SKIN

1
Skln
ur.k.S.8asneL, M88S,Mu.
2067
4/15/11 drksbasnet 1
ConLenL
1.AnaLomv of skln
lnLroducuon
Skln lavers - epldermls, dermls, hvpodermls
2.luncuon of skln
ÞroLecuon
lmmune
1hermoreaulauon
MeLabollsm
Communlcauon
4/15/11 drksbasnet 2
Anatomy of skin
1. Puman skln ls dlvlded lnLo
Lwo lavers
a. Lpldermls (ouLermosL)
b. uermls ( lnnermosL)
2. separaLed bv basemenL
membrane (8M)
3. A laver of loose connecuve
ussue
beneaLh Lhe dermls
called
hvpodermls, or subcuus
4/15/11 drksbasnet 3
1he Puman Skln
1. Averaae abouL 3000 square lnches
or 2 square meLers.
2. Welahs abouL 6 pounds (13° of 8W)
3. 1he laraesL oraan
4. 8ecelves 1/3 of Lhe bodv's blood volume
3.varles ln Lhlckness (0.3mm~6mm)
4/15/11 drksbasnet 4
SKIN
2
Skln lavers
1. Lpldermls
sLraLum corneum
sLraLum lucldum
sLraLum aranulosum
sLraLum splnosum
sLraLum basale
(aermlnauvum)
2. 8asemenL membrane
3. uermls
paplllarv dermls
reucular dermls
4. Pvpodermls
4/15/11 drksbasnet 5
Lpldermls
• 1. Lhe ouLermosL laver
• 2. derlved from ecLoderm
• 3. relauvelv unlform ln Lhlckness
(73~130 um, excepL soles and palms
0.4~0.6mm)
• 4. consLanLlv belna renewed (26~42 davs)
• 3. dlvlded lnLo ñve lavers.
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SLraLum Corneum
1. composed of dead
keraunlzed cell
(Lhln, sLacked, pancake,
anucleaLe cells)
2.abraded bv dallv Lrauma
3.80° are ñlled wlLh keraun
4.keraun -- ºhard" ln halr and
nalls
ºsoû" ln normal
skln
4/15/11 drksbasnet 8
SKIN
3
SLraLum Lucldum
• 1. ln areas where Lhe
epldermls ls Lhlcker
-- Lhe palms, Lhe soles
• 2. absenL from Lhlnner skln --
evelld
• 3. one Lo ñve cells Lhlck
• 4. a Lransluonal laver where
acuve
lvsosomal enzvmes
dearade Lhe
nucleus and oraanelles
4/15/11 drksbasnet 9
SLraLum Cranulosum
• 1. one Lo ñve cells Lhlck
• 2. keraLohvalln aranules
presenL ln Lhe
keraunocvLes
• 3. conLaln proñlaaarln,
lnLermedlaLe keraun
ñlamenLs, lorlcrln- help Lo
oraanlze Lhe
keraun ñlamenLs
• 4. lnLenselv sLalned bv acld
and baslc dves
• 3. sull have acuve nuclel
4/15/11 drksbasnet 10
April 15, 11 11 April 15, 11 12
SKIN
4
April 15, 11 13 April 15, 11 14
April 15, 11 15
SLraLum Splnosum
• 1. decrlbed as Lhe prlcklv laver due Lo
morpholoav (polvhedral)
• 2. promlnenL feaLure - desmosome, a Lvpe
of cell-cell [uncuon
• 3. SvnLheslze lnvolucrln- a soluble
precursor of cornlñed envelopes
4/15/11 drksbasnet 16
SKIN
5
SLraLum 8asale
1. Lhe lnnermosL epldermal laver
2. a slnale laver of mlLoucallv acuve cells
called basal keraunocvLes or basal cells
3. upward mlarauon can Lake 2~3 weeks
4/15/11 drksbasnet 17
uermls (corlum)
• 1. 1he LhlckesL laver of skln ( 2 ~ 4 mm,
averaae 2 mm), Lhe back ls mosL Lhlck
• 2. derlved from mesoderm
• 3. vascularlzed and lnnervaLed.
• 4. a neLwork of paplllarv loops, supporLed
bv a deep horlzonLal plexus
• 3. ma[or proLelns: collaaen, elasun
• 6. dlvlded lnLo paplllarv dermls and
reucular dermls
4/15/11 drksbasnet 18
4/15/11 drksbasnet 19
Pvpodermls
• 1. a superñclal fascla below Lhe dermls
• 2. an adlpose laver conLalnlna subdermal
plexus of blood vessels
• 3. provlde lnsulauon, reserve of enerav,
cushlonlna
• 4. Werner's svndrome, Scleroderma lack
Lhls laver
4/15/11 drksbasnet 20
SKIN
6
Ma[or funcuons of skln
1. ÞroLecuon
2. lmmunlLv
3. 1hermoreaulauon
4. Sensauon
3. MeLabollsm
6. Communlcauon
4/15/11 drksbasnet 21
ÞAÞILLAk¥ LA¥Lk
• Loose connecuve ussue.
• SupporL and anchoraae.
• Space for nerve and blood vessels.
• Þapllla are presenL.
kL1ICULAk LA¥Lk
Made up of dense lrreaular connecuve ussue.
n¥ÞCDLkMI5(pann|cu|us ad|posus)
• Made up of loose connecuve ussue.
• Þrovldes moblllLv Lo skln.
• 1hermal lnsulauon and shock absorber.
• Mav conLaln muscle ea. ÞlaLvsma.
4/15/11 drksbasnet 22
nAIk
• Io|||c|e severa| mm |nto derm|s.
• 1erm|na| |ong and coarse. Ve||us short and hne.
• Lume|an|n |n b|ack brown. Þhaeome|an|n |n ye||ow red.
Layers:
na|r shah
Inner root sheath
Cuter root sheath - connnuous w|th basa| |ayer of ep|derm|s.
G|assy membrane.
Connecnve nssue |ayer.
5hah has three types of ce||s
Medu||ary - centra|, vacuo|ated and co|umnar hav|ng |adder appearance.
Cornca| - cubo|da| ce||s.
Cunc|e - squamous ce||s|nterdeg|tate w|th |nner root sheath.
4/15/11 drksbasnet 23
4/15/11 drksbasnet 24
SKIN
7
lCLlCLL C8CW1P C?CLL
1. Anaaen - arowlna sLaae
LenaLh of folllcle 4-3mm
Palr shaû formauon 0.3-0.4mm/dav.
1hls sLaae remalns for several vears.
2. CaLaaen
ALrophv of folllcle
lolllcle reduced Lo asLrand.
3. 1eloaen
no arowLh Lakes place.
lolllcle reduced Lo half.
Palr aL Lhls sLaae ls called club halr dependlna on lLs proxlmal appearance.
1hls sLaae lasLs for few monLhs.
4/15/11 drksbasnet 25
8ALunLSS
• lolllcles are ldenuñable ln androaenlc alopecla.
• 1ermlnal folllcle converLs lnLo vellus folllcle.
• lolllcle ln Leloaen sLaae.
SL8ACLCuS CLAnu
• AssoclaLed wlLh halr folllcle.
• All folllcles have aland buL mosL alands are assoclaLed wlLh halr.
• Larae folllcle small aland, small folllcle larae aland.
• Aclnl are bounded bv C1. cell mlaraLe from perlpherv Lo cenLre acqulrlna llpld
dropleL. ApopLosls of cell Lakes place. LxLruded llpld and remalns of cell ls sebum.
• Sebum conLalns 1C, wax esLer and cholesLerol.
• Skln ßora breaks down 1C and free fauv acld ls llberaLed.
• Androaen lncreases and oesLeroaen decreases lLs secreuon.
• 1he odor of human bodv ls due Lo sebum.
4/15/11 drksbasnet 26
LCC8lnL SWLA1 CLAnu
• Slmple colled and Lubular alands.
• uevelops from epldermls.
• AbsenL from llps abundanL ln palm 600/sqcm.
• 1wo parLs CClLLu half of lL ls secreLorv llned wlLh pseudo sLrauñed
eplLhellum havlna clear cell (serous), dark cell (mucous ) and
mvoeplLhellal cells. Palf of Lhe colled parL ls Lhe ducL. 1he S18AlCP1
parL ls llned wlLh Lwo lavers of cuboldal cells.
• luncuons are Lhermoreaulauon, excreuon of sodlum, chlorlde,
poLasslum, urea and ammonla.
• 1hermoreaulaLorv sweauna bv chollneralc svmpaLheuc ñber and
emouonal sweauna ls under conLrol of adreneralc svmpaLheuc ñber.
4/15/11 drksbasnet 27
4/15/11 drksbasnet 28
SKIN
8
AÞCC8lnL CLAnu
• Slmple colled Lubular aland.
• uerlved from epldermls.
• ÞresenL ln axllla, exLernal audlLorv meaLus and perlanal realon.
• SecreLorv parL ls larae anasLomouc made up of slmple eplLhellum and
mvoeplLhellal cells.
• Secreuon Lakes place bv apocrlne (apex plnches oñ) and merocrlne
(exosLosls) process.
• Secreuon ls odorless buL Lhe acuon of mlcrooraanlsm alves lL odor.
• 1hese alands are of a parL of secondarv sexual characLer.
4/15/11 drksbasnet 29
INJURY AND REPAIR OF SKIN
•Survlvlna parL of appendaaes conLrlbuLe
heallna.
•ln case of LoLal eplLhellal desLrucuon cells
arow from perlpherv and Lhe heallna ls
slow and scarrlna.
•uermal repalr Lakes place bv mlLosls of
ñbroblasLs.
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SKIN
9
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