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Pathology

General
1. Chemotaxis……………C5 complex/LT-B4

2. PDGF ……….alpha granules of platelets/

3. Not antioxidants……..transferrin/catalase/coagulase/glutathione peroxidase

4. Iron deposition………….haemosiderin

5. Heparin is released from……………mast cells/

6. Wound contraction …………myofibroblasts

7. Granuloma

Autoimmune
1. Amyloidosis……..
2. SLE
3. Behcets disease…………
4. Crohns disease….
5. Renal transplant rejection after 2 months is………….sub acute/
acute /chronic
6. Patient with autoimmune disease, common finding…….arthritis
/fever /

Hypersensitivity reactions
7. Type-I- Hypersensitivity, cells…………
8. Contact dermatitis ……type I hypersensitivity

9. Type III hypersensitivity is typically seen in …………….typhoid


/sarcoidosis/T>B /syphilis/ post streptococcal.

10. Delayed type hypersensitivity cells………..Langhan’s giant cells/mononuclear


phagocyte/

11. Diphtheria toxoid 10 weeks before→ rash …………/type -I hypersensitivity/ type -I


hypersensitivity/ type -II hypersensitivity/ type -III hypersensitivity/ type –IV
hypersensitivity/

12. Delta antigen shows………..

Shock
13. Must In all Shocks …. hypovolemia/ ↓ in cardiac output

14. Cardiogenic shock

15. Spinal shock is also shock

16. Endotoxic shock, with purpuric rash and hypovolemia due to……..DIC

17. Endotoxic shock with pneumonia…Pneumococci/ streptococci/staphylococci

Tumor

8. Malignant cancer ……….. N/C ratio,/ invasion of basement membrane,/

9. Least risk of thyroid cancer……….iodine def goiter/anaplasia/*******

10. Least risk of receiving metastasis…..L.N/spleen/liver/bone/brain

11. Neural tube defects……………meninges and spinal cord/

12.

Tumor markers:

18. α1 -antitrypsin deficiency……..


19. CEA …pancreatic ca/ colon ca
20.

21. Sign of metastasis………,invasion of basement membrane,/ N/C ratio

22. Smoking for long time……………..leads to all


except……..atrophy/dysplasia/hyperplasia/sq keratosis/ loss of goblet cells/

23. Smoking …………….st ciliated columnar ca/keratosis/****?

24. Prostate ca………..


25. Testicular ca………….
26. Carcinoma in AIDS pts……….Kaposi sarcoma
27. HLA leading to malignancy………..

28. Paan chronic use……..Ca tongue / sub mucus fibrosis /


Labs:

29. After road side accident a child developed shallow breathing.


Childs ABG will be……
 ↓pO2, pCO2, ↑pH
 ↓pO2, ↑pCO2, ↓ pH
 ↓ pO2 , ↑pCO2 , ↓pH, ↑ HCO3
 ↓ pO2/↑pCO2 , ↓ pH , ↓HCO3

30. Transudate…..specific gravity...1.010

31. Dyspneic pt, on exam had dull percussion note……..investigation


of choice…CXR / blood CP / blood culture / spirometry

32. C3 is low & C4 is normal………….

33. CSF ….< 40%,lymphocytes<500……………Tuberculous meningitis/viral


meningitis

34. Choroid plexus cysts

35. Death from acute GN, ANA+……………..

36. CML……………..Philadelphia chromosome

37. Hepatitis-B monitoring…………SGPT/ALP/SGOT

38. ↑un conjugated bilirubin …………hemolytic anemia

39. IHD initial (basic) investigation………..ECG/cardiac enzyme

40. Catecholamine’s, ECG and blood sugar are normal …………


pheochromocytoma/anxiety /

41. Streptococcal infection diagnosis………ASO titer

42. Neural tube defects diagnosed by……α-FP/CVS/USG

43. Multiple myeloma (Bence jones proteins- incomplete Ig appear in urine)


44. Soldier suffering from diarrhea. Stool exam +ve for donut shaped
cysts………blastomycosis/ coccidiomycosis/ giardiasis
45. Inflamed appendix of a child removed its histopath will reveal
which cells…..neutrophils/basophils/ lymphocytes/
monocytes/erythrocytes.

46. Diagnostic criteria for SLE……….anti ds DNA /arthritis/ kidney


involvement/ respiratory involvement/ heart involvement.

47. Sample for diagnosis of syphilis should be taken


from………..genital sore/ oral cavity/saliva/lymph node

48. SLE………….B and T cell inability to detect self antigens

49. 72%neutrophils, 2 monos, 28 lymphocytes……………. SLE/serum sickness

50. Clostridium difficile…………..pseudo membranous colitis

51. Crohn’s disease…………..

52. Liver coagulative necrosis

53. Fatty liver cannot occur as a result of……… chronic liver


congestion/obesity/alcohol/viral hepatitis/Portal HTN?

54. Rash started on face and neck spread to trunk………measles

55. Weil Felix test for ricketssia uses (Proteus with ricketssia) *****?

56. Skin test used for diagnosis of…………..hydatid disease/


57. Malignant malaria…….falciparum malariae

Genetics
58. Dwarfism and cretinism difference (mental retardation)?

59. Kallman’s syndrome…………. (XYY is genotype/ female affected/no


hypogonadism /death in perinatal life is 10%)

60. Trisomy 18………….


61. Cystic fibrosis…………

Medicine:
Endocrinology
62. Hypoadrenalism………….
63. Hypopituitarism…………………
64. Diabetes insipidus/SIADH…….
65. Calcitonin ………..

Liver
66. Wilson’s disease……….

Lung
67. Obstructive vs. Restrictive lung disease…
68. Bronchiectasis……… RSV
69. Pneumoconiosis causes…….
70. Sudden ↓in saturation…<50%......hemothorax

71.
CNS
72. Ptosis, vertical diplopia…………mobius syndrome/myasthenia gravis

CVS
73. Sub acute bacterial endocarditis (SBE)………
74. Tricuspid valve disease…………..
75. Mitral stenosis…………
76. Aortic stenosis most common cause…...
77. Heart failure…………..
78. Myxoma……..-

Renal
79. ATN causes………………..
80. Adult polycystic kidney disease……………
81. Proteinuria, edema………….↓oncotic pressure

Blood
82. Iron deficiency anemia…………..
83. Macrocytic anemia….hypersegmented neutrophils
84. ITP……………..
85. Hereditary spherocytosis……………..

General
86. Headache…………….
87. Vomiting………….
88. HTN……………
89. Acid base balance
90. Hyponatremia most common cause is………hemorrhage/ sweating
/ diarrhea/ water intoxication.
91. 10 weeks old difficulty in feeding mother milk………weak laryngeal muscles/
inadequate hormones/cleft soft /hard palate

lungs
92. Malignant pleural effusion is treated with
…….Cyclophosphamide/ Rifampicin / INH / Quinolones /Tetracycline
General
93. Headache…………….
94. Vomiting………….

Methods medicine:
95. +ve Babinski will occur in all except……….infants/ UMNL/ LMNL/
parkinsonism/sleep
96. Clubbing diagnosis…………Loss of angle/thickening of nail /
97. Gynecomastia is not S/E of: ( digoxin/brochogenic Ca/ spironolactone /

Diagnosis

Management

98. Malignant pleural effusion is treated with


…….Cyclophosphamide/ Rifampicin / INH / Quinolones /Tetracycline

Pregnancy
99. Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy is due to…………….
100. PPH………..
101. Pregnant HTN: Rx………….methyldopa

102. 10 week pregnancy, anemia Hb 10 g/dl. Recommend...apple daily, iron tablets

Physiology
Breast milk has ...IgG/ IgM

Blood
103. Intrinsic pathway is activated by……….factor VII / factor
X/collagen in contact with blood /
104. ESR………

GIT
105. Intestinal juice ↑ by ……vagal stimulation / CCK / /VIP /
106. Inhibits stomach emptying………..Gastrin

107. CCK

108. Gastrectomy S/E ………..pernicious anemia/megaloblastic anemia

109. Ileum removal affects…..micelles formation /chylomicrons formation

110.

Action potential
111. RMP is maintained by…….influx of Na +/ efflux of K+ /Na-K
ATPase / Cl – ions.
112. Regarding action potential all are true except……..
i. Myocardial action potential is due to Na influx.
ii. Pace maker action potential is due to Ca channels.
iii. Platue of action potential is due to ca influx……
iv. RMP is –90 mv
v. Gap junctions don’t exist.
Sensory system
113. Proprioception and sense of vibration are conveyed
thru………DCML/Lat spinothalamic tract

114. α -receptors …………miosis

Endocrinology
115. Angiotensin- II short time action is (vasoconstriction of arterioles /alosterone
sec / Na absorption)

116. Cortisol……….

117. Excess at the time of Stress …….epinephrine/Cortisol/

118. Serotonin and nor-adrenaline metabolism…..tryptophan hydroxylase/tyrosine


hydroxylase/COMDT
Respiratory
119. Lung compliance………………..
120. Respiration central and peripheral control…………↑PaCO2/acidosis/↓O2

121. During rest respiration is merely ………… resisting elastic recoil of lungs

122. Oxy Hb shifted to right…………….hypothermia, acidosis

123. Surfactant: ………….type II alveolar epithelium

Sleep

124. EEG at rest mentally calm………….alpha/beta/theta/delta/synchronized

125. Not a feature of Non REM sleep …


↓GH/↓TH/↓catecholamine/↓insulin/↓testosterone

Renal
126. Anemia in CRF …dec renin

127. Relaxes intestinal smooth muscle……….VIP/ somatostatin

128. Regarding Parathyroid, Pt having (↓blood Ca and ↑PO4, ↓urinary PO4) shows
improvement in urine metabolites after receiving i/v PTH……….

Hypoparathyroidism /vit-D deficiency/

129. Estrogen impact on lipid profile is ………………HDL

130. Inulin…….

131. Plasma clearance…………PAH

132. Inc osmotic pressure……..number of particles excess

133. Dec Simple diffusion……….membrane thickness

134. TPR
135. Severe dehydration ……………..both compartments

136. Na+ reabsorption…….proximal tubule

CVS

137. Diastolic B.P 120 mmHg affects coronary circulation

ECG
138. PR interval shortens……..Wolff Parkinson white syndrome
139. S1Q3T3 :Rx…………(gallium scan/CXR/CK)

140.

Biochemistry
141. Calcium disorder
142. G6PD…………
143. Niacin moa………..
144. Glycosuria occurs at…………….
145. Essential amino acid………….
146. Chylomicrons……….
147. lipoproteins composition……….(max protein content/max lipid
content)
148. All are phospholipids except…………lecithins / choline/
chylomicrons/ lipoproteins / sphingomyelins.
149. Max energy source……..glucose/ fructose/ ATP/ G-1 PO4/
starch
150. Benedict’s test………reducing sugars

151. After 48 hrs starvation …………..Ketogenesis/LPL activity

Pharmacology

152. Cimetidine S/E………………..


153. Excess of dexamethasone………..
154. Atropine……………..

155. Organophosphorous poisoning………… Rx


156. Opioids poisoning not corrected e naloxone next……
haemodialysis/nalorphine/
157. Biliary colic due to morphine Rx ………(hyocine)

158. Morphine overdose: Rx ……….(flumezanil/naloxone)

159. Pinpoint pupil, respiratory depression…cause:

a. Morphine overdose/ pethidine/ pentazocine

160. Patient on neostigmine and atropine feeling progressive weakness…….

161. inc neostigmine/or also atropine

162. INH (isoniazid) S/E…..


163. Septran moa……………….blocks nucleotide synthesis /cell wall
synthesis /protein synthesis

164. Cerebral malaria Rx………………..


165. Traveler’s diarrhea not responding to anti diarrheal,
Rx…………….metronidazole/ciprofloxacin/ tetracycline / septran

166. Azathioprine……….

167. Drug of choice for subarachnoid hemorrhage is…………..


Nimodipine
a. /nitroglycerin /losartan
168. Digoxin interactions……..

169. Pre eclampsia Rx…………


170. Eclamptic fits Rx........................

171. Methicilin resistant staph.aureus (MRSA)……..vancomycin


172. Skin disinfectant…………..

173. Short acting Heparin(moa is Factor Xa inactivation)

174. OCP containing only Estrogen ……breast cancer/vaginal ca

175. Iron is best absorbed in Fe+2 form


176. Asthma CI……….propranolol

177. Theophylline S/E…….↑B.P/

178. Insulin……inc LPL activity/ketogenesis in liver

Anatomy
Embryology
1. Suprarenal gland cortex develops from…………mesoderm/ectoderm/neural
crest cells/

2. Somites develop from…………ectoderm/neural crest cells

3. Respiratory problem ,cyanosis in a child that gets better when child is kept up
right /Failure of closure of pleura peritoneal fold/ hiatus hernia/

General
179. Hip jt ………………synovial joint / anteriorly lies femoral N. /
Neuro anatomy

180. Memory area………hippocampal area


181. Memory (hippocampus/ amygdala)

182. Post pituitary is related to hypothalamus……****?

183. Basal ganglia damage……

184. Pituitary fossa is related to 3rd ventricle


185. Lt sided limb weakness…… Corticospinal fibers lesion at Pons/lat
medulla/med medulla/ mid brain

186. Edinger westphal isolated lesion ……light reflex)

187. CN...III,VII,IX.X…….parasympathetic

188. Ptosis is not related to (3rd CN/7th CN/myasthenia gravis/myopathy/

189. Abducent (VI) -N…abduction of Rt eye affected

190. Facial (VII) –N.…difficulty in closing eye

191. Ear …….Tympanic br. Of IX-N/ post auricular of VI –N

192. Vagus( X)- N

193. Middle meningeal artery …………..enters skull thru foramen spinosum/br. Of

194. True :

 Sub arachnoid has cerebral arteries and veins

 Choroid plexus has cysts/sub arachnoids space ends at S2 level

195.

196. Post cerebral artery lesion…………Partial blindness

197. Primary motor cortex…..supplied by……..

 Ant and middle cerebral artery

 middle and post cerebral artery

Head and neck


198. Dorsal rami of spinal nerves in neck damage lead to (loss of shoulder
support/loss of flexion of neck/extension of upper limbs

199. Which is false:

200. Inf. thyroid vein drains into ext. jugular vein

201. Mid. thyroid vein drains into….

202. Facial vein drains into ext. jugular vein


203. Regarding superior parathyroid gland:

204. Superior thyroid artery is close to superior parathyroid gland

205. superior thyroid artery supplies superior thyroid artery

206. Corticostriate fibers secrete (dopamine)

207. 4th Tracheal ring …………

208. Post digastric muscle ……..

209.

Limbs:
210. Weakness in abduction after upper limb #: axillary N damage.

211. Thenar atrophy………….ulnar N/C8 T1 lesion/

212.

Abdomen:
213. Gastroduodenal artery is br. Of (Rt gastric artery/ hepatic artery/splenic
artery/sup mesenteric artery)

214. Superior mesenteric artery supplies …….

215. Not in relation of Supra renal gland ………..descending colon

216. Appendix drains in to ………….sup. mesenteric nodes/ Rt internal iliac nodes

217. Regarding mesenteries and mesocolon ………Sigmoid colon is in relation to Lt .ureter

218. Pudendal nerve

219. Not tributary of great saphenous vein………..superior epigastric vein

Thorax
Heart
220. Phrenic nerve is at risk (at arch of aorta)
221. Aortic aneurysm can not compress (esophagus, Lt recurrent laryngeal ,Lt
primary bronchus)

Histology
222. Cell junctions having protein channels and low electrical
resistance are………desmosome/ hemidesmosome/ gap junctions.
223. Hyaline cartilage……………..arytenoids / cricoids/
corniculate/cuneiform/epiglottis.
224. Guard s cells are found in ………bronchioles / trachea / alveoli
225. Thyroid follicles ( when inactive have change in epithelium)

226. Not true basic tissue…blood/epithelium/connective


Organs
227. Eye blood supply…….
228. Regarding ant chest wall all are true except….
229. Ant intercostals arteries (2)are branch of internal thoracic artery
230. Lower 9 post intercostals arteries are branch of internal thoracic
artery.
231. Upper 2 post intercostals arteries are branch of internal thoracic
artery.
232. Ant intercostals veins drain into internal thoracic vein
233. Post intercostals veins drain into azygous vein.