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SMS Lnallsh and L-mall

Lnallsh are qulcklv
replaclna Lhe LradlLlonal
wav of wrlLlna Lhe
Lnallsh lanauaae




2011
8avl kanL Þandev
Paldla lnsLlLuLe of 1echnoloav
4/13/2011
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5M5 Lng||sh and L-ma|| Lng||sh are qu|ck|y rep|ac|ng the trad|t|ona| way of wr|t|ng the Lng||sh
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+iìnovì ìnc .v¡¡o·ì vnv .oo¡c·vìion o{ n, {·icnv., ìni. .ov[v
noì nv.c ìccn v success.












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PRFFACF PRFFACF PRFFACF PRFFACF

Abbreviation, emoticons, code-mixing, newly created words in short
message service usage increasing tremendously. Some people are
worried this will corrupt our language (bahasa melayu). This
phenomena caused by-product limitation (multiple letter assigned to a
dozen of mobile phone) and due to the pressure of reducing
communicaton latency. Some references from aforesaid research was
took to collect related data. An SMS guideline in form of pamphlet
pub- lished by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka to reflect with this matter.
The pamphlet listed more than 200 words of SMS language because
too much concern regarding usage of uncontrolled SMS language.
Since too little information about SMS can corrupt cellular phone
user languages, and simple survey questionnaire were distributed to
chosen group of volunteers. Then finding from survey been
concluded as a final result.
The language is achieving new colours and tones in the world in
which we live. Technology has become the buzzword in
communication circles. The requirements in language versatility,
which are universally understood, are overcome by the new short
message service (SMS) language that is emerging rapidly. The
cellphones that are conveniently used for social communication and
in business transactions are invaluably helpful but can equally be
extremely detrimental to the learning and development process of
learners of other languages especially foreign language learning. The
short message service (SMS) language that is used by cellphone users
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and the advertising industry has also been discovered to be
abundantly used by the learners in their written work. This discovery
has prompted one to investigate the impact of this prevalent use, for it
is believed that the SMS language is influencing the language
proficiency of learners in a negative way.
The purpose of this paper is to explicate how the SMS language
affects the language proficiency of learners, and the role dictionaries
can play in the improvement of learners’ language proficiency.

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CONTENTS

TOPIC

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
PREFACE
CONTENTS

1. Introduction:
2. Methodology:
3. E-mail:
4. Short Message Service (SMS):
5. The Disadvantages of the SMS Language:
6. Language Proficiency:
7. Indicators of Language Proficiency:
8. How the SMS Language affects Language Proficiency of
Learners:
9. The SMS Dictionaries:
10. Results :
11. Comments:
12. Conclusion:
13. References:


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1. Introduction:
The SMS has been found to be of detrimental effect on the language
proficiency of learners. Learners use it as if it is an officially accepted and
standard language. They mix it with the standard language they learn at
school, especially the English language and consequently commit numerous
errors ranging from incorrect spelling to ungrammatical sentence
constructions. The aim of this paper is firstly, to show how the SMS
influences the learners’ English language proficiency. Secondly, to highlight
the challenge the SMS language is posing to both educators in their
IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2005 endeavour to help
learners master the English language, and the lexicographers, of the need to
develop an SMS dictionary. Evidence of the influence of the SMS language
on learners’ language proficiency especially in English is realised in the
learners’ official written work such as tests, assignments and reports. The use
of this SMS language affects the learners’ performance since it does not
observe grammatical and syntactic rules of a standard English language. It is
neither an official nor a standard language.
An example from a test script of a tertiary learner registered for a module in
Communication reads:

”if we do get the money how shud it be used?”

The learner used ‘SHUD’ instead of ‘SHOULD’. The pronunciation of these
two words is the same, and it is advantageous to use the first spelling from an
SMS message, because it saves space and time. It is even simpler to write
because it is spelled like it is spoken. This simplified spelling would also
affect words like ‘WOULD and COULD’. Nevertheless, the simplified
spelling is not acceptable according to the English grammar rules. Ultimately
the learner becomes a victim of the SMS language in the hands of the
educators as he is punished for wrong spelling.

Electronic mail, commonly called email, e-mail or e.mail, is a method of
exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients.
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Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some
early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at
the same time, a la instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a
store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store
messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online
simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to an email server,
for as long as it takes to send or receive messages. E-mail is also written like
sms language and it is also corrupting our English language writing skill.














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2. Methodology:

The findings presented below are taken from a survey conducted between 01-
March-2011 to 01-aprail-2011, which was focused on SMS and email
languages, which are corrupting our English language writing. Some survevs
based on slmple quesLlonnalre are dlsLrlbuLed Lo chosen aroup of peoples. lL
conducLed over four weeks of perlod wlLh uslna self-dlsLrlbuLlon meLhod.
1he meLhod was chosen Lo enable qulck, lnexpenslve, efflclenL and accuraLe
means of collecLlna requlred daLa's. ulsLrlbuLed quesLlonnalres were based
on nooJ lbooe uset 5otvev 2008 daLa. lL sLaLed Lhe hlahesL number laraelv
comes from '20-49' aae aroup whlch covered more Lhan 60° of moblle
phone user ln Malavsla. Selanaor becomes laraesL user whlch conLrlbuLes
22° Lo Lhe sLaLlsLlc. Whlle SMS usaae raLe showed 30.7° reporLed an
averaae 3 SMS per dav nooJ lbooe uset 5otvev (2008).
Data were collected by provide the volunteer with list of general statement.
Section B questions were listed as Table 1 below. The questions created to
determined SMS user behavior. Only one from three option of answer to be
select by respondent.







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3. E-mail:

Email has come quite a long way since its introduction, yet it is still used for
many of the same reasons. Basic electronic communication has essentially
evolved into a more resourceful tool as one has the ability to do much more
now then they once could. Along with the usual sending of files and text
messages through email, one can send greeting cards, manage their emails by
assigning them to folders or classifying them as junk and even organize and
manage their daily tasks on some email servers.
E-mail is a fastest and best way of communication but the language used for
writing e-mail is corrupting our English language writing skill.

4. Short Message Service (SMS):

Short Message Service (sms) is a very fast way of communication. In this
technique we communicate using symbols. Sms Works in mobile so we can
use it anytime and anywhere.
People are using a modified language to write sms which is corrupting our
English language skill. This language is made because of short space and
typing complexity. But this language is now badly affecting on not only our
youth but also others.

5. The Disadvantages of the SMS Language:
The SMS (Short Message Service) language is comprised of shortened
phrases, acronyms and abbreviations that emerged from text messaging but
has since bled into the everyday vernacular of many modern societies. SMS
language is useful in text messaging, as it shortens messages' character count,
therefore saving time and expense. However, the use of this slang-based
language is not without its disadvantages.

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1. Confuses Non-Users
Speaking or writing with SMS words can confuse those who are not
familiar with the language. Many people within older generations, who
do not use text messaging very often, may not understand a message if it
contains SMS language, particularly acronyms. For example, someone
who does not understand SMS language may receive a message with the
acronym "ROTFL" which means "Rolling on the floor laughing" and
wouldn't know that the message sender thought the subject matter was
funny.
2. Gives Negative Impression
Using the SMS language outside of text messaging, in speech and
emails, can give the recipient a negative impression of the messenger.
When a word from the SMS language is used in an inappropriate
situation, such as a business email, it can seem unprofessional or simply
be misinterpreted as a spelling error. For example, the SMS word "ppl"
stands for "people" and could easily be confused as a spelling mistake
by those who are not knowledgeable of SMS abbreviations.
Furthermore, using SMS words instead of their English-language
counterparts can convey to the recipients that the messenger is lazy and
could not be bothered to complete the longer version of the word.
3. Deteriorates the English Language
The spread of the SMS language has been criticized for deteriorating the
English language and its rich history. Though languages continually
evolve, the SMS language can be seen as not respecting the long-
standing properties of the English language that has made it so strong.
Furthermore, words within the SMS language that are very similar to
their English-language counterparts can be confused by young users as
the actual English spelling and can therefore increase the prevalence of
spelling mistakes.
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6. LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY:

Language researchers acknowledge that there is no consensus yet on the
definition of language proficiency
(Vecchio and Guerrero, 1995; Cummins, 1984; Oller and Damico, 1991).
Cummins (1984) further states that
some researchers indicate that language proficiency consist of 64 language
components whereas Oller and
Damico (1991) contend that “the nature and specification of the elements of
language proficiency have not
been determined” yet.
Valdés and Figueroa (1994) as quoted by Vecchio and Guerrero (1995)
explain language proficiency in
this manner:
…what it means to know a language goes beyond simplistic views of good
pronunciation,
“correct” grammar, and even mastery of rules of politeness. Knowing a
language and
knowing how to use a language involves mastery and control of a large
number of
interdependent components and elements that interact with one another and
that are
affected by the nature of the situation in which communication takes place. (p.
34)
The above dilemma on the exact language proficiency definition
notwithstanding, most language researchers including the Council of Chief
State School Officers (CCSSO) (1992) agree that language IADIS
International Conference Mobile Learning 2005 proficiency could be assessed
in at least four modalities or language skills, namely, reading, listening,
writing and speaking. CCSSO elaborates further on these modalities in this
manner:

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1. Reading – the ability to comprehend and interpret text at the age and grade-
appropriate level.

2. Listening – the ability to understand the language of the teacher and
instruction, comprehend and extract information, and follow the instructional
discourse through which teachers provide information.

3. Writing – the ability to produce written text with content and format
fulfilling classroom assignments at the age and grade-appropriate level.

4. Speaking – the ability to use oral language appropriately and effectively in
learning activities (such as peer tutoring, collaborative learning activities, and
question/answer sessions) within the classroom and in social interactions
within the school. (1992, p 7) Language proficiency therefore entails the
ability to listen, speak, read and write with comprehension observing
grammatical, syntactical as well as semantic rules governing that language.
These basic language skills cannot all be learnt effectively and efficiently
when using the SMS language. For example if a learner encounters a problem
of understanding the meaning of an SMS word which appears in an SMS text
and the language of advertising, he will not find the meaning of the word
anywhere as this language is not documented in general standard dictionaries
of English language which are supposed to be sources of help. It is however
acknowledged that some cellphone service providers like Vodacom have
limited SMS glossaries available to their clients although not all cellphone
users have access to those glossaries.










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7. Indicators of Language Proficiency:

Indicators of language proficiency are as many and varied as definitions of
language proficiency are. Nonetheless, many language researchers would
agree on the following indicators since they interface with the four basic
modalities of language proficiency mentioned in the preceding paragraph:

Skills to express oneself eloquently through writing and speaking.

Skills to listen and read with comprehension.

Skills and ability to use words appropriately in context.

Ability to communicate in highly predictable common daily situations
with previously learnt words.

Ability to combine learnt elements of language creatively.

Ability to initiate, sustain and close basic communication tasks.

Ability to ask and answer questions in discrete sentences and strings of
sentences on topics.

Ability to converse fluently and in a clearly participative fashion.

Ability to participate effectively in both formal and informal
conversations, practical, social, professional and abstract topics.





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8. How the SMS Language affects Language Proficiency of
Learners:

Mostly, the SMS language affects two aspects of language proficiency stated
above, namely, skills to express oneself eloquently through writing and skills
and ability to use words appropriately in context. Learners have a tendency of
using SMS language as if it were a standard language when they write tests,
assignments and reports. They are therefore unable to differentiate the context
and situation appropriate for the use of the SMS language. Here follow some
examples from the scripts of learners registered for a Communication course
at a tertiary institution:

Script 1. “Checkers wants 2 domestic workers for Saturdays and Sundays,
those people must have two years experience”.

Script 2. “if we get the money how shud it be used?

Script 3. " –Choosing a present for a frein can be dificult” “- Finaly, once
you have bought the gift, you can ask the Shop assistant to wrap it for you”.

Script 4. “u must be at a high level of education, so that u know what to say.”

In all the above examples, the learners have failed to determine the context,
which is the school, that the SMS language cannot be used in a formal context
as if it was a standard language. Another problem arising from the use of the
SMS language is that learners do not only mix words and numbers like
writing 2 instead of two but they also learn wrong spelling of words. For them
shud, difficult, finaly and u are correct since they see and read these words
everyday on their cellphones, television, billboards, books, newspapers and
circulars from their teachers.



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9. THE SMS DICTIONARIES:

There are no SMS dictionaries yet, except for the glossary provided by some
cellphone service providers such as Vodacom. A challenge for both educators
and lexicographers is that SMS language is here to stay and we should deal
with it. The question is HOW? Is it necessary to introduce SMS dictionaries
and make them available to educators to help evaluate the learners’
competency in that language? Or should the educators use the available
glossaries from Vodacom as authorities for language learning like any other
dictionaries? A challenge to lexicographers is whether or not they should
begin to record the SMS language in a form of dictionary. We should be
mindful of the fact that one of the major tasks of lexicographers is to record
language as it is used in everyday life.


SMS dictionary

WORDS IN FULL ABBREVIATIONS OR SMS
LANGUAGE

As far as I remember AFAIR
Love LUV
Thanks THNX
Today 2day
Before B4
Have a nice day HAND
see you C U
So what’s your problem? SWYP
At @
Tears in my eyes TIME
Sealed with a kiss SWAK
Keep it simple, stupid KISS
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Such a laugh SAL
At a moment ATM
Parents are watching PAW
Random act of kindness RAK
Please reply RSVP
Second SEC
You’re on your own YOYO
As soon as possible ASAP
Hugs and kisses HAK


Some of the above SMS words are semantically confusing because of their
dual meanings, that is, they have both the conventional meaning and the SMS
meaning. This situation arises where the SMS word has the same spelling as
that of the English or the Afrikaans word. For example, (a) Hand (English) –
part of your body at the end of your arms (Collins Cobuild English
Dictionary)
(b) Hand (SMS) – have a nice day
(c) ATM (English) - automated teller machine
(d) ATM (SMS) – at the moment
(e) Swak (Afrikaans) – weakness, weak (Pharos Bilingual Dictionary)
(f) Swak (SMS) – sealed with a kiss
(g) Rak (Afrikaans) – rack, shelf (Pharos Bilingual Dictionary)
(h) Rak (SMS) – random act of kindness
More English and Afrikaans examples appear in the tables below.
Some words like the SMS word ‘AFAIR’ meaning “as far as I remember” do
not have the same spelling as the English word but may be mistaken for the
misspelled English word ‘AFFAIR’ which means “an event or situation; a
sexual relationship” thereby creating confusion of meaning.
There are abbreviations from the SMS glossary which are acceptable English
words and Afrikaans words, which are explained differently from the SMS
glossary in the above Table. Such words can also confuse the learners.

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The actual meanings are as follows:
English meanings of the SMS words

HAND -

SMS: Have a nice day.
- the part of your body at the end of each
arm that you
use for picking up and holding things
- help
TIME -SMS: Tears in my eyes
- quality clock measures
- period
KISS

-SMS: Keep it simple, stupid
- to touch someone with your lips
because you love
them or have sexual feeling for them
ATM

- SMS: At a moment
- automated teller machine


PAW -SMS: Parents are watching
- the foot of some animals such as a
cats, dogs, and bears - informal ‘a
person’s hand’
YOYO






-SMS: You’re on your own
- a toy consisting of a round plastic or
wooden object on the end of a string
that you can make rise and fall by tying
the string to your finger and
moving your hand up and down

HAK

SMS: Hugs and kisses
- heel
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SWAK

SMS: Sealed with a kiss
- weakness, weak
SAL

SMS: Such a laugh
- shall
RAK

SMS: Random act of kindness
- shelf
- rack
RSVP

-SMS: Please reply
- please reply
SEC

-SMS: Second
- second
ASAP

- SMS: As soon as possible
- as soon as possible
ESP

- SMS: Especially
- Especially


Likewise, the frequently used SMS word “LUV” for “Love” which appears
many times on the television screens especially during “phone-in” and “send
your SMS” programmes confuses learners to the extent that they may believe
that both spellings are correct. This kind of language therefore hampers
learners’ language proficiency, in particular, grammatical and spelling skills
especially in English. For example, the following quotation was recorded from
the programme ‘PLAY TV’ on SABC3 on Monday, 12 July 2003, at 15:30, in
which viewers were asked to phone-in or SMS a greetings message for a
prize. The SMS messages appeared on TV as supplementary information. The
message read:
“we luv u 2”
The learners love watching the TV. They take the language used in the media
as acceptable, official and standard especially that this language is being
watched and used nationally, and in some cases internationally. Besides
appearing on our national television screens, the SMS language is also used
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abundantly on cards and artifacts that are used as memorabilia for the
celebration of popular days marking social events such as Mother’s Day,
Father’s Day and Valentine’s Day. One such message reads:
I LOVE MY MOM.
The word ‘love’ is replaced with a symbol of a red heart.
The SMS language has an influence even on the academics in the sense that
they also use it when they write official documents such as circulars and
memoranda. They regard it as easy and convenient to use as it saves time,
space and it is less expensive to implement. The sad part of this practice is that
learners read those circulars and believe that the language used is acceptable
because it is also used by the educators. An example of such circulars from
one tertiary institution reads:
To: All lecturers
From: HOD-Information Technology
Date: 02 April 2011
REMINDER
SPEECH AND POSTER ELIMINATIONS
WHEN? 04 April 2011
TIME? 9:15-11:00
WHERE? LF119
C U THERE!
__________________
Soumen Paul (HOD)
Educators should lead by example. How would an educator convince a learner
that it is wrong to write c u there in a formal school context when such
language is used by the head of a department of Information Technology who
is supposed to be the expert in the field?
An research article from Donita Massengill Shaw, Carolyn Carlson & Mickey
Waxman (2007) looked over eighty-six students. Over 90% of group students
within 18-19 years old involved. Those involved had been informed about the
research objective and voluntarily to participate it. Data been collected in two
format which need students to complete questionnaire and standardized
spelling test which contained 77 words. Through the research, they made an
correlation from participants frequencies wrote text messages, the length of
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time been spent and students self-perception of their spelling ability. The data
been collected and the conclusion been made. They agreed which no
significant relationship between text messages and students language skill
were found from their research. Based on the book titled Sejarah Bahasa
Melayu by Abdul Rashid Melebek and Amat Juhari Moain (2006) listed few
words in Bahasa Melayu classic which used affix and phoneme. The example
phoneme like ‘w’ have similar phoneme ‘b’ in Bahasa Melayu modern. This
can be seen from the following words:

wulan = bulan
mamawa = membawa
sariwu = seribu
wanyaknya = banyaknya
marwuat = berbuat
wanua = benua

While phoneme ‘m’ in Bahasa Melayu classic have similarity with ‘ng’ in
Bahasa Melayu modern. The example words as followed:

yam = yang
datam = datang

The prefix ‘man’ in Bahasa Melayu classic have similarity with ‘men’ in
Bahasa Melayu modern. This can be proven like:

mangalap = mengelap
mamawa = membawa

The above explanation has shown the development Bahasa Melayu. The
changes made to be adapted as and accepted to standardize national
languages. As changes made to fit new situations, it then accepted and
completely has no language corrupting issue been heard. That adaptation
sharing similar process with SMS language. The existence of SMS
abbreviations, substituted word, emoticons are part of form free expression,
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Philippines Declares War On Trendy Cyber Slang (2010). It should accepted
and supposed to adapted as part of well developed era. Based on the article
Text Messaging (2010), quoted “ Because typing text into a telephone keypad
was cumbersome and the number of characters in a text message was limited,
a form of shorthand evolved, especially among young people. ” This article
should then be understood why such shorten text, abbreviation, emoticons,
code-switching and code-mixing exist. The article also listed some text
messaging acronyms and for English languages which used in SMS activity.


Typing ‘LOL’ take less than three second but ‘Laughed Out Loud’ surely
accomplished above that. Why waste time to type word with full letter when
shorten up word deliver same meaning? More words should fit enough to send
long text message. I believe typing a single correct letter should take three or
more taps due to multiple letter assigned to each number button on keypad.
This painstaking task accomplished with one or two finger of cellular phone
user. Rather than send cumbersome of full letter text messages, abbreviated
words, emoticons should simplified the SMS typing task. The abbreviated
words phenomenon are should be best to SMS function rather than identified
as corrupting languages. Due to uncontrolled usage of SMS languages, Dewan
Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) has conducted an seminar entitled ‘Seminar
Penyelidikan: Perkembangan dan Pengaruh SMS Terhadap Bahasa Melayu’
which were held on 19th April 2005. DBP been suggested to publish an usage
guideline to standardize the SMS languages in Bahasa Melayu. An pamphlet
had published from DBP to reflect with SMS languages usage especially
when involved with official matter. “Risalah ini diharapkan dapat dijadikan
panduan dalam penulisan SMS yang standard terutamanya untuk SMS yang
digunakan dalam situasi atau urusan rasmi (seperti untuk menyampaikan
maklumat rasmi kepada pihak tertentu, baik kerajaan mahupun swasta).”1 The
pamphlet which entitled ‘Panduan Singkatan Khidmat Pesanan Ringkas
(SMS) Bahasa Melayu’ (2008) had divide SMS to three main group which
were ‘singkatan nama khas’, ‘singkatan umum’ and ‘singkatan kata serapan’.
‘Singkatan nama khas’ then divided to six styles of writing method. While
‘singkatan umum’ which had eleven ways of writing method. ‘Singkatan kata
5M5 Lng||sh and L-ma|| Lng||sh are qu|ck|y rep|ac|ng the trad|t|ona| way of wr|t|ng the Lng||sh
|anguage



serapan’ are absorbed words from Arab languages. It’s had two types of
abbreviations. Based on the published pamphlet, symbol also can be used for
SMS writing. It listed seventeen symbol for the SMS purpose. Whereas
emoticon also been applied in SMS. The applications for showing whining
face or the feeling of SMS sender. Semantics aspect also noted like
homograph, synonym and certain symbol with more than one meaning.




5M5 Lng||sh and L-ma|| Lng||sh are qu|ck|y rep|ac|ng the trad|t|ona| way of wr|t|ng the Lng||sh
|anguage



10. Results :
From the table above, result for section B of questionnaires were presented by
chart. This was to simplified the viewing method of research finding result.
Based on Figure 4, X axis are using F1, F2, F3 until F10 which represent
question number 1, number 2, number 3 until number 10 respectively.
Result of SMS Activities over 30 volunteers in Section B survey
questionnaire.
Figure: Result from survey questionnaire paper on Section B. The X axis
represent each given statement. Y axis measure the total of respondent
whether they choose to said ‘YES’, ‘NO’ or ‘NOT APPLICABLE’ on each
statement.

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|anguage



Overview for Section C result are available as per attachment. While overview
result from section D were presented in form of pie chart figure. Blue and red
colour for ‘yes’ and ‘no’ option respectively. The result found with majority
of respondent to choose ‘no’ option.



11. Comments:

In the untraditional way SMS is corrupting our language. It pours a bad
impact on the youth. Because they are just losing their art of writing. In the
present day world people only concerned by writing message or email but
they didn’t have realize what an improper message is going on in the society.




5M5 Lng||sh and L-ma|| Lng||sh are qu|ck|y rep|ac|ng the trad|t|ona| way of wr|t|ng the Lng||sh
|anguage



12. Conclusion:
This paper has highlighted the impact of SMS language on the language
proficiency of learners. The SMS language does not conform to grammatical
or syntactic rules of the English language, nor does it conform to spelling
rules. It has been indicated that the English language proficiency of the
learners is negatively affected by learners’ exposure to the SMS language both
through the print and the electronic media.
Lexicographers record language as it is frequently used by the people and
store it in the form of a corpus, and thereafter record it in dictionaries. This
new paradigm is seen as a breakthrough in meta-lexicography from the
traditional approach of describing what should be recorded in a dictionary. If
lexicographers were to advance this position, they should be thinking of how
the SMS language can interface with the spoken language since it is
frequently used by the public in their daily conversations.
Finally a challenge to lexicographers is whether they should begin to record
this SMS language as it forms part of our daily language use and include it in
their dictionaries or they should simply ignore it as an unofficial lingo. For
educators, should they accept the SMS language as one of the languages that
one can communicate with or should it be discouraged at all costs?
The result from research survey conducted to gather required data. Twenty
eight from thirty of respondents did not agree regarding shortening up words
in SMS will corrupt their languages. From this, I believe SMS not corrupting
our language since abbreviation, acronym and emoticons were intended for
SMS activities only. This phenomenon expected to had steady increase as
time goes by, pressure on reducing communication latency, multiple letter
assigned to dozen button on mobile phone keypad and other reason. Although
there was no significant relationship which can be used to relate, more study
should be made with more appropriate approach method. The crucial need to
proper method which degree of certainty, possibility or probability will gave
trusted results.
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|anguage



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http://www.telenor.com/en/innovation/research/publications/telektronikk/volu
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