Introduction of doppler effect

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Due to the relative motion between the source and the observer there is a change in frequency of wave motion. This is known as doppler effect. The doppler effect is also termed as doppler shift. We can understand the doppler effect by two methods. Either by observing the sound wave or by light wave.

Doppler Effect in Light:
Doppler effect in light: The light has a very high speed for atomic sources having high velocities. The light coming from the atomic sources has a shift in its wavelength. This effect is observed as doppler effect. Red shift in doppler effect: When a light source emits a light at a particular frequency and if the source is travelling away from us. Then we can see the wavelength is to be longer. The color of the light is shifted to the direction of red end of the spectrum which is known as red shift.

Applications of Doppler Effect in Light:
Applications:
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Doppler effect is used in traffic control. Its can detect the vehicles crossing the speed limit. The name of the instrument used for traffic control authorities is radar gun.

Radar gun: It used the radio waves. The radio waves are passing along the direction of the speeding vehicle and the reflected frequency is taken. By finding the difference between the frequencies the police can find out the speed of the vehicle.
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Doppler effect of light is useful to track the artificial satellites. The main application of doppler effect in light is in astrophysics. That is it is useful for learning the stars, galaxies. Doppler effect in light has an application of finding the speed of stars, galaxies and also it is for finding the rotation of sun¶s disc. The spectra of galaxies shows that the lines of galaxies are red shifted. It is because the wavelength is shifted to the direction red color end of the spectrum. The rate of shift is based on the velocity of the source.

Whenever there is a relative motion between a source of light and the observer, the apparent frequency of light received by the observer is different from the true frequency of light emitted actually from the source of light.
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If a source of light emits waves of frequency f and of wavelength l, then the velocity of light would be c = lf. When the source and the observer approach each other with a velocity v along the direction of propagation of light, then in one second, the two come closer by a distance v. \ Apparent frequency = number of light waves received per second by the observer. f|= number of light waves emitted/sec by source + number of light waves contained in a distance v

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Clearly f |>f When the source and the observer move away from each other, then,

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When source and the observer approach each other Df is +ve and the apparent frequency f l increases or apparent wavelength decreases. This is 'Blue Shift'. When the source and the observer recede away from each other, Df is negative and the apparent wavelength increases. This is called the Red shift.

Applications

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The Doppler effect provides a convenient means of tracking a satellite that is emitting a radio signal of constant frequency. The frequency of the signal received on the Earth changes as the satellite is passing. If the received signal is combined with a constant signal generated in the receiver to give rise to beats, then the beat can have a frequency that produces an audible note, whose pitch decreases as the satellite passes overhead. The traffic police use a technique based on Doppler principle to detect overspeeding of vehicles on highways. An electromagnetic wave is emitted by a source at the side of the road attached to a police car. The wave is reflected by a moving vehicle, which thus, acts as a moving source. The reflected wave will have a Doppler shift in frequency. Measurement of the frequency shift using the phenomenon of beats, permits the measurement of the speed of the vehicle. The Doppler effect for light is important in as tronomy. Two stars which revolve around one another are called double stars or spectroscopic binaries. When one is approaching the Earth, the other will be receding and this causes a split in the spectral lines, due to change in the frequency of the light emitted. The phenomenon of red shift in the light from stars helps in understanding the theory of expanding universe.

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Light waves from a moving source experience the Doppler effect to result in either a red shift or blue shift in the light's frequency. This is in a fashion similar (though not identical) to other sorts of waves, such as sound waves. The major difference is that light waves do not require a medium for travel, so the classical application of the Doppler effect doesn't apply precisely to this situation.

Relativistic Doppler Effect for Light
Consider two objects: the light source and the "listener" (or observer). Since light waves traveling in empty space have no medium, we analyze the Doppler effect for light in terms of the motion of the source relative to the listener. We set up our coordinate system so that the positive direction is from the listener toward the source. So if the source is moving away from the listener, its velocity v is positive, but if it is moving toward the listener, then the v is negative. The listener, in this case, is alwaysconsidered to be at rest (so v is really the total relative velocity between them). The speed of light c is always considered positive. The listener receives a frequency fL which would be different from the frequency transmitted by the source fS. This is calculated with relativistic mechanics, by applying necessary the length contraction, and obtains the relationship: fL = sqrt [(c - v)/(c + v)] * fS

Red Shift & Blue Shift
A light source moving away from the listener (v is positive) would provide an fL that is less than fS. In the visible light spectrum, this causes a shift toward the red end of the light spectrum, so it is called a red shift. When the light source is moving toward the listener (v is negative), then fL is greater than fS. In the visible light spectrum, this causes a shift toward the high-frequency end of the light spectrum. For some reason, violet got the short end of the stick and such frequency shift is actually called a blue shift. Obviously, in the area of theelectromagnetic spectrum outside of the visible light spectrum, these shifts might not actually be toward red and blue. If you're in the

infrared, for example, you're ironically shifting away from red when you experience a "red shift."

Applications
Police use this property in the radar boxes they use to track speed. Radio waves are transmitted out, collide with a vehicle, and bounce back. The speed of the vehicle (which acts as the source of the reflected wave) determines the change in frequency, which can be detected with the box. (Similar applications can be used to measure wind velocities in the atmosphere, which is the "Doppler radar" of which meteorologists are so fond.) This Doppler shift is also used to track satellites. By observing how the frequency changes, you can determine the velocity relative to your location, which allows ground-based tracking to analyze the movement of objects in space. In astronomy, these shifts prove helpful. When observing a system with two stars, you can tell which is moving toward you and which away by analyzing how the frequencies change. Even more significantly, evidence from the analysis of light from distant galaxies shows that the light experiences a red shift. These galaxies are moving away from the Earth. In fact, the results of this are a bit beyond the mere Doppler effect. This is actually a result of spacetime itself expanding, as predicted by general relativity. Extrapolations of this evidence, along with other findings, support the "big bang" picture of the origin of the universe.

The Doppler effect in light waves can be observed by the spectral analysis of light emitted by luminous objects.

The light from a stationary distant object whose chemical composition is known is refracted at a specific band of light on a spectroscope. That band is known as its index of refraction. If the light, instead, appears at another frequency band in the spectroscope, it can be inferred from the Doppler effect that the body is in motion. When the light appears at a higher frequency band, then the body is no longer stationary but moving toward the observer. The Doppler effected light wave is displaced toward the higher frequency band, which is the blue end of the spectroscope. If the known body's light waves appear at a lower frequency band of the spectroscope, towards the red end, then the body is now in motion away from the observer. With the use of the spectroscope, astronomers have been able to deduce the chemical composition of the stars. The Doppler effect enables them to determine their movements. In our own galaxy, all stars will be shifted either to the blue or red end because of a slight Doppler effect, indicating either a small movement toward orThe Doppler effect. Illustration by Hans & Cassidy. Courtesy of Gale Group. away from Earth. In 1923, however, Edwin Hubble, an American astronomer, found that the light from all the galaxies outside our own were shifted so much toward the red as to suggest that they were all speeding away from our own at very great velocities. At the same time he saw that the recession of galaxies nearer to us was much less than those further away. In 1929, Hubble and Milton Humason established a mathematical relationship that enables astronomers to determine the distance of galaxies by determining the amount of the galaxy's red shifts. This mathematical relationship is known as Hubble's law or Hubble's constant. Hubble's law shows that the greater thevelocity of recession, the further away from the earth the galaxy is. The concept of the expanding universe along with the corollary idea of the "big bang," that is, the instant creation of the universe from a compressed state of matter, owes much of its existence to Hubble's work, which in turn is an important development of the Doppler effect in light waves. While some recent research challenges the red shift phenomenon for galaxi es, most astronomers continue to accept Hubble's findings.

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