Magnetic Fields on a Global Basis
s Goniometric variable means that energy is not reflected as Magnetometer observations from space should
a function of incidence angle but may be reflected in a non-
lsotropic or polarized manner. provide three-dimensional geologic informa-
46 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

tion on the structure of the crust and forces greater understanding of the tectonic regions
which affect it at the Mohorovicic discontinuity. of the world. Emphasis will center mainly on
The effects of near surface magnetic anomalies the major earthquake belts. Relay satellites
are minimal at spacecraft altitudes, permitting and telemetering devices on in situ strain gauges
separation of these anomalies from major and seismographs which will detect and meas-
anomalies present at depth. This capability of ure movement and forces should be a vital part
probing deep within the crust is unique to space- of such a program.
magnetic field observations. Preliminary ex-
g. Engineering Works
trapolations of aircraft magnetic data to space
Observations from space should provide val-
altitudes suggest correspondence between deep
uable data to geologists involved in planning
seated magnetic anomalies and major mineral
and site selection for such engineering works as
districts. Such data will help define the inter-
dams and highways, bridges, reactors, pipelines,
relationships among variations in the magnetic
public buildings, and other structures. Space
field and variations in the gravimetric field and
photographs and imagery of large areas will
internal heat-flow of the Earth. Furthermore,
show at a single glance, such potential hazards
such studies will enable a positive separation of
as landslide areas, fault zones, unstable water-
terrestrial and extraterrestrial magnetic field
saturated soils or fill at or near possible sites
effects on magnetic data acquired from orbit.
which could greatly affect the planning, design,
Heretofore, most aeromagnetic surveys have
and construction of such works.
been limited to land areas for economic investi-
gations. Spacecraft will provide the most eco- h. Changes in Zarge Coastal Deltas
nomical means of extending magnetic surveys Repeated observations from space of coastal
over the ocean areas. regions, mainly of major river effluents, will
e. Gravity Field on a Global Basis enable continual mapping of subaqueou_ depo-
Gravity measurements of the Earth's crust sition, channel filling and excavation, effects of
reveal much about its composition and structure floods and other natural changes. Not only
will such studies broaden scientific understand-
below the surface. Saltdomes and anticlines
associated with petroleum reservoirs and buried ing of sedimentation processes, but they should
intrusive masses with which ore deposits are permit planning for improvement of shipping
routes, land and harbor development, and con-
associated provide classic examples of how
servation or preservation of important features
gravity measurements can assist mankind in the
from erosional processes.
discovery and development of mineral re-
sources. Currently, NASA's geodesy program 3. Assessment of Potential Economic
is obtaining gravity measurements derived Benefits
from measurements of orbital perturbations of a. Mineral Resources
spacecraft which add to our knowledge of the
Earth. For information on these gravity The vital role that mineral resources play in
studies and on NASA's geodesy program con- the economy is demonstrated by the fact that the
sult the section of this synopsis on the geodesy level of income and standard of living in the
program. Introduction of instruments having United States has risen in proportion to its in-
shorter integration periods than the spacecraft creased consumption of minerals and fuels.
itself may permit even more useful conclusions During the last 30 years, the United States
to be derived from orbital gravity analysis. alone used more minerals and fne]s than did the
This will strengthen our ability to discover, entire world in all previous history and the
interpret, and extend features of economic sig- United States consumption of most minerals
nificance from well-known areas into the remote will double within 15-25 years (7).
regions of the world, both land and sea. The United States, in common with most
f. Tectonic Anatysis o[ Earthffualee Belts other highly industrialized countries, is experi-
Observations from space l)y both I)hoto - encing shortages of critical mineral raw m't-
gr'tl)hic and imaging systems should enable a terials (7). Studies indicate th,_t these short-
EARTH RESOURCES 47

ages will become increasingly acute in the years b. Geothermal Power Sources
ahead and that the list of scarce mineral raw
Preliminary studies suggest that some geo-
materials will lengthen. Even of those raw ma- thermal power sources, such as those in Iceland,
terials that are still found in relative abundance
may be detected and monitored best from space
in .the United States, such as iron ore, copper (4). The value of such power sources may
ore, and petroleum, a significant percentage of eventually be of the same order of magnitude
the total used is imported (16). Thus, an up- as the Earth's oil and gas deposits. Space data
to-date knowledge of the mineral resources of will enable comparison of the magnitude of de-
the world, including areas potentially promis- veloped geothermal power sources with poten-
ing for the discovery of new deposits, is essential tial sources in less developed and remote areas
for the economic security of the United States. of the world to determine where extensive
The world's undeveloped mineral resources ground surveys might be most worthwhile for
are large enough to support future demands future power development.
only if imaginative new ways are found to dis-
c. Gost Benefits of Space Observations
cover, extract, and effectively use such resources
The cost of mounting an operational space
(7). Data acquired from space can fill gaps in
progam for earth resources surveys cannot be
our knowledge of _he geology of the world and
truly determined at this time. Where cover-
identify areas of high potential for the existence
age of a global, repetitive nature is required and
of mineral resources. Subsequen.tly more de-
tailed investigation can then be conducted in obtainable by both aircraft and spacecraft
these areas. modes, a space system has unquestionable eco-
nomic advantages. The potential economic ad-
Airborne remote sensing surveys for mineral
vantages of utilizing space for resources an-
exploration have already contributed to the dis-
alysis is not limited to the acquisition phase.
covery of many major mineral resources, the
It is also of great importance in the data re-
benefits of which far outweigh the costs of such
duction phase. This is related to the fact that
surveys. The extension of geophysical surveys
data can be acquired from space at uniform
to earth orbital space platforms is considered
altitudes over large areas with the same instru-
to be a logical step.
ments. Inasmuch as one image from space
In Canada, airborne electromagnetic, mag-
covers a much larger area than photographs
netic and gravity methods have been combined
acquired by aircraft, the problem of photo-
with aerial photography to achieve perhaps the grammetric reduction of this data is greatly re-
greatest airborne usage of remote sensing for duced. At least three hundred times more
mineral exploration objectives. Hundreds of ground control points are required, for example,
thousands of miles of surveys have been car- to reduce aircraft photography than space pho-
ried out, resulting in such spectacular finds as tography in producing topographic maps (12).
the Manitoba nickel deposits of International Somewhat analogous types of savings exist in
Nickel, and the base metal discovery of Texas the construction of thematic maps from space
Gulf Sulphur in the Timmins, Ontario region acquired data. Thus economic benefits accru-
(1). The economic benefits from these deposits ing in this phase may well be greater than in
should run into several billion dollars. the data acquisition phase..
Aeromagnetic surveys of basement rocks in In the near future the U.S. Geological Sur-
the Pea Ridge area, Missouri, discovered iron vey is planning to initiate a comprehensive eco-
ore at a depth of 1,300 feet below the surface. nomic benefits study. Hopefully preliminary
results from this study will be available by
This deposit is presently valued at $2 billion mid-1967.
(3). These types of surveys conducted from
space may well lead to the discovery of mineral 4. Assessment of Other Implications
deposits at even greater depths which, because Geological studies, coupled with studies in
of masking near surface anomalies, are unde- allied and interdependent fields such as hydrol-
tectable by aircraft surveys. ogy and soils, can assist in the overall economic
48 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

and sociological development of an area. This terrains by various NASA and U.S. Geological
is particularly true in economically depressed Survey (USGS) and contract aircraft. These
areas, such as Appalachia, where particularly Studies have two principal purposes :
fertile areas might 'be identified for possible re- (a) The first of _hese is to record instrument
settlement locations, sources of raw materials response to well-defined preselected conditions
for new industries might be discovered, and for developing interpretation and correlation
other benefits such as increased knowledge of techniques as well as to determine which instru-
the area should accrue. ments are most valuable alone or in combina-
The economic and other benefits of obtaining tion for studying the particular phenomena in
...... J_; _._ "lit I._ .J- ? ,1

by satellites will be accompanied by problems of tems to improve data content and increase data
international law concerning the gathering and gathering efficiency will also be effected during
dissemination of such data. This matter is dis- this phase ;
cussed in more detail in chapter I under Policy (b) The second type of study is being con-
Considerations. ducted over areas of particular interest to the
user agencies where active ground research is
5. Background
also being conducted in order to provide ex-
Remote sensing devices have been used in geo- perience in the use of remote sensor data and
logical and geophysical work for many years. determine their best applications. These areas
Since early in this century black and white allow the evaluation of remote sensors under
aerial photography has played an increasingly a multitude of surface conditions. The major
significant role in geological investigations, and part of the user effort will be made in these
with the possible exception of the seismograph, areas.
has become the most successful mineral explora- (2) Spacecraft Testing PT_ase.--During this
tion tool in the history of mankind. More re- phase, data will be acquired by the use
cently, other remote sensors, not in the visible of remote sensors in Earth orbiting space-
part of the spectrum, as well as color and other craft. The design of equipment for these
specialized cameras are being increasingly used flights will benefit from studies currently being
in geologic studies. During the last twenty-five conducted. Hardware development, procure-
years _the development of systems for surveying ment and integration into the spacecraft will
gravity, magnetism, and radioactivity from the follow. These flights will include both manned
air has resulted in great progress in the field of and unmanned satellites. The manned ones
airborne geophysics. will have capabilities of carrying many sensors
In 1964 the U.S. Geological Survey, long a which can all be directed simultaneously at
lead agency in airborne surveys, entered into a selected parts of the Earth, under selected
cooperative agreement with NASA to investi- atmospheric, lighting and seasonal conditions.
gate the feasibility and applications of remote On these initial space flights, coverage will be
sensing from space relative to geologic studies. concentrated over areas such as those in the
6. NASA Plans United States where ground controls will be
used to verify conclusions derived during the
a. Current Program
feasibility stage.
This current program is being developed to
Analyses of photographs and infrared images
proceed from an airborne feasibility phase,
taken from Nimbus and photographs from
through a spacecraft testing phase, leading to Gemini satellites has resulted in the discovery
an ultimate spacecraft operational phase. The
of previously unknown structures and has
USGS is providing the leadership in assessing
added to the geologic knowledge of numerous
the feasibility of potential space techniques to
areas.
geologic applications.
(1) Airborne Feasibility Phase.--During this b. Future Possibilities
phase, multispeetral remote sensor data is being (1) Intensive investigations are required
acquired over a number of geologically differing of gravity measuring instruments for their
EARTH RESOURCES 49

applicability to measuring the gradients for Air Force Cambridge Research Lab (AFCRL)
gravity and sensing the direction of the gravity in cooperation with the Surtsey Institute of the
vector for use in Earth orbiting spacecraft. Icelandic Natural Resources Council: periodic
(2) Further research is required for rang- reports.
ing instruments (radio and other frequencies). 8. Suggested Additional Studies
By obtaining accurate ranging measurements a. An evaluation of the future economic
between continents, precise changes in their
importance of geothermal power sources and a
relative position may be detected. Such data
discussion of the applications of remo_e sensing
is fundamental to an understanding of basic
(air and spaceborne) to their discovery and
Earth dynamic problems such as continental
exploitation.
drift.
b. An evaluation of the use of remote sensing
(3) Instrument studies relative to passive
(air and spaceborne) for the discovery of min-
microwave systems should be undertaken.
eral districts, with special emphasis on altera-
Although passive microwave techniques are
tion halos, structural control, vegetation and
extremely attractive for use in space programs, thermal indicators.
there are also some aspects that require addi-
c. A detailed evaluation of the use of atmos-
tional work. Trade off studies involving reso-
pheric anomalies of mercury, iodine, and sul-
lution capabilities, antenna size, and scanning
rate should be made. phur dioxide as prospecting aids from air and
space platforms would be valuable. Instru-
(4) The current state of the art of infrared
mentation which shows promise is based upon
detectors indicates that they are not operating
the spectral absorption characteristics exhibited
at the potential performance peak. For
by many gases in the UV, visible, and IR por-
cxamp!e, although Ge: Hg detectors are very
tions of the spectrum.
close to being "background-noise-limited,"
d. An evaluation of the possibility of earth-
there is yet much room for improvement.
quake prediction utilizing spaceborne long-dis-
(5) If the full potential of remote sensory
tance ranging devices, collection and relay of
technique is to be derived, advances in tech-
data, and ground sensor data. A complete re-
niques of analysis, in the development of data
view of the current status and future prospects
processing machinery, and in developing the
of instruments required would be of great value.
required skills in both flights and ground per-
e. An analysis of the economic significance
sonnel will have to be made as soon as possible
of the rate of growth of large deltas, the fre-
to be in step with the development of the space
sensors. quency requirements for monitoring their
growth, and the application of remote sensing
7. Associated Studies and Activities methods shoald be undertaken.
A great number of specific studies on such ]. The potential for ma'pping the major mag-
subjects as infrared surveys, aeromagnetic sur- netic features of the earth's crust by orbital
veys, heat flow studies and so forth are under magnetometers should be fully investigated.
way under the U.S. Geological Survey sponsor- The detailed instrument requirements should be
ship but are not specifically part of the joint documented. The difficulties of separating ex-
NASA-USGS program. traterrestrial from terrestrial effects should be
In addition to such activities the following evaluated.
activities are significant. g. A study of the possibility of monitoring
a. Federal Council of Science and Technol- volcanic eruptions on a global scale using space-
ogy Committee on Solid Earth Science: peri- craft and surface instrumentation should be de-
odic reports. fined and evaluated.
b. Federal Council of Science and Technol- h. Appraisal of the geologic applications of
ogy Committee on Earthquake Prediction: passive microwave systems should be conducted.
periodic reports. Although passive microwave techniques are ex-
c. Infrared studies in Iceland conducted tremely attractive for use in space programs,
jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and the there are some aspects that require additional
5O A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

work. In light of this, geologic requirements (14) Whitten, E. H. T.


"Statistical Evaluation of The Composition,
for such a system should be ascertained.
Physical Properties, and Surface Configuration
of a Terrestrial Test Site and Their Correlation
Bibliography
with Remotely Sensed Data," Interim Progress
(1) Barringer, A. R. Report, March 31, 1965, NASA Research Grant
"Developments Towards the Remote Sensing of NGR-14-007-027, Northwestern University.
Vapors as an Airborne and Space Exploration (15) Wolfe, E. W.
Tool," Proceedings of the Third Symposium on "Gemini V Color Photography of Salton Sea Area,
Remote Sensing of Environment, Second Edition, California," U.S. Geological Survey, May 1966,
Willow Run Laboratories, the University of unoublished report.
Michigan, November, 1965, p. 279. (16) U.S. Bureau of Mines
(2) Dellwig, L. F., Kirks, J. N., Walters, R. L. "Minerals Yearbook," 1964.
"The Potential of Low Resolution Radar Imagery (17) U.S. Geological Survey
in Regional Geological Studies," July 15, 1966, "Detailed Plan and Status Report of U.S. Geo-
Journal of Geophysical Research. logical Survey Research Under NASA's Earth
(3) Fischer, W. Resources Survey Program on Space Applica-
"Personal Communication," U.S. Geological Sur- tion for Geology, Space Applications Programs
vey. Office," Supplement 1, Proposed Programs, Ob-
(4) Friedman, J. jectives, Tasks and Budget for FY 1966, Second
"Personal Communication," U.S. Geological Sur- Edition, unpublished report.
vey. (18) U.S. Geological Survey
(5) ttemphill, W. R., Vickers, R. "Scope, Importance and Resolution Requirements
"Geological Studies of the Earth and Planetary of Geoscience Problems To Be Attached by Orbital
Surfaces of Ultraviolet Absorption and Stinm- Remote Sensor Meas,urements," December 22,
lated Luminescence," U.S. Geological Survey, 1965, unpublished report.
April, 1966, unpublished report.
Geography, Cartography and Cultural
(6) Irwin, W. P.
Resources
"Geological Appraisal of Radar Imagery of
Southwestern Oregon," U.S. Geological Survey, 1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
June, 1966, unpublished report.
(7) Lansberg, H., et al. Geography is a spatial science with findino's
"Resources in America's Future," John Hopkins commonly presented on broad-area maps or in
Press, Baltimore, 1963. other synthesized forms. Remote sensor da_a
(8) University of Michigan acquired from aircraft generally are too de-
"Peaceful Use of Earth Observation Spacecraft," tailed in scale to be used directly in regional geo-
Willow Run Laboratories, Contract NASw-1034,
graphic syntheses, except in a graphic compila-
Vols. I, II, III, Feb. 1966.
tion or statistical manner. Also data relating
(9) University of Michigan
"Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Re- to dynamic problems such as traffic flow are ob-
mote Sensing of Environment," Ann Arbor, Mich., tained in small increments (by traffic counters
April, 1966, 870 pgs. on selected roads, for example) and cannot be
(10) Schneider, R.
synthesized over an extended length of time, ex-
"Gravity Gradient Instrument Study," Bimonthly
cept on a s_mpling basis.
Reports to NASA, DS-66-R371-6, May 13, 1966,
Because of these and other constraining limi-
American Bosch Arma Corporation.
(11) Simonett, D. S., Morain, S. A. tations in collecting original data, it has been
"Remote Sensing from Spacecraft as a Tool for difficult to produce timely, broad regional geo-
Investigation of Arctic Environments," CRES graphic studies with existing tools. Some spe-
Report No. 61-5, September, 1965, University of
cific examples follow.
Kansas.

(12) Starr, L. E., Sibert, W. a. Land Use


"Potential Time Cost Benefits From Use of Due to the vastness of our planet's surface and
Orbital Height Photographic Data in Carto-
the rapid changes wrought by man, it has been
graphic Program._," August 1966, U.S. Geological
impractical, by present technology, to keep
Survey, Unl)ublished report.
(13) Walker, G. W. abreast of even the gross surface patterns reflect-
"Evahmtion of Radar Imagery of tIighly Faulted ing man's activities on a yearly or much less for
Volcanic Terrain in Southeast Oregon," May 1966, seasonal or shorter increments of time. Yet
U.S. Geological Survey, unl)ublished rcI)ol_t. such measurements are needed to inventory cul-
EARTH RESOURCES 51

tural and natural resources and to evaluate 1 : 24,000 scale (1 inch=2,000 feet). Presently,
man``s potential for further land development. only 41 percent of the nation, not counting
At the present time sample analyses of aerial Alaska, is covered by that series map. Each
photographs and syntheses of reports of land l:24,000-scale quadrangle map now takes ap-
use and practices are made to estimate world- proximately four years to complete at a pro
wide land use. As a result, land use through- rata cost of between $12,000 and $15,000; and
out the world is inadequately known, and this has a useful life of 5 to 10 years for urban and
limited knowledge is very much out of date. potentially urban areas, 10 to 15 years for
Determination of areas of poverty or of distress farming areas, and 15 to 25 years for grazing
resultant from natural disasters is needed for and remote areas (2, 9).
assistance planning. In the same vein, man- The United States, except Alaska, is now com-
induced changes may be detrimental to the pletely covered by 1:250``000-scale (1 inch ---
human environment of the planet. Such de- approximately 4 miles) topographic maps, and
strnctive exploitation, erosion, or pollution are the task of revising this series of maps remains.
too large in area or too gradual in rate of change The current practice is to maintain smaller-
to be detectable with currently available means scale maps by updating and selective compila-
of study. tion of source data collected for the large-scale
b. Monitoring of Transportation Flows maps.
The flow of transport carriers on interna- f. Status of Mapping in the Remaining Portion
tional sea routes, in the air, and over the con- of the World
tinental waterways, railroads, and highways With all the great technological advances,
can be monitored at present only through statis- such as the use of _rial photographs and in
tical compilation which is inadequate in size of spite of the tremendous resources that are ex-
sample or published long after the time when it pended yearly by the combined cartographic
would be most useful. capabilities of all the advanced nations, the
c. Information Management world remains today less than 50 percent ade-
quately mapped.
Though worldwide inventories of cultural
Significantly, the major obstacle to more
and natural resources may be collected from
rapid accomplishment of the world's mapping
many different sources, the problems of infor-
requirements is the very restriction imposed by
mation management are immense regardless of
conventional aircraft, whereby relatively low-
the method selected. Many different bases of
flying heights and land-base requirements im-
reference, geographic locationM systems, units
ply massive data handling and an inability to
of measure, periodicity of collection, sizes of
penetrate remote areas. Generally, those areas
samples`` standards of measurement calibration,
that are important economically have been
and so forth, are in use. Much international
mapped in detail, but this does not mean that
coordination is needed for effective synthesis
of worldwide data. there is not continuing need for new or up-to-
date maps. For the underdeveloped regions
d. Census o/Human Population and Activities of the world, detailed mapping is almost non-
There remains a need for improved censuses existent, and there remain a few areas where
of population and related features on a world- even complete synoptic maps are lacking (par-
wide scale. The present sampling methods ticularly the Arctic, Antarctic, and certain
result in little more than rough estimates in the
ocean island areas). Also there is the ever-
underdeveloped parts of the world and are also
present requirement to maintain the currency of
inadequate for the rapidly growing nations,
data of the published map. The urgent need
including the United States.
for updating is directly related to the economic
e. Status of Mapping in the United States status of an individual country, and in a vast
The standard topgraphic map product of the majority of the foreig_ areas of the world, new
United States is the 71/2-minute quadrangle, mapping is the most urgent requirement.
52 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

g. Technical Programs in Cartography c. Mapping of Underdeveloped and Remote


From the foregoing discussion we may con- Areas
clude that more rapid means must be found to Accurate topographic maps are universally
complete the maps of this and other countries accepted as a necessary tool for geologic and
and to keep such maps up to date. The rate mineral resource surveys, marine geology and
of aerial-mapping photography is not rapid hydrology studies, water resources inventories,
enough_ and even if this rate were accelerated, land utilization studies, urban planning, high-
the data reduction problem using aerial photog- way location studies, and countless other ap-
raphy would be excessive. Aircraft have their plic__tions. The basic map produced provides
limitations, in altitude, range, speed, and base a scaled drawing upon which all the previously
of operations; hence conventional aerial pho- mentioned study data can be plotted in true
tography must remain less than synoptic in cov- relationship, studied, and analyzed. Plainly,
erage per exposure, discontinuous in coverag% a program to accelerate the acquisition of
and inhibited as to inaccessible areas. knowledge of the land surface and drainage
of developing countries deserves high priority,
2. Possible Space Applications for it is basic to all studies related to land use
a. Source Data and resource development.
Satellite technology offers a very real poten- In some instances, the purpose of global map
tial to advance the science of cartography to coverage is purely scientific (the grain of some
such a degree that its impact would be com- Earth phenomena is so coarse that large areas
parable to the advantages realized when aerial- must be examined before enough observations
mapping photography largely replaced the field can be obtained to be meaningful), but it is also
surveyor. Geodetic satellites are in use today used to serve the economic needs of the United
that will permit the development of a world- States and other countries.
wide net of first order basic control that here-
d. Synoptic and Limited View for Topo-
tofore has been impossible to obtain. Now,
graphic and Thematic Mapping
with the concept of Earth-orbiting remote sen-
sor satellites for acquiring photographs of To better understand the peculiar advan-
great geodetic precision, it should be possible tages of space photography applications to
to further expand the basic control network to cartographic programs, one needs only to con-
meet the requirements for secondary picture sider the techniques employed today with the
point control and therefrom produce adequate use of conventional aerial photography. For
topographic maps and other cartographic prod- example, aerial-mapping photographs used as
ucts on a global basis, with a minimum require- source data for the standard small-scale topo-
ment for ground access. The synoptic cover- graphic map of the United States (1: 250,000)
age yielded by orbital heights would materially is flown at an average altitude of 30_000 feet
reduce data handling problems and most area and requires approximately 200 stereo pairs of
coverage would be accomplished in a continuous
photographs per map sheet. Approximately
form.
5 picture-point control points are required for
b. Base Mapping and Map Revision Operations each stereo pair on a total of approximately
Spaceborne photographic sensors offer a 1,000 photo control points per map sheet. By
unique and realistic potential for the production comparison, the synoptic view, afforded by
of topographic maps at scales of 1:24,000 orbital height photography, could provide
through 1 : 250,000, of acceptable standards, on equal coverage with one stereo pair of photo-
a selected basis and at scales of 1 : 1,000,000 and graphs obtained by a metric frame c.unera for
smaller on a global basis. The use of orbital geometric constraints and three stereo pairs of
photographic data for revision of planimetric high-resolution camera photography for map
detail on published maps at scales larger than content detail. Advantages of space photog-
1:24,000 is considered entirely feasible. raphy by no mea_ls are limited to conventional
EARTH RESOURCES 53

topographic map production operations, how- 3. Assessment of Potential Economic


ever, and consideration must be given to other Benefits
cartographic products, such as thematic maps a. Data Gathering
and, more importantly, photomosaics.
The cost of obtaining conventional aerial-
Through the use of narrow-angle lenses at mapping photography by aircraft varies from
space heights, photography thus achieved would $2.50 to $4 per square mile, depending on a
tend to be orthographically correct--that is, number of factors, particularly the accessibility
displacement of imagery in the photographic of the area. Based on an average rate of $3
plane, due to relief conditions on the ground,
per square mile, complete coverage of the
would be greatly reduced. Thus, the center Earth's 58 million square miles of land surface,
nadir portion of a panoramic camera exposure using conventional aircraft, would cost approx-
could combine very high resolution with prac- imately $174 million (2). The cost rate figures
tically true cartographic representation. At
quoted here are substantiated by a 10-year rec-
orbital heights of 125 nautical miles, a pano- ord of contract purchases for aerial mapping
ramic camera exposure taken with a 24-inch
photography.
focal length lens and exposed on a 5-inch width
By comparison, it is estimated that photo-
film format, a center-nadir sweep would provide
graphic coverage from space of the Earth's
near orthographic photographic coverage for
surface, adequate for the production of usable
the equivalent area of approximately nine
cartographic products and entirely suitable for
1:24,000-scale quadrangle maps and a mosaic of
revision of published maps, would cost approx-
approximately 15 such negative portions would
imately $17 million (2, 3). This figure does not
provide the coverage for a full 1:250,000-scale include the cost of the spacecraft or launch sys-
map sheet, it is .... to u.u_u_ _,_
tem, based on the premise that a sensor carrying
herein lies a real potential to produce highly
spacecraft would be Earth orbited for many
usable cartographic products which can be used
purposes other than for cartographic photog-
by themselves as a map substitute or a direct
raphy alone. Obviously the space data would
data source base from which thematic map data
not be equal to the conventional photography
could be directly traced. in scale and resulting usefulness for precision
e. Photointerpretation in Resource Analysis large-scale mapping; hence a direct comparison
In addition to its value for mapmaking, syn- of costs involved cannot be made.
optic imagery of the Earth taken at frequent The desired camera instrumentation that
intervals from space could afford a tool for di- would be used to obtain space flight-mapping
rect analysis of some problems currently facing photography would of necessity be highly so-
mankind, such as (a) detection of sources of phistica_d and engineered for the space en-
vironment. Such factors drastically increase
air or water pollution, (b) rates of change in
the cost of the individual cameras, and *he space
the inventories of human and natural resources,
flight camera system would cost a magnitude of
(c) movement on or near the Earth's surface
20 ¢imes greater than conventional camera sys-
too rapid to be recorded on maps, e.g., vehicular
tems; on the order of $1 million versus $50,000.
traffic, dust clouds, clearing of vegetative cover
Obviously, consideration should be given to
by burning, and so forth, (d) changes in the
space flight concepts *hat would permit reuse of
Earth's energy budget induced by man, (e)
the camera system for subsequent space flights
problems of population change, including urban
in the interests of economy.
crowding, (f) warning of natural dangers, (g)
understanding of the geomorphic forces affect- b. Data Utilization
ing man's activities, e.g., broad-scale erosion of In terms of factual data, it is possible at _his
soil or shorelines, or sedimentation in shallow, time only to analyze 'benefits that would accrue
navigable waterways, and (h) investigation of to the United States, and in this regard the ap-
remote areas in terms of potential for economic plication is generally associated with map re-
development. vision operations. Application to domestic map
54 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

revision programs would result in a direct sav- • More accurate monitoring of population
ing to the mapmaking offices themselves of $3.5 movement.
million annually. As a result of a detailed • Assistance in national and international
study (R. O. Maxson, 1961 : L. E. Starr and W. census estimates.
Sibert, 1966) and based on 1964 cost factors, it • Improved use of transportation systems
has been determined that additional annual dol- and information to plan new systems.
lar benefits to the U.S. economy (map users) re- • Assistance in planning major engineering
sulting from the availability of more current works (e.g., port facilities, dam sites).
map da_a which would result from the use of
space data, over and _bove the current rate of
map updating, would amount _o approximxtely From a prestige point of view, the extension
$136 million annually. This conservative esti- of space acquired data to topographic mapping,
mate is based on the belief that direct benefits land use, transportation and census studies in
th_ may be realized from having the more cur- underdeveloped countries will serve to enhance
rent map data could be as much as 20 percent of the country's relationship with many of the
the total annual benefits resulting from the developing countries.
availability of topographic maps when the Na- 5. Background
tion is completely mapped. Map use studies
It has been thoroughly demonstrated by such
indicate chat such total annual benefits would
space programs as TIROS, Nimbus, Gemini,
amount _o approximately $680 million; thus
and GEOS that certain phenomena related to
20 percen_ would equal $136 million an-
the Earth can be understood only when viewed
nually (2).
from a great distance. These same programs
Applied on a global basis, this annual benefit
have also demon._trated that for the first time
could exceed $10 billion.
man now has the ability of surveying (or
Maintenance of the topographic map coverage
sensing) large sections of the Eal_h and its
within the shortest possible time interval, par-
environment within a very limited time frame.
ticularly as it affects planimetric-cultural fea-
The potential wflue of space photograI)hy as
tures, is essential if we are to realize continuing
source data for cartographic programs has been
annual dollar benefits. Present-day techniques
demonstrated. For example, photography ac-
generally restrict map maintenance intervals to
quired by Gemini spacecraft has already been
5 to 10 years for urban areas and 10 to 15 years
utilized to revise the 1962 1 : 250,000-scale map
for farming areas. The use of space photo-
sheet of the Cape Kennedy area (2).
graphic data would allow map maintenance
The National Academy of Sciences with
intervals of from 1 to 2 years for urban areas
NAS._. sponsorship, convened in Houston in
and from 2 to 3 years for farming areas. More
January 1965 a group of nearly 100 leading
importantly, it would provide a basis for keep-
geographers from North America and Western
ing pace with the Nation's rapidly expanding
Europe to evaluate the potential of spacecraft
economy. sensors in aiding geographic research. A wide
When the state of the art for making maps variety of possible research applications of sen-
from space is attained, such that maps can be sor imagery were enumerated with some effort
made directly from space acquired data, rather made to specify requirements for ground reso-
than merely revising maps made by other meth- lution and periodicity of coverage. The re-
ods, then the annual benefit will be enh:mced by suits of this conference were pul)lished by the
approximately five times the annual benefit fig-
National Academy of Scien('es in 1966 (NAS-
ures cited here.
NRC Publication No. 1353).
The benetits which geographers derive from
In the late spring of 1966, a Geographic Ap-
accurate, up-to-date topographic maps and from
plications Program and a Cartographic Appli-
other types of current remotely sensed data
e'_tious Program were established through
include :
NASA sponsorship at the U.S. Geological Sur-
• Improved use of rural and urban land. vey and are serving as technical trod administra-
EARTH RESOURCES 55

tive centers in their respective disciplines for missions with the primary function of acquiring
sponsorship of research by the Earth Resources data for Earth resources purposes are expected.
Survey Programs of NASA. These flights may include manned Apollo Ap-
plications (AAP) flights, capable of carrying
6. NASA Plans a sizable number of sensors to be directed at
a. Current Programs selected parts of the Earth where ground con-
Remote sensing techniques are being devel- trols will be used to verify conclusions derived
oped and evaluated for their applicability and during the feasibility stage. It is assumed that
sufficient information will result from these
feasibility for use in solving geographic, carto-
graphic, and cultural problems. flights to determine the optimum mode, of both
From the cartographic point of view, suffi- spacecraft and instruments for future flights.
cient feasibility studies have been completed Although not an operational phase, it is ex-
to determine photographic instrument prelimi- pected that considerable data of economic im-
nary specifications, particularly as they apply portance will be obtained in addition to a large
to the instrumentation required to support car- amount of scientific information. Also during
tographic studies. Subsequent to final develop- this time period it is expected that several
ment of cartographic camera systems for space smaller, unmanned satellites will be utilized for
application, a program of integrated and pro- acquiring data using observational sensors and
gressive experiment is now commencing in for relaying data acquired by sensors on or near
the surface of the Earth.
which state-of-the-art camera systems are being
tested at various flight heights over areas of b. Future Possibilities
known ground truth to validate system per- The research and experimentation discussed
formance, resolution, and geometric capabilities.
The geographic program is being conducted of various approaches and sensors. Further
in two phases : progress toward prototypes of operational sys-
(1) Airborne Feasibility Phase.--This phase tems will depend on the outcome of this research
(in progress) is basically one of experimenta- and experimentation.
tion from aircraft to determine signatures of 7. Associated Studies and Activities
geographic phenomena in terms of assumed
spacecraft sensor resolution and in terms of NASA's lunar orbiter program is acquiring
usefulness to the geographic profession. Sev- cartographic data for topographic mapping.
eral test sites have been established to sample The results of this and other cartographic activ-
a variety of terrain or environmental situations ities being conducted by NASA's lunar explora-
within the United States. These included a tion program may provide techniques which
can be utilized in earth orbit also.
broad regional site at the Ashville basin, North
Carolina, urban metropolitan sites at Chicago 8. Suggested Additional Studies
and Phoenix, and a high mountain site in the
(a) Evaluation of the world data manage-
Cascade Mountains of Washington. Multi- ment requirements of Earth resource data is via
disciplinary teams of scientists from local uni- remote sensing from space with emphasis on
versities and Federal agencies have collected international cooperation.
ground truth at the sites and interpreted im- (b) Evaluation of the educational potential
agery obtained through NASA-sponsored over- of spacecraft data through wide distribution
flights of aircraft mounted with advanced of space imagery and keys for interpretation.
sensors. The major need is to acquaint Earth resources
In addition to aircraft testing, it is planned scientists with remote sensing techniques and the
to obtain hyperaltitude photography (pane- potential uses of various sensors.
ramic and metric) at altitudes of approximately (e) Studies should be conducted relative to
120,000 feet using balloon gondolas. the needs for establishing a public geographic
(2) Spacecra]t Testing Phase.--During the data processing center. If so considerable
1969 to 1975 time period, the first space flight standardization with other organizations, for
56 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

example, the National Oceanographic Data Cen- periods of time, and their synthesis into descrip-
ter would be required. tions of the hydrologic systems. Such models
(d) Evaluation of the use of orbital remote can be used for short- or long-term predictions
sensors for their application to the fresh-water of hydrologic events and for descriptions of
fishing industry as a measure of exploitation hydrologic systems at some future date. Sev-
of that natural resource. eral examples of methods in use today are
(e) Application of absorption spectroscopy described below and comments are given on the
from orbital altitudes to analyze mamnade applicability of remote sensing methods from
smoke and other forms of air pollution. aircraft and spacecraft ,to the problems.

Bibliography a. Measurement of Chemical and Biological


Charavteristics of Water
(1) Maxson, Robert O., "Uses, Requirements and
Values of Quadrangle Maps," (1961) paper pre- The measurement of chemical and biological
sented at the annual meeting of the American characteristics of water is usually carried out
Congress in Surveying and Mapping, Washington, by either spot sampling or continuous sampling
D.C., March 1961.
of water from lakes, streams, estuaries, and
(_) Starr, L. E., and Sibert,W., "Potential Time-Cost
Benefits From Use of Orbital-Height Photographic groundwater reservoirs, and the subsequent
Data in Cartographic Programs," unpublished U.S. analysis of these samples in the laboratory.
Geologic Survey Technical Letter NASA-54, Au- Some work is being done on automatic monitor-
gust 1966. ing of chemic and biological parameters. It is
(8) Udall, Stewart L., and Pecora, William T.,
difficult to develop regional synthesis of such
"Earth's Resources To Be Studied From Space,"
U.S. Dept. of Interior News Release, Sept. 21, 1966. data for large water bodies. For example,
(_) "Annotated Samples of Imagery From Aircraft measurement of the concentration of certain
and Spacecraft as Applied to the Earth Resource pesticides at a location on the shore of an estu-
Disciplines," unpublished report prepared by U.S. ary may not be representative of .the concentra-
Army GIMRADA for NASA (1966), expected to be
tion or even of the presence of such a pollutant
published by mid-1967.
(5) "Detailed Plan and Status Report of U.S. Geologi-
within the entire estuary.
cal Survey Research in Geography/Cartography Aircraft observations are being used to study
Applications of Space Under NASA's Earth Re- some elements of the water pollution problem.
sources Survey Program," U.S. Geological Survey, This problem includes four main phases: (1)
March 1966 (unpublished report).
The detection of the presence of pollution,
(6) "Peaceful Uses of Earth-Observation Spacecraft,"
University of Michigan Contract NASw-10--04,
(2) the identification of the specific pollution
February 1966, Vols. I, II, III. substance, (3) the measurement of the concen-
(7) "Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Remote tration of that substance, and (4) the deter-
Sensing of Environment," April 12, 13, 14, 1966,
mination of its movement and disposition. At
sponsored by the U.S. Navy, Office of Naval Re-
search Geography Branch, and the Air Force Cam- the present time we consider that sensing from
bridge Research Laboratories, published by the aircraft (or space) will be very limited in
Infrared Physics Laboratory, Institute of Science allowing us to detect, identify, or measure
and Technology, University of Michigan, Ann
specific pollutants. Aircraft have been used
Arbor, Michigan, 1966.
(8) "Scope, Importance, and Resolution Requirements
width some success in determining the movement
of Geoscience Problems To Be Attacked by Orbital of pollutants in surface waters. This is based
Remote Sensor Measurements," U.S. Geological on the fact that streamlines on water surfaces
Survey, December 22, 1965 (unpublished report). are indicative of the movement of substances
(9) "Spacecraft in Geographic Research," NAS Na-
tional Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1966,
within the water and can be de_ribed mathe-
Publication 1353. matically to determine the flow-nets, dispersion,
and diffusion of those materials. In some cases
Hydrology and Water Resources
the actual polluting substance cannot be sensed,
1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods but indicators of its presence may give the
Existing methods in hydrology are primarily desired information. The mapping of wwter-
concerned with the collection of data over long surface boundary conditions will help to deter-
EARTH RESOURCES 57

mine the behavior of the pollutants in the are needed now or in the near future. Synoptic
water bodies. sensing of regions either by aircraft photog-
raphy or by space photography will be partic-
b. Measurement o/ Physical Properties of
Water ularly useful. The larger the region, the more
synoptic the view needs to be, and the more ad-
Measurements of the physical properties of
vantageous space sensing becomes. It is likely
water is currently conducted in much the same
that both the photographic sensors and other
way as measurement of chemical and biological
electromagnetic sensors will be prime tools in
characteristics---by spot measurement and syn- such work.
thesis of such measurement into system descrip-
tions. The monitoring of stream temperatures d. Snow Surveying and Mapping
is particularly important below large power- Snow surveying is now carried out in most of
plants which discharge large amounts of heated the Western United States to provide water-
water. Such heated water may be detrimental supply forecasts for the spring, summer, and
to the oxygen content of the water, and, there- fall months. The management of water sup-
fore, to the fish population in the water, and plies in watersheds which receive much of their
also in its use for municipal or industrial sup- runoff from the high mountains in the west is
plies. Synoptic measurement of water bodies dependent upon the accuracy of these water-
to determine the thermal attenuation below such supply forecasts. At the present time such
powerplants would be valuable in determining surveys are conducted by measuring snow
the water-management practices needed to re- depths at various points along snow courses
duce the amount of thermal loading or to sug- within the snow-covered regions. Water con-
gest management methods of proper use of the tent of snow is measured at spot locations, either
water. by w_clgning
---:-.1_: snow ........_._,
o 1.... _;_g
............ pr_-_nra pil-
lows, or by measuring gamma-ray attenuation
c. Mapping and Description of Ground-Water
Features from radiation sources placed beneath the snow.
These point data are used to synthesize the snow
Ground water is contained within the earth's cover and resultant runoff for the entire water-
crust, and, therefore, the major tool for the map- shed. Too few data points are normally avail-
ping and description of ground-water features able to make reliable estimates of the snow cov-
is that of geolog% Ground water is contained er of watersheds. Methods to monitor vast
within the rocks of the Earth's crust, and, there- areas on a periodic basis are required. An air-
fore, the major tool for mapping and descrip- borne or spaceborne sensor that could map
tion of ground-water features is geology. Geo- synoptically the water content and thickness
logical mapping is a prime tool and a first tool of snow would be immensely valuable.
in any area where ground-water exploration is
to be done. Because of the necessity for large- e. Geomorphology and Assessment of Uhanges
in the Hydrologic Regimen
scale development within a short-time frame,
it is necessary to make prospecting for ground This is a broad problem field which involves
water more efficient. This can be done in two the analysis of land forms and their changes in
ways : (1) By increasing the mobility of the man time, both naturally and as a consequence of the
who surveys the area, and (2) by reducing the activities of man. A specific example is the
scale of his problem. The synoptic views of measurement of sediment production from
large regions for ground-water prospecting is urbanized areas. Limited monitoring of the
exceedingly helpful in reducing the scale of the sediment flow in streams out of an urban area is
hydrologist's problem and allowing him to de- now being conducted by placing sediment moni-
lineate areas of various degrees of favorability toring stations at the mouths of a watershed.
for the occurrence of large quantities of ground This information is being correlated with aerial
water. This is particularly important in un- photography taken periodically over the same
developed areas where little basic work has been areas to show those parts of the ground which
done and yet large supplies of ground water have been denuded and are contributing sedi-
58 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

ment. It is hoped that monitoring of such h. Regional Analysis of Lakes and Associated
phenomena may provide indicators as to the land Resources
management practices that are needed to reduce Even the largest lakes of the world are
the amount of denudation of soil from water- ephemeral in terms of geologic time; they do not
sheds. Current methods are somewhat inade- last very long. While they do last, however_
quate to provide sufficient monitoring of this they are important resources for man% use both
type. in terms of water supply and in terms of human
and cultural values such as recreation and
f. Measurement of Ziquid-Vapor Transfer to
the Hydrologic Cycle aesthetic enjoyment. Classically, the studies of
lakes have been carried on by point measure-
It is important for us to know what the water
ments in individual lakes, supplemented to some
balance of the world is in terms of how much
extent by aerial photographs, and the synthesis
water falls on the ground as precipitation, how
of the behavior and characteristics of individual
much is entering the atmosphere as evaporation
lakes. Because of the vast number of lakes in
or transpiration_ and how much is flowing from
the world and the large number of them in the
the ground into the oceans. The measurement
United States, it is necessary to derive methods
of phase change of water in the hydrologic cycle
for regional analysis of lakes and to determine
is important in the understanding of the world-
what transfer value limnological information
wide water balance, ttowever, measurement of
has on a regional basis.
the evaporative and transpirative phases of this
cycle with methods now available is extremely i. Marine Hydrology
difficult. Pilot projects in determining the The objective of marine hydrology studies is
evaporation losses from water surfaces_ such as to determine the hydrologic environment of the
large lakes and impounded reservoirs, are going coast and continental shelves of the United
on at the present time. Infrared radiometry States. As one example of this work the de-
and imagery may provide a means to determine termination of the distribution of the effluents
the average water-surface temperature_ and, of the major rivers that flow into the sea is
thereby, provide a term in the heat budget equa- important. Synoptic sensing from space may
tion and also in the water budget equation for allow analysis of the distribution of such
determining the evaporative loss of water from effluents over large regions either by means of
such reservoirs.
determining their temperatur% or color, or
g. Glaciology another parameter that can be sensed. On a
One of the major problems in existing somewhat smaller scale the mapping of the dis-
methodology in glaciological studies is the de- persion of pollutants in large estuaries such as
termination of the annual water budget of gla- the Chesapeake Bay is also an objective of this
ciers. This in turn is related to much larger program.
problems because glaciers are very sensitive in- j. Data Collection
dicators of climatic fluctuations_ and_ possibly,
Most hydrologic data, collected from point lo-
may be useful in long-term climatic forecasting.
cations_ is recorded at the station location on
The determination of annual water budgets of
charts. These charts or other data records are
glaciers involves the measurement of amounts
collected at frequent intervals and used to form
of new snow accumulated each year. For this
a history of the phenomena recorded.
purpose some photography has been proven use-
ful, specifically infrared color photography, Very few hydrologic data, at the present time,
which shows the difference between new snow are transmitted by landlines or radio from a
and firn much better than any other type of pho- handful of the thousands of data-collection sta-

tography. Such techniques are in the testing tions now in operation. More hydrologic data
stage now on the South Cascade Glacier in the are needed in real time or near real time for:

State of Washington and may be extended to Flood forecasting, water-quality forecasting,


other glaciers in the future. and other purposes.
EART]K RESOURCES 59

2. Possible Space Applications tion patterns, useful in studying runoff charac-


teristics of drainage basis, may be observable
Space technology has potential widespread
because of variations in Earth temperature im-
and beneficial applications in hydrology and
mediately after a storm. A time sequence moni-
water-resources management. Synoptic ob-
toring capability is essential for this.
servation of hydrologic systems could provide
significant data for identifying and monitor- b. Energy Reflected From Zand and Water
ing the behavior of hydrologic systems and the Surfaces
determination of cause-and-effect relations Photography--panchromatic, infrared, and
within those hydrologic systems. Such synop- multispectral--probably has more potential ap-
tic views coupled with the real-time data relay plications than any other type of remote sensing
capability of the communications satellites of reflected energy (9). Radar imagery may be
could allow faster correlation of ground-ob- useful to a lesser degree. Infrared photog-
served events in hydrol%o T and facilitate both raphy, and to some extent radar imagery, may
the basic description of hydrologic systems and be used for shoreline delineation where location
the management decisions required in their of the land-water contact is doubtful. Water
conservation and preservation. color and contrasts in water color may b_ use-
ful as indicators of water quality--chemical,
a. Energy Radiated From Land and Water
Surfaces biological, or sediment load. Streamlines and
other discontinuities in energy reflected from
Radiometry and imagery, especially in the water surfaces can be useful in studies such as
infrared, have a high potential as spaceborne
dispersion of wastes, tidal movement in estu-
hydrologic tools. Water-surface temperatures
aries, and fate of river effluents. Sunlight may
are _1¢_,_t, m _._le, of such problems as evap-
be preferentially reflected in certain directions
oration from reservoirs and thermal loading of
in a nonisotropic or polarized manner (genie-
streams and lakes by powerplant effluents. metric distribution). Measurement of the dis-
Water-surface roughness, possibly measured
tribution of reflected sunlight might prove use-
by comparison of shortwave and longwave ra-
ful in determining water-surface roughness.
diation, affects the distribution of dissolved oxy- The measurement of levels of lakes and reser-
gen and of contaminants in the near-surface
voirs may be an application for remote sensors
environment. Characteristics of ice and snow,
such as lasers. Repetitive photography should
such as temperature and water content, are nec- be useful to monitor the formation and move-
essary in snow surveying and in glaciologieal
ment of shoals and sandbars in rivers, for prob-
studies.
lems associated with erosion, sedimentation, and
Thermal contrasts, or anomalies, may be use-
other geomorphic processes, and monitoring
ful for identifying a number of hydrologic fea-
tures. Streamlines on water surfaces are valua- subaqueous features of lakes. Synoptic moni-
toring of the distribution and size of snowfields
ble in studies of pollution-mixing patterns in
streams, tidal movement in estuaries, and the is a first step in the surveying of snow from
fate of effluents of large rivers. The location of space. Water content determinations are
hot springs is important in geologic mapping needed but remote measuring instruments are
mineral exploration, and ground-water studies. not available yet. The inventory of land use
Points of ground-water discharge into streams, in terms of hydrology is also a possibility.
lakes, and the oceans may be identified, thus This includes the study of vegetation as an
greatly reducing the amount of ground recon- indicator of water; soil characteristics, includ-
naissance work, including expensive test drill- ing moisture content; erosional processes, par-
ing, needed to locate and evaluate ground-water ticularly those due to water possibly may be
resources. The location of shallow water-bear- monitored. Surface geology for hydrologic in-
ing deposits, such as buried valleys, is another terpretation can be observed by photograms
kind of observation which would expedite and/or radar imagery. This is especially use-
ground-water prospecting. Rainfall-distribu- ful in ground-water studies. Drainage patterns
259-790----67-------5
6O A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

and other hydrologically significant landforms service this capital investment, some $40 mil-
may be determined. lion is spent each year, almost entirely by Fed-
eral agencies, for routine collection of basic
e. Energy Absorbed and _cattered by Water
hydrologic data (2). Expenditures for Fed-
Bodies
eral water resources research in 1965 were $70
Photography, active and passive ultraviolet million (1). Yet these data are far from ade-
spectrometry and imagery_ and lasers are some quate. Many important areas of investigation
of the remote sensing techniques that may be still remain. Space techniques will produce
used for the measurement of absorption and/or more data for statistical analysis and long-
scattering and refraction of radiation by water. range use and more timely data for short-range
These measurements have potential use for de- USe.
termining water depth_ sediment size and con- Repetitive regionwide surveys of stream con-
centration, and such water-quality parameters ditions and of the extent and depth of snow and
as dissolved oxygen, chlorides, and conductance ice packs and frozen soils can provide short-term
(9). Spectral sensing may be useful in measur- forecasts of water availability. For example_
ing certain water-quality parameters such as a slight improvement in accuracy of predicting
organic nutrients, carbon_ plant pigments_ and spring runoff conditions can produce large dol-
chlorides. Observations of luminescence such lar savings for some hydroelectric plants by im-
as phosphorescence and fluorescence could be proving storage operations.
useful for identifying biological characteristics Ground-water prospecting in undeveloped
such as types and concentration of algae; or for areas is another application of space for which
monitoring, perhaps quantitatively, the concen- economic benefits are possible. The general
tration of a soluble fluorescent dye. Tracer location of shallow aquifers by thermal or other
dyes_ used extensively for measuring time of anomalies could greatly reduce the time re-
travel and dispersion in rivers and estuaries, are quired to delineate and evaluate the aquifers by
now monitored by field sampling. ground reconnaissance, test drilling, and related
3. Assessment of Potential Economic procedures.
Benefits The ability to collect comparable data for all
parts of the Earth within a short-time span is
In the long run, the acquisition of hydrologic
needed for obtaining a quantitative description
data from space should produce significant of the worldwide water balance.
economic benefits; however, these benefits cannot
be stated in terms of dollars at this time. 4. Assessment of Other Implications
Direct benefits will accrue from improvements Although nearly any positive result from
in present data collection capabilities and in space sensing can be interpreted ultimately in
operational decisions for water management. terms of economic benefits, there are other ben-
Indirect benefits will be derived from the appli- eficial results which may be thought of in terms
cation of increased knowledge about the hydro- other than economic. One of these is the scien-
logic cycle_ regionally and worldwide in long- tific benefit of increased knowledge of the dis-
range planning. tribution_ quantity, and quality of water re-
Recognizing this need, the U.S. Geological sources, and about the hydrologic cycle itself.
Survey is initiating a comprehensive economic Other benefits could be termed both political
benefits study for obtaining earth resource data and social. The increased availability of fresh
from space, including hydrologic data. Hope- water in those areas of scarce supply will un-
fully, results from this study will be available doubtedly benefit users domestically and on an
in preliminary form by mid-1967. international scale. The provision of hydro-
The following comments are indicative of the logic data will be especially valuable to develop-
potential scope for economic benefits in this ing nations. On a global basis this data may
field. The total existing capital investment in significantly contribute to one of the major goals
water-resources facilities of all types in the of the International Hydrologic Decade, that
United States is about $235 billion (5). To of estimating the world water balance.
E ARTI_ RESOURCES 61

5. Background feasibility of use in solving hydrologic prob-


lems.
To date, remote sensing devices have played
The feasibility of utilizing these techniques
a moderately important role in hydrology and
from aircraft is now being determined, using
will increase in their use and importance in the
both NASA and USGS aircraft. Instruments
next few years.
are being installed, modified if necessary, and
Aerial photography is the most widely used
tested over selected hydrologic test sites, such as
remote sensing tool. Few aerial photographs
the Salton Sea in California, South Cascade
are taken for strictly hydrologic purposes, but
Glacier in Washington, the Potomac River estu-
general-purpose aerial photos are used to aid
ary, and the Florida Everglades. The result-
hydrologic mapping. The greatest application
ing data are being examined, compared with
is in geologic mapping for ground-water ex-
known "ground truth" data, and evaluated for
ploration. potential use in hydrology.
Infrared photography has been used pri- The results of the air borne feasibility phase
marily for shoreline mapping because the will be applied to the development of spacecraft
opaque, and hence black, water contrasts well instruments. The program of data collection
with land.
and evaluation in the spacecraft testing phase
Color photography has been used only should be similar, although covering larger
slightly but has proved valuable for the identi- areas, to that of the aircraft phase. The result
fication and mapping of subaqueons features will be the determination of which sensors may
and for distinguishing the relations of water be usable for selected applications in the opera-
features and vegetation. tional phase.
The value of other remote sensing techniques Hopefully, the operational phase will pro._.de
such as radar, passive-microwave and infrared for continuous collection of hydrologic data
imaging and radiometric techniques are as yet which will be useful in the inventory, assess-
little known for hydrologic purposes but are ment, utilization and management of water
being studied for potential applications. resources.
In accordance with the interagency agree- b. Future Possibilities
ment of 1965 the U.S. Geological Survey has
No fully applicable sensing devices for sur-
beexl working cooperatively with NASA in the
veying the elevation of the surface of snow fields
study of remote sensors and in the interpreta-
are yet available in operational mode. The
tion of remotely sensed data for hydrologic ap-
development of ranging devices---for example_
plications. These investigations have been and
lasers and radar--with accuracies of several cen-
are being conducted in two phases. The first is
timeters from orbital altitudes would be highly
the classic scientific method--development of
desirable. The development of remote sensing
hypotheses on the electromagnetic properties
instruments capable of measuring the water con-
and reactions of hydrologic features and test-
tent of snow to accuracies of 10 percent should
ing of the hypotheses with specially designed
also be pursued.
instruments. The second is the empirical cor-
Another problem area involves the determina-
relation of remote-sensor records with known
tion of water quality over a large area such as
properties of hydrologic features and the devel-
in estuaries, lakes, and rivers. Parameters that
opment of interpretation methods that will require measurement include chemical, physi-
allow identification and further study of the cal and biological properties. The use of lasers
features. These two approaches are being may prove feasible for these measurements.
carried out simultaneously. Considerable research will be required to deter-
6. NASA Plans mine their applicability.

a. Gurrent Programs 7. Associated Studies and Activities


Remote sensing techniques are being devel- Basic needs for research in the fields of hy-
oped and evaluated for their applicability and drology were outlined in the report "A Ten-
62 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

Description and Appraisal of Water Resources,"


Year Program of Federal Water Resources
Photogram Metria, v. 19, No. 3, 1964, 21 p. 12 figs.
Research" by the Federal Council for Science
(5) Picton, Walter L., "Water Resources Develop-
and TechnologT, Committee on Water Re- ment Capital Investment Values 1900-1975," U.S.
sources Research (February 1966). This study Department of Commerce, Business and Defense
serves as a basic planning guide for the remote- Service Administration, 1959.

sensing program in hydrology. The Federal (6) Robinove, C. J., "Photography and Imagery--A
Clarification of Terms: Photogrammetric Engi-
Council of Water Resources Research continues
neering," v. 29, No. 5, 1963, p. 889-1.
to provide reports on a periodic basis. (7) Robinove, C. J., "Infrared Photography and Im-
agery in Water Resources Research," American
8. Suggested Additional Studies
Water Works Association Journal, v. 57, No. 7,
The program outlined in the previous sec- 1965, p. 834--40.
(8) Robinove, C. J., "Remote Sensor Applications in
tions is the basis for present planning. Many
Hydrology," Proceedings of Fourth Symposium
additional problems need Co be investigated.
on Remote Sensing of Environment, April 1966,

a. Water Pollution Monitoring Ann Arbor, Michigan, p. 27, published by the


Infrared Physics Lab., Institute of Science and
Density of ground control required, frequency Technology, University of Michigan.
of spaceflight observations required, instrument (9) Robinove, C. fir., "A Preliminary Evaluation of
techniques for surface sampling, instrument Airborne and Spaceborne Remote Sensing Data

techniques for remote sensing, etc. for Hydrologic Use," U.S. Geological Survey,
Technical Letter, NASA-50 (unpublished report)
5. Water Content o/ Snow Fields 1966.

(10) Schneider, W. J., "Airphoto Interpretation of the


Instrument techniques for remote sensing and
Water Resources of the Florida Everglades,"
for surface monitoring, density of ground con- Paper presented March 11, 1966, at ACSM-ASP
trol required, frequency of spaceflight observa- convention, Washington, D.C., reprint, 10 p., 13
tions required, economic significance of such figs.

studies, etc. (11) Skibitzke, H. E., and Brown, R. tI., "Remote


Sensing of Hydrologic Phenomena," Paper pre-
e. Physical Ghemical and Biological C]_aracter- sented at the November 1965 Remote Sensing
ist_cs o/La]ces Symposium, Huntsville, Ala., 10 p., 6 figs.
(12) Stanford Research Institute, "Priority Analysis
Instrumental methods for measurement of
of Manned Orbital Research Applications," SRI
these characteristics, frequency of data collec- Project M-5465, September 1965.
tion requirements by overflight, economic sig- (13) Starr, L. E. and Sibert W., "Potential Time-Cost
nificance of acquiring lacustrine data, etc. Benefits From Use of Orbital-Height Photo-
graphic Data in Cartographic Programs": U.S.
d. Erosion and Sedimentation as a Result of Geological Survey Technical Letter, NASA 54
Man's Acti,,ity (unpublished) August 1966.

Instrument techniques for surface monitor- (14) Taylor, George C., Jr. (U.S. Geological Survey),
"The Role of Water Resources in Economic De-
ing, frequency of overflights required, effect on velopment With Particular Reference to Latin
land use in metropolitan areas, assessments of America"-- (unpublished paper).
economic significance, etc. (15) U.S. Geological Survey, "Scope, Importance and
Resolution Requirements of Geoscience Problems
Bibliography To Be Attached by Orbital Remote Sensor Meas-

(1) Federal Council for Science and Technology, urements," December 22, 1965 (unpublished
"A Ten Year Program of Federal Water Re- report).

sources Research," p. 32, Committee on Water (16) University of Michigan, Willow Run Labora-

Resources Research, February 1966. tories, "Peaceful Uses of Earth-Observation

(2) IBM Corporation, "ORL Experiment Program," Spacecraft," vols. I, II, III, Contract NASw-1084,
Volume on Geology and Hydrology, (Vol. H). February 1966.

Report on NASA Contract NASw-:1215, February


21, 1966.
Oceanography
(3) Langhein, Walter B., William G. Hoyt, "Water 1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
Facts for the Nation's Future," Ronald Press
Company, New York, 1959. Until the very recent past, the oceanograph-
(_) Lohman, S. W., Roblnove, C. J., "Photographic er's efforts to understand the oceans have been
4
EARTH RESOURCES 63

conducted with data obtained through long and to fishermen on a bi-week]y basis. Informa-
slow ship surveys. More recently, the prospects tion gaps larger than the size of the United
of utilizing large numbers of buoy platforms States exist and they are filled in from clima-
have been studied. Deep diving research vehi- tological data whenever possible. The Navy
cles are now coming into use as scientific tools. issues a sea surface temperature chart of the
The use of a small but growing number of air- western Northern Hemisphere every day. It,
craft is becoming increasingly attractive be- too, suffers from insufficient data. Sea state
cause of their large area-coverage capability. data, obviously, are much more perishable, di-
The term "large" is relative and, considering minishing in value in a matter of hours. The
the global dimensions of the oceans, a three or status of some of the major oceanographic pur-
four-hour flight by an aircraft does not cover suits is described in the following paragraphs.
much territory. a. Sea State
The buoy concept offers a limited means of
Present information on sea state is derived
obtaining synoptic data on a global basis.
primarily from visual observations m a de
Progress is being made along this line but it has
aboard ships. A few objective wave measure-
become clear that this solution will be very cost-
ments are made by electronic wave staffs or
ly since the installation and servicing of large
other instruments, but these are obtained pri-
numbers of buoys on a continuing, long-term
marily for research purposes. For the most
basis is still questionable from the economic
part, the synoptic wave analyst and oceano-
point of view. Furthermore, there are areas
graphic forecaster has had to depend on infer-
where buoys are impractical either because of
ring sea state conditions from wind reports
their remoteness, or because the environmental
based on empirical relationships established
conditions are prohibitive.
between wave height and wind force. The
The inadequacy of other data gathering sys-
paradox, however, is that few ships reporting
tems becomes apparent when viewed from the
into the synoptic network are instrumented to
standpoint of time. Even if we consider that
obtain wind data. Consequently, they rely
one ship, conducting near surface surveys could
almost entirely on visual sea-state observations
provide coverage at the rate of 10,000 square to obtain wind information. Methods for
miles per day, it would take thirty-seven years
minimizing the problem, such as utilizing the
to cover the world's oceans. Obviously, the
isobaric pattern to deduce wind flow and relate
answer to synoptic requirements is not to in-
this to sea state, are employed. Nevertheless,
crease the number of ships. Aircraft equipped
it is generally admitted that with all the inher-
with appropriate sensors are capable of record-
ent errors of the system, very little accurate
ing similar data also, but even the speed and
sea state or surface wind data are contributed
range of aircraft used for repetitive surveys
by surface ships. The synoptic ship network
are not nearly suffÉcient for anything other
which provides the bulk of wave data available
than local coastal and near-shore surveys.
to the oceonographer consists of research ships,
The use of large numbers of aircraft, each
weather vessels, naval units, and merchantmen
equipped with a family of remote sensors might
provide the answer, but this, too, is not eco- of this and other countries. These ships yield
nomically sound. only about 600 data points per day, mostly
The problem is one of acquiring truly synop- concentrated in the major shipping lanes of the
tic data within a useful and valid operational Northern Hemisphere. So even if accurate,
time frame, on a fiscally sound basis. The reliable shipboard instrumentation did exist, the
world ocean is a dynamic system and studies number and distribution of data points would
have been made which indicate that sea-surface be inadequate to describe the synoptic state of
temperature data, for example, become of the sea.
doubtful use after a lapse of time of ten days. To solve some of these problems oceonograph-
The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries issues a ers have turned to remote wave-height sensors
surface temperature chart of the eastern Pacific for use on aircraft.
64 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

b. Thermal Gonditions apparently because of the high initial and serv-


Sea surface temperature was one of the first icing cost.
It is not difficult to understand why, then, the
oceanographic variables that man was able to
measure objectively. Problems are encoun- oceanographer has turned to remote sensing and
tered_ however_ in projecting this capability be- the use of aircraft to provide sea surface tem-
yond a point or a column in the ocean. perature data.
Because of cost constraints, few surface ves- c. Sea Ice
sels are instrumented with accurate temperature Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility
measuring devices or trained observers. There- of the sea-ice areas of the world, visual and
fore, the oceanographer must either depend on photographic observations from low-flying air-
observations taken by one or a few of the instru- craik have been the only means of collecting
mented ships moving from point-to-point or data. However_ both these techniques suffer
utilize multiple ships of opportunity. In the from the high incidence of cloudiness common
first case, the observational points are separated in the polar and subpolar areas as well as from
widely in time, and inferences are required as the absence of adequate dayligh¢ for a good por-
to the conservativeness of the temperature over tion of the year.
the area sampled in order to analyze the hori- Recent studies in the use of infrared radiom-
zontal temperature distribution synoptically. etry for sea-ice surveys have been conducted
In the second case, although observations are by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and
spread over a wide grid and are taken almost Engineering Labor_tory (USA CRREL), the
simultaneously, untrained observers, non-stand- University of Michigan, and NAVOCEANO.
ard instruments, and navigational errors de- Recently the oceanographer has been investi-
grade the data. The net result is that a high gating those instruments which will allow him
percentage of the synoptic temperature reports to "see" through clouds and report sea-ice fea-
available to the analyst contain considerable tures at will, irrespective of weather and day-
inherent error. light. Side-looking radar (SLR) and passive
In both cases, surface ships reporting tem- microwave imagers appear to hold some promise
perature are few in number considering the size in chis area. Aircraft studies have been con-
of the area involved. Only about 800 daily re- ducted using SLR by CRREL, University of
ports are available for the entire oceanic area; Michigan, and NAVOCEANO. Radar photos,
most of these concentrated along the shipping taken through 20_000 feet of cloud cover, show
routes in the Northern Hemisphere. Various the surface features extremely well. The U.S.
temperature analysis techniques are employed Coast Guard has investigated the use of micro-
(1 and _) in order to overcome the problem of wave.
data sparsity. With the wide spacing of data
2. Possible Space Applications
points, however, the analysis is open to many
interpretations, and it is possible to produce Theoretical concepts to utilize remote sensors
several different patterns with the same set of from spacecraft have recently been established
data. It should also be noted that, as with all and are described below:
marine surface readings, temperature observa- a. Sea State
tions tend to be "fair-weather" in nature inas-
The use of radars in satellites for sea-state
much as surface units try to avoid heavy
measurements has been under consideration for
weather or suspend observations when encoun-
some time. Several papers on this subject were
tering it.
The problem of increasing the number of presented at a conference, in August 1964, on the
surface data points to provide adequate cover- feasibility of oceanographic explorations from
age remains unsolved. Recent studies for add- aircraft and spacecraft (8).
ing buoys to enhance the global ocean surface Work is underway to evaluate feasibility of
observation network (3 and $) propose only employing radar backscatter for wave-height
limited additional data points (830 in one case) measurement. In June 1966, a Radar/Sea
EARTH RESOURCES 65

State Conference, sponsored by NAVOCEANO meteorologists and oceanographers. The mete-


and held at N-RL, brought together both radar orologist, of course, must be able to discern the
and sea-state experts to discuss the potential and difference between clouds, snow, and ice in the
requirements for data to determine feasibility TV image in order to gain reliability in analyz-
of this concept and to outline a cours_ of action. ing cloud cover of the world. The oceanog-
In addition to radar, passive microwave rapher, on the other hand, is concerned with
radiometry is being considered for the measure- developing _echniques to permit identification
ment of sea state. Proposals from North and analysis of ice features exclusive of the
American Aviation, Space General and others other conflicting TV imagery. Hence, though
have been submitted ¢o NASA to pursue this considerable study and analysis have been done
method and are being evaluated ,by SPOC. in this regard, more is required. The most nota-
Sea glitter may also provide information of ble effort in interpretation of TV ice photos
value relative to ,the sea state. has been done with TIROS IV in which the

b. Thermal Gonditions meteorologists of the U.S. Weather Bureau and


oceanographers and photogrammetrists of the
With regard to sea temperatures TIROS and U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office joined with
NIMBUS have already (in the absence of Canadian ice specialists and photo interpreters
clouds), sensed thermal radiation from the sea in Project TIREC. The requirement for polar-
surface. Other papers presented at the afore- orbiting satellites added to the meteorologists'
mentioned conference (8) concerned the feasi- ice/cloud problem. Not only are the Ar_ic and
bility of determining sea surface temperature Antarctic ice areas covered, but darkness is en-
from TIROS VII data, and analysis of NIM- countered on every orbit. Higher resolution
BUS HRIR derived data in certain clear sky Advanced Vidicon System (AVCS) and High
nighttime cases, compared with aircraft and Resolution Infrared (HRIR) developed for
ship data. Both papers stress the limitations NIMBUS improved the discrimination capa-
in the IR data, particularly those resulting from bility for the meteorologist.
the presence of clouds and atmospheric moisture. Although primarily designed for meteoro-
For this reason, the IR data derived from satel- logical purposes, these instruments have also
lites sensors has not yet reached acceptable
resulted in superior ice data both in definition
accuracy or reliability required for oceano-
and coverage. NIMBUS 1, in its short period
graphic applications. As in the case of aircraft
of viewing the earth, transmitted AVCS
use of IR, the sea is "seen" only in the absence
imagery of ice formations in Baffin Bay and the
of clouds and is influenced by radiation from
the invisible moisture in the column between the Arctic Ocean and also provided the first exten-
sea and the sensor. It has been shown theoreti- sive coverage of ice in Antarctica.
cally that it may be possible to employ multiple Ice motion studies also have been made (8)
frequency microwave radiometers to provide using both TV readouts from TIROS using the
reliable "all-weather" surface thermal data. motion of the satellite to acquire pseudo-stereo
Accordingly, experimental work is planned to pairs. Airborne radar has also been employed
determine feasibility of utilizing concepts along to provide similar results.
these lines. d. Currents and Water Masses
e. Sea Ice In addition to the possible location of currents
Sea ice is one of the few oceanographic fea- and water masses by thermal characteristics
tures for which data have been o_ained from sensed by IR and microwave, these are indica-
spacecraft. TIROS 1, the first meteorological tions that photography may have potential ap-
satellite, transmitted TV pictures of the ice in plication in this area. Since variations in water
the Gulf of St. Lawrence within hours after it coloration indicative of properties which differ-
was launched in April 1960. Throughout the entiate water masses, will be reflected in the pho-
TIROS program, sea-ice TV piotures have been tographic representation, both black and white
the subject of considerable interest among both and color are used. Glenn on MA-6 reported
66 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

ability to see the Gulf Stream from the varia- photography can be utilized to emphasize
tions in color tones. plankton blooms.
e. Coastal Areas and Shoals During a recent conference (July 1966), biol-
ogists and sensor specialists discussed the appli-
The application of aerial photography to cation of spectroscopy with promising prospects
mapping is well known. It has been one of the
for development. NAVOCEANO and the Bu-
primary methods of acquiring data for map- reau of Commercial Fisheries are considering
ping for many years, particularly for large and studies to determine the feasibility of sensing
remote areas. Spaceborne photography will
various species of fish by the spectroscopic anal-
certainly find extensive use for these purposes. ysis of fish oil extant in the ocean. Indica-
Spaceborne radar may possibly be applied to tions are that fish oils have a unique spectrum
mapping coastal areas whenever an all-weather
that is easily identifiable from mineral oil
capability is needed, for example, to monitor spectra. Additionally, chlorophyll concentra-
changes in shoreline and be'lches as a result of
tions have a strong and unique spectrogTaphic
storms and floods, particularly in remote areas. signature of absorption bands. The detection
Color photography c'tn also be utilized effec- of iodine vapor also appears promising.
tively for coast.fl mapping and sho,t]s because
g. Subsur/ace Oceanic Parameters Via Buoys
changes usually are slow enough so that obser-
vations can wait for any deterrent atmospheric Probably the first operational application of
conditions to improve. spacecraft to oceanography will be in the tele-
For depth determination, it appears possible metering of data from buoys and ships to cen-
that, within certain limits, shoals and reefs may tral shore-processing stations. Buoys will pro-
be identified and positioned accurately by using vide the necessary platforms for obtaining sub-
photography from spacecraft. GEMINI V surface data. NASA has already completed
photography of Grand Bahama Bank vividly plans to conduct an experiment onboard
illustrates the complex variations in depth in NIMBUS B in late 1967 dealing with data relay.
the different hues of blue. This photo when The system is called IRLS--Interrogation, Re-
compared with a portion of bathymetric chart cording, and Location System. The feature
for the area reveals close agreement between the that sets the IRL system apart from
color tones and depths to about 5 fathoms. the other data relay systems, e.g. Relay,
Telestar, and Syncom, is the location cap-
f. Biological Phenomena
ability. NAVOCEANO, the BCF, and others
Although it is unlikely that marine mam- plan to equip buoys to participate in this ex-
mals and schools of fish will be viewed directly periment.
from orbital altitudes in the near future, it may
3. Assessment of Potential Economic
be possible through remote sensing to detect
Benefits
physical properties which may be indicative of
these factors. An airborne infrared thermom- Employment of spacecraft in collecting
eter has been used to do a monthly thermal sur- oceanographic data may result in significant
vey of the shelf area off the east coast of the savings to important segments of the national
U.S. (8). A relationship was found between econolny.
concentration of schools of certain fishes and In 1964, the NAS/NRC issued a comprehen-
narrow temperature zones. Spacecraft with sive repol_ on the Economic Benefits From
IR or microwave temperature sensing instru- Oceanographic Researches (7). The ocean
ments can extend their work to world-wide shipping industry alone involves considerable
coverage. Other factors, such as water color, dollar value. At present, it is estimated that
related either to temperature or to food sources, the value of the United States shipborne im-
may be detectable. ports plus exports is about $50 billion per year.
It may also be possible to sense biolumines- Based on a 1960 study, ship-transported cargo
cence and phmkton concentrations with desi_o-n is expected to rise from the 1959 level of 277
of proper instrumentation. Infrared color million long tons to 400 million long tons by
EARTH RESOURCES 67

1970, an increase of 48 percent. It is estimated by many techniques. Spacecraft can contrib-


that the shipping bill alone for transporting ute or accelerate the gathering of information
cargo over the oceans will be $5 billion by on thermal conditions, waves, and other sur-
1975. About one-half this bill will be for the face phenomena for this vast area. The worth
time the ship spends at sea. in mineral resources of the Continental Shelf
Ship operations currently cost from $1,000 to area is not known but the recent conference of
$4,000 per day while at sea. Present ship rout- the Marine Technology Society on "Exploiting
ing techniques, based on limited data on wave the Oceans" held in Washington, D.C., 27-29
statistics, winds and currents are reported to June 1966, indicates some of the estimates of the
save as much as 12 to 15 hours on a 5,000 mile potential of this area. At this conference,
run. For a ship with an operating cost of Frank 1_. Ikard, president of the American Pe-
$3,000 per day, a 12-hour saving amounts to trolemn Industry, reported that the offshore oil
$1,500. Other non-military business activity resources are estimated to run about 2.5 trillion
concerned with the oceans is expected to rise barrels. From the current $50 million in ma-
from a dollar value of 3.0 billion in 1964 to 5.0 rine minerals extracted from the ocean, it is
billion in 1970. estimated that the annual vMue will increase to
Spacecraft offer the most promising means $250 million in 10 years and probably double
of any proposed thus far for collecting adequate that in an additional 5 years.
data needed for improving ship routing tech- The relationship of spacecraft to the location
niques and extending them over all the world's of minerals on the ocean bottom may be obscure
oceans. The features inherent in spacecraft ob- today, but new discoveries in the future may
servations, e.g., synoptic, global, and repeatable reveal surface manifestations of these minerals.
coverage at a low cost per data bit are precisely It has been reported that the locations of phos-
those required for improved oceanograpldc phorite deposits on the ocean floor are related
forecasting. to areas of upwelling. Spectroscopic detection
The unique ability of spacecraft to provide of escaping gases or vapor related to mineral
all-weather, broad-coverage information on ice- and oil deposits may also prove feasible.
bergs and sea ice conditions may also prove of New sewage treatment plants for 50 million
great value to the Maritime Industry in open- people must be built in coastal regions of the
ing up economical polar routes. The Environ- United States in the next 30 years. Construc-
mental Science Services A d m i n i s t r a t i o n tion and operating costs of these could be sig-
(ESSA) is currently investigating the eco- nificantly reduced if the capability of coastal
nomic advantages of such routes. waters for assimilating and diffusing the
Although related to many problems, recent treated effluents were more reliably known.
research by the Bureau of Commercial Fisher- Gemini photography of coastal areas indicates
a large contribution can be made to this problem
ies in utilizing sea-surface temperatures for
forecasting productive fishing areas has con- with spacecraft because of their unique features
tributed a measurable increase in catch of $451 of broad view and repeatability. Application
million. Extension of the scope and frequency of oceanographic data toward research for re-
of present sea-surface data collection aided by ducing treatment plant costs and better esti-
spacecraft techniques could contribute sig- mates of receiving capacity of coastal waters
nificantly to locating and efficiently exploiting could result in savings of $80 million annually
fishing areas of the world. in construction and operating costs (7).
In 1964, through the International Conven- Marine recreation is a rapidly expanding en-
tion on the Continental Shelf, the U.S. gained terprise involving use of beaches, near-shore
title to the U.S. Continental Shelf or seabed and areas, and inlets. This enterprise, expected to
submarine areas to a depth of 200 meters, or to increase at the rate of $100 million per year over
an indefinite boundary limited only by its tech- the next decade, is in direct competition with
nieal capability to exploit the area's natural re- the increasing requirement for disposal of waste
sources. Data gathering is, and will be done products, harvesting of marine plants and ani-
259-790---67----6
68 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

mals, petroleum production, etc., for use of the millions of dollars per year. Low clouds and
limited near-shore area. This enterprise, worth fog, as well as limitations of ships and aircraft
an estimated $2 billion and growing at 5% a restrict this coverage. Repeated coverage by
year, is also very sensitive to coastal storms and spacecraft, particularly with an all-weather
biologic disasters. Intelligent, well-planned sensor, could provide complete day and night
development of marine recreational facilities coverage. Further, it would furnish data on
such as small boat harbors, breakwaters, sandy iceberg population in the source areas and in-
beaches, and concentration of sport fishes via formation currents and winds, all of which
artificial banks is becoming a necessity. For could lead to better iceberg prediction tech-
example, of the total of 21,724 miles of shore- niques and a savings of lives as well as dollars.
line, only 1,209 are currently open to the public. In another humanitarian area_ that of feeding
New planning aids based on improved informa- the increasing world population, spacecraft will
tion obtained via spacecraft on waves, currents, provide another tool for this undertaking.
and diffusion in the estuarine or coastal waters, "The ocean produces all the protein each year
would result in a larger return both recreation- that 10 times the present world population of
ally and economically from this enterprise (7). humans could consume, and most of it dies to
It is readily acknowledged that the overall recycle in the web of life of the ocean unused
significance of spacecraft sensors or measure- by man," according to a statement by W. M.
ments cannot be fully determined at this time. Chapman, director, Division of Resources, Van
However, it is also true that the first ocean tem- Camp Sea Food Co., at a recent congressional
perature measuring device did not yield signifi- hearing.
cant scientific value until various experimenters
5. Background
had the time and understanding to quantify
their findings. What is readily apparent, ini- A NASA-sponsored conference on Oceanog-
tially, is that large amounts of data call be raphy from Space was held at the Woods Hole
collected from high-velocity vehicles at an Oceanographic Institution in August 1964.
exceedingly low cost per data bit compared to Oceanographers from government, universities,
conventional data gathering mechanisms. and industry discussed the feasibility and re-
quirements for measuring oceanographic phe-
4. Assessment of Other Implications nomena by remote sensing and spacecraft. Re-
Spacecraft applications promise to make an sults of this conference are contained in WHOI
impact in a number of other areas also. publication, reference No. 65-10 of April 1965
Sea rescue operations are particularly vul- (8). It was determined that sufficient poten-
nerable to minor changes in several oceanic tial existed to establish a program to study the
parameters in addition to meteorological phe- requirements for acquisition of remote sensor
nomena. Synoptic coverage of specific areas data from spacecraft. The Spacecraft ocean-
of sea rescue operation on a repetitive basis could ography project (SPOC) was established at
be of great value for rapidly implementing such NASA's request to serve as a national focal
operations. point for coordinating all efforts connected with
A grim reminder of the hazard that icebergs the developing of oceanographic applications of
represent in the shipping lanes between Green- spacecraft. This project functions in coordina-
land and Newfoundland is the loss in 1912 of tion with the National Aeronautics and Space
1,517 lives in the iceberg collision of the Titanic. Administration's earth resources survey pro-
Few are aware, however, that as recently as gram.
January 30, 1959, the Danish vessel Hans To insure adequate representation from other
Hedtoft struck an iceberg off Greenland and interested agencies, NAVOCEANO established
went down with a loss of 95 lives. Tlm Inter- an ad hoc spacecraft oceanography advisory
national Ice Patrol and the Danish Government group. This group is assisting in developing
maintain both surface and aerial surveillance of a rationale and effective series of feasibility
the potential iceberg hazard area at a cost of studies and experiments for the application of
EAR_ RESOURCES 69

spacecraft techniques to oceanography. Every • Overflight Sites. These sites also contain
two or three months_ this committee meets to be one or more special oceanographic features.
apprised of problems currently confronting Surface data is obtainable on an oppor-
SPOC and also to provide new input from the tunity basis. Some historical and climatic
scientific community. data of atlas-type are available: Goose
In addition to the representatives from the Bay_ Columbia River_ Mississippi Delta,
member agencies of the Government_ the Inter- Florida Straits_ Navy Acre (31°-32 ° N and
agency Committee on Oceanography (ICe) 71°-72 ° W), Northern Gulf Streams Grand
provides a representative from its executive Banks, and Bafl]n Bay are examples.
office to participate in the advisory group • Special Purpose Sites. These are sites con-
functions. Further, a close relationship is raining one feature peculiar to oceanog-
maintained by the SPOC project office and the raphy and generally in a remote area.
Ice on all space matters having oceanographic Availability of concurrent surface data is
implications. improbable; interpretative techniques will
be the primary means of evaluating data.
6. NASA Plans
Little or no historical and climatic data are
The primary objective of the spacecraft available. They will be selected as re-
oceanography effort is to initiate a program of quired.
experiment definition and supporting research It is planned to study the test site concept
activities for determining the feasibility of ac- with respect to oceanography to determine re-
quiring oceanic data from space. Such a pro- quirements and formulate a program of instru-
gram provides for the acquisition of "ground menting and manning the calibration sites
truth" data and similar data obtained from air- listed above. Surface data acquisition will be
crafty either separately or concurrently. These arranged with oceanographic ships of oppor-
data are used for correlating and identifying tunity which may be operating in the area and
recorded signature responses of various ocean- correlated with the planned aircraft or space-
ographic phenomena. Experimentation and re- craft overflight for the overflight sites.
search of this type are requisite to the overall There are a number of SPOC contracts and
development and upgrading of the various re- SPOC-sponsored interagency studies under-
mote sensing equipment and remote sensing way which are contributing to this program.
techniques. This aspect of the program is being These efforts range from field experiments for
establishing correlation between remotely sensed
directed by the SPOC project office by agree-
signatures and their corresponding ground
ment between NASA and NA¥OCEANO.
truth; to the theoretical investigation and lab-
a. Current Program oratory calibration in preparation for future
The current program is aimed at developing experiments. The degrading effects of the
remote sensing techniques that may be conducted atmospher% the response of radars to changing
from space. sea conditions, the parameters affecting micro-
Several test sites have been selected by SPOC, wave radiation and the oceanic processes de-
each one of which will provide one or more tectable by remote sensors are among the on-
specific oceanographic features for detailed going investigations.
study. The Earth resources survey program of
• Calibration Sites. These are sites with NASA is supporting a number of instrument
substantial historical and climatic oceano- feasibility studies. Periodically_ the scientists
graphic data available. They are instru- and engineers conducting these studies hold
mented and manned to provide correlative team meetings and generate team reports (e.g._
environmental ground truth. Scripps the microwave team reports). Spacecraft
Pier_ Calif. ; Argus Island_ Bermuda, and oceanography project or principal investigators
Point Barrow, Alaska, are the three cali- for oceanographic experiments work closely
bration sites. with these teams to provide the oceanographic
7O A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

input and requirements to the instrument cil and the Commission have been established.
specialists. The Council is chaired by the Vice President
The spacecraft Casting phase includes experi- and is composed of the Secretary of State, Sec-
ment payload hardware development, acquisi- retary of the Navy, Secretary of the Interior,
tion, and integration into the spacecraft and Secretary of Commerce, Chairman AEC, Direc-
documentation of operations support require- tor NSF, Secretary of ttEW, and Secretary of
ments. The analyzed and correlated phenom- the Treasury.
ena such as signature responses from ground The Commission consists of 15 members ap-
truth and supporting aircraft surveys shall be pointed by the President and including indi-
used in an attempt to recognize similar responses viduals drawn from Federal and State Govern-
recorded by the sensors of the Earth-orbiting ments, industry, universities, laboratories, and
platform. Presumably, the calibration test other institutions engaged in marine scientific
sites shall be of primary importance in this or technological pursuits.
spacecraft testing phase. The Council published its first report (6) in
The operational phase of the entire program 1967, discussing national objectives in the
presupposes the successful completion of the oceans, describing current Government pro-
spacecraft testing phase. This phase would grams, listing oceanographic ships and facili-
consist of conducting specifically detailed mis- ties, and listing selected data on the oceans and
sions for acquiring ocean%oTaphic data on a their resources.
continuing basis. The analysis and dissemina- b. A study by the Panel on Oceanography
tion of data will also be a major undertaking in (PSAC) (7) recommends Navy, AEC, HEW,
the operational phase. NSF, and Smithsonian to maintain their cur-
rent mission-oriented role; recommends crea-
b. Future Possibillties
tion of a new agency to integrate the functions
Because passive microwave offers such great of the other oceanographic groups; also in-
potential, as an all-weather sea surface sensor, cludes some of the oceanographic problem areas
research in this area should be greatly acceler- and discusses some proposals which may ad-
ated. Antenna efficiency and configurations are vance understanding of ocean behavior.
present limiting factors that need development. c. A National Academy of Sciences, Nalional
Remote spectroscopy techniques, developed Research Council, Report (3) presents a concept
for exploration of minerals on land, are still in and program for establishing a worldwide
their infancy. The development and extension synoptic weather and oceanographic data col-
of these techniques for exploration of marine lection network consisting of land stations,
resources should be pursued more vigorously. ships, buoys, balloons, and satellites. A more
Most equipment in existence today is laboratory recent, Report (5) by NAS' Committee on
instrumentation, not suited for fieldwork in Oceanography discusses rationale for expendi-
aircraft.
tures and new budgetary measures in the Na-
7. Associated Studies and Activities tional oceanographic program.
d. Project SEAMAP--scientific exploration
In addition to the NASA-sponsored activity
and mapping program--is an oceanwide sys-
related to this effort, there are a number of
tematic survey program advanced by NASCO
other studies and programs associated with
and placed in operational framework by ICO
oceanography that have a bearing on this pro-
(Pamphlet No. 10, Oceanography: 10 Years
gram. Some of the most important and recent
of these are listed below. Ahead). NAS, Geological Survey, Coast
a. The Marine Resources and Engineering Guard, Navy, and ESSA contribute to the
Development Act of 1966 (Public Law 89-454) program.
provides for a cabinet-level Council to advise e. EASTROPAC--a cooperative program to
the President on oceanographic policy, and for survey the Eastern Pacific sponsored by the
a Commission to recommend an adequate na- Eastern Pacific Oceanic Conference, the Inter-
tional marine science program. Both the Coun- American Tropical Tuna Commission and other
EARTH RESOURCES 71

universities and agencies--some South Ameri- Bibliography


can participation possible (Ecuador, Chile, (1) Gibson, B., "Sea Surface Temperature Synoptic
Colombia, and Peru). Analysis," Navoceano TR-70, April 1962.
(2) Harris, R. G., "Studies of Techniques for the
8. Suggested Additional Studies Analysis and Prediction of Temperature in the
The following is a list of studies that should Ocean," Travellers Research Center, Hartford,
Conn., 1963.
be generated that are not part of the current
(3) National Academy of Sciences. "The Feasibility
program: of a Global Observation and Analysis Experi-
a. The identification of hazards to and ment," National Research Council, Publication
favorable conditions for ship routing. 1290, 1966.
b. Evaluation and analysis of the aecu- (4) National Academy of Sciences. "Economic Bene-
fits from Oceanographic Research," National Re-
racy and adequacy of nautical charts in
search Council, Publication 1228, Washington,
poorly surveyed areas. D.C., 1964.
c. Space potential for sea and air rescue (5) National Academy of Sciences. "Oceanography
operations. 1966," report of NAS Committee on Oceanography,
d. Analysis of ocean surface eharaeteris- March 1967.

tics and sea-air interaction problems. (6) National Council for Marine Resources and En-
gineering Development. "Marine Science Af-
e. Study and analysis of orbit selection:
fairs," report, March 1967.
Elevation, inclination, sun synchronous,
(7) President's Science Advisory Committee. "Ef-
coverage--daylight, and so forth. fective Use of the Sea," report on the panel on
f. Communication capability and navi- oceanography, June 1966.
gation problems related to active and (8) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. "Pro-
passive buoys and ships. eeedings of Conference on the Feasibility of Con-
ducting Oceanographic Explorations from Air-
g. Comprehensive treatment of buoy
craft, Manned Orbital and Lunar Laboratories;
data gathering system and attendant 24-28 August, 1964" (WHOI Reference 65-10,
problems. April 1965).
IV. GEODESY
Introduction coordinate system, with the accuracy necessary
to meet these requirements.
Strictly speaking, geodesy is a science the re-
sults of which apply to practically every one of 1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
the applications discussed in these pages. How-
Past methods, carried out with tape measure-
ever, the science of geodesy is also a beneficiary
ments, theodolites and electronic or optical dis-
of space technology and a contender for payload
tance measuring equipment on the ground, are
space in the applications satellite program, and based upon triangulation, trilateration and
so it has been included among the applications traverse methods. These methods have been
opportunities.
successful in accurately mapping many land
Traditionally geodesy has been concerned areas relative to local coordinate systems (local
with that portion of the Earth's surface where data). To extend these methods to geodetic sur-
geodetic measurements could be made---the land veys covering very large areas of land masses,
masses. As a result of the advances in geodetic regularly spaced astronomic observations are
capabilities that accompanied the use of Earth required to correct for gravitational anom-
orbiting satellites, geodetic measurements are alies which can effect angular measurements
being extended to include the ocean areas as based on the observation of the local vertical.
well.
Longer baselines, up to about 700 kilometers
The geodesy presentation has separate sec- were obtained in single steps, more recently,
tions on geometric geodesy and gravimetric with airborne techniques. However, the ac-
(physical) geodesy. curacy of tens of meters achieved for relatively
The scientific objective of geometric geodesy small distances with these methods is not
is to describe the surface of the solid Earth and achieved when the survey is carried out on a
of the oceans in a common Earth-fixed coordi- continental basis. This is due to the error
nate system, and to monitor the variability with propagation in the computations of triangles
time of this surface. over many steps and to the difficulty of meas-
The scientific objective of gravimetric geod- uring heights as a function of elevation angles
esy is to determine the vector properties of the (these are related to an equipotential surface,
Earth's gravitational field at and above the the geoid, whose shape itself is inaccurately
Earth's surface, including both the time invari- known). Carrying out accurate geometric
ant and time variant (tidal) portions of the measurements over large distances on the
field. ground is time consuming, expensive and often
Geometric Geodesy logistically or politically difficult since such
measurements must be carried out in a step-
The scientific objective of geometric geodesy by-step manner frequently across national
is to describe the surface of the solid Earth boundaries. Moreover, it is impossible by pure-
and of the oceans in a common Earth-fixed ly ground based or low altitude airborne meth-
coordinate system and to monitor the variabil- ods to connect continents and islands, sepa-
ity with time of this surface. To fulfill the re- rated by large bodies of water, with the same ac-
quirements of other sciences, geometric geodesy curacy of surveys made on relatively small land
will determine the absolute and relative posi- distances. Other factors, hampering the ful-
tion of control points of primary survey net- fillment of the goal of providing mapping of
works, with respect to this common Earth-fixed the Earth surface with control points accurate

73
74 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

to 10 meters in a common Earth-centered coordi- relative location of points separated by inter-


nate system, are: continental distances.
b. The analysis of the orbital perturbations
a. Mapping of the Ocean Bottom
of a satellite provides an additional method to
Bathymetric mapping of the ocean has in gen-
improve the knowledge of the positions of the
eral been less accurate than mapping of land observation stations within ±10 meters in a
areas by several orders of magnitude. With
common coordinate system. This method also
the increased emphasis on the study of the
provides an improved knowledge of the earth
oceans for practical and scientific purposes, the
gravitational field, as described in section B,
need for developing geodetic support capability
Gravitational Geodesy.
is increasing rapidly. Support is required in c. If the orbit of a satellite is sufficiently well
the area of the horizontal positioning of ocean- defined, the satellite may be used as a moving
ographic measurements with accuracies ap- survey point, whose location is known as a
proaching that of measurements on the land function of time. Range, range rate, or angular
masses in: (1) the accurate location of ships, measurements can then locate a single tracking
and (2) the establishment of precisely located station with respect to the coordinate system in
permanent control points on the ocean bottom. which the orbit is defined, without simultaneous
b. Determination and Monitoring of the Geom- observations with other tracking stations.
etry of the Ocean Surface d. With accurately defined orbits, spacecraft-
The only method available for determining borne ranging devices, such as laser or radar
the geometry of the ocean surfaces uses ground altimeters, may continuously measure the dis-
(and ocean) based gravimetrie data and assumes tance from the satellite to the subsatellite point
the ocean is an equipotential surface. Since this on Earth, to tens of centimeters.
assumption is not valid bec,ause of the disturb- e. Photogrammetric means, used in conjunc-
ing effects of wind, waves, swells, currents and tion with an attitude stabilized geodetic satellite,
other forces on the ocean surface, this method can be used for the densification of geodetic con-
cannot be usefully applied. "There is now no trol points.
means of direct measurement of the slope of the f. Manned satellites can be used for geometric
sea surface across an ocean." (15) geodesy by carrying out measurements with
e. Monitoring of Motions of the Solid Earth optical techniques to locate inaccessible ground
points, for control point densification within
Two problems exist in monitoring motions of
the solid Earth. The ground based methods 10-meter accuracy or better.
which exists now for measuring the relative 3. Assessment of Potential Economic
motions of widely separated points can produce Benefits
inaccuracies by three orders of magnitude
Many of the economic returns from geometric
greater than currently acceptable. Also, no
satellite geodesy are indirect and difficult to
method now exists for referencing land vertical
assess, and only those areas are discussed for
motions to an absolute global coordinate which the connections between economic return
system. (15)
and geometric satellite geodesy are clearly
2. Space Applications apparent.
The following types of satellite utilization a. Mapping of Zand Areas
are considered to have promise in solving the One of the basic requirements for the eco-
problems mentioned in the previous section. nomic development of natural resources in any
a. A satellite may be used as an unlocated country is adequate topographic mapping,
point of a geodetic survey operation, and which requires properly scaled geodetic control.
simultaneous angular and/or range measure- Mapping is also required for planning and
ments made to it from several stations to de- carrying out large-scale engineering projects
termine in a single step, within ___10meters, the such as development of nationwide transporta-
GEODESY 75

tion systems and water conservation and dam racy is immediately available during initial
development planning. ocean mapping to eliminate the need for re-
Adequate mapping is a critical requirement survey.
for the economic development of the develop-
c. Seismology
ing countries of the world. Since many large-
Satellite methods offer the potential of moni-
scale development projects involve more than
toring horizontal and vertical land motions
one country and large surface areas, it is also
along fault zones with respect to a fixed coordi-
important that all mapping be referred to a
common datum. Less than half of the land nate system and of comparing absolute motions
at widely separated points. To the extent that
areas of the world have been adequately sur-
such knowledge contributes to prediction of
veyed. They have been mapped on some 75
local or national data (10), so that mapping earthquakes, a real economic advantage is
obtained.
discontinuities exist at many political bound-
aries. The expenditure for worldwide map- d. Tsunami Warning
ping is estimated to be about one-half billion Accurate satellite radar/laser altimeter mon-
dollars per year. itoring of the geometry of the ocean's surface
Future geodetic control for mapping will offers possibility of rapidly detecting tsunami
undoubtedly be met by a combination of both waves. Serious need exists for discriminating
surface and satellite methods. Those areas in between false alarms and the accurate predic-
which satellite geodesy methods appear to offer tion of potentially serious tsunamis.
the possibility of economic advantages are:
4. Assessment of Other Implications
• Rapid tying together of existing geodetic
data to allow removal of all mapping dis- In producing an accurate reference control
continuities; grid and measuring techniques, geodesy pro-
• Providing absolute internal control points vides extremely useful tools for application in
for the accurate adjustment of geodetic significant scientific problems, e.g. :
data ; a. Seismology
• Establislunent of fiducial p o i n t s for (1) Monitoring of land motions along fault
1:25,000 scale mapping using aerial and zones on a worldwide basis for better under-
satellite photogrammetry; standing of the relation of faulting and stress
• Use of laser/radar altimeters and/or release along fault zones to earthquakes;
manned satellite optical techniques in (2) More accurate determination of wander-
areas presenting special logistical and ing of terrestrial pole for study of the possibil-
operational problems (e.g. Antarctica and ity of this wandering as a trigger mechanism
Greenland). for earthquakes;
b. Mapping of the Ocean Bottom (3) Accurate positioning of seismic monitors
Mapping of the ocean floor will require the in deep ocean areas to record earthquakes.
accurate location of oceanographic ships and the b. Oceanography
establishraent of precisely located permanent
(1) Determination of tides on an ocean wide
control points in the deep ocean areas. As the
basis by constant monitoring of ocean surface
nation mounts an increasingly large oceano-
for study of ocean tides themselves and for
graphic program and moves toward practical
separation of ocean tide effect from tides of the
utilization of the marine environment, maps of
the ocean bottom, for bathymetric survey and solid earth;
for other purposes such as oil exploration, will (2) Precise location of satellite carrying ac-
have more and more stringent accuracy require- curate altimeters, for monitoring of the geom-
ments in the future, approaching those now re- etry of sea surface and of its variation with
quired on land. The use of geodetic satellites time;
appears to be a feasible and economical method (3) Positioning capability at ocean, to re-
of assuring that sufficient geodetic control accu- occupy precise locations for investigation of
76 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

time variable processes on the deep ocean bot- camera sites. Unfortunately one of the systems
tom, such as deposition and erosion; became inoperative immediately after launch
(4) Combined laser altimetry and gravity and the power supply and memory systems were
gradiometer measurements, to allow d_termi- soon damaged by the radiation field of a nuclear
nation of deviation of ocean surface from an detonation. The remaining two geodetic sys-
equipotential surface. tems therefore, were not able to provide a suffi-
e. Geology cient quantity of well distributed data.
Under the National Geodetic Satellite pro-
(1) Measurement of horizontal motion of
gram, two other types of satellites have been
land masses, i.e. continental drift;
launched thus far to meet the geodetic require-
(2) l_easurement of vertical motions of land
ments of participating agencies. These are ac-
and sea level relative to an absolute datum
tive satellites, Beacon Explorers B and C and
rather than relative to one another.
GEOS-I (Explorers XXII, XXVII, and
d. Gladology XXIX) and a passive 100 foot sun reflective
Positioning capability to measure ice motion balloon satellite, PAGEOS-I. A brief sum-
on a relative basis as well as with respect to mary of launch dates and orbital characteristics
absolute datum in areas such as Antarctica and is given in Table IV-1. Tbe Beacon Explorer
Greenland. satellites, whose original purpose was to support
ionosphere investigations, carried geodetic
e. Magnetics
quality Doppler beacons and corner reflectors
The accurate positioning capability of for laser ranging. GEOS-I has five types of
geodetic satellites allows reoccupation of exact tracking systems--xenon flashing lights, corner
position year after year in areas of major im- reflectors for laser tracking, geodetic Doppler
portance, such as in Antarctica and on the Arc- beacons, a SECOR ranging transponder, and
tic Ocean sea ice, in order to monitor secular the NASA-GSFC range and range rate trans-
change in the magnetic field. ponder. Utilization of the GEOS-I capabili-
f. Ionospheric Studies ties is made by the Department of Defense
The difference in transmission characteristics agencies and by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic
Survey (USC&GS) of the Department of Com-
of different frequencies used by electronic ob-
merce, as well as by NASA investigators.
servation systems, in conjunction with knowl-
edge of the precise location of a satellite, may The USC&GS will primarily use the
PAGEOS satellite for establishment of the
provide considerable information on the iono-
worldwide 43 station basic network of control
sphere for studies of refraction effects and
points. PAGEOS data will also be used by
electron density.
NASA and other United States agencies. For-
5. Background eign observers are participating in a cooperative
a. Geodetic Satellites observation program with the Smithsonian As-
trophysical Observatory, including several
The first satellite orbited with specific geodetic
East-European countries and the USSR.
objectives in mind was ANNA-IB (ANNA
stands for Air Force-Navy-NASA-Army), b. Results and Capabilities
launched in October 1962. This satellite con- (1) Canvera simultaneous observations.--
tained three independent geodetic instrumenta-
TABL_ IV-l.--Summary of launch dates and orbital
tion systems in order to permit comparison and characteristics
correlation of simultaneous measurements, and
thus enable an integrated analysis of all the Satellite Launch date [ ties [ (kilo- ] (kilo-
data. The systems were: optical flashing bea-
(degrees) I meters) [ meters)
cons, electronic ranging, and electronic range- Beacon Explorer B...I October 1964 .... ] 79, 7 | 885 / 1,077
rate (doppler). The incorporation of the Beacon Explorer C...I April 1965 ....... ] 41.2 [ 939 _ 1, 318
OEOS-I ............. / November 1968._| 59.4 | 1,125 / 2,263
flashing light optical system was also intended PAGEOS ........... / June 1966 ........ / 87.0 / 4,208 j
GEOS-B I End 1967 ........ / 74.0 / 1,100 / 4,2601,
500
to eliminate the need for accurate timing at the
q
GEODESY 77

(a) Results from existing optical systems (b) The only comparative analysis of elec-
indicate the capability of obtaining directions tronic ranging results with surface data indi-
between tracking stations with an accuracy of cated accuracies in station positioning of the
0.5" to 1.0" of arc using simultaneous observa- order +10 to 25 meters for stations of 750 to
tion methods. This translates into the relative 2,000 km separation (4).
positioning of stations 5000 km apart with 10 (c) The published results for the system with
meter accuracy, provided that scale of com- the longest history of usage, the SECOR sys-
patible accuracy can be introduced in the meas- tem, are now outdated. The lack of publication
urements. (1, 6, 9,1_, 17,18) of recent results has prevented an up-to-date
(b) Because of the nature of the geometery accuracy determination.
involved in satellite observations, an accurate (d) NASA and Department of Defense
measure of the azimuth angles between two sta- radar ranging equipment will be tested with
tions can be accurately obtained with fewer ob- GEOS-B to establish range accuracy estimates
servations than elevation angles. As a general and derive scale information for geometric net-
rule, with the same small number of observa- works.
tions the azimuths are determined with 2 to 3 (5) Dynamically Deprived Loeations.--Dy-
_imes _oTeater accuracy. (1, 6, 12) namically derived station locations have been
(c) Except for the Baker Nunn cameras, all obtained by the SAO Baker Nunn camera net-
cameras used for geometric satellite geodesy re- work and by the TRANET Doppler stations in
quire special satellites--either flashing light simultaneous solutions for station coordinates
satellites or large balloons. Development work and gravity coefficients determination. Pub-
is underway to produce a relatively inexpensive lished results from both systems (?,, 3, 5, 6) in-
portable camera capable of photographing dicate that geocentric station coordinates can
satellites launched for other purposes. (8) be obtained accurate to within 20 meters pro-
(2) Camera long-arc methods.mStation lo- vided the gravity constant, GM, is sufficiently
cations have been obtained by the Smithsonian accurately known. (G-- gravitational constant
Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), with M-_-earth's mass). The best available value for
G_¢[ is 3.986009 × 1020 cm s sec -_-obtained from
camera observations, using a long-arc orbital
method. Results with an accuracy of ___10 to Ranger probes (13). This result is estimated
20 meters have been obtained. (16). to be accurate to one or two parts in l0 s.
(3) Electro-Optical Ranging.--Laser rang- 6. NASA Plans
ing techniques appear theoretically capable of
a. Gurrent Program
providing satellite ranges with an accuracy of 1
(1) Objeotives.--The objectives of the on-
meter or better, essentially indepedent of the
going _ASA program in geometric geodesy are
range.
controlled not only by requirements and appli-
Laser ranging data have been obtained by a
cations from the scientific disciplines outside
number of United States and foreign (11) or-
the space program but also by the support pro-
ganizations using the corner reflectors of the
vided by the _curate positioning of tracking
Beacon Explorer and GEOS satellites: among
stations within the space program itself. The
the United States agencies participating in the
program are the SAO, the NASA Goddard following objectives were therefore generated.
(a) Establishment of a unified worldwide
Space Flight Center and the U.S. Air Force.
datum referenced to the earth's center of mass
France is actively observing the GEOS-I space-
craft and is planning to orbit a geodetic satellite and a rotation axis of the earth with an accuracy
(D-1C) to be observed with laser and Doppler of ±10 meters. In establishing this datum,
techniques. the data available from Department of Defense,
(4) Electronic Rang_ng.-- Department of Commerce, and international
(a) Electronic ranging methods are the- sources will be used in addition to NASA data.
oretically capable of providing satellite ranges Sufficient control points will be established to
with an accuracy of I meter or better. assure that all existing major surface datums
78 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

are connected to the unified datum, as well as radar altimeters, range-and-range rate systems,
prominent islands and other places of unusual and photogrammetrie cameras.
interest which are difficult of access. (c) Investigation of manned satellite tech-
(b) Establishment of a NASA worldwide niques such as trisextant techniques.
geodetic datum, including the Range and Range (3) Application support._The support of
Rate, Minitrack, Apollo Unified/S-Band, C- scientific studies and applications in the fields
Band radar, JPL/DSN, and SAO Baker Nunn of solid earth geophysics, oceanography, mete-
networks, which will represent a refinement of orology, natural resource development, geologxg,
the Mercury Datum. It will also be utilized by etc., will be provided by the improvement of ob-
the world scientific community as an interim servational accuracy from 10 meters to 1 meter.
worldwide datum since it should be available Support will also be provided for the develop-
several years before the definitive datum of (a). ment and calibration of geodetic instrumenta-
(c) Densification of fiducial points as neces- tion and observation systems that may be util-
sary to support 1 : 25,000 scale mapping. ized for lunar and planetary geodesy.
(2) Approach.--The NASA geodetic satel- b. Future Possibilities
lite program in geometric geodesy was initiated
with the launch of GEOS-I in 1965. Data is Advanced applications geodetic spacecraft
plam_ed for the early 1970 period will be re-
now being obtained from more than 100 observa-
quired to accomplish all the present geodetic
tion stations. An observation system intercom-
objectives with a geometric accuracy of 1 meter.
parison investigation is presently underway.
In the 1968-1970 period, studies will be sup-
Details of the scope of the GEOS-I project may
be found in the NASA documents "GEOS-A ported to define in detail the additional support
that improved geodetic capability can provide
Mission Plan" and "GEOS-A Integrated In-
to the solid-earth sciences, oceanography, and
vestigation Plan." PAGEOS-I, launched in
allied disciplines.
June 1966, will support also the worldwide
Within this period, the development of the
geometric network.
trisextant technique for the geodetic applica-
In order to continue to meet the objectives in
tion of orbital observations from a manned
geometric satellite geodesy the program will be
spacecraft will be initiated.
continued with the launching of GEOS-B,
Manned geodetic observation, beginning in
which is in preparation at the present time.
GEOS-B will be followed by three satellites of 1970, may be gradually intensified to support
the identification and location of earth-based
similar configurations. Data provided by these
fiducial points.
spacecraft will permit completion of the present
geometric objectives, i.e., the connection of geo- The post-1970 period should provide for the
detic datums to establish a unified geocentric densification of geodetic fiducial points with
worldwide reference system accurate to ___10 improved accuracy to 10 cm and for precision
meters and the intercomparison and correlation geodetic data for the support of oceanographic
and the other earth sciences.
of existing high-accuracy observation methods
and system calibration procedures. It is expected that operational geodetic space-
craft to monitor time-variable parameters will
To fully develop the geodetic techniques
be required to be flown yearly starting in about
which are required for the fulfillment of the
1978.
present objectives and which will also provide
the basis for increased capability in the future, The following instrumentation, not available
the following suppm%ing research is planned. at present because of technology limitations,
must be developed within the 1967-1970 time
(a) Accomplishment of an intercomparison
and correlation of existing high accuracy satel- frame to fulfill the described objectives:
lite observation methods, and development of • A Sl)'teecraft-borne laser and/or radar
system calibration procedures. altimeter with measurement accuracies of
(b) Investigation of a satellite-borne geodetic 1 meter over ranges up to 2,000 nautieql
system. Systems identified thus far are 1.tser/ miles. (For the post-1970 time frame this
GEODESY 79

capability should be improved by one order mapping plans on a worldwide basis over the
of magnitude.) next 5 years.
• A spacecraft altitude stabilization (and b. What are the anticipated geodetic control
measurement) capability to the order requirements to satisfy worldwide mapping
of accuracy required by the satellite needs?
altimeter. c. How can the developing countries best
• A ground observation station with ranging utilize satellite geodesy in generating geodetic
accuracies of one meter over 2,000 nautical control for topographic mapping and resource
mile ranges (or the equivalent in angular development ?
measurement) for geodetic and other satel- Bibliography
lites. (For the post-1970 period the rang-
(1) Aardom, et al., "Determination of the Absolute
ing accuracy should be improved by one Space Directions Between Baker-Nunn Camera
order of magllitude.) Stations," Smithsonian Research in Space Science
• A low-cost, portable station for observa- Special Report 86, 1965.
tion of geodetic satellites, with positioning (2) Anderle, R. J., "Geodetic Parameter Set NWL--

capabilities of 10 meters, to be used by de- 5E-6 Based on Doppler Satellite Observations,"


NWL Report No. 1978 (also paper given at sym-
veloping nations in establishing geodetic posium, Use of Artificial Satellite for Geodesy,
control points as a basis for improved topo- Athens), 1965.
graphic mapping. (3) Gaposhkin, E. M., "A Dynamical Solution for the
Tesseral Harmonics of the Geopotential and for
7. Associate Studies and Activities Station Coordinates," paper presented at CO-
SPAR, Seventh International Space Science Sym-
Studies are now underway to determine the
posium, Vienna, May 1966.
requirements and cost of achieving a unified (4) Hayes, T. J., "Secor for Satellite Geodesy," paper
world datum. A survey of the applications of presented at the Tenth International Congress of
satellite geodesy is being carried out by a NASA Photogrammetry, Lisbon, Portugal, 1964.
ad hoc advisory group on satellite geodesy. In- (5) Kaula, W. M., "Variations of the Earth's Gravita-
tional Field From Camera Tracking of Satellites,"
ternational activities related to satellite geodesy
Publication No. 487, Institute of Geophysics and
are being coordinated within COSPAR in work- Planetary Physics, University of California, 1966.
ing group I. This group is considering special (6) KShnlein, W., "Corrections to Station Coordinates
suggestions for aiding underdeveloped countries and to Nonzonal Harmonics From Baker-Nunn
so that they may take part in satellite geodesy. Camera Observations of Satellites," paper pre-
sented at COSPAR, Seventh International Space
The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Science Symposium, Vienna, May 1966.
held a summer study in 1966 aimed at pinpoint-
(7) Lehr, C. G., Maestre, L. A., and Anderson, P. H.,
ing applications of satellite geodesy. Publica- "Satellite Range Measurements With a Laser at
tion of the results is expected in May 1967. an Astrophysical Observing Station," paper pre-
sented at COSPAR, Seventh International Space
8. Suggested Additional Studies Science Symposium, Vienna, May 1966.
NASA will initiate a number of studies in (8) Lundquist, C., paper given at ACSM/ASP con-
vention, Washington, D.C., March 1966.
areas which are appropriate to the direct tech-
(9) Mancini, A. and Gambino, L. A., "Results of Space
nicM support of the geodetic satellite program. Triangulation Adjustments From Satellite Data,"
In addition to these studies, however, there are GIMRADA Research Note 13, 1965.
a number of other studies which will contribute (10) Mueller, Ivan I., "Proposed Optical Network for
to the assessment and extension of satellite geod- the National Geodetic Satellite Program," Report
No. 71, Department of Geodetic Sciences, Ohio
esy. These studies should answer such ques-
State University, 1966.
tions as : (I1) "Preliminary Beacon-Explorer Laser Tracking
a. To what degree is the following informa- Results," results presented by ttaute Provence
tion available to scientists in other disciplines: Observatory, France, June 1965.
(12) Schmid, It. H., "The Status of Geometric Satel-
(1) The extent of the available surface geo-
lite Tri-Angulation at the Coast and Geodetic
detically controlled mapping. Survey," paper presented at ACSM/ASP conven-
(2) The projected geodetic surveying and tion, WashinSton, D.C., March 1966.
8O A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

(is) Sjogren, W. L., and Trask, D. W., "Results on of e_tensive horizontal and/or vertical con-
Physical Constants and Related Data From the ¢rol. Moreover, many areas are difficult of
Radio Tracking of Mariner (Venus) and Ranger access for logistical reasons or impossible of
III-VII Missions," Journal of Spacecraft, Volume
access for political reasons.
2, 1965.
(1_) "Space Research, Directions for the Future," Part • Shipboard gravimeters with sufficient ac-
2, 1965, Report of a Study by the Space Science curacy to allow swift acquisition of gravity
Board, Woods Hole, July 1965, p. 187. data at sea are now available; however,
(15) Stewart, H. B., Jr., "Sea Levels and Tsunamis, the attainment of the required ship posi¢ion
in Oceanography From Space," Woods Hole
accuracy is still difficult in many areas and,
Oceanographic Institute, Reference No. 65-10,
1965.
in addition, the cost of shipboard gravi-
(16) Veis, G., presentation given at COSPAR, Seventh metric survey operations is very high.
International Space Science Symposium, Vienna, • Airborne gravimeter measurements face
Austria, May 1966. even more stringent positional require-
(17) Whipple, Fred, L., "On the Satellite Geodesy Pro-
ments than sbipboard gravity measure-
gram at Smithsonian Observatory" (Abstract),
COSPAR, Seventh International Space Science
ments since not only the position but the
Symposium, Vienna, Austria, May 1966. velocity vector of the aircraft must be
(18) Williams, O. W., Dishong, P. H., and Hadgigeorge, known to a high degree of accuracy. Over
G., "Results From Satellite (ANNA) Geodesy Ex- land areas, there are the additional prob-
periments," paper presented at DIA Conference, lems of the determination of elevation of
Washington, D.C., October 1964.
the aircraft with respect to sea level and
Gravimetric Geodesy political accessibility.
The scientific objective of gravimetric geod- Because of the above factors, only about 25
esy is to determine the vector properties of the percent of the earth's surface has been covered
Earth's gravitational field at and above the with sufficient gravity measurements (20) and
Earth's surface. This includes the determina- despite accelerated activity, e_tending the
tion of the time invariant and time variant coverage is slow, particularly in the Southern
(tidal) portions of the field. Knowledge of the Hemisphere.
Because of the detail obtainable with surface
gravity field of the Earth is an important source
of information on the structure and strength methods, it seems certain that the entire Earth's
of the Earth's interior and is required to sup- surface will eventually be covered by surface
port the objectives of geometric geodesy. gravimetric measurements. However, because
of time, cost, and difficulty, it seems equally cer-
1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods tain that worldwide coverage will not be at-
a. Time Invariant Field tained for many decades.
The bulk of land gravity measurements have b. Time Variable Tidal Feld
been made using relative instruments (gravi- Tidal gravimeters have been developed which
meters) calibrated and referenced to an absolute are capable of extremely accurate point meas-
system of pendulum observations. With .the urements of tidal gravity variations. How-
development of methods ¢o adequately account ever, any point measurement of tidal gravity is
for the extraneous accelerations induced by strongly effected by local factors. In studying
moving platforms, measurements of gravity on the physical characteristics of the Earth's in-
surface ships have become feasible. Applica- terior, it is important to have worldwide average
tion of these same principles has lead to the de- values of the gravimetric effects of the tides of
velopment of airborne gravity measurement the solid Earth.
methods. Attainment of tidal gravity measurements in
The primary difficulties in obtaining world- oceanic areas and the determination of adequate
wide gravity coverage with the present measure- worldwide averages do not appear feasible in
ment methods may be summarized as follows: the foreseeable future. It does appear prob-
• In many land areas useful gravity surveys able that surface tidal gravity measurements on
cannot be made without the establishment land, will be increasingly used in the future to
GEODESY 81

study local Earth structure. The information effective use of other geophysical methods.
to be gained from such measurements would be With the satellite results, this is extended to a
greatly enhanced if accurate values for world- worldwide basis. As a practical matter geo-
wide averages were available. physical investigations in such areas as seis-
mology are expensive, especially at sea. By
2. Possible Space Applications
pinpointing areas of special interest, the satel-
The following types of satellite methods have lite gravimetric results are an important means
a potential for solution of the problems of gravi- of assuring maximum return per dollar spent
metric geodesy : in many areas of Earth-based science.
a. Angular, range, and/or range rate obser- b. Improved Orbit Definition
vations of the orbital perturbations of satellites The orbital perturbations of satellites are pri-
may be analyzed to obtain values for the low- marily the result of the force produced by the
degree spherical harmonic coefficients in an ex- Earth's gravitational field and such other causes
pansion of the time invariant gravitational as air drag and solar radiation pressure. Better
field. In addition, very precise analyses of the determination of the Earth's gravitational field
perturbations are capable of providing infor- will improve orbit determination, not only by
mation on worldwide average values of the tidal allowing better computation of the gravitational
variations of gravity. perturbations, but also by allowing accurate
b. Precise measurements of the gravity gra- removal of gravitational effects in the perturba-
dient obtained from a gradiometer mounted in a tions which, in turn, enables a better definition
satellite can be used to derive the gravitational of the drag and solar radiation perturbations to
field. As has been shown by existing results, be obtained.
satellite orbit perturbation analyses are capable Continuous tracking of a satellite is extremely
of providing the large-scale variations of the expensive. It is, therefore, economically im-
gravity field of the Earth. The use of the grav- portant that, whatever accuracy of orbit defini-
ity gradiometer offers the potential of more re- tion is required, it be achieved with a minimum
fined determinations of the gravity field than of continuous tracking operations. Greater
are possible by orbital analysis. The satellite accuracy of orbit determination will also im-
gradiometer method of gravity field determi- prove the capability for orbit control, needed
nation also offers special promise for determi- for rendezvous and reentry in major (and
nation of details of the gravitational field of the expensive) missions in the space program.
Moon where neither the satellite orbital pertur-
bation methods nor surface measurements can o. Navigation
Still another area in which economic advan-
be utilized to the extent that they can on Earth.
tage can be gained is in the use of satellites for
3. Assessment of Potential Economic navigation. The further that accurate orbit
Benefits predictions can be extrapolated into the future,
The economic impact of gravimetric satellite the less need there will be for orbit updating,
geodesy will come in three primary areas: and for transmission of updated information
to users.
a. Guidance for Earth-Based Geophysics
The primary impact in geology and geo- 4. Assessment of Other Implications
physics of the determination of the large-scale One of our most immediate sources of infor-
variations of the Earth's gravitational field has mation on the internal composition and physical
been to raise questions and point out areas of properties of the interior of the Moon and
anomalous gravity for subsequent investigation, planets will come from determination of the
by Earth-based methods. This is of economic long wavelength components of their gravita-
importance for it allows the better planning of tional fields through the analysis of the orbits
such geophysical surveys. of lunar and planetary orbiters. The interpre-
Traditionally, on a local scale, gravity has tation of these gravitational results will be
been a reconnaissance tool pointing the way to strongly controlled by analogies with the Earth
82 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

where our interpretation of the gravitational the Earth, the correct resolution of this ques-
field is based on a large store of geologic, seis- tion is of maj or importance in the field of geol-
mic, and other geophysical knowledge. ogy and geophysics.
Gravimetric geodesy also has an impact on 5. Background
extraterrestrial gravimetric determination from
The historical background of geodetic satel-
orbiters by providing for development of opti-
lites can be found in section 5 of the previous
mum analysis techniques. Since lunar and
planetary orbiters will be fewer in number than discussion on geometric geodesy. A summary
Earth orbiters and less accurately tracked, de- of the results in gravimetric geodesy is given
velopment of such interpretation techniques to below. By the end of 1958, analyses of the
provide maximum information from the avail- orbital perturbations of Sputnik II and Van-
able data is important. guard had provided an order of mag,nitude im-
provement in our knowledge of the Earth's
One of the most important scientific contri-
flattening (Jo term in the gravitational poten-
butions of satellite geodesy thus far has been
tial) (14), and had demonstrated the existence
the determination of the large-scale features of
of a north-south asymmetry or "pear shape"
the Earth's gravity field. The primary results
component to the dynamic shape of the Earth
of this determination has been to raise questions.
(J3 term in the gravitational potential) (13).
Through attempts at answering these questions,
With increases in quantity and quality of data
gravimetric satellite geodesy has had consider-
and improved analytical techniques, continuing
able impact on the direction of scientific inves-
improvements have been made in the satellite
tigation in many areas of geoscience. Some
determinations of the gravity field. The pres-
examples of the types of results and the ques-
ent status of results are summarized below.
tions they have raised are given below.
a. Zonal Harmonics
One of file firs_ results of satellite geodesy
was an improved value for the flattening of the The most recent determinations of zonal har-
Earth which was determined to be si_-mificantly monics, independent of tesseral harmonics, are
greater than that derived from the hypothesis given in table IV-O_ (5, 7, 8, 9,12,16,17, and 18).
of a hydrostatic Earth. Suggested explana- Anderle, (1) in contrast to most investigators,
tions have r,_nged from a lag in response to a has determined zonal harmonics simultaneously
decrease in rotational velocity (10), to a lag in with the tesseral harmonics in a general adjust-
adjusting to the changes associated with the ment. These results are also included in table
disappearance of the last ice age (22). The IV-_.
resolution of this inconsistency has important It may be seeu from table IV-2 that through
implications with respect to the present rheo- the term Js there are no serious discrepancies in
logic properties of the Earth's interior. Indi- these values as determined by different investi-
rectly it also has important implications with gators. Because of the high degree of correla-
respect to the Earth's past history. tion between zonal harmonic coefficients as
The satellite results have conclusively dem- derived from satellite motions, it is encouraging
onstrated that long wavelength components of that such a high degree of agreement exists be-
the Earth's gravity field exist. Attempts at tweeu the results of Kozai (9) who took into
explaining these components have been many. account terms through J_4 and those of Anderle
They have been variously interpreted as re- (1) who used on]y terms through J_. On this
sulting from convection currents in the mantle basis, it appears that the effects of the lower
(15), undulations of the core-mantle interface degree harmonics can be separated from those
(3), upper mantle and crustal density variations of the higher degree harmonics with reasonable
SUCCESS.
(5), aud, what is decidedly more probable, as the
result of the superposition of a nmnber of b. General Tesseral Ha_Twn;v Solutions
causes (19). Since convection currents play an Whereas zonal harmonics have been deter-
important part in many theories concerning the mined by a number of investigators using
origin of the large-scale structural features of various types of tracking data, general tesseral
GEODESY 83

TABLE IV-2.--Determination of zonal harmonics

Kozai, SAO 165 King-Hale D. E. Smith


(November 1964) (Nature, June AnderIe 1965 (1963), 1961 Shalkay (1962)
1964 and 1965)

J2 1082. 645 1802. 70 1082. 706 1083.15 1082. 61


J3 --2. 546 --2. 56 --2. 603 --2.44 --1.94
(-1.60)
J4 --1. 649 --i.40 --1. 521 --1.4 --1.52
J5 --.210 --.15 --. 149 --.18 --. 41
(. 58)
:19 .646 .37 • 790 .7 .73
J7 --. 333 -. 44 --. 407 --.30
(--. 29)
J9 --.270 .O7
J9 --. 053 •12 ......... ::::::::::::::::::::::::: ........ :fii5.... [:::::::-:-:-:-:-I ...... :.........
Ja0 --. 054
Jll .302
J_ --. 357
Jan --. 114
J14 .179
Ji5
.................... i ................ [................ ...............................................
i

All coefficients X 10 --6.

harmonic solutions have been obtained only in resonance with harmonics of relatively high
from the optical data of the Smithsonian Astro- degree and order and allow determination of
physical Observatory Baker Nunn camera net- harmonic coefficients such as 15, 14; 15, 13; and
work (4, 6) and the Tranet Doppler network 14, 14. (2, 23) Second, synchronous satellites
(1, 5). The agreement between differen_ inves- at much higher altitudes, such as the 24-hour
tigators is not as good for tesseral harmonics Syncom satellite, allow detection of such har-
as for zonal harmonics. However, the con- monic coefficients as 2, 2; 3, 1; and 4, 4. (_1)
vergence of the results is encouraging and the The results for the higher order and degree
updating of Doppler results which should occur tesseral harmonics are of no particular impor-
in the near future can reasonably be expected to tance as yet in overall definition of the gravity
increase the degree of convergence. field, but are of considerable importance in de-
The latest camera results appear to give rea- fining the orbits of satellites which might be in
sonable accuracy for coefficients up to the 8th near resonance with them. The low order tes-
degree. This accuracy may be estimated from seral harmonics strengthen the determinations
a number of independent criteria. First, it is of the complete sets of tesseral coefficients by
to be noted that the observational residuals standard orbital analysis. This is particularly
with respect to the orbits computed from the true for the sectorial harmonics since these are
coefficients have approached the observational in general the least well determined of the co-
error of the Baker Nunn cameras (4). Second, efficients in the general analytic procedures.
the satellite results no longer demonstrate any d. Tidal gravity
significant disagreement with surface gravity
The determination by satellite methods of the
data or with existing geologic-goophysical cor-
gravitational effects due to tidal deformation of
relations with gravity (19). Finally, the agree-
the earth has begun to be investigated. Tenta-
ment with the resonant satellite results is good.
tive results have been reported (11) but they
c. Results from Resonance Satellites are suspect since they are based on data of mar-
By placing a satellite in an orbit such that its ginal signal-to-noise ratio and difficult to ex-
mean motion is commensurable with the earth's plain physically. As other gravitational effects
rotation, resonance conditions are set up and and air drag become more accurately defined,
specific wavelengths of the gravity field have better definition of the tidal gravity should be
effects on the orbits that are much larger than possible.
normal. Such resonance satellites therefore
6. NASA Plans
allow determination of the coefficients of the
particular harmonics with which they are in a. Current Program
resonance or near resonance. Thus far reso- The objectives of the present NASA program
nance satellites have been used in two ways. in gravimetric satellite geodesy are :
First, satellites at altitudes of about 800 km. are • Determination of the coefficients in the
84 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

spherical harmonic expansion of the gravi- This program has lead to the development of
tational potential through the 15th degree. laser tracking equipment which has proven
• Determination of higher coefficients needed capable of geodetic-quality range measurements.
for special problems such as near resonance 5. Future Possibilities
orbital phenomena.
The geodetic mission plans of NASA have
• Determination of gravitational effects on been summarized under section 6 of the previous
tides as accurately as possible.
discussion on geometric satellite geodesy. Fu-
• Determination of optimum computational ture satellites of the GEOS series and of the
methods for orbital analysis.
advanced applications series are expected to
Since the beginning of efforts in gravimetric contribute in two ways to the gravimetric ob-
satellite geodesy, I_ASA has provided : jectives cited above. First, they will be
• Support of the observations and analyses launched in orbits with orbital inclinations de-
of the data obtained from the Baker Nunn signed to fill gaps in the existing distributions.
camera network. Second_ they will allow a better analysis of
• Inhouse development of the analytical discrepancies in the results. These discrepan-
theory on which the computations of the cies may originate from the following causes:
coefficients are based. • Use of different satellites.
• Inhouse development of theory and com- • Different observation methods.
putation of results from motions of syn- • Different distribution of observation sta-
chronous satellites. tions.
The gravimetric results obtained until re- • Different approach to data analysis.
cently have mainly utilized satellites not By allowing tracking of the same satellites with
specifically launched for gravimetric purposes. a number of different systems, the discrepancies
The point has been reached, however, where arising from the use of different satellites may
satellites with specific orbital parameters are re- be eliminated and the source of other discrep-
quired to improve gravity field definition. The ancies better defined.
accuracy with which tesseral harmonics can Investigations are to be carried out to deter-
be determined from conventional orbital anal- mine tbe geodetic effectiveness of satellites in
yses depends to a large extent upon the num- resonant orbits. Suggestions for resonant satel-
ber of satellites used in the analyses and the lites have included _he launching, with small
variability of their orbital elements, particu- launch vehicles, of a large number of simple
larly inclination. This need for variety in satellites having only a Doppler transponder on
orbital inclinations was taken into account in board, and the launching of a more complex
early launches under the Geodetic Satellites pro- satellite which could be moved to different reso-
gram. The Beacon Explorer satellites (Ex- nant orbits.
plorer XXII and Explorer X_XVII) were The present technological limitation on the
placed in inclinations which would aid gravi- determination of the gravitational field by or-
metric determinations by the Doppler transit bital perturba;tion methods is the accuracy of
network. GEOS-1 was launched at an inclina-
the tracking instrumentation. This limitation
tion which would aid both Doppler and optical
is being rapidly overcome by development of
gravimetric determinations. GEOS-B to be
laser and electronic equipment capable of rang-
launched in 1967 will also be placed at an incli-
ing to the satellite with an accuracy of I meter.
nation designed to support improved Doppler
The technological limitation for satellite-
and optical gravimetric determinations.
borne gravity measurements is the present un-
As harmonics of higher and higher degree are
determined from orbital analyses, tracking data availability of a gravity-gradiometer with meas-
of ever higher accuracy are required to define urement sensitivity on the order of 10 -11 see -_,
perturbations of ever smaller amplitude. suitable for flight on unmanned spacecraft.
NASA supported a laser development program This instrument must be developed within the
to provide this improved tracking accuracy. 1967-71 time frame, to completely fulfill the
GEODESY 85

program objectives and will also be especially Bibliography


useful for determination of the gravity fields of (1) Anderle, R. J., "Geodetic Parameter Set NWL-
the Moon and planets using a small number of 5E-6 Based on Doppler Satellite Observations,"

orbiters. NWL Report No. 1978 (see also paper given at


Symposium on Uses of Artificial Satellites for
7. Associated Studies and Activities Geodesy, Athens, 1965).
(2) Anderle, R. J., "Observations of Resonance Effects
Several surveys to better define utilizations on Satellite Orbits Arising from the Thirteenth
of satellite gravimetric data are underway. and Fourteenth Order Tesseral Gravitational

These include: Coefficients," Journal Geophysical Research, vol.


70, No. 10.
a. The NASA-Ad Hoc Advisory Group on
(8) Egyed, L., "The Satellite Geoid and the Struc-
Satellite Geodesy is at present surveying the ture of the Earth," Nature, vol. 203, 1964.
scientific disciplines, which require the results (_) Gaposhkin, E. M., "A Dynamical Solution for the
of gravimetric satellite geodesy, and evaluating Tesseral Harmonics of the Geopotential and for
Station Coordinates," paper presented at COS-
the types of satellites required to meet discipline
PAR, Seventh International Space Science Sym-
needs.
posium, Vienna, May 1966.
5. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- (5) Guier, W. H., and Newton, R. R., "The Earth's
tory held a summer study in 1966 aimed at pin- Gravity Field as Deduced from the Doppler
Tracking of Five Satellites," J. Geophysics Re-
pointing applications of satellite geodesy.
search, vol. 70, pp. 4613-4626,1965.
Publication of the results is expected in May
(6) Kaula, W. M., "Variations of the Earth's Gravi-
1967.
tational Field from Camera Tracking of Satel-
In addition to these studies, numerous indi- lites," publication No. 486, Institute of Geophysics
vidual scientists and groups on a worldwide and Planetary Physics, University of California,
1966.
basis are carrying out investigations which are
(7) King-Hole, D. G., Cook, G. E., and Scott, D. W.,
relevant to the field of gravimetric satellite
"The Odd Zonal Harmonics in the Earth's Gravi-
geodesy. Some of the more important groups tational Potential," Planetary Space Sciences,
are the Johns Hopkins University Applied vol. 13, pp. 213-1232, 1965.
Physics Laboratory (5, 11), the Naval Bureau (8) King-Hele, D. G., and Cook, G. E., "The Even
Zonal Harmonics of the Earth's Gravitational
of Weapons (1, 23), the Royal Aircraft Estab-
Potential," Geophysics Journal, vol. 10, 1965.
lishment, England (7, 8), the French Space (9) Kozai, Y., "New Determination of Zonal Har-
Study Center (CNES) which is also planning monics Coefficients of the Earth's Gravitational

to orbit a geodetic satellite (D1-C) and the Potential," Publication of Astronomical Society
of Japan, vol. 16, 1964.
Geodetic Institute of Potsdam, East Germany.
(Io) Munk, W., and MacDonald, G. J. F., "Continen-
tality and the Gravitational Field of the Earth,"
8. Suggested Additional Studies
Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 65, 1960.
NASA will initiate a number of studies in (i1) Newton, 1_ R., "An Observation of the Satellite
Perturbation Produced by the Solar Tide," Jour-
areas which are appropriate to the direct tech-
nal of Geophysical Research, vol. 70, No. 24, 1965.
nical support of the geodetic satellite program. (12) Newton, R. R., Hopfield, H. S., and Lkine, R. C.,
In addition, the following areas will contribute "Odd Harmonics of the Earth's Gravitational
to the assessment and extension of satellite Field," Nature, vol. 190, 1961.
(18) O'Keefe, J. A., and Eckles, A., "Harvard Observa-
gravimetry :
tory Announcement Card No. 1420," Dec. 29, 1958.
a. To what degree is the following available O'Keefe, J. A., Hertz, H. G., and Marchant, M.,
(I_)
to the scientists in other disciplines: "Oblateness of the Earth by Artificial Satellites,"
Harvard Observatory Announcement Card 1408,
• The extent of gravimetrie survey available.
June 24, 1958.
• The projected gravimetry survey plans on
(15) Runcorn, S. K., "Satellite Gravity Measurements
a worldwide basis over the next 5 years. and a Laminar Viscous Flow Model of the Earth's
Mantle," Journal of Geophysics Research, vol. 69.
b. What are the gravimetric requirements,
(16) Shelkey, M. J., "The Gravitation Field of the
present and anticipate, of scientists in disci-
Earth; Zonal Harmonics from Transit 1B and
plines other than those referred to in the body Transit 2A Data," U.S. Naval Weapons Labora-
of this discussion ? tory Report 1807, 1962.
86 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

(17) Smith, D. E., "A Determination of the Odd American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Mono-
Harmonics in the Geopotential Function," Plan- graph No. 9, 1966.
etary Space Science, vol. 11, 1963. ($1) Wagner, C. A., "Longitudinal Variations of the
(18) Smith, D. E., "Determination of the Earth's Earth's Gravity Field as Sensed by the Drift of

Gravitational Potential from Satellite Orbits," Three Synchronous Satellites," Journal Geo-
Planetary Space Science, vol. 8, 1961. physics Research, vol. 71, pp. 1703-1712, 1966.
(19) Strange, W. E., "A Comparison of the Satellite ($3) Wang, C. Y., "Earth's Zonal Deformations," Jour-
Derived Gravity Field with Surface Gravity," nal of Geophysical Research, vol. 71, No. 6, 1966.
paper presented at Seventh International Space ($3) Yionoulis, S. M., "A Study of the Resonance
Science Symposium, Vienna, Austria, May 1966. Effects Due to the Earth's Potential Function,"
(20) Uotilla, U. A., "Existing Surface Gravity Mate- Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 70, No. 24,
rial, in Gravity Anomalies: Unsurveyed Areas," 1965.
V. METEOROLOGY
Introduction Since these program elements are relatively new
With the advent of the weather satellite in to the overall applications program their treat-
early 1960 man was given for the first time the ment in this document is limited to past effort
means for eventually observing the Earth's conducted by various agencies, and potential
weather on a global scale and in a time frame application of satellite technology.
suitable for meaningful analysis. In the en- For the area of weather control/modification
suing 6 years considerable progress has been the goals can be summarized as, clearance of
made in exploiting this new and useful tool. It supercooled stratus and fog, increase/decrease
is the purpose of this chapter to review this of precipitation, lightning suppression, hail
progress, evaluate results, and summarize the suppression, moderations of severe storms,
current and planned programs in satellite modification of the microc]imate of plants, and
meteorology. the modification of large-scale circulations.
In the following chapter the science of satel- The meteorological area of air pollution con-
lite meteorology is treated as it applies to four cerns : the transport and diffusion of pollutants,
basic areas ; i.e., weather observation and predic- and the effects of weather and climate. The
tion, weather control/modification, air pollu- potential use of satellite technology in obtaining
tion, and the determination of the atmospheric the necessary data to solve these problems is ex-
structure so as to establish a model atmosphere. tremely promising.
In the area of weather observation and pre- The fourth general area, that of developing a
diction the current and presently planned pro- set of standards describing the atmosphere has
gram is designed to provide the space tech- potential benefit in many fields, including air-
nology which, together with more conventional craft operations, the intercomparison of per-
observation techniques, will provide data to in- formance characteristics of space vehicles, the
crease the knowledge and understanding of the planning of space operations, the solution of re-
Earth's atmosphere, to improve short-range entry problems, electromagnetic transmission,
and extended-time weather forecasts. As of and astronomy. The current space program in-
April 1, 1967, 10 TIROS R. & D. satellites, 4 volves acquisition of knowledge about the
TIROS Operational Satellites (ESSA-I, II, atmospheric structure primarily for satellite
III and IV), and two Nimbus satellites have and rocket data, and processing this informa-
been orbited. The currently planned program tion as a basis for describing and understand-
involves the launch of advanced Nimbus satel- ing the atmosphere, with the end result of devel-
lites, and meteorological experiments at syn- oping reference atmospheres.
chronous altitude. In addition, research with While the meteorological observation pro-
gram discussed herein deals with the sensible
sounding rockets is being conducted in the re-
gion above 30 km. atmosphere, it should be recognized that there
are significant and indeed _ndamental interac-
The current and planned program relating
tions between the atmosphere and the space en-
to weather prediction also provides much of the
vironment, primarily the solar energy input and
technology needed to successfully pursue pro- its variations. Thus, the meteorological re-
grams in the other three basic areas; i.e., searcher is a "consumer" of information on the
weather control/modification, air pollution, and space environment obtained with other than
determination of the atmospheric structure. meteorological satellites.

87
A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS
88

Weather Observation and Prediction entire globe. Currently, quantitative weather


data are obtainedover lessthan 20 percentof
Improvement of weather prediction capabili- the Earth. The other 80 percent,mostly over
ties is the ultimate goal of most meteorological
the oceans,remains inaccessible except for a
research. Today meteorology, and hence
scattered inadequatenumber of observationsta-
weather prediction, has new tools with _vhich to
tions.Presentcomputers,mathematicalproce-
work. In the last two decades technology has
dures for the creation of models of the atmos-
made highly significant advances. Notable ex-
phere, and the present scientific understanding
amples are the meteorological satellite and the
of the dynamic processes of the atmosphere are
high speed electronic computer. Equally impor-
still imperfect. However, they are sufficiently
tant are the improvements in our scientific un- advanced so that if the data needed about the
derstanding of the processes in the atmosphere Earth's atmosphere can be acquired, an under-
that produce weather and determine climate.
standing of the general circulation and entirely
Scientists foresee with confidence the develop-
new capabilities in long-range weather predic-
ment of such a combined system incorporating tion are within reach.
these advances as one that would give us the
ability to make reliable long-range weather pre- 2. Possible Space Applications
dictions of 2 weeks or perhaps even more. The contribution of cloud cover pictures on a
daily basis from the current operational ESSA
1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
satellites of the daylight portion of the Earth
It is recognized that an extensive global resulted in enhanced capabilities for determin-
weather reporting "system" exists today. It has ing the location and intensity of weather dis-
resulted from three-quarters of a century of turbances. In temperate zones, fronts and
gradually expanding international cooperation; other weather features are positioned and fol-
the motivation for cooperation among the par- lowed more precisely with regular satellite cov-
ticipating nations has been their recognition of erage. Daily APT pictures showing the extent
the available reciprocal benefits. and development of orographic (terrain in-
Raw observational data in standardized for- duced) cloud systems, and providing immediate
mats are exchanged on a scheduled basis over precise positioning of mesoscale systems, have
intercontinental communications networks. aided considerably the local and regional
Weather analysis and forecasts for various forecasting.
areas of the globe to serve marine aviation and The addition of the High Resolution In-
other important interests are exchanged in ac- frared Radiometer (HRIR) nighttime cover-
cordance with international agreements and age will double the frequency of observation,
numerous bilateral and multilateral arrange- and through better continuity will contribute
ments. The United States has been an active significantly to improved short-range forecast-
participant in these programs. In addition, ing. Cameras at synchronous altitude will
the United States has provided ocean station provide for the first time the means for continu-
vessels as part of an international program and ously observing the full life cycle of weather
most recently has made meteorological satellite disturbances, particularly short-lived phenom-
data available to other nations. ena such as thunderstorms and cumulus cloud
It is generally recognized that the existing complexes, and will permit the following of
international data network and communica- atmospheric motions as revealed by cloud sys-
tions system are inadequate to meet the needs tems. The synchronous satellite observations
of the weather services of the United States will be particularly useful in the tropics and
and those of other nations. In fact, the largest other data-sparse regions where the conven-
single obstacle standing in the way of the search tional network is not sufficient to identify and
for a scientific understanding of the general cir- track mesoscale weather systems. This will
culation of the global atmosphere, and of devel- constitute a major breakthrough in advancing
oping improved weather prediction1 capabilities the understanding of atmospheric processes,
is the lack of quantitative weather data over the with consequent enhancement of forecasting
METEOROLOGY 89

ability_ particularly at local and regional vertical temperature and water vapor pro-
centers. files. These techniques offer the possibility
The synchronous satellite may also provide a of "seeing" through their clouds, one of the
simple mechanism, continuously available, for obstacles facing the use of infrared tech-
relaying meteorological data and analysis be- niques for lower atmosphere probing. It
tween world and regional centers to underde- has also been termed theoretically possible
veloped countries and to collect observations that microwave radiometric measurements
from automatic and/or conventional observing could be used to obtain measurements of
stations. other parameters such as surface tempera-
But the cameras and radiometers mentioned ture, sea state_ surface wind speed, and
above can not provide the quantitative) three information about ice, snow, and moisture
dimensional global meteorological data needed on the ground.
• The use of lasers for the determination of
for the numerical-dynamical atmospheric circu-
lation models on which electronic computer vertical profiles of density_ temperature_
programs are based which would provide the and various atmospheric constituents.
materials required for the forecasts of as much • The use of ultraviolet spectrometry for the
as two weeks in advance. Satellites offer the determination of total ozone content and
the vertical distribution of ozone above the
promise of providing these data_ with their
satellite-borne remote sensing instrumentation layer of maximum concentration.
for obtaining the measurements, and/or satellite The concept of obtaining atmospheric meas-
interrogation and location of sensor-bearing urements through the use of a space platform to
platforms within the atmosphere at the place interrogate and locate measuring devices
where the measurements are taken. mounted on earth_ ocean, or atmospheric plat-
The sensors that are considered potentially forms offers great promise particularly as the
useful for space applications include, among only means of observing the global wind field.
others : Such hybrid space-earth observation systems,
• Satellite television and IR radiometers) while offering vast promise, also pose many
critical problems which will have to be over-
which have been used operationally for ob-
come if such systems are to become operational.
servations of both night and day cloud
cover. These instruments have already The principal difficulties facing the introduc-
tion of such systems lie not in the development
been flight tested; however, improved reso-
lution and increased sensitivity, together of the space systems but in the development of
earth, ocean and atmospheric platforms and
with a greater dynamic range, are required.
the satellite platform interface electronics.
• Infrared spectrometers, for measurements
The satellite also provides a means _to estab-
of temperature structure.
lish the normal climatological distribution_ on
• These instruments have been successfully
a global basis, of many meteorological param-
tested on balloons and are being prepared
eters. For instanc% the energT flux from low
for satellite flight tests. TheoreticaUy)
these instruments have the capability of to high latitude is a normal condition in the
atmosphere_ but the total amount, as well as
providing the temperature information
its seasonal and spatial variations, has not been
from the top of the atmosphere down to
well established. There have been a few es-
the tops of clouds or the Earth's surface
(in clear air). Scattering of infrared ra- sentially global observations of the incoming
diation by aerosols introduces many prob- and outgoing radiation of the Earth but many
lems in the use of this device for temper- more observations are required to build a clima-
ature measurement in the lower 3 to 5 tological atlas to assess these important param-
kilometers. In principl% if the tempera- eters. Satellites can accomplish this.
ture is known, a similar spectrometer can Other important areas that require additional
be used to derive water vapor distributions. observations and further study are the atmos-
• Passive microwave techniques for deriving phere-surface exchange, the concentration and
9O A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

distribution of certain atmospheric constitu- they were equipped with better forecasting tools. This

ents, and the interactions between the hemi- does not take into account the economic benefits that
might be obtained in the various industries associated
spheres. This additional information should
with tourism and recreation, or the intangible savings
help in formulating a scientific basis for long- to individual families. Although we believe the total
range forecasting. is conservative, each of its components is quite clearly
Research conducted concerning the atmos- arbitrary and uncertain. To be on the safe side, we
have reduced the savings resulting from improvements
phere above 30 km. has shown this region to be
in long-range weather forecasts to $2 billion.
important in understanding the overall thermo-
dynamic balance and circulation of the atmos- The distribution of the estimated savings
phere. This is above the altitudes at which bal- among the several industries is shown in the
loons can operate, and rockets or projectiles are following table :
being used to deliver sensors to this region. Estimated savings to be realized from long-range weather
However, the number of observations being forecasting
taken is inadequate, due to the expense of and [From National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council]

limited number of sites available for such oper-


Anmml total Annualsavings
ations (since they cannot be located near popu- Type of activity worth (in miUions)
(in millions)
lated areas). Thus it is necessary to develop an
h
inexpensive meteorologicM sounding system Flood and storm damage .............. $2_0 [ $70-140
New construction ..................... 59, 000 I 1,000
capable of reliable, routine launches, amenable Fuels and electric prover ............... ! 40 000 I 500
Fruit-vegetaMe production ............ i 3, 200 I 500
to the requirements of rocket range support, 450
Livestock production .................. . 9, 000 J.
research and network operations, and not lim- Total savings ................................... ] 2. 500
I
ited to the national ranges.
3. Assessment of Potential Economic In providing the observational data critically
Benefits necessal T for prediction, satellite meteorology
will contribute in a significant manner to im-
The two basic purposes for the continued
proved weather forecasting. The TIROS and
research and development in meteorology are Nimbus satellite pictures have been of in-
(1) to explore and understand the nature and
estimable value in the detection and tracking of
behavior of the atmosphere, and (2) to reduce hurricanes and typhoons. It is impossible to
the impact of the weather on daily operations estimate the number of lives saved or property
private and public and upon the economy of safeguarded due to the increased coverage of
nations.
hurricanes and typhoons afforded by the addi-
It can be safely stated that any improvement tion of satellite observations.
in the capability to predict the weather, or to Satellite data have been used in support of
control or modify it, will have significant im- the national space program (Project Mercury,
pact on various aspects of individual lives and Gemini, Ranger, etc.) the Navy's 1961 Antarc-
on national affairs. The World Meteorological tic resupply mission, Project TIREC (TIROS
Organization (WMO) recently presented in Ice Reconnaissance), International Indian
some detail (14) numerous examples of some
Ocean Expedition, and the GMapagos Ex-
practical ways in which the meteorologist can
pedition. Satellite picture coverage will be of
help his fellow man in such areas us use of
increasing importance to the supersonic trans-
natural resources, agriculture, transportation,
port and the Apollo programs.
industry trade and tourism, disaster warnings
and fishing, etc. A recent report (4) by the Na- 4. Assessment of Other Implications
tional Academy of Science-NationM Research
One of the political benefits of weather satel-
Council highlighted the potential economic im-
lites has been in fostering cooperation with
pact of long-range forecasting with the
statement : other nations, particularly between the United
States and the Soviet Union. An example of
* * * we arrive at a total of around $2.5 billion
(annually) that could be saved by farmers, fuel pro-
this is the 1962 agreement with the United
dueers, public utilities, builders, and water managers if States and the U.S.S.R. The agreement stated
METE OROLOGY 91

in part: "In the field of meteorology, it is the Mercury and Gemini projects by providing
important that the two satellite launching observations of weather condition during re-
nations contribute their capabilities toward the entry and landing. Also the satellite data have
establishment of a global weather system for been very useful in making predictions for the
the benefit of other nations." The first major manned program. The satellite data will be
activity in this area was the installation of the of significant value during the conduct of our
"cold line" between Moscow and Washington manned lunar operations. Forecasts will be
for the exchange of meteorological data. For required for longer time periods and observa-
many months only conventional data flowed tions of weather conditions over the entire globe
across the line. However, in August 1966 the may be needed.
Russians began to exchange satellite cloud pic- Satellites are planned as an integral part of
tures and infrared data over the cold line from World Wea, ther Watch by the WMO. This
information provided by Cosmos 122. This program will be a cooperative effort among the
exchange terminated after a few months pre- nations of the world to build an international
sumably due to failure of Cosmos 122, and was system for the complete surveillance of the
resumed in March 1967, immediately after the global atmosphere and for _he rapid dissemina-
launching of Cosmos 144: This two way ex- tion of worldwide weather data. The Watch
change is still in progress. will focus on meterological satellites for collect-
Satellites have provided the United States ing and transmitting weather data from hori-
with the opportunity to demonstrate leader- zontal sounding balloons, automatic meteoro-
ship in the international area by providing logical ocean buoys, and fixed land stations and
weather data to other nations. From the out- for making remote quantitative atmosphere
set of the meteorological satellite program the measurements from satellites. Worldwide ob-
results of the program have been shared with servations will be required by the operational
other countries. The analyzed results of the services for long-range weather predi_ion.
cloud picture data are routinely transmitted in- Communications satellites may play a major
ternationally by the U.S. Weather Bureau to role in the rapid dissemination of weather data.
assist the weather operations of other nations. NASA has also helped maintain the U.S.
The Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) position of space leadership by initiating coop-
system has increased our prestige among the de- erative meteorological sounding rocket experi-
veloping nations of the world by providing a ment programs with other nations. In this
simple and inexpensive method to share in manner data useful to NASA, the other nation
weather data from safcellites. The United involved, and the scientific community at large
States has worked through the World Meteoro- are being obtained over the various parts of the
logical Organization to provide the APT data world through sharing ,of effort and resources.
to interested nations around the world. At ¢_he NASA was instrumental in initiating the
present time more than 29 nations are operating Experimental Inter-American Meteorological
.over 45 APT readout stations to receive the Rocket Network (EXAMETNET) in the
cloud pictures of _heir local areas. Western Hemisphere, which is aimed at stimu-
The data obtained by weather satellites have lating a worldwide network.
provided useful information for other dis- 5. Background
ciplines. The Nimbus and TIROS satellite
In the 1940_s and early 1950's rockets were
data have been used by geographers to map
used to investigate the physical state of the
areas that were previously not precisely located.
atmosphere. In 1947, a V-2 rocket launched
Geologists have used the satellite data to in-
at White Sands, N. Mex., took the first success-
crease their knowledge of past geolo_c forma-
ful series of photographs of the earth's cloud
tions in certain areas of the world, e.g., a river cover. From 1947 to 1950, additional V-2 and
basin in Oregon and another basin near Paris, Viking rockets carried high altitude cloud
France.
photography experiments which led to the first
The satellite data have been used to support serious proposal for meteorological satellites.
259-790---67------7
92 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

By mid-1958 work hud commenced on a meteor- are able to fund the installation of their APT
ological satellite that was to become TIROS readout facility.
(Television Infra-Red Observation Satellite). From the outset of the meteorological satellite
The first TIROS was flown in April 1960 and program, the data and results of the program
demonstrated that cloud cover informwtion pro- have been shared with other countries. The
vided by a satellite is useful in describing the analyzed results of the picture data are trans-
atmospheric motions. It established the space- mitted internationally to assist forecasters
craft and supporting ground _quipment de- everywhere in describing and forecasting the
veloped around special sensors like cameras and weather. In November 1961, an International
radiation detectors as a vital scientific meteoro- Meteorological Satellite Workshop was con-
logical instrument. ducted in which about 40 representatives of
A U.S.-conceived program for the peaceful about 30 countries participated. A workshop
use of outer space was advanced by President on the uses of Weather Satellite Data in Tropi-
Kennedy in an address to the United Nations cal Meteorology was conducted in February
on September 21, 1961. As one part of the 1963 with 60 attendees. Under the auspices
program, he stated that the United Sta_es of the World Meteorological Organization
"would propose cooperative efforts between all (WMO) an Inter-regional Seminar on the In-
nations in weather prediction and eventually in terpretation and Use of Meteorological Satellite
weather control." Data was held in Tokyo, Japan, November 27
In response to the U.N. resolution of De- through December 8, 1964. The conventional
cember 20, 1961, which called upon the World TV pictures, APT pictures, and radiometric
Meteorological Organization (WMO) to de- data were discussed and studied. Additional
velop measures to improve weather forecasting symposia have since been organized. The latest
capabilties, to advance our knowledge of the of thence was in September 1966 when a meeting
basic physical forces that affect climate, and concerning meteorological satellites was held in
to determine the possibility of a large-scale Moscow, under the auspices of the WMO to dis-
weather modification effort, the WMO has pro- cuss the data exchange on an operational, rather
posed the concept of a World Weather Watch. than an experimental basis.
Using the tools of modern technology--the As of April 1, 1967, 10 TIROS, 4 TIROS
Operational Satellites (ESSA I thru IV), and
meteorological satellite, the electronic computer,
2 Nimbus satellites have been flown. The incor-
and high-speed communications systems--as
porated changes have resulted in increased op-
well as established meteorological tools and
erational lifetime and progressive improvements
techniques, this would be an international eo-
in the satellite as an observing tool. ESSA-I
operative effort to build a new global system for
and II initiated the world's first operational
the complete surveillance of the earth's atmos-
weather satellite system which provides world-
phere and rapid dissemination of the acquired
wide cloud pictures on a daily basis for opera-
data. To complement the Watch, the Inter-
tional use and APT pictures for local use to the
national Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) worldwide network of APT stations.
has been invited to develop an expanded pro-
gram of research in the atmospheric sciences. 6. NASA Plans
In furtherance of this worldwide cooperative a. Current Program
effort, the United States, working through the The overall objective of this program is to
WMO, has provided Automatic Picture Trans- provide the space technology, which, together
mission (APT) data to all interested nations. with more conventional observational tech-
Presently more than 29 nations are operating niques, will provide the data required to increase
over 45 APT readout stations to receive cloud the knowledge and understanding of the earth's
pictures of their local areas. Numerous, rela- atmosphere, to improve extended-time weather
tively undeveloped nations have expressed in- forecasts, and to provide for the study of largo
terest in obtaining APT data as soon as they scale weather modification. This objective may
METEOROLOGY 93

be extended to the systematic exploration of the to accept advanced sensors as they become suita-
meteorology of other planets. ble. The flight of TIROS M is currently
This overall objective is divided below into scheduled for late calendar year 1968.
more specific areas and discussed with a brief in- In addition to the TIROS M development
dication of the planned accomplishments. NASA is conducting a program to make signifi-
(1) Imaging the entire globe regularly and cant advances to replace current TOS sensors
dependably (day-to-day forecasts).--To date, and procedures. This program called the TOS
the most dramatic application of the meteoro- improvement program includes tasks which are
logical satellite observing system has been the designed to improve the usefulness and/or cost
identification and tracking of known meteoro- effectiveness of the T0S series of spacecraft.
logical phenomena such as hurricanes, typhoons, Efforts currently underway include develop-
extratropical cyclones, and frontal systems. ments of improved vidicon cameras, improved
The TIROS R. & D. program has provided radiometers, and onboard APT picture loca-
the bulk of these observations up until the TOS tion techniques.
System became operational in early calendar (2) Continuous viewing of weather features
year 1966. from synchronous altitude (short period fore-
Nimbus I and II have also contributed heavily casts).--A short-period forecast requires the
toward meeting objective 1. In particular, near-continuous viewing of short-duration se-
Nimbus I with its successful development and vere storms. The large storms have duration
4 demonstration of APT, AVCS, and HRIR has measured in days and weeks and the small
contributed heavily to the initial TOS capa- storms, such as thunderstorms and tornadoes
bility as well as to the potential capability for have durations of a couple hours or less. Also
nighttime imaging with HRIR. Nimbus II the longer-lived storms may undergo changes in
launched during the first half of calendar year intensity over short time intervals.
1966 demonstrated further advancements in day Cameras on satellites in equatorial orbit at
and night imaging and provided for the first synchronous altitude will provide for the first
time real time readout of infrared data in five time the means for continuously observing the
spectral regions. This data is particularly life cycle of weather disturbances such as hurri-
helpful in developing sensors for day-night ap- canes. They will permit the following of atmos-
plication in advanced operational systems. pheric motions as revealed by clouds, and will
The capability of fully meeting this objective make possible the observation of large and smM1
during the daytime was attained through the convective systems in the appropriate time scale.
successful development of the TOS system This may eonstitute a major breakthrough in
utilizing the advanced vidicon camera system advancing the understanding of atmospheric
(AVCS) for global remote readout and the processes, with consequent enhancement of fore-
automatic picture transmission (APT) system casting ability, particularly at local and re-
for local readout. Two spacecraft are required gional centers.
in orbit at all times to meet these requirements. NASA_s current effort in meeting this objec-
This system became fully operational in early tive consists essentially of the meteorological
calendar year 1966. experiments on the ATS series of satellites.
The capability of fully meeting this objective The technology resulting from these experi-
both day and night will be attained with the ments and from the ATS spacecraft is expected
to provide the basis for the future SMS (Syn-
successful development of TIROS M. This
chronous _eteorological Satellite).
spacecraft now under development will be the
The ATS camera experiments are phased to
operational prototype of the second generation
demonstrate the feasibility and meteorological
TOS spacecraft. It will provide the opera-
usefulness of daylight cloud photographs
tional system with the capability of obtaining in (ATS-I spin scan camera), the feasibility of
a single spacecraft daily worldwide cloud cover obtaining high and low resolution cloud photo-
information locally and remotely both day and graphs from a gravity gradient stabilized plat-
night. It will also have the growth capability form (ATS-A), high resolution daylight color
94 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

pictures from a spin-stabilized satellite at syn- atmosphere beyond a day or two, it is necessary
chronous altitude (ATS-C), and high resolu- to know, worldwide, the present state or initial
tion cloud imaging under low lighting condi- conditions of the atmosphere. This includes
tions (nighttime) from a gravity gradient both the structure and the heat budget of the
stabilized spacecraft at synchronous altitude atmosphere.
(ATS-D). Polar orbiting satellites at altitudes below
The Omega Position Location Experiment about 2800 km. are the only apparent means for
(OPLE) will be performed using ATS-C. obtaining, on a daily, worldwide basis, the
This experiment combines the Omega Naviga- quantitative measurements of atmospheric pa-
tion System currently being developed by the rameters at various altitudes as required for fully
U.S. Navy with existing satellite technology. effective numerical modeling of the atmosphere.
The purpose of the experiment is to establish a It is expected that the regular input of world-
basis for the design of a simplified worldwide wide observational data will permit numerical
meteorological data collection system for the weather prediction techniques to significantly
global weather system. Inherent in the system improve our extended range forecasting ac-
is the capability of locating and interrogating curacy. Polar orbiting satellites also provide
free-floating meteorological balloons, and fixed frequent observations of polar regions which
and free-floating surface stations. cannot be covered by the synchronous satellites.
An experiment to demonstrate the utility of The Nimbus B and D flights are considered
disseminating weather information via a syn- to be the first missions designed to obtain signif-
chronous satellite (WEFAX) is being con- icant new data consistent with meeting the third
ducted using the VHF transponder of ATS-1. objective. These spacecraft will be launched
NASA is also currently studying possible con- into orbits similar to Nimbus II at an altitude
figurations using flight proven hardware for an of approximately 600 nautical miles. The basic
early Synchronous Operational Meteorological spacecraft will be essentially identical to Nim-
Satellite (SOMS). It is anticipated that the bus I and Nimbus II. However_ the majority
technology developed in the early ATS series of the experiments to be flown will be different.
will provide the basis for such a satellite making The experiments selected for these flights in-
it possible to implement this operational system clude spectrometers and interferometers to
in this decade. measure the vertical profiles of the meteorologi-
cal parameters from a distance as they pass
With the development of the manned orbit-
overhead. The satellites, during global surveil-
ing research laboratory, it is conceivable to uti-
lane% will also receive data from and locate
lize the capabilities offered, in conjunction with
fixed and mobile instrumented platforms im-
ground-based observations of the atmosphere, to mersed in the atmosphere and on the Earth's
conduct experiments leading to the understand-
surface. These platforms will make in situ
ing of the inception of severe short-lived storms. measurements of the atmospheric conditions.
These will include visual, photographic, radio- A suitable operational meteorological sound-
metric, and spectrometric observations and ing rocket system with a 100 km. altitude and
measurements of these storms and other phe- direct readout capability is planned to be avail-
nomena. The presence of man in the spacecraft able by 1972. By means of cooperative mete-
will also permit the selection of specific and orological sounding rocket experiment pro-
particularly interesting phenomena. Experi- grams with other nations, data useful to NASA
ments destined for the Synchronous Meteoro- and the scientific community are being obtained
logical Satellite can also be tested, evalu- over various parts of the world through the
ated, and modified aboard a manned orbital sharing of effort and resources. An immediate
spacecraft. goal is the expansion of the Experimental Inter-
(3) Global sounding el tT_e atmosp]_ere (ex- American Meteorological Rocket Network
tended period forecasts).--To understand and (EXAMETNET) to include other countries of
predict the future state and behavior of the the Western Hemisphere.
METEOROLOGY 95

b. Future Possibilities effective manned exploration and operation on


(1) AMS concept.--The Advanced Meteor- the planet.
ological Satellite (AMS) is planned as an R&D Prior to a manned landing, the first measure-
observatory type satellite following the present merits will be obtained from flyby and indi-
Nimbus program. One of the main objectives vidual probes. After these, the circulation of
of the AMS is to test new instrumentation to atmosphere and the variation of the meteoro-
sound the atmosphere on a global basis. The logical elements will be investigated. This will
satellite will also be capable of being utilized be required not only to increase our knowledge
as an interim operational satellite in cases where of the universe but also because it will provide
TIROS M type satellites cannot be used. In information for planning a future manned
addition to testing new sensors on the AMS, the landing on Mars. Techniques and experiments
project will include the development of inter- for measurement of the Earth's atmosphere will
pretive techniques for the sensor data obtained. provide the bases for investigating the Martian
The reduced data should be in such a format as atmosphere.
to be directly useable by numerical prediction (5) Limltlng technology.--Limiting technol-
techniques. %o7 in this case will be the development and
(2) M a n n e d flight experlments.--It is improvement of more reliable sensors. Better
power sources (than solar cells) will give an
planned to test meteorological instrumentation
on manned flights as soon as the manned space- additional degree of freedom to the satellites
craft become available for that purpose. and thereby make the AMS independent from
Manned spacecraft offer a number of advantages solar position.
over unmanned vehicles for the testing phase of 7. Associated Studies and Activities
satellite instrumentation. It is possible to fly a. World Weather Watch
less sophisticated instrumentation; bulkier and
As indicated in a previous section, the WMO
more complex type of instruments can be flown;
a number of similar instruments can be flown responded to President Kennedy's program for
the peaceful use of space (as it referred to mete-
for testing and comparison. In addition, to
orology) and to the subsequent United Nations
help operate the instruments, the man (astro-
resolutions with the concept of the World
naut) can exploit scientifically unexpected
Weather Watch (WWW). The WWW is en-
events and can exercise observational selectivity.
visaged as a system for observing, communicat-
He can also modify the experiments during
ing, and processing global weather data
flight to obtain better or more meaningful
results. adequate to meet both the needs of atmospheric
scientists pursuing research on the general cir-
(3) Rocket obse_vatlons.--The future pos-
culation of the global atmosphere and the oper-
sibilities for synoptic observations above 30 km. ational needs of the weather services of the
J
involve extension of international synoptic ob- nations of the world. The WWW differs from
servations from the previously mentioned
the present international weather system in that
EXAMETNET effort in the Western Hemi-
it will be truly global and will exploit system-
sphere to a full global capability for obtaining
atically new developments in space technology,
the data and the required data exchange agree-
communications, data processing and meteoro-
ments. Only with such full global synoptic data
logical instrumentation. The WWW is con-
above 30 kin., as well as below, can we achieve
cerned only with meteorological data : However,
full understanding of the atmosphere as a
whole, and satisfactory observational capability that other related disciplines (most of which
are also covered by this Summer Study) such
in this increasingly important region.
(4) Planetary meteorology.--Data on the as hydrology, oceanography, and aeronomy_
planetary atmospheres are important in their also require the acquisition, communication,
own right and as guides to the history of plane- and processing of global data.
tary bodies. However, sufficient meteorological Recent WMO reports (1_, 13) deal with con-
information must be available to permit safe, cepts of the WWW, steps taken to implement
96 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

these concepts, long-term planning, and tech- The National Center for Atmospheric Re-
nological developments. search (NCAR) has taken the initiative to act
RCA, in a study prepared for the Depart- as a focal point to encourage the scientific com-
ment of Commerce (8), made a cost/perform- munity to consider this problem and to develop
ance analysis of various techniques to mate- plans for a tropical meteorological experiment,
rially expand the existing international systems bringing together a number of scientists from
for making global surface and upper-air obser- the universities with advisors from appropri-

vations, collecting and distributing this data, ate government agencies to conduct planning
sessions and arrive at a recommended experi-
performing the processing necessary to produce
global macro-scale analyses and forecasts, and ment. It is recognized that meteorological sat-
transmitting these products to all member na- ellites can follow the life cycles of certain scales
tions of the World Meteorological Organization of cumulus in the Tropics and can track the
larger-scale disturbances more or less continu-
(WMO). This study was directed primarily
ously for several days and measure the thermal
at satisfying requirements needed to implement
the World Weather Watch. structure of the atmosphere. To optimize the
utility of this capability, this group will specify
International Business Machines Corpora-
the kind of auxiliary observations with ships,
tion (IBM) and Communications Satellite Cor-
land stations, balloons, and aircraft that will
poration (Comsat), under an ESSA contract,
be needed.
(3) have analyzed the problems related to inte-
In the development of the tropical meteoro-
gration of satellite-borne communication and
logical experiment, the group will consider a
observing capabilities into the World Weather
wide variety of meteorological aspects pro-
Watch First Stream Improvement Plan sys-
vided by the tropics. These aspects cover areas
tem. Integration includes those system design
considerations which must be accounted for such as meso- and macro-scale phenomena and
circulation, cumulus convection, numerical at-
within the early First Stream system develop-
ment efforts in order to allow an efficient and mospheric models for various scale phenomena,
thermal structure, moisture distribution, and
rapid transition from land-based cable and
radio communications techniques to satellite energy exchange with the Tropics and between
the Tropics and higher latitudes.
communication techniques, and from conven-
tional meteorological observing techniques to c. Proposed United States Participation in an
satellite-borne as well as other new quantitative International Meteorological Program
meteorological observing techniques. A report (2) prepared by the Interagency
Committee for International Meteorological
b. T r o p i c al Meteorological Experiment
(TROMEX) Programs justifies and recommends U.S. par-
ticipation in 'the WWW and proposes a plan to
The tropics, about 75 percent of which is
accomplish that end. Involved are immediate
ocean, covers about half the area of the earth.
improvements of the existing world weather
The sun supplies more energy to this region systems, and extensive developments in new
than is lost to space by long wave radiation. technology much of it applications of space
The excess energy is distributed to the higher technology. Also included is the recommenda-
latitudes by atmospheric and oceanic currents. tion that a global meteorological experiment be
The coupling mechanisms involve the circula- conducted which will assist in detailing the data
tion of the lower and higher latitudes and requirements of the mathematical forecasting
energy exchange between the ocean and the at- procedures resulting from scientific research.
mosphere. Many of the details of the coupling The results of such an experiment are expected
mechanism involve non-linear processes which to assist in shaping the ultimate characteristics
make the interaction between the process rather of the operational observing system.
complex. The details in the chain of processes d. Global Atmospheric Research Program
are not understood well enough to be quantita- (GARP)
tively useful. In February 1966 at Geneva, Switzerland,
METEOROLOGY 97

the Scientific Advisory Committee of the World a. Operational feasibility of global horizon-
Meteorological Organization and the Committee tal sounding technique (GHOST).
on Atmospheric Science of the International b. Analysis of Gemini color photographs and
Union of Geophysics and Geodesy met jointly black and white photographs to determine the
to formulate a long-range global atmospheric added value of color meteorological research
research program (GARP). The development and operational use.
of this program will involve four or five full- c. Performance/cost analysis of a global
time international study groups. Many of the weather and communication system combin-
meteorological areas to be considered are similar ing conventional and satellite capabilities.
to those of the TROMEX but extend to prob- d. Trade-off analysis of remote versus in
lems of global circulation. Some of the prob-
situ satellite observations for future operational
lems are dynamical models of the atmosphere, systems.
the role of convection in energy transformation, e. Optimum satellite systems for worldwide
sea/air and land/air exchange processes, global
cloud observation systems in the 1970's.
distribution of surface radiation balance, and
f. Trade-off analysis of the use of relatively
studies of sensors and sensing systems.
simplified satellites (satellites carrying a small
e. The White House Conference on Interna- number of redundant sensors) versus observa-
tional Cooperation, 1965 tory-type satellites (satellites carrying 10 or
This report (7) comments on the WWW con- more experiments) for the future operational
cept and the parallel general circulation re- weather satellite system.
search program, and recommends that the g. The use of one satellite to provide weather
United States fully support both. observations and the collection and dissemina-
tion of weather data.
f. NRC Study on the Feasibility of a Global
Observation and Analysis Experiment h. Use of low-altitude equatorial orbiting
satellites versus synchronous satellites for col-
The principal conclusions and recommenda-
tions arising out of this study (5) include the lecting weather data in the tropics and sub-
following. A major international research and tropics.
development program directed toward an ex- i. Trade-off analyses of different optical res-
periment to measure the large-scale motions of olutions to meet the needs of meteorologists.
the entire lower atmosphere for a limited time
Bibliography
period is fully justified. A preliminary design
(1) Electro-Optical Systems, Inc., "Meteorological
study indicates that a system utilizing satellite
Experiments for Manned Earth Orbiting Mis-
tracking and interrogation of large numbers of
sions." Report prepared for National Aeronau-
constant-volume instrumented balloons and
tics and Space Administration, Mar. 3, 1966.
buoys is feasible for this purpose. The prin- (2) Interagency Committee for International Mete-
cipal objective to be achieved is the definition of orological Programs, "Proposed United States

the entire atmosphere as a single physical entity. Participation in an International Meteorological


Program." Jan. 10, 1966.
Preliminary numerical model calculations indi-
(8) International Business Machines (and Civil
cate that if the initial state of the entire
Service Commission), "A Study of Interagency
atmosphere was known with sufficient accuracy Advanced Technology Into the World Weather
the large-scale motion would in principle, be Watch." Report under ESSA contract CWB-
predictable as a determinate physical system for 11374.

a period of approximately 2 weeks, but that (_) National Academy of Sciences, "Economic Bene-
fits from Oceanographic Research." National
beyond this, only averages or statistical dis-
Research Council Publication 1228, 1965, p. 37.
tributions could remain predictable.
(5) National Academy of Sciences, "The Feasibility
8. Suggested Additional Studies of a Global Observation and Analysis Experi-
ment." A report of the Panel on International
The list below covers new areas as well as old
Meteorological Cooperation to the Committee on
areas that should be constantly reviewed in light Atmospheric Sciences, National Research Council,
of new technology : Publication 1290, Washington, D.C., 1966.
98 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

(6) National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
"OSSA Prospectus 1966--A Listing of Program
Opportunities, 1967-86. June 1966 (draft).
The following is a brief summary of the
(7) National Citizen's Commission, "Report of the present status of weather modification. This
Committee on Meteorology." The White House information is based on the report (7) of the
Conference on International Cooperation, Wash- Special Commission on Weather Modification,
ington, D.C., Nov. 28-Dec. 1, 1965. National Science Foundation, report 1_o. 66-3.
(8) Radio Corp. of America, "World Weather System
A consideration of the physical problems
Cost/Performance Analysis Study." Interim re-
involved in weather control/modification must
port contract CWB-11014, Astro-Electronie Di-
vision, Defense Electronic Products, Princeton, begin with a brief review of the atmosphere as
N.J., Apr. 13, 1965. a physical system, the dimensions of the quanti-
(9) Reichelderfer, F. W., "WMO Moves Into Space." ties of energy that would be required to alter
Astronautics and Aerospace Engineering, vol. 1,
atmospheric processes by the application of
No. 3, April 1963.
brute force, and the nature of the instabilities
(10) Tepper, M., "Meteorological Programs." Head-
quarters, National Aeronautics and Space Ad- that might be exploited to exert meaningful
ministration, 1965. influence within the limits of our ability to pro-
(11) Tepper, M., "Significant Achievements in the duce and manipulate energy.
Meteorological Program--1958." National Aero-
nautics and Space Administration, January 1965.
The atmosphere rotates with the Earth, but
(15) World Meteorological Organization, "Second Re- does not rest quietly upon it. Air motion rela-
port on the Advancement of Atmospheric Sciences tive to the Earth is induced by a nonuniform
and Their Application in the Light of Develop- distribution of ener_oT sources and sinks, which
ments in Outer Space." Geneva, Switzerland,
June 1963.
in turn are influenced by motions which they
(18) World Meteorological Organization, "Third Re- themselves produce. These motions range in
port on the Advancement of Atmospheric Sciences size from planetary wave systems down to mo-
and Their Application in the Light of the Develop- lecular movement. The source or sinks of en-
ments in Outer Space." Geneva, Switzerland,
ergy are variable in number and strength and
August 1964.
(1_) World Meteorological Organization, "Weather exist, mainly as a result of the local response to
and Man." No. 143, TP 67, 1965. incoming shortwave solar radiation, the flux of
outgoing longwave radiation, the latent heat
Weather Control/Modification
involved in the phase change of water, ,_d to
Weather control/modificatiou means the the flow of sensible heat between the lower
artificially produced changes in the composition, atmosphere and the underlying ocean or land.
motion, or dynamics of the atmosphere. It In this sense, the atmosphere may be viewed
covers a wide spectrmn of possible activities ap- as a complex physical system in which ascer-
plicable to varying temporal and spatial scales tainable changes in air motion take place (in an
such as: as yet not completely understood manner) in
• Precipitation modification--the artificial response to identifiable forces. By altering
altering of the timing, distribution, or these forces, desired changes in air motion could
amounts of precipitation. then be produced. Thus, in principle, con-
• Hurricane modification--includes the sup- trolling or modifying the weather is scientifi-
pression of the initial hurricane develop- cally possible. Whether or not this possibility
ment, changes in storm intensity, or can be realized in practice depends upon the
changes in the path of the storm. ability to alter these forces in a manner which
• Hail suppression--the interference in the will produce predictable results.
natural hail-forming processes to eliminate To assess the ability to alter these forces in a
or reduce occurrences of hail. direct manner, it is instructive to consider the
• Tornado suppression--the inhibition of the order of magnitude of the kinetic ener_oT in-
development of individual storm cells into volved in atmospheric subsystems of varying
local severe storms and tornadoes. scale :

i
L
METEOROLOGY 99

Approximate changed between the underlying surface


energy
Atmospheric subsystem • (in ergs) and the atmosphere.
Tornado funnel .......................... 10 el
• The convective instability of the atmos-
Small thunderstorm ..................... 1022

Large thunderstorm ...................... 1023 phere which when released, redistributes


Hurricane ................................ 102s sensible energy in the vertical and often
Extra-tropical cyclone .................... 10 e6 produces high-local concentrations of ki-
Northern Hemisphere general circulation__ 10 ev netic and electric energy.
An appreciation of the tremendous energy re- • The baroclinic instability of the large-scale
quirements necessary to change the kinetic circulation which, when released, redistrib-
energy of these atmospheric subsystems by as utes sensible and kinetic energy in the
little as 10% can be gained from the following horizontal plane; i.e, from pole to equator.
table. The right-hand column lists the time re- To date, seeding of clouds has proven to be
quired for the total electrical energy generat- the most promising method of taking advantage
ing systems of the United States to operate if of atmospheric instability.
they were used to change the kinetic energy of With regard to actual weather modification
the atmospheris subsystem by only 10% : the following is the consensus:
Atmospheric subsystem : Approximate time a. Clearing of Supercooled Stratus and Fog
Tornado ....................... 30 scconds.
Effects of seeding by dry ice and by silver
Small thunderstorm ............ 5 minutes.
iodide were first demonstrated upon supercooled
Large thunderstorm ............ Several hours.
Hurricane ..................... Several days. stratiform clouds. Recently attempts have
Extra-tropical cyclone .......... 5 to 6 weeks. been made to develop operational methods for
Northern Hemisphere general clearing of supercooled fog at airports. Such
circulation .................. 6 years. methods have been used here and abroad for the
One concludes that it is not practicable to past several years, particularly in the U.S.S.R.,
think of altering these atmospheric subsystems where the problem is more severe. Clearing of
by the direct application of energy. warm fog is much more difficult and no really
The matter of altering rainfM1 also involves satisfactory methods have been proposed.
a tremendous release of energy. As an exam-
b. Increase or Change in Form o/ Local Pre-
ple, the latent heat released in a 10 percent in-
cipitation by Seeding
crease of rainfM1 totaling i inch over an area
It has long been controversial as to whether
100 miles on a side would be equivalent to about
local precipitation can be enhanced by seeding.
6 days of the daily output of the national elec-
An NAS panel (3) has made a statistical study
trical power generating capability.
of commercial seeding operations, mostly using
On the other hand, there exists some evidence
ground-based silver iodide generators. In-
that some type of weather control/modifica-
cluded were operations in the Eastern United
tion--e.g._ a deliberate increase in rainfall--can
States and in orographic situations in the West-
be obtained by lesser energies operating on a ern United States. In addition, data from
triggering mechanism based on atmospheric
randomized experiments on seeding both in this
instability. country and abroad have become available dur-
At least four kinds of instabilities have been ing the past year and are included in the study.
identified as potentially susceptible to man's In volume I of the NAS panel report, it is stated
efforts to trigger natural reactions. They are: "There is increasing but still somewhat ambig-
• The phase instability of water (supersatu- uous statistical evidence that precipitation
ration in the vapor phase and supercooling from some types of clouds and storm systems
in the liquid phase) when released, provides can be modestly increased or redistributed by
a local source of sensible heat. seeding techniques. The implications are man-
• The colloidal instability of cloud particles i'_old and of immediate national concern." The

which, when released by precipitation, com- statement cannot be made more conclusive be-

pletes the cycle by which latent heat is ex- cause of the possibility of some unknown source
259--790--67_8
100 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

of bias or systematic error in the commercial years have given indications Chat seeding can
seeding operations and because chance fluctua- alter cloud-to-ground ligbJtning from thunder-
tions cannot be completely ruled out as an clouds. Background has been developed for a
explanation of the results of more limited more thorough statistical study to see under
randomized tests. It should be emphasized wha% conditions seeding may be effective in re-
that the problem is an extremely complex one; ducing lightning and lightning-caused forest
there is great variability in cloud types and in fires. Another suggestion, not yet tested on a
ways in which precipitation can occur. The large scale, is to introduce chaff (metalized
theoretical knowledge of how seeding nuclei are strips) into clouds to decrease electric field
introduced into clouds from ground-based gen- gradients.
erators and how precipitation may be affected
e. Hall Suppression
thereby is still quite rudimentary.
Studies of suppression of hail by seeding or
Present indications, if taken _t face value,
are tha_ local precipitation can be increased in other techniques have mostly been carried out
abroad and with inconclusive results. There
many situations on the order of 10 percent by
are news reports that Soviet scientists, by intro-
seeding. These positive results are obtained in
cases where rain would have fallen anyway ducing seeding nuclei at the optimum position
without seeding; there is no evidence that seed- and time by use of antiaircraft shells, have had
ing can induce rain to fall when normally there some success, but this work has not been dupli-
would be none. Thus, seeding appears to be of cated in this country. Volume I of the NAS
limited value in relieving drougl_t situations. panel (3) report states that "the United States
Also, a limited number of tests have been con- hail research program is piecemeal and clearly
ducted on changing the form of precipitation, of subcritical size." Plans are underway by the
e.g., from freezing rain to snow to reduce the N_tional Science Foundation to initiate a pro-
damage _o transmission lines, etc. gram in this area.
c. Increase o/Precipitation by Forced Gonvec- ]. Moderating Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and
tions Hurricanes
Suggestions have been made _hat precipita- Under Project Stormfury, several a_temp/s
tion in some local areas could be increased by have been made to modify hurricanes by seed-
changes in the Earth's surface to promote great ing. The intent is to produce warming in the
absorption of heat and also greater transfer of
outer zone of the eye wall by releasing latent
heat and water vapor &o the atmosphere. This
heat of fusion and so alter the pressure and
would stimulate convection hopefully in suffi- wind distributions. Results are so far incon-
cient amount to increase cloudiness and precipi-
tation downwind. While some plans have been clusive. Progress in these areas, where tre-
formulated, no field tests have been made to mendous energies are involved, will require
test _his proposM. Another method, which has much further basic research involving extensive
given some indicwtions of success in limited field investigations and development of theoret-
trials, make_ use of seeding. It has been sug- ical models.
gested that latent beat released by increased g. Modifying the Microclimate of Plants
condensation of moisture into water droplets
The problems are largely concerned with
causes uplift and cloud formation. It may be
means of preventing frost, for suppressing
that some of _he observed increases in precipita-
evaporation, and for reducing effects of wind.
tion by cloud seeding result from enhanced con-
Practical methods have been in use for long
vection rather than dircotly by nucleation of
periods of time; there have been limited appli-
drops.
cations of modern knowledge of micrometeorol-
d. Lightning Suppression ogy to optimize procedures. Further research
Studies carried out under Project Skyfire of on boundary-layer energy and moisture ex-
the U.S. Forest Service for the past several change is highly desirable.
METEOROLOGY 101

h. Modifying the Weather and Climate of Compared to the effects of large-scale city
Zarge Areas building, the meteorological effects of altering
The interaction between climatic changes and the rural landscape (deforestation, reforesta-
altered land use patterns is well known, as evi- tion, and irrigation, for example) appear to be
denced by development of the U.S. prairie dust quite small and localized.
bowl; the more temperate winters in the East- j. Existing Problems
ern United States versus reduction of forest
The problems in existing weather control/
cover; development of the Libyan desert follow- modification methodology are linked to four es-
ing intensive Roman agriculture; and the de- sential needs which must be met:
struction of the Lebanon cedar forests and
• To assess and understand natural weather
resulting desert development with consequent
environmental changes.
changes in the economic pattern of the area. • To assess and understand the inadvertent
However, there is no known way to induce de-
changes in weather and climate that man's
liberately predictable changes in the large-scale
technological evolution has produced.
circulation of the atmosphere. However, a • To improve man's ability to predict the be-
systematic exploration of the possibilities for
havior of the atmosphere so that he can live
modification of the large-scale circulation is
with a minimum of danger and surprise.
now possible and requires the same type of ob- • To devise a variety of techniques for delib-
servation and theoretical work as the develop- erate intervention in the course of atmos-
ment of a capability to make extended range
pheric process which will alter weather and
predictions. climate in favor of mankind.
i. Inadvertent AtMospheric Modification Thus_ it must be recognized that a close re-
The overriding immediate need in this area lationship exists between weather modification
is for greatly improved and expanded methods and the more general problems in the atmos-
of detecting manmade alterations in the com- pheric sciences, and the fact that improved
position and energy budget of the atmosphere. understanding of atmospheric processes is neces-
sary to accelerate progress in modification.
It is generally agreed that the total amount
Adequate management and regulation of the
of carbon dioxide (CO_) in the atmosphere has
operational deployment of many types of weath-
increased by 10 to 15 percent in this century,
er modifications would require the availability
and that the increase is due to the burning of of weather observational facilities for monitor-
fossil fuels. The obvious needs are for con-
ing and evaluation, and a close meshing with
tinued monitoring of atmospheric and oceanic forecasting of the natural progression of weath-
COs content and for the simulation of COs er events, thus linking weather modification,
effects (including effects on atmospheric cir- observation and prediction into a single system.
culation due to altered thermal structure) using
2. Possible Space Applications
the most sophisticated atmospheric models and
numerical computers available. The current key observational tool in weather
modification research is the instrumented air-
The problem of air pollution may already be
growing beyond its recognized urban sources craft. To date, the only use of weather satel-
lites in weather modification experiments has
to become a wide-spread nuisance having possi-
been the supporting observations of the move-
ble significant effects on weather and climate
ment of hurricanes. The operational ESSA
over much larger areas. Little attention has
satellltes are limited to providing photographs
been given to the effects of pollution on cloudi- of the same area one to two times in 24 hours.
ness and precipitation or on the radiation bal- The Spin Scan Camera experiment on the first
ance. Urbanization, is, in fact, a kind of con- Applications Technology Satellite has demon-
tinuing experiment in climate modification. strated a capability to provide frequent observa-
(See also the following section of this chapter, tions (on the order of 5- to 10-minute intervals)
on air pollution.) of the same geographical area during daylight
102 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

hours. Thus, satellites in geostationary orbit tion. One possible method for conducting
might contribute to weather modification ex- large-scale seeding operations could be the in-
periments by providing essentially continuous corporation of seeding material into space vehi-
observations during daylight of major cloud cles and subsequent injection of these materials
systems. into the atmosphere by the use of reentry tech-
Satellites are planned as one of the key ele- niques.
ments in the World Weather Watch to provide Satellites also provide an opportunity to con-
global surveillance of the atmosphere. Ad- duct experiments that could not be performed
vanced Earth-orbiting research satellites will by other methods, due to their unique position
provide remote sensing and sounding of the of being outside the Earth's atmosphere. Pos-
atmosphere, and will interrogate, collect, and sibilities for using satellites for this purpose in-
transmit information from sensors on balloons, clude either the concentration or interference
oceanic buoys, and from fixed weather stations. locally or regionally of incoming solar radia-
An experimental observational program (global tion.
meteorological experiment) carried out with 3. Assessment of Potential Economic Benefit
this system for a limited period of time may sup-
The substantial interest and commercial
ply the additional data needed for extending our
activity in precipitation enhancement, hail
knowledge of the circulation of the atmosphere
suppression, and fog dispersal show that their
and would lay the observational groundwork
direct results are believed to be highly bene-
for extending the range and accuracy of weather
ficial. Ranchers, orchard operators, airlines,
predictions. This will provide improved fore-
casts which are essential for weather modifica- and electric power companies have invested sub-
stantial funds in research and operations di-
tion experimentation and additionally will lay
the scientific basis for a rational approach to rected at practical modifications. A recent re-
port (7) by the National Science Foundation
the problems of weather and climate modifica-
highlighted some of these potential benefits of
tion on a larger scale. The need is urgent for a
weather modification :
greatly expanded effort in the development of
airborne and spaceborne instrumentation to be A public utility on the Pacific coast concluded that in
the drainage area of one of its reservoirs an increase
used throughout the entire field of atmospheric
of less than 2 percent in annual precipitation would
exploration. In many cases, completely new clearly justify cloud seeding and an increase of 10
instrumentation concepts, taking advantage of percent for a large watershed might be worth $200,000.
advances in technology, will be required. In An airline has estimated that the immediate benefits
some instances, refinement of presently known in reduction of operating expenses from fog dispersed
in an Intermountain area were at least five times the
techniques and modernization of the state-of-
seeding costs.
the-art technology may suffice. The national Obviously, if a farmer thinks he may increase his
program for weather control/modification per-acre wheat yield from seven ,to eight bushels by
research should embrace all feasible instrumen- rainfall induction or hail suppression at a cost of a few
tation and observing platforms: Aircraft cents an acre he will be strongly inclined to take the
risk of the expenditure even though the results are in
instrumentation, balloonborne instruments,
doubt. It has been calculated that the mean annual
rocket-borne direct probes and ground-based
losses of $250 million from hurricanes might be re-
remote-sensing probes, as well as remote sensors duced by as much as one-third if only modest reduc-
employed on manned or unmanned Earth- tions in storm intensity or slight changes in storm path
orbiting missions. can be achieved. Opportunities for direct, beneficial
The present delivery systems for the release efforts in the economy are immense insofar as genuine
modification can be managed with confidence.
of cloud seeding agents and artificial nuclei are
inadequate. The need exists for improvements The implications of successful weather modi-
in present delivery systems and investigations fication are so attractive that maj or programs of
of the potential of space in the development of research and development have been initiated
deployment systems for both the research and by the U.S. Government, several foreign na-
operational phases of weather control/modifica- tions, and various State governments. No pre-
METEOROLOGY 103

cise figures are available as to the expenditures magnitude of the intervention. Both field and
of State governments. However, a survey con- simulation studies of these biological relation-
ducted by the National Science Foundation ships are needed before, during and after sus-
showed that State agencies reporting projects tained operational programs. These studies
have spent almost $1 million since 1960 on should help avoid undesirable, unanticipated,
weather modification research (1). The poten- and irreversible ecological changes.
tial impact of weather modification is so great Weather and climate modification poses legal
on water resources management, farming, and questions as to the existence of "property" inter-
urban development that increased effort will be ests in weather and the responsibilities of
devoted to research and development in this weather modifiers for damage to others. There
area. Also the economic impact is so great on are also problems of regulation. Recommenda-
society that further development of methodol- tions have been made by the National Science
ogy for defining these economic problems is Foundation as to the needed regulation and
required. This methodology should be based indemnification of those working on Govern-
on the development of models for different re- ment-supported programs.
gions using techniques of increasing scientific 5. Background
complexity. Simulation studies will play an
important role in any quantitative assessment The history of weather control/modification
of the impact of weather control/modification spans about a half century. During the period
upon man's activities. up to 1945, the major effort was devoted to theo-
ries of precipitation formation. Immediately
4. Assessment of Other Implications
after World War II, experiments to produce
A long-range program of weather control and precipitation artificially were initiated. Dur-
climate modification can have a direct bearing ing the period since 1950 there have been exten-
upon the relations between nations. It could sive commercial efforts to produce precipitation
aid the economic and social advancement of the and suppress hail formation.
developing countries, many of which face prob- The space age and the meteorological satellite,
lems associated with hostile climates and serious starting in 1960, have opened the door to a
imbalances in soil and water resources. It can greater understanding of the atmospheric proc-
also serve to develop common interests among esses that are necessary to permit longer range
all nations and thereby become a stimulus for weather predictions. These advances have stim-
new patterns of international cooperation. ulated the development of techniques for
There are serious biological and legal prob- weather modification and control.
lems that require investigation prior to under- With these advances has come a change in the
taking extensive weather modification experi- attitude among people, in the government, the
ments or operations. Great uncertainty is asso- public, and within the scientific community re-
ciated with the biological consequences of garding large-scale scientific team efforts and
weather and climate modification. On the one objectives. There is also an increased awareness
hand, increases in rainfall over cultivated areas of the value of limited success in the modifica-
could partially alleviate the increasing problem tion of severe storms and precipitation.
of food production. However, there is an ac- Within the recent past, four groups have
companying possibility that instabilities might worked to define weather modification goals,
result in the natural balances of biological com- scientific paths, methods of organization, divi-
munities. Such imbalances might appear in the sion of responsibilities, and the emerging legal,
diseases and pests of man's domesticated plants economic, and social problems :
and animals. In small areas of natural com- • The National Science Foundation's Special
munities, it is possible that some wild species Commission on Weather Modification.
may be severely stressed. The timing of the • The National Academy of Sciences' Panel
atmospheric intervention relative to the repro- on Weather and Climate Modification.
duction cycle of the various species in the com- • The Environmental Science Services Ad-
munity may be of more importance than the ministration task group which assessed the
104 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

state of weather modification research as the physical basis of climate which implies a sci-
well as the socioeconomic, legal, and legisla- entific understanding of the general circulation
tive aspects of man's growing power to in- of the atmosphere.
fluence weather and climate. b. Future Possibilities
• The Committee on Government operations
Future weather satellites; e.g., the Advanced
of the House of Representatives.
Meteorological Satellites and Synchronous
6. NASA Plans Meteorological Satellite, will increase the capa-
a. Current Program bility to sound the atmosphere and to collect in
situ measurements using advanced communica-
The TIROS and Nimbus programs provided
tion techniques. These techniques will be used
the basis for the TIROS operational satellite
in the World Weather Watch to provide the
system (TOS). The TOS program provides
global observations to increase the understand-
worldwide pictures once per day regularly and
ing of the general circulation and to improve
dependably. In temperate zones, fronts and
other macroscale features are positioned and weather prediction. Large-scale weather modi-
fication operations will be dependent on the
followed more precisely with regular satellite
capability to forecast accurately the weather for
coverage. The integration of the satellite cloud
information with conventional weather data has extended periods.

improved the accuracy of the short-range fore- It is expected that during the next decade, the
cast. This increased weather prediction capa- study and design of experiments and the flight
bility assists the weather modification experi- of systems in space may be considered to at-
menters in planning and assessing the results of tempt the modification of weather. Such ex-
periments could involve either the concentration
their experiments. Satellites have also provided
or interference locally or regionally of the solar
supplemental observations of the position and
movement of hurricanes, and other large-scale radiation by means of space techniques. The
meteorological satellite and manned spacecraft
weather systems. These observations have been
offer means of conducting these experiments.
used in assessing the hurricane modification
experiment Stormfury. The effects of the modification experiments
Cameras at synchronous altitude provide for must be observed in great detail. The meteoro-
the first time the means for observing continu- logical satellites will provide observations of
ously the full cycle of weather disturbances, initial conditions prior to the experiment and
the effects of the induced perturbation in the
particularly short-lived phenomena such as
thunderstorms and clouds. These observations weather.

will permit the determination of atmospheric 7. Associated Studies and Activities


motions as revealed by clouds. The synchro-
In general, it can be said that any study
nous satellite observations will be particularly
which contributes to the development of im-
useful in the tropics and other data-sparse re-
proved meteorological and radiometric instru-
gions in monitoring and evaluating weather
mentation, mathematical modeling techniques,
modification experiments.
or circulation simulation techniques, and an
The Nimbus project will develop the sensors
and techniques for the collection and transmis- improved understanding of the atmospheric
sion of weather data from horizontal sounding processes also contributes to our eventual con-
trol of weather.
balloons and automatic meteorological ocean
There are numerous l_ational Science Foun-
buoys, and for the remote sensing and sounding
of the atmosphere. Developments from these dation grants and contracts which are directed
toward weather control/modification. These
programs will be used to select systems and
techniques for conducting the global meteoro- include field investigation, laboratory research,
and theoretical and statistical studies.
logical experiment for general circulation re-
search. Fundamental to the study of modify- Also contributing are :
ing and of diverting hurricanes and altering a. The project Skyfire of the Department of
climate over large areas is an understanding of Agriculture's U.S. Forest Service. This effort
METEOROLOGY 105

is directed toward gaining new basic knowledge 8. Suggested Additional Studies


of the nature of mountain-area lightning dis-
The following studies are suggested as a
charges, and their potential for starting forest source of additional information for the sum-
fires.
mer study:
b. In a joint experimental program with the • Ecological effects of large-scale weather
Navy, the Department of Commerce is explor- modification experiments.
ing the structure and dynamics of hurricanes
• Socioeconomic studies of the impact and
and tropical convective processes while investi- benefits of weather control/modification
gating the feasibility of storm modification
experiments and operations.
using "massive" seeding techniques. This effort
• Meteorological side effects of weather con-
is known as project Stormfury. trol/modification activities.
c. Effort is being devoted to gaining weather
Bibliography
modification knowledge in Department of Com-
(1) Derrick Sewell, W. R. (editor), "Human Dimen-
merce programs on tropical cumulus modifica-
sions of Weather Modification," University of
tion, stratocumulus modification, cumulus cloud Chicago, 1966.
electrification modification, hail suppression, ($) Interagency Committee for International Meteoro-
instrumentation and cloud seeding systems, logical Programs, "International Meteorological
Program," January 1966.
chemical meteorology, severe storm morphology
(3) National Academy of Sciences, Publication No.
and structure, prediction of hurricane genesis 1350, "Weather and Climate Modification--Prob-
and dissipation, atmospheric energy conversion lems and Prospects," "Summary and Recom-
and dissipation processes, convective scale mendations," vol. I, "Research and Development,"
vol. II, 1966.
modeling, rainfall augmentation, ocean-atmos-
(_) National Citizen's Commission, "Report of the
phere exchange processes, forecasts of pollution Committee on Meteorology," November-December
potential, and the climatology of factors affect- 1965.

ing the concentration and transport of pol- (5) National Science Foundation, "Weather Modifica-
tion," sixth annual report, 1964.
lutants.
(6) National Science Foundation, "Weather Modifica-
Another significant activity was the proposed tion," seventh annual report, 1965.
legislation considered by the U.S. Congress. (7) National Science Foundation, "Weather and Cli-
mate Modifications," "Reports of the Special
The Committee on Commerce, U.S. Senate, in-
Commission on Weather Modification," December
troduced legislation authorizing a program in 1965 (NSF 66-3).
weather modification (S. 53, 89th Cong.). This (8) National Science Foundation, "Weather Modifica-
legislation, if adopted, would have authorized tion-Laws, Controls, Operations," "Report of
the Special Commission on Weather Modifica-
the Secretary of the Interior, acting in coopera- tion" (undated) (NSF 66--7).
tion with the l_ational Science Foundation, to
Air Pollution
initiate and carry out a program directed at in-
creasing, in a substantial degree, the annual Initiated by the industrial revolution, magni-
average usable supply of water from rainfall fied by the proliferation of the internal combus-
and snowfall in areas of the United States when tion engine, and multiplied by the technological
such increase would be beneficial. The proposed "explosion" of the past two decades, manmade
bill also specified that no program would be ini- pollution of the air we breathe has increased
tiated within a State without the approval of alarmingly. It is continuing to increase, at an
the Governor of such State. This bill and other even faster rate, until it has become one of the
agency bills were combined into Senate Bill most serious environmental problems of our
urbanized society. The abundant good air ac-
373, 89th Congress, and introduced by Senator
cepted as normal for all our past generations is
Magnuson. This multiageney bill passed the
now becoming polluted just as were our rivers
Senate but not the House. There is continued
and lakes through lack of early recognition of
action to reintroduce this weather modification
the problem and development of effective
bill in the 90th Congress. controls.
106 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

Moreover, almost every advance which con- which are transitional in both space and time
tributes to the world's progress also adds to the must be investigated.
burden of contaminants which the world's at- Descriptions of dispersion on a larger scale,
mosphere must carry. This applies to growth over an entire metropolitan area, are urgently
in population, in urbanization, in industrializa- needed. Here, efforts are hampered by lack of
tion, and in living standards; to increased per a valid theoretical framework on which to place
capita use of transportation and power; and to observed phenomena. Models of local atmos-
most advances in technology--including, iron- pheric motion in contrast to models of pollutant
ically, advances in space technology, as exempli- distribution are practically nonexistent, and no
fied by jet aircraft, rockets, and missiles, all of great improvement in mathematical simulation
which are new air polluters. In fact, some of pollutant dispersion can be expected until
concern is currently being expressed about the the motions of the air itself are better defined.
discharge of beryllium in rocket launehings. Dispersion on a still larger scale, applicable
Meteorological factors and pollutant emission to the spread of pollutants from one urban area
rates determine air quality levels or degree of to others tens or hundreds of miles away, is
contamination. In the short term, variations largely undescribed. Here, dispersion by dif-
caused by atmospheric motion determine local ferences in the mean flow for instance, the
contamination concentration. But, in the long vertical shear of the horizontal wind--is likely
view, the importance of weather variability di- to mask dispersion by "turbulence." Hence,
minishes and it is the character of pollutant description of air trajectories is the greatest
emissions that determines the level of contam- need.
ination. There are also important interactions (2) ttigh atmosphere and global disper-
between pollutant emissions and meteorology-- sion.--Much of the existing knowledge of globM
for example, the effects of sunlight, humidity, mixing rates, including exchange between the
and rainfall can change the character, the northern and southern hemispheres a_d between
amount, and distribution of airborne pollutants. the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, has
Therefore, before one can take effective steps come from observations of the spread of nuclear
to optimize the preservation and restoration of debris. At higher altitudes, information is
air quality, it is necessary to understand quan- scanty, and it is not clear what the roles of
titatively the interrelations of weather param- turbulence and mean transport by possible
eters and pollutant emissions on the urban, meridional circulations may be.
regional, and global scales. The stratosphere can play a major role as a
storage reservoir for pollutants which, in the
1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
troposphere, are removed by precipitation.
Meteorological problems in air pollution are The stratosphere, although constituting only
divided into two parts: "Transport and diffu- about 20% of the atmosphere's mass, can hold
sion of pollutants," and effects of "Weather and well over 90% of the burden of pollutants ini-
climate." There is also the related problem tially injected into it. This storage capacity,
which was mentioned above : photochemical and its implications for the cleanliness of ground-
level air (including the safety of air crews and
other chemical and physical changes in pollut-
passengers), and the mechanisms by which
ants after they reach the atmosphere.
polluted stratospheric air parcels are released
a. Transport and Diffusion of Pollutants into the troposphere, are only beginning to be
(1) Lower atmosphere.--For steady condi- explored and will need a sustained effort.
tions over homogeneous terrain, it is not too 3. Effects of Weather and Climate
difficult to describe the dispersion of effluents out The most pronounced effects of air pollution
to distances of 1 or 2 miles. But most pollution on urban weather are those on visibility, fog,
sources are located in heterogeneous terrain, and and precipitation. There is also growing evi-
the atmosphere is rarely steady for an extended dence that pollution may influence our global
time period. Therefore, dispersion in states climate and effect irreversible changes. Its
_ETEOROLOGY 107

potential effects on the heat balance of the earth ciently adverse. Data are lacking on micro-
pose serious questions. meteorological conditions before and during the
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere absorbs photochemical air pollution situations. The
infrared radiation, and this contributes to the techniques available to trace the movement of
"greenhouse" effect of the atmosphere. A sub- air masses are inadequate. The ultimate goal
stantial increase in atmospheric CO2 has oc- should be an integrated chemical and meteoro-
curred since 1880 and a further increase is ex- logical model of atmospheres, as they undergo
pected until at least the year 2000 as a result of photochemical and secondary reactions, which
increased use of fossil fuels. The mean air has useful predictive value for the areas suffer-
temperatures, particularly in more northerly ing from this type of air pollution.
latitudes, have shown a parallel increase, lead- (2) Other Chemical and Physical Changes in
ing to speculation that the increased amount of the Atmosphere.--There is much yet to be
atmospheric C02 is a primary cause. learned concerning atmospheric reactions.
Particulate pollution of the atmosphere may They should be studied over the complete range
also influence the distribution and amount of of atmospheric conditions that are likely to be
heating and cooling. Suspended particles dif- found, including the varying ambient states
fuse and absorb both incoming solar radiation that the atmosphere normally undergoes.
and outgoing infrared radiation from the The physical states of pollutants, and the
earth, and their presence may subtly alter the processes of particle formation and growth, are
energy interchange at the earth-Mr interface. poorly understood. For instance, submicron-
The rapidly increasing use of rockets for sized particles act as the principal condensation
high-altitude investigations is adding new con- nuclei for cloud or fog droplet formation and
taminants to the high atmosphere, and there growth of aerosols has not been studied. The
is little information at present to indicate how roles played by radiation, electrostatic forces,
the transformation of incoming solar and cos- humidity, and other physical variables in at-
mic energies may be altered by these new con- mospheric reactions, need clarification.
stituents. Studies of atmospheric composition on a
It appears that the differences between the global scale, and derivation of the effects of
:Earth's present climate and periods of either pollutant emissions on long-period trends of
glaciation or greatly enhanced melting of the atmospheric composition, are seriously ham-
polar ice caps are related to only a few degrees pered by the present lack of adequate measure-
change in the mean temperature of the earth. ment programs. Studies of global exchange
If atmospheric pollution, present or future, is rates, changes in atmospheric composition, and
capable of causing such temperature changes, it the effects of high altitude phenomena, can
is imperative to recognize the risk and to take properly be carried out only on a worldwide
whatever corrective action may be necessary. basis. For instance, determining the basis for
c. Chemistry and Physics of the Atmosphere the rising trend of atmospheric C02 requires
precise knowledge of all the sources and sinks
(1) Photochemistry.--Two of the general
for C02.
problems involved in doing photochemical work
The further question of whether this trend
in atmospheric type systems are the quantita-
tive reliability of results and the reliability of is a cause of a general warming of the atmos-
extrapolation of results from higher concen- phere cannot be answered by simply examining
tration levels. More reliable quantitative data trends, but must be interpreted in terms of the
certainly are needed on product yields over a total energy balance of the atmosphere, which
wide range of reactant concentrations, light in- in turn requires more detailed measurements of
tensities, and temperatures. the variations of incoming solar energy and
Appropriate chemical conditions appear to outgoing ]ongwave radiation from the :Earth.
be necessary in order to cause photochemical Such data as are available have been obtained
air pollution but these alone are not enough; recently, largely with the aid of satellites and
meteorological conditions, too, must be suffi- high-level rockets, and their continuing use
108 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

promises to help importantly in meeting the should confirm that there are significant altera-
needs in this area. tions occuring in the world's temperature be-
cause of airborne pollutants.
2. Possible Space Applications
On economic grounds alone, it would seem
It appears that the three principal possible that the possible gains from applying space
space applications to the air pollution problems technology to air pollution problems should
are : certainly be thoroughly explored.
a. Monitoring of pollution areas with high
resolution multispectral imaging devices that 4. Assessment of Other Implications
may detect pluming and seasonal variations and Any important new information obtained
permit pinpointing of pollution areas. The through space technology could help to drama-
pinpointing of pollution areas has already been tize, as well as to confirm, the threat which air
demonstrated from aircraft. pollution poses to the Nation's health and wel-
b. Identifying the pollutants themselves and fare. This may provide the best available op-
their concentrations. Specifically, spectroscopy portunity to encourage other industrial nations
which is being improved constantly for the de- to expand their air pollution control activities.
termination of the meteorological parameters The information on global contamination level
of temperature, water vapor and ozone, may made available through the use of space technol-
eventually permit the identification and track- ogy for air pollution monitoring will encourage
ing of certain gaseous pollutants and their con- the community to bear the costs necessary to
centration. It is expected that polarization maintain the air quality at an acceptable level.
measurements in the visible or UV can give in-
formation on aerosols. 5. Background

c. Detecting air trajectories by satellite track- Historically, the work in turbulent diffusion
ing of tracers injected from the ground or from is built on theoretical work begun in England
rockets. Continuous or repeated observations about 1920. There is still much activity in this
from satellites can identify certain tracers and field by British meteorologists who are studying
thereby indicate the motion of air masses. the meteorological influence on the diffusion of
In general, air pollution is intimately related radioactivity and other material from single
to the overall problems of meteorolo_o T. For sources. They are also active in problems of
more detailed discussions of possible space ap- urban air pollution by sulfur dioxide due pri-
plications one should refer to appropriate sec- marily to fossil fuel consumption. Dispersion
tions dealing with weather prediction, weather of radioactivity from nuclear reactors has moti-
modification, and the atmospheric structure. vated a number of other countries to establish
meteorological programs on turbulent diffusion
3. Assessment of Potential Economic Benefit
which for the most part, follow the classical
It is probably impossible at this stage to assess lines of describing the meteorology near reac-
accurately the possible gains, in accelerating tor sites, measuring turbulence parameters, and
the solution of the Nation's air pollution prob- using tracers to measure diffusion.
lems, which might result from using expanded Although important work has been done and
space technology. The economic issues in- continues on the theoretical aspects of atmos-
volved here are on a truly impressive scale. pheric diffusion and in wind-tumlel studies,
Even without attaching any monetary values to most of the effort in the United States has gone
the time lost from work and shortened life into field experimental investigations. The
spans that may be attributable to air pollution, scale over which the experiments are carried out
the strictly economic damages on that account ranges in distance from about 1 to 25 km and
in the United States have been estimated in in complexity from "point source" diffusion of
billions of dollars annually (2). an injected tracer material over open, flat
This figure threatens to grow steadily unless (prairie) terrain to the quantitative investiga-
present trends can be reversed, and it would be tion of the dispersion of an actual pollutant
dwarfed, of course, if further investigations within the environs of a city.
METEOROLOGY 109

A large number of diffusion and deposition gaseous pollutants especially at low altitudes
tests have been sponsored by the U.S. Atomic appears more difficult with remote satellite sen-
Energy Commission at their installations near sors. There may be a possibility of using "in
Richland, Wash., and Idaho Falls, Idaho. situ" measurements and data collection satellites
Most earlier experiments involved the injec- to obtain this type of information.
tion of a tracer material from a "point" source It is also planned to investigate indirect pol-
into the atmosphere and the analysis of its sub- lution indicators such as vegetation to detect air
sequent diffusion over relatively open and flat pollution by satellite remote sensing. Addi-
terrain. In contrast, studies in Nashville, tional meetings are planned for determination
Tenn., were concerned with the analysis of a of requirements and potential instrumentation.
real pollutant, sulfur dioxide, from actual b. Future Possibilities
sources in the city, and the dispersion of the gas
Future possibilities include the exploitation
among and over the roughness elements (trees,
of the basic R. & D. now being conducted
buildings, hills and valleys, etc.) that make up
throughout NASA and particularly in the
the surface features (4). From these studies
physics, astronomy, meteorology, and Earth re-
was derived a "mean-monthly" S02 concentra-
sources programs. Such effort may well result
tion model. A somewhat more sophisticated dif-
in the capability to monitor successfully pollu-
fusion model was tested against the Nashville
tion with a high degree of efficiency. NASA's
SO2 data to determine 24-hour concentration
advanced research and teclmology (ART) and
patterns (6). Wind speed and direction and
supporting research and technology (SRT) pro-
atmospheric stability were the basic meterologi-
grams, particularly that concerned with signif-
cal parameters involved in this model. Work is
icant improvements in sensor resolution, sensi-
currently in progress or planned, in St. Louis,
tivity, and specifici,ty, will contribute substan-
Chicago, and New York to develop similar
tially to this effort.
diffusion models for several important air
pollutants. 7. Associated Studies and Activities

6. NASA Plans In St. Louis, the Public Health Service and


ESSA are midway in a 2-year series of field
a. Uurrent Program diffusion experiments. The purpose is to in-
Solutions of the general problems of air pol- vestigate the transport and diffusion of tracer
lution are closely related to the overall prob- material (fluorescent particles) from continuous
lems in meteorology and in earth resources sur- "point" sources within the urban area. For the
vey. Therefore NASA's current programs in first time, comprehensive data are being ob-
meteorology and earth resources survey ac- tained on the diffusion of air pollutants within
tively contribute to the development of the re- and among roughness elements wMch are of
quired technology. Specifically, it is necessary scales comparable to those of the turbulence re-
to improve upon present earth sensing instru- sponsible for the dispersion. The results will
mentation such as cameras, radiometers, and be particularly applicable to performance
spectrometers to realize solutions to the prob- standards evaluations of individual sources of
lems of air pollution. pollution within a city.
Two meetings have been held this year be-
8. Suggested Additional Studies
tween representatives of ESSA, HEW and
NASA to discuss the air pollution problems and a. Research Needs Lower Atmosphere
the air pollution parameters that can be detected The most obvious need in this area of research
from orbital altitudes. is .to describe dispersion for the conditions under
Pollutants can be divided into two categories : which this dispersion takes place in the real
gaseous pollutants and particulate pollutants. atmosphere. The individual and additive ef-
At the present it appears that some particulate fects of many complex sources on the accumula-
pollutants (aerosols) may be detected and tion of pollution within an air mass must be
measured from satellites. The detection of considered over a range of space and time scales
110 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

commensurate with the extent of _he source atmosphere; and perhaps by identification of
ureas and travel times being considered. These "natural" tracers emitted by existing sources.
scales range from very localized effects, such as Any trajectory data so obtained should be re-
aerodynamic downwash in 'the lee of a building lated, whenever possible, to the macroscale flow,
or a stack, up to global scale dispersion. and the energy sources and sinks that lead to
Potential problems due to local aerodynamic spatial variations of the flow, in order that tra-
effects can be solved through the use of wind jectory data may eventually be inferred from
the network of observations for macroscale
tunnel studies. Continued investigation of the
correspondence between dispersion by models in analyses.
the wind tunnel and .their full-scale prototypes b. High Atmosphere and Global Dispersion
is highly desirable, to demonstrxte the accuracy It seems highly likely that, as a new meteoro-
of model investigations for a wide range of logical knowledge accumulates as a result of ex-
building shapes and flows, and to develop a panded space activities, opportunities will arise
"catalog" of the effects of varying dimensions, for many additional studies which may be appli-
angles, relative flow speeds, etc. cable to air pollution problems.
Descriptions of dispersion on a scale applica- Descriptions of dispersion on a global scale
ble to the spread of pollutants emitted within a have application primarily to longer range
city over the city itself, are urgently needed, for problems. At higher altitudes, information is
the major contribution of pollution in urban extremely limited. Such knowledge as there is
areas generally originates within a few miles of has been largely inferred by observation of nat-
the point of reception. The air flowing over a ural tracers, such as ozone and water vapor,
city is almost always in a state of spatial transi- and in some cases, artifical tracers introduced
tion due to the varying surface over which the by rockets, and from nuclear explosions. Most
air passes; and the times of particular interest, substances are less than perfect tracers, either
when the highest concentrations are often found, because they are in particulate form and there-
coincide on a diurnal basis with the times when fore fall, or because there may be sources and
the structure of the air flow is varying most sinks within the atmosphere. Therefore, global-
rapidly because of the diurnal cycle of solar scale dispersion must be studied in terms of the
heating. potential change of tracers used to infer this
Advances in descriptions of urban area dis- dispersion.
persion are directly tied to improved measure-
Bibliography
meats of both the air stratification, flow, and
turbulence, and the consequent distributions of (1) Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
"Letter, Subject: Economic Cost of Air Pollution"
pollutants within the urban air envelope. The
December 3, 1963, from Chief, Legal, Economic
lack of adequate means to ob'tain measurements and, Social Unit, Division of Air Pollution, HEW,
aloft over any significant spatial and temporal to Mr. R. A. Wolff, Deputy Commissioner of New
domain is particularly restrictive. Indirect York City, Air PoUution Control.
methods to estimate the atmospheric structure ($) McCormick, R. A., "Air Pollution: Some Meteoro-
logical Aspects," Weatherwise, December 1962, pp.
must be used; a basic need is for much better
229-237.
definitions of the actual motions of the air itself.
($) Peeler, F. ft., Jr., "Prediction Model of Mean
As Stated earlier, description of air trajec- Urban Pollution for Use With Standard Wind
tories is the greatest need for still larger scales Roses," International Journal of Air and Water
of motion. At present, there are few data, either Pollution, September 1961, pp. 199-211.
observed or calculated from macroscale map (_) Rossano, A. T., Jr., "The Air Pollution Survey,"
New York Academic Press, 1962.
features, to provide such descriptions. The need (5) Stalker, W. W., and Dickerson, R. C., "Sampling
is for direct observation of air trajectories, ,Station and Time Requirements for Urban Air
which can be met by an expanded program of Pollution Surveys," Journal of Air Pollution Con-
trol Association, March 1962, pp. 111-128.
observations of "single particle" tracers, such
(6) Turner, D. B., "Relationships Between 24-Hour
as balloons; by continued development of identi- Mean Air Quality Measurements and Meteorologi-
fiable tracers which can be introduced into the cal Factors in Nashville, Tennessee," Journal of
METEOROLOGY 111

Air Pollution Control Association, October 1961, the United States and other countries, and by
pp. 488-489. the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR).
(7) Michelson, I. and Tourin, B., "Comparative
Methods for Studying Costs of Air Pollution," 1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
Public Health Report, vol. 81, No. 6, June 1966. (Nonspace)
Atmospheric Structure for Model Standard and reference atmospheres were
Atmospheres developed and used prior to the existence of
The habitable environment of man includes space methods for obtaining information on the
structure of the atmosphere. Ground-based
the atmosphere, and the ever present require-
methods, however, have been severely limited
ment of an awareness of the atmosphere in
in the detail of information which can be ob-
man's operations has led to the need of gen-
tained in the regions of the atmosphere that can
erating reference and standard atmospheres.
be examined. The present status (nonspace)
Such atmospheric tables have been used for
for the acquisition of structural data on the
accurate ballistic predictions, the flight of air-
atmosphere is as follows:
craft, the operation of balloons, the transmis-
Information on the atmosphere below 30 km.
sion of acoustical and eleotromagnetic waves in
is limited to balloon flights for direct measure-
space, the performance of rocket propelled
ments of atmospheric temperature, pressures
vehicles, etc. The tremendous increase in
composition, and motions. Some additional
man's operations in the atmosphere over the
techniques are available for studying vari-
last few decades has generated a demand for
ous phenomena under restricted conditions.
accurate knowledge of the atmospheric struc-
Ground-based measurements of the ozone dis-
ture and for reference atmospheres to support
tribution have been obtained by the Dobson
_hese operations. The reference atmosphere is
method, and temperature-density profiles can
defined for a specific locale in terms of its basic
be obtained by acoustical propagation studies
properties, the distribution in the gravitational
of explosives.
field of the earth's surrounding gas (i.e., the
Ground-based electromagnetic probing tech-
density, pressure, and temperature of the gas)s
niques have recently undergone extensive
the constituents or composition of the atmos-
developments that contribute to obtaining in-
pheric gas (including solid particles and con-
formation on the structure of the atmosphere.
taminants), and by the temporal variations of
Radar measurements of meteors in the region
these parameters. Many additional param-
from 90 to 100 km. altitude have been and are
eters are associated with the atmospheres such
being used to study the density and temperature
as gas kinetic properties, particles, particle
speeds, collision frequencies, meanfree paths profiles, and the winds in this region. In the
region below 100 km., the new method using
specific weight, as well as electrical and dynam-
the laser as a back-scattering radar may be
ical properties. Reference atmospheres s and
usable to obtain density and temperature
later a standard atmosphere which is a hypo-
thetical vertical distribution of atmospheric profiles.
parameters, may be defined and adopted only Through the development of large antennas
when sufficient data about the atmospheric and using the phenomena of incoherent back-
structure and its variability have been accumu- scatter from electrons, altitude profiles of tem-
lated so that an agreement can be reached on the perature, density, and composition of ionic
reference or standard atmosphere with sufficient species have been obtained in the altitude region
confidence ,that they will be widely used nation- • from 100 to 1,000 km. The method shows great
ally and internationally. An international promise for extensive studies of the temporal
standard atmosphere, to an altitude of 32 variation of atmospheric parameters; in effect,
km. accepted by 60 countries now exists. It it can be used to interpret the distribution and
is the International Civil Aviation Organiza- condition of the neutral species.
tion (ICAO) atmosphere. Supplements to this Ground-based observations of the airglow
standard have been prepared by committees in and optical scattering from the atmosphere
112 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

have also been used with some success to deter- 4. Assessment of Other Implications
mine density profiles and composition of some Other benefits have and continue to accrue
specific atmospheric elements. These methods from man's defining the environment of space
remain the best for determining various rare through reference and standard atmospheres.
constituents in the atmosphere, like sodium and Through the ICAO and COSPAR, interna-
lithium.
tional cooperation has been important in defin-
2. Possible Space Applications ing reference and standard atmospheres, both
in their adoption, as well as in the impor-
Space techniques for obtaining information
tant interchange of scientific data on the
on the structure of the atmosphere has by and
atmospheres.
large been the main basis for obtaining refer-
The main benefits of the reference and stand-
ence and standard atmospheres. Sounding
rockets continue to present the best means of ard atmospheres has been in the technical and
scientific areas. These benefits include the oper-
obtaining altitude profiles (from 30 to 100 km.)
ation of the aircraft, the intercomparison of per-
of nearly all the important structural param-
formance characteristics of space vehicles, the
eters; particularly, the distribution of the at-
planning of space operations, the solution of re-
mospheric constituents. Satellites are the only
entry problems, their utilization in compression
practical method for obtaining the global dis-
of communication data, and in investigating
tribution of atmospheric structure, and will be
high altitude meteorological conditions, the ef-
necessary for determining the time variations
fects on guidance systems, electromagnetic
of the atmospheric parameters. Many of the
results from rocket and satellite observations transmission, and astronomy.
have already been incorporated into the most 5. Background
recent atmospheric models, such as the GIRA
The early history of model atmospheres is
1965 Atmosphere (3), the U.S. Standard At- traced from isothermal models needed to cali-
mosphere, 1962 (19), together with the U.S. brate aneroid barometers for measuring the alti-
Standard Atmosphere Supplements, 1966 (20). tude of land masses and manned balloons. The
3. Assessment of Potential Economic Benefit advantages of using more realistic temperature
The economic benefit derived from utilization altitude profiles were recognized and several
such nonisothermal models were introduced
of reference and standard atmospheres is diffi-
near the beginning of the 20th century, consid-
cult to assess. In aircraft operations, the stand-
erably before the development of the airplane,
ard atmosphere fulfills a special requirement
for altimeter standardization to provide safe prior to and during World War I.
terrain clearance and to avoid collision between The need for greater international agreement
and unity, forced upon the many nations by the
aircraft. The lifetime of trapped radiation in
revolutionally air transportation, led to consid-
the upper atmosphere radiation belt is greatly
erable cooperation in matters concerning avia-
affected by the atmospheric density distribution.
tion, particularly in Europe. A linearly seg-
The prediction of the lifetime of the Starfish
mented temperature-altitude profile proposed by
nuclear explosion was incorrect, and resulted in
Toussaint was generally adopted in Europe but
extensive damage to the power supplies of sev-
eral satellites and the attendant economic loss. not without some modifications by the United
States largely through misunderstanding.
For nearly all operations in space, the pres-
U.S. aeronautical standard atmospheres simi-
ence of the atmosphere has to be taken into ac-
count. The intercomparison in the perform- lar to the European standard stem from the
ance in data obtained with different references work of Gregg (5) and Diehl (4) with later
is often a costly undertaking. Only a few years additions by Brombacher (1). These stand-
ago, a separate and independent model of the ards covered the altitude region from sea level
atmosphere was in many cases derived for al- to 20 km. and were adequate until World War
most every new investigation to be carried out II when the need for an upward extension of
in the space environment at high altitudes. the standard became urgent. Warfield (21),
METEOROLOGY 113

and Grimminger (6), contributed greatly in tudes and in April 1946 a committee under the
this effort. chairmanship of Harry Wexler recommended
Following World War II, the aviation in- the extension of the -56 ° C. isothermal layer
terests of both Europe and the United States from 20 km. to 32 km. and the further extension
were drawn closely together and a unified avia- of the model to 120 km. as implemented by
tion agency, the International Civil Aviation Warfield. Rockets, however, provided the
Organization (ICAO), made its appearance means for the first direct probing of the high
with the United States as one of its member atmosphere and the data collected resulted in
nations. the preparation of the "Rocket Panel Atmos-
Revisions of United States and European phere" in 1952 (16).
standard atmospheres in keeping with an ICAO The great urge for international cooperation
standard atmosphere became necessary and the following World War II, which resulted in the
United States led the way. Rocket instru- United Nations, also made its impact on avia-
mentation provided data for relatively accu- tion and science. As a successor to the Inter-
rate models up to 150 km. and more recent ar- national Committee on Aviation and Navigation
tificial satellites provided the means for accu- (ICAN), and related to the United Nations, a
rate extensions of the models to 700 km. The new, more inclusive International Civil Avia-
establishment of standard atmospheres in keep- tion Organization (ICAO) was formed, with
ing with these models has become desirable and the United States a participating member. In
necessary. July and August of 1950, a working group rep-
The first U.S. Standard Atmosphere pre- resenting various divisions of ICAO met in
pared for aircraft performance tests only was _ontreal, Canada, the headquarters of that or-
prepared by Gregg following the lower part ganization; and, prepared a proposal which led
of the Toussaint formula of -6.5°/km. tem- to the ICAO Standard Atmosphere, adopted
perature gradient. Apparently unaware of the originally by 52 nations. This standard repre-
details of the Toussaint document, Gregg es- sents a compromise between the Diehl U.S.
tablished an isothermal layer of 1.5 ° warmer standard and the slightly different 1924 ICAN
than the Toussaint model and beginning at Standard and extended only to 20 km. altitude.
230.77 meters below the Toussaint breakpoint With the firm establishment of the ICAO
of 11 km. Standard Atmosphere, it became desirable to
While aircraft performance tests were re- revise the U.S. high altitude aeronautical at-
ferred to an atmosphere based on an abbre- mosphere to be consistent with the ICAO Stand-
viated version of the Toussaint model, altim- ard as well as with the then available atmos-
eters apparently were still being calibrated on pheric data. Formation of the Committee
the basis of an isothermal atmosphere. Gregg on Extension of the Standard Atmosphere
and Diem were instrumental in the calling of a (COESA) in November 1953 led to the prepa-
conference in 1924 which led to adoption of the ration of the Air Research and Development
U.S. standard for all aeronautical purposes. Command (ARDC) Model Atmosphere 1956
Diem expanded the Gregg standard and ap- to 500 km. altitude (10), and the U.S. Extension
pears to have been aware of the ICAN Stand- to the ICAO Standard Atmosphere soon fol:
ard Atmosphere generally adopted in Europe lowed (11).
in 1924, which followed the Toussaint formula Late in 1957, the first calculations of atmos-
in detail and used a different sea level value of pheric density near 220 kin. altitude from the
gravity acceleration from that used by DieM. drag deceleration of satellites, Sputnik 1 and
The scope of the Diem standard was expanded 2 were published. It was evident that these
for altimetry by Brombacher when tables of densities were higher than those of the ARDC
altitudes as a function of pressure were added. Model 1956 by a factor of 3 or more and that
The Gregg-Diehl standard remained the U.S. the ARDC model would not provide an accu-
standard for a period of 27 years. rate means of determining satellite life time.
World War II brought about needs for ex- Stern, Folkart, and Schilling (17), soon pre-
tending standard atmospheres to greater alti- pared three interim (Smithsonian) modifica-
114 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

tions to the ARDC model with the prime ob- sion to the International Standard Atmosphere
jective of partially overcoming this limitation. to 32 kin. altitude. This extension has been
These models had the shortcomings of suggest- adopted by ICAO and became the official stand-
ing a discrepancy between satellite drag data ard in November 1966, well in time for opera-
and lower altitude rocket data. Additional tion of supersonic aircraft. COESA has also
satellite and rocket data, however, indicated a developed a series of supplementary atmos-
previously unexpected rapid change in the slope pheres, "U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supple-
of the density-altitude curve near 150 km., and ments, 1966" (G0), which are in preparation for
the satellite and rocket data was found to be publication. These atmospheres define models
consistent. as a function of latitude and solar activity.
Density rather than pressure became the sig- A similar activity has been underway inter-
nificant property for model atmosphere prepa- nationally by COSPAR to support scientific re-
ration because it was the former which was search in space. A Working Group on Refer-
actually being measured. Additional rocket ence Atmospheres of COSPAR published
data suggested the need for revisions at the "CIRA, 1961" (_), developing various atmos-
100 kin. level as well as at greater altitudes. A pheric models. In 1964, this publication was
review of essentially all available data suggested withdrawn in favor of developing a new set of
that a model revision begin at 53 km., the top models, "CIRA, 1965" (3). "CIRA, 1965"
of the mesopeak isothermal layer. Tempera- gives tables of the distribution of atmospheric
tures should be lowered in 80 to 90 km. regions parameters as a function of latitude for alti-
and should be given greater positive gradients tudes below 100 km., and as a function of solar
between 100 and 200 km. These modifications activity for the high altitudes. It is, in many
resulted in the ARDG Model Atmosphere 1959 respects, similar to the "U.S. Standard Atmos-
(12), and brought about the required rapid pheric Supplements, 1966."
change in slope of the density-altitude profile, Reference atmospheres have a variety of space
noted from IGY satellites. applications. These applications are important
The publication of the ARDC 1959 model both for research and for operational purposes.
made the current U.S. Extension to the ICAO In scientific probing of the upper atmosphere
Standard Atmosphere obsolete above 53 kin. and in meteorological investigations, the refer-
At the January 1960 COESA meeting, the ence atmospheres are used as the basis of
ARDC Model Atmosphere, 1959, was found comparison of experimental results and for de-
unacceptable for adoption as the new U.S. Ex- termining the feasibility of the various investi-
t_,nsion to 700 km. The United States also gations. For operational purposes of flight in
withdrew its proposal to ICAO for an exten- space, these atmospheres are the basis for de-
sion from 20 to 35 km. because it was not unan- termining reentry conditions, lifetime of orbit-
imously accepted. It, therefore, seemed wise ing vehicles, and overall interaction effects of
to reexamine the entire model prior to a resub- the vehicles with the atmosphere. Reference
mission to ICAO, particularly because a wealth atmospheres are also applied in such fields as
of new IGY atmospheric data had become avail- astronomy, geodesy, and in determining the
able since the preparation of the 1959 model. effects of the atmosphere and corrections to be
COESA, under the cosponsorship of the applied to observations. Many of the early
Weather Bureau, the Air Force, and the Na- models and predictions of the distribution of the
tional Aeronautics and Space Administration, atmosphere were grossly in error. It was be-
reconvened in January 1961 for the express lieved, for example, ,that the atmosphere was en-
purpose of developing the U.S. Standard tirely hydrogen for altitudes above 100 km.
Atmosphere, including an extension to the The satellite lifetimes and satellite perform-
ICAO Atmosphere. After a number of meet- ance must be known with fairly good accuracy
ings, the Committee generated the "U.S. Stand- for many operations in space, and the extensive
ard Atmosphere, 1962" (19). COESA also sub- tracking network to support these operations
mitted a revised proposal to ICAO for an exten- has used the reference atmospheres for tracking
METEOROLOGY 115

predictions. The corrections to these predic- satellite drag and by direct measurements.
tions in tracking has also been a very important Measurements of drag using the balloon satel-
source of information on the density distribu- lite are continuing with another launch of the
tion of the atmosphere for defining the refer- Air Density-Injun satellite in 1967. The San
ence atmospheres. Marco-B satellite is to measure density below
350 km. altitude in an equatorial orbit in early
6. NASA Plans
1967. The Atmosphere Explorer satellite, Ex-
There is a twofold activity in the NASA pro- plorer XXXII, continues to make measure-
gram of atmospheric structure for standard ments of composition, density, and temperature
atmospheres which involves first the acquisition of the atmosphere.
of knowledge about the structure of the earth's A variety of experiments are also operational
atmosphere, and secondly the processing of this on the eGO and ISIS satellites. The OGO-D
information as a basis for describing and under- satellite, which carries many experiments to
standing the atmosphere with the end result of measure neutral and ionic composition of the
developing reference atmospheres and extend- atmosphere, atmospheric temperature, the dis-
ing the standard atmosphere. The needed tribution of their constituents, and airglow is
information about the structure of the atmos- to be launched in mid 1967. Plans for many
phere involves an extended theoretical and ex- additional experiments have been formulated
perimental program, and is strongly dependent for OGO-E and F, on Nimbus, and in the Ex-
on the use of sounding rockets and satellites. plorer satellite program. The important meas-
The present experimental program depends urements in atmospheric structure are the
on meteorological sounding rockets for obtain- determination of the distribution of the ionic
ing information of the distribution of atmos- and neutral constituents in the atmosphere, and
pheric parameters to altitudes of above 70 km. the dependence of these variations on solar
In the region to 100 km., major sounding rocket activity. Many of the measurements are ob-
experimental approach depends on the im- tained through the use of mass spectrometers;
proved grenade experiment and the pitot-static although, density gauges, ionic probes, spectre-
tube experiment with nearly 50 sounding rocket photometers, and airglow detectors have given
flights per year. Additional information has and continue to give important new informa-
been obtained in this altitude region by tracking tion about the atmosphere.
falling Mylar spheres with radar. In the region 7. Associated Studies and Activities
from 100 to 200 km. and above, the atmospheric
composition and the atmospheric distribution A number of ground-based observations con-
tribute to information on the structure of the
of density, temperature, and pressure are best
studied with mass spectrometers. These mass atmosphere. These observations involve me-
teor-radar studies, incoherent back-scatter
spectrometer measurements are rather complex,
measurements, results from the meteorological
and about a dozen flights per year have been
undertaken both at midlatitudes and in the au- rocket network, and results derived from other
roral region. Other sounding rocket studies operations like satellite tracking.
have been underway to study the winds and tur- In addition to the ground-based program
bulence in the atmosphere, the airglow, ultra- presently underway, measurements in space are
violet radiation regions to determine the distri- being carried out in the United States through
bution of rare constituents like hydrogen, support of the Department of Defense (DOD)
helium, and nitric oxide, and the effects of per- and in various countries such as the U.S.S.R.,
turbations from the bombardment of energetic France, Great Britain, Japan, Italy, and
particles. Germany.
The satellite program involves a number of DOD has a very active sounding rocket pro-
tlifferent experiments. Probably, the most im- gram for measurements of atmospheric struc-
portant is the determination of the global dis- ture. Measurements are obtained with density
tribution of the density of the atmosphere by gages, and mass spectrometers and bead thermis-
116 A SURVEY OF SPACE APPLICATIONS

tors. The DOD satellite program has also been • Global and temporal distribution observa-
very active with pig_oTback satellites and satel- tions with satellites and rockets, particu-
lites launched on Scout vehicles. Several satel- larly during the period of solar maximum.
lites have been launched and are planned for • Review of the relative accuracy of the fun-
the future using mass spectrometers and density damental parameters of atmospheric struc-
gages. ture in the different spatial regimes as re-
The flight programs in other countries have quired both for inclusion in reference
been coordinated in many cases with the U.S. atmosphere tables and for determining con-
program; particularly, ESRO, France, Italy, trolling factors in atmospheric variation.
Great Britain, and Germany. It is expected • Studies of the indices best suited for moni-
that Japan will soon launch its own satellite pro- toring the atmosphere as needed in the
gram within a year. The information on the utilization of the reference atmospheres.
U.S.S.R. program has been obtained mainly
5. Reference and Standard Atmospheres
from their publications and their contributions
• Study the present organization in the
at COSPAR meetings.
United States of the participation of the
A number of associated studies are also im-
various committees involved in generating
portant in the investigation of atmospheric
standard and reference atmospheres to sug-
structure. The program of solar observations
have already proved of fundamental value in gest changes and improvements.
• Review the present international organi-
generating reference atmospheres, because the
10-cm. radio emission has become a fine index zation and participation of committees in-
volving reference and standard atmos-
for predicting the effects of solar emission on
pheres with a view toward improved adop-
atmospheric structure. It is expected that other
tion of standard and reference atmospheres.
indices and observations of controlling factors
will become important in the utilization of ref- • Review additional parameters which
should be included in models of the space
erence atmospheres. Information on solar
environment.
activity, solar flares, and ma_o_etic storms
• Review the schedule for extension of the
already can be used as an index for determin-
ing variations of the structure of the exosphere. standard atmospheres, and make recom-
Ionospheric investigations with bottom-side and mendation for the adoption of reference
top-side sounders and incoherent back scatter and the extended standard atmospheres in
and auroral and airglow measurements have terms of the expected availability of satis-
yielded much important information about factory statistical data on the atmosphere.
atmospheric structure. Bibliography
8. Suggested Additional Studies (1) Brombacher, W. G., "Tables for Calibrating Al-
timeters and Computing Altitudes Based on the
Suggested additional studies may be classi- Standard Atmosphere" NACA Report No. 246,
fied into two groups. The first involving at- 1926.
mospheric structure information and require- ($) Committee on Space Research (COSPAR),
ments for filling gaps in the information for the "CIRA 1961, CA)SPAR International Reference

understanding of the atmosphere; and the sec- Atmosphere." Compiled by Preparatory Group,
North Holland Publishing Co. (Amsterdam,
ond, involving the requirements in generating
1961).
the reference and standard atmospheres for up-
(3) Committee on Space Research (COSPAR),
dating and improving the atmospheres that
"CIRA 1965, COSPAR International Reference
exist at the present time.
Atmosphere." Compiled by members of Work-
a. Atmospl_erie Structure ing Group IV, North Holland Publishing Co.
(Amsterdam, 1_5).
• Studies of the vertical profile of atmos-
(4) Diehl, W. S., "Standard Atmosphere Tables and
pheric parameter from mesopheric alti-
Data," NACA Report 218, October 1925.
tudes to 100 kin. in high latitudes and (5) Gregg, W. R., "Standard Atmosphere," NACA Re-
polar regions by means of sounding rockets. port 147, 1922.
METEOROLOGY 117

(6) Grimminger, G., "Analyses of Temperature, Pres- (I_) National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
sure and Density of the Atmosphere Extending to (NACA). "Standard Atmosphere---Tables and
Extreme Altitudes." Rand Corp., November Data for Altitudes to 65,800 Feet." NACA
1948. (Langley Field) Report 1235, 1955.
(7) Horowitz, R., and H. E. LaGow. "Density (15) Nordberg, W. T., W. G. Stroud. "Results of
Measurements From 90 to 220 KlVI With Viking 7 IGY Rocket-Grenade Experiments to Measure
Rocket." J. Geo. Res. 62, 57-58, March 1957. Temperature and Winds Above the Island of
(8) International C i v i 1 Aviation Organization Guam." J. Geo. Res. 66, 455--464, February 1961.
(ICAO). "Proposals For the Detailed Specifi- (16) Rocket Panel. "Pressure, Densities and Temper-
cations of the ICAO Standard Atmosphere and atures in the Upper Atmosphere." Physical Re-
Extreme Atmospheres." International Civil Avi- view 88, 1027-1032, Dec. 1, 1952.
ation Organization Doc. 7041, September 1950.
(17) Sterne, T. E., B. M. Folkart, and G. F. Schilling.
(9) Jacchia, L.G. "Two Atmospheric Effects in the
"An Interim Model Atmosphere Fitted to Prelim-
Orbital Acceleration of Artificial Satellites." Na-
inary Densities Inferred From USSR Satellites."
ture 183, 526-7, Feb. 21, 1959.
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Special
(10) Minzner, R. A., and Ripley. The ARDC Model
Atmosphere 1956." Air Force Surveys in Geo- Report #7, reprinted in Smithsonian Contribu-
physics No. 86, AFCRC TN-56-204. ASTIA tions to Astrophysics 2, No. 10, pp. 275, 1958.
# 110233, 1956. (18) Stroud, W. G., W. Nordberg, W. R. Bandeen,
(11) Minzner, R. A., W. S. Ripley, and T. P. Condron. F. L. Bartman, and P. Titus. "Rocket Grenade
"U.S. Extension to the ICAO Standard Atmos- Measurements of Temperature and Winds in the
phere--Tables and Data to 300 Standard Geo- Mesosphere Over Churchill, Canada." J. Geo.
potential Kilometers." U.S. Government Printing Res. 65, 2307-2323, August 1960.
Office, Washington, D.C., 1958. (19) U.S. Government. "U.S. Standard Atmosphere,
(15) Minzner, R. A., K. S. W. Champion, and H. L.
1962." Government Printing Office, Washington,
Pond. ARDC Model Atmosphere 1959. Air Force
D.C.
Survey in Geophysics No. 115, AFCRC-TR-59-
($0) U.S. Government. "U.S. Standard Atmosphere
267.
Supplements, 1966." Government Printing Office,
(18) National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Washington, D.C. (in publication).
(NACA). "Manual of the ICAO Standard At-
mosphere--Calculation by the NACA." NACA ($1) Warfield, C.N. "Tentative Tables for the Upper
(Langley Aero. Lab.) Technical Note 3182, May Atmosphere." NACA Tech. Note 1200, 2-3,
1954. January 1947.
VI. NAVIGATION
Introduction Although a military navigation satellite sys-
The navigator must know his position relative tem (TRANSIT) is in operation, the develop-
to the surface of the Earth at all times in order ment of space navigation technology suitable
to determine the future course of his ship or for commercial aircraft and ships has not as yet
aircraft so that he may reach his desired des- been undertaken. Technological advances must
tination safely and efficiently. Knowledge by be developed in space borne concepts for posi-
others of his position is essential for search and tioning moving earth-based vehicles, satellite
rescue operations. The control or coordination stabilization or orienting capabilities, satellite
of surface or air traffic requires accurate and power generating subsystems, in long life space
timely data as to the position of all vehicles components, and in demonstrated capability of
being controlled. A preplanned route must be advanced launch vehicles to provide geostation-
followed to minimize cost and to achieve a de- ary satellite orbits prior to a successful satellite
sired time of arrival at a destination. Meas- system. Studies conducted by industry for
ures that can be used to evaluate position de- NASA have concluded that navigation satellite
termination effectiveness include: Safety and systems are feasible, but that the technol%o T
must be further developed to provide inexperi-
"near misses," decreased operating cost, and
reduced time for transit. enced systems of high reliability that can gain
Systems involving satellites offer the possi- commercial acceptance.
bility of automatically calculating the position The term "navigation" is used herein in its
of aircraft, ships, or other mobile type craft. broad sense; that is, "the process of determining
Satellites also have the capability to transmit position and/or safely directing the movement
these position fixes to a ground station, such as of a craft from one point to another." Thus,
a traffic control center and/or search and rescue navigation must embody both position deter-
station, for use as an aid to aircraft traffic con- mination capabilities and communications ca-
pabilities to permit appropriate traffic control
trol and the rescue of personnel from distressed
and associated rescue operations.
ships and aircraft. Satellite systems can be
made to provide global coverage, are virtually Position Determination
invulnerable to weather, and may be capable of
1. Status and Prospects of Existing Methods
providing position information and communi-
cations to aircraft and ships on a near in- At present, there is no single aid which is
stantaneous basis. Improved position deter- reliably used to provide position fixing services
minations and communications subsystems on to aircraft and surface vessels on a global, all-
board vessels may reasonably be expected to in- weather basis. To meet all requirements im-
crease efficiency of operations by saving transit posed on an aircraft and a ship, a variety of aids
time and allowing greater margins of safety in are used. The present position fixing electronic
passing obstructions and hazard areas. aids used for aircraft in the oceanic regions are
Satellite systems could be the needed improve- a combination of LORAN-A, nondirectional
ments in providing position data and commun- beacons, VOR, and on-board Doppler radar.
ications by which the Federal Aviation Admin- Deadreckoning and celestial navigation are also
istration can reduce the present separation in extensive use. LORAN-A is utilized as the
standards of aircraft over the North Atlantic