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STORAGE TANKS Part 1
STORAGE TANKS - Basic Training
What we ll be covering we'll
> > > > > The design of the tank. Which tank , which product. The structure & assembly of the tank tank. Tank inspection Measurement
Goals for Today & Tomorrow
> > > > To identify tank type & tank equipments To know the limitation of tank Calculation of tank volume Safe tank operation
STORAGE TANKS - Basic Training
1. 2. Background Tank Design - Types of vertical tanks - Selection of vertical tanks Tank Structure & Assembly of Tank Tank Fittings - Operational fitting - Fittings common to all vertical tanks - Additional fitting for floating roof tanks - Special fittings and accessories for floating Tank Inspection
Day One 3. 3 4.
Tank Farm Safety
7. 8. 9. Measurement Internal & external incident learning p Field trip
STORAGE TANKS- Basic Training
1.0 Background Tanks have been around since the beginning of hydrocarbon g g y production. Tanks vary considerably, in the type and size based on the type of products to be stored and the volume involved. The fail re of a tank can ha e se eral undesirable effects s ch as failure have several ndesirable such endangering personnel, affecting the environment and interrupting the Operator’s business. Companies therefore, require a consistent approach for assessing tank integrity and maintaining compliance with industry and regulatory standards, (that is community requirements). Such an approach must;
• • • •
Ensure tanks are not leaking and will not leak before next inspection Reduce the potential for releases Maintain tanks in safe operating conditions, and Make repairs and determine when replacement is necessary.
PETROLEUM STORAGE TANK TANKS Basic Training The primary function of a storage tank is to store liquid substance. blended and treated in storage tanks effectively. .processing (intermediate – Unit 72) . these products may settle out undesirable substances such as.blending (Unit 73) g( ) While in the storage tanks. This liquid substance may be: a) b) c) Feedstock (Unit 71) Finished products prior to shipping out to customers (U it 75) (Unit and Unfinished petroleum components awaiting for further . a) b) c) Water Emulsions Dirt etc. Products may also be mixed. using the large capacity available in these tanks. This undesirable substances can then be removed through draw-off devices.
iC5 are th types of products requiring pressurized storage vessels (Mounded the t f d t ii i d t l (M d d Bullets). Note: STORAGE TANK TRAINING for MG 3 Operators. . ) d floating f Pressurized storage Pressurized storage applies to those vessels (mounded bullets) which are P i d t li t th l d d b ll t hi h designed to withstand pressure sufficient to keep the liquid stored. Tanks used in this category are primarily the open top. fixed fi d roof ( f (cone & d dome) and fl ti roof. butane. from vaporizing. the storage tanks can be divided into two basic types: Atmospheric storage Atmospheric storage is a term applied to tanks operating at or near atmospheric pressure. will basically focus on aboveground vertical storage tanks of various types. This type of tank is used to hold liquid which will not vaporize at ambient temperature.TANK (cont) Broadly. High vapor pressure hydrocarbons such as propane.
TANK For safe storage of petroleum products. pour point. we have to consider the product properties such as volatility (RVP. flash point and others before we start d i i and constructing the tank. designing d i h k Cone Roof Tank T k Dome Roof Tank Internal Floating Roof Tank Floating roof tank .
fire water and cooling water (All water tanks in PPMSB are with roofs) roofs).0 The design of the tank Standard vertical tanks are available in several types. 2.2 Fixed roof tanks These types of tanks can be divided into: Cone roof Dome roof Each type can be further subdivided into non-pressure and lowpressure fixed roof tanks tanks. .1.1 2.1. 2. which differ in yp vapor-saving efficiency and in cost.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.1 Vertical tanks Open top tanks This type of tank has no roof and shall be used for storing city water.
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training Cone roof tank Dome roof tank .
floating suction. forg p g p v America. For Fixed roof tanks are well supporting roof structures constructed or dome type ago n and diameter fixed with self supporting roof structures are used. or high pressure tanks and example in North America. internal floating roofs. measures to obtainbest best ypo ta . or highas given for example in and may be used to store hydrocarbons as per product classification as given for example the the code. low . low .o f s u m p w i t h t h e n o n r e Fixed roof tanks t Fixed roof tanks u Fixed roof tanks are well known type of storage tanks. etc. cost effective maintenance. either cone over 100 years roofs. . use of P/VP/V valves. These recommendations will include the type of tank. use of valves. cost effective maintenance. l in IP IP code. For large diameter fixed roof tanks column supported roof . regarding to emission reduction. or example in North largeprovided mostly roof tanks column supported roof either conefor dome type roofs. etc. floating suction. n d e . Fixed roof tanks are designed as atmosphericare used. internal floating roofs. measures to obtain t e the ese eco e dat o s c ude t e easu es obta the performance performanceawith regarding to emission reduction. Fixed a store hydrocarbons as per product classification pressure tanks may be used to roof tanks are designed as atmospheric . v These recommendations will include the type of tank. constructed over 100 years ago and r provided mostly with selfknown type of storage tanks.
5 Bullets The very volatility & high vapor pressure product such as Isopentane. G Crude il Gasoline and G li d Gasoline li components.1. Due to high volatility & high vapor pressure the vessels are Mounded underground to prevent thermal radiation in case of any fire nearby. diameter of a floating roof tanks shall at least be equal to its height to enable the use of a normal rolling ladder for access to the roof.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2. Typical Products t d T i l P d t stored are: C d oil.1. 2.3 Fixed roof tanks with floating covers (internal floating roof tanks) In a fixed roof tank a floating cover can be installed to g g give a further reduction of vapor losses.1. Typical feedstock/ products stored are: DPK (Kerosene Jet A1) (Kerosene. LPG & Butane will be store in a vessel that will withstand product pressure and prevent any product vaporization.4 Floating roof tank This type of tanks are designed to work at atmospheric pressure The pressure. These tanks are fitted with breather vents either at the top course of the shell plate or on the roof edge. . Solvents…… 2.
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training Internal Floating Roof Tank .
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training Floating Roof Tank .
2.1 221 Selection of Vertical Tanks – which tank.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.2 2. . which product General The types and ranges of tanks recommended for storage of different classes of petroleum products.
the y g . local experience should be considered. in conjunction with wind load. A stability calculation shall be made to determine the number of anchor required.2. considered Unstable tanks shall be provided with anchor bolts and concrete foundation rings. . 2.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.2 2. which product General The types and ranges of tanks recommended for storage of different classes of petroleum products.1 221 Selection of Vertical Tanks – which tank. Uplifting is caused by the g p g y internal vapor pressure acting against the underside of the roof. velocities given in the local regulations should be used. if no local regulations exist.3 Stability For calculations of tank stability in strong winds.
local experience should be considered.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2. d if no local regulations exist. . Unstable tanks shall be provided with anchor bolts and concrete foundation rings. Uplifting is caused by the internal vapor pressure acting against the underside of the roof. in conjunction with wind load.3 23 Stability For calculations of tank stability in strong winds the following need to be done: a) b) the velocities given in the local regulations should be used. A stability calculation shall be made to determine the number of anchors required.
4 Tank Foundation 2. The allowable soil loading and exact type of subsurface construction to be used must be decided f each individual case after careful for f f consideration.1 Checking of foundation Surface. such as organic clays that will settle over long period and can cause lateral ground stability problem g p g yp > site adjacent to water courses or deep excavation > site exposed to flood water > site in regions of high seismicity .STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2. Some of the many conditions th t require special engineering S f th diti that i i l i i consideration are as follows: > site on hillsides – undisturbed/ land filled > sites at swampy or filled ground > sites underlain by soils. subsurface and climatic conditions vary from place to place.4. so it is not practical to establish design data to cover all situations.
or similar material t i fine l l d i il t i l placed directly on virgin soil. . screenings.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.1 Earth foundation without a ringwall When subsurface conditions shows adequate bearing capacity and that settlements will be acceptable. satisfactory foundations may be constructed from earth material.4.2. fi gravel.4. clean sand.2 Typical Foundation Types 2. Design for ti f t D i f satisfactory long-term performance are: l t f > For small tanks.4 Tank Foundation 2. foundations can consist of compacted crushed stone.
2 Typical Foundation Types 2.4 Tank Foundation 2.4. When there is some doubt whether a foundation will be able to carry the load directly a concrete directly. tall shell and/or self-supported roofs impose a substantial load on the foundation under the shell. Advantages of concrete ringwall are: > It provides better distribution of the concentrated load of the shell to produce a more uniform soil loading under the tank p g > It provides a level.2.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.2 2 4 2 2 Earth foundations with a concrete ringwall large tanks with heavy or tanks. ringwall foundation should be used.4. solid starting plane for concentration of the shell > It is capable of preserving its contour during construction > It retains the fill under the tank bottom and prevents loss of material as a result of erosion > It minimizes moisture under the tank .
2.2 Typical Foundation Types 2. Advantages are: > It provides better distribution of the concentrated load of the shell p to produce a more uniform soil loading under the tank > It provides a means of leveling the tank grade.2 2 4 2 2 Earth foundations with a concrete ringwall Other design requirements are: > The ringwall shall not be less than 300 mm (12 in) thick > Depth of ringwall depends on the local conditions 2.4.2.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.4 Tank Foundation 2.3 Earth foundations with a crushed stone and gravel ringwall A crushed stone or gavel ringwall will provide adequate support for high load imposed by the shell.4. and it is capable of preserving its contour during construction > It retains the fill under the tank bottom and prevents loss of material as a result of erosion > it can more smoothly accommodate differential settlement because of its flexibility .4.
and all other . clay liners.3 Tank foundations for leak detection API supports a general position of installing a Release Prevention barrier (RPB) under new tanks during initial construction.4 Tank Foundation 2. y . synthetic materials. An RPB includes steel bottoms. which have the following functions: > > preventing the escape of contaminated material and containing or channeling released material for leak detection .4. barriers or combination of barriers placed in the bottom of or under an aboveground storage tank. y .STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.
4 Tank Foundation 2.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.4.3 Tank foundations for leak detection .
3 Tank foundations and leak detection .4 Tank Foundation 2.4.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.
4 Tank Foundation 2.3 Tank foundations for leak detection .4.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.
4.3 Tank foundations for leak detection .4 Tank Foundation 2.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.4.4 Tank Foundation 2.3 Tank foundations for leak detection .
4 Tank Foundation 2.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.4.3 Tank foundations for leak detection .
4 Tank Foundation 2.3 Tank foundations for leak detection .STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.4.
3 Tank foundations for leak detection .4 Tank Foundation 2.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.4.
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.4 Tank Foundation 2.4.3 Tank foundations for leak detection .
. permit complete drawdraw off. 3 to 4 collector pits are installed. only one is connected to the closed water draw system in PPMSB. minimize product contact and to ulitilize maximum tank capacity and prevention of corrosion of bottom plate. ff li 3. bottom down is design for cone roof tanks.1 However. > Cone up bottom (bottom up) Generally. close to the shell plate.1. Centre of the flooring is installed with drain pit. this type of design is used for floating-roof tanks.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. Each f the it is E h of th pit i provided with a water d id d ith t draw-off line. Two types of tank flooring are: > Cone down bottom (Bottom down) Generally. Water in the tank is accumulated in the pit (lowest point of the bottom plate/ floor).0 3.1 Tank Structure Bottom/ Floor design – Designed to.
0 3.2 32 Tank Structure Bottom plates > All bottom plates shall have a minimum nominal thickness of 6 mm exclusive of any corrosion allowance specified by the owner for the bottom plates. 600 mm 6 mm ANNULAR .STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. Bottom shell plate shall have a minimum nominal width of 1800 mm > > At least a 25 mm Min. Annular plates shall be at least 8 mm thick.
.3 33 Tank Structure Attachment to shell The connection between the bottom edge of the lowest course of the shell plates and the bottom annular plates shall be continuous fillet weld on both side of the shell plates.4 Joints in tank bottom plates All joint in bottom plates shall be lapped.0 3. The minimum lap shall be five times the thickness of the plate.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. 3. There shall be a minimum lap of 65 mm between the bottom plates and the bottom annular plates.
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. The nominal thickness of the shell plates shall not exceed 40 mm. Pad plates should be of circular shape. if square or rectangular plates are used. The minimum shell thickness shall be: > 6 mm for tanks of less than 33 m in diameter > 8 mm for tanks of 33 m up to and including 60 m in diameter.5 35 Tank Structure Pad Plates Pad plates fixed to the tank bottom shall be used at all supports.0 3.6 36 Shell Design Sh ll D i The bottom course shall have a minimum height of 1800 mm and a minimum thickness of 8 mm mm. . 3. > 10 mm for tanks over 60 m in diameter. they shall have their corners rounded (radius at least 5 times the plate thickness) and continuously welded.
Delta thickness must not be more than 0. The shell plates for which a minimum thickness has been calculated and ordered shall not under run (furnished by mill) the computed thickness by more than 0.6 Internal Loading No course shall have a thickness less than that of the course above.25 mm Calculated/ Ordered plate thickness l t thi k Delivered plate thickness thi k .STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. regardless of the material of construction.25 mm at any place.
1.7.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3.7 3.1 371 External Loading Primary wind girders 3. course shall be provided with a top curb angle. approximately 1 m below the top of the uppermost shell course The top of the uppermost shell course.1 Open top and floating roof tanks Open top and floating roof tanks shall be provided with a primary wind girder to maintain roundness when the tank is subjected to wind loads.7. . The wind girder shall be in the form of a ring located on the outside of the tank shell.
7 3. by welding. Continuous welds shall be used for all joints in wind girders. .7.7.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. The outer periphery of the wind girder may be circular or polygonal.2 Construction of primary wind girders Wind girders may be constructed from formed plate sections. Support shall be provided for all wind girders when the width of the horizontal leg or web exceeds 16 times the thickness of the leg or web. Drain holes to be provided for trapped rain water water.1 External Loading Primary wind girders 3.1.
. additional stiffening rings.7.2.7. Continuous welding (full penetration butt welds) shall be used for all connections of the secondary wind girders.7.2 Design f 3 7 2 2 D i of secondary wind girders d i d id There are basically. 3.1 General Tank may require secondary rings to maintain roundness over y q y g the full height of the tank shell under wind and/or vacuum conditions (BS 2654).2.2 Secondary wind girders 3.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3.7 External Loading 3.
7. p plate ribs or build-up members. . p p preferably in a horizontal y position.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3.3 Isolated radial loads Isolated radial loads (heavy platforms or elevated walkways) shall be distributed along the shell by rolled structural section.7 External Loading 3.
3.1 381 Shell openings Reinforcement of shell openings All openings larger than 80 mm in diameter shall be reinforce.8 3.8. clean out doors shall be designed and fabricated This is more for sludge removal and fabricated. use of bellows and balanced supports should be considered.2 382 Pipe connections Pipes connected to the nozzles of tanks shells designed in such a way that no significant bending moments or loads act on the y g g nozzle. For bigger lines. to allow entry of a conveyor belt.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3.3 Clean-out doors If required for tanks made of carbon steel. 3. .8. if required.8.
2 Design of supporting structure A supported cone roof is roof formed to approximately the t d fi ff dt i t l th surface of a right cone that is supported principally either by rafters on girders and columns or by rafters on trusses with or without column.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3.Dome roof 3.9.1 391 Fixed roof design Type of roof As mentioned earlier: . 3. i d t i thi k l t .9. > The roof thickness also determined by the type of product stored.9.Cone roof . more corrosive product require thicker plate.3 General > Minimum thickness of roof plate – 5mm (3/16 in) > Thicker roof plates may be required for self-supporting roofs.9 3.
10 3 10 Internal floating roof tank An internal floating roof and its accessories shall be designed and constructed to allow the roof to operate throughout its normal travel with manual attention .1 The IFR shall be designed and built to float and rest in a uniform horizontal plane (no drainage slope required) .STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3.9. 3. 3.9 3.3 393 Fixed roof design General (cont) > roof plates of supported cone roofs shall not be attached to the support members. > Roof plate shall be attached to the top angle of the tank with a continuous fillet weld on the top side only. The roof-to-shell joint may be considered frangible and in the event of excessive internal pressure may fail before failure occurs in the tank shell joints or the shell-to-bottom joint.10.
The deck of an internal floating roof roof tank rises and falls with the liquid level whilst in full contact on the underside thus achieving no vapor zone.10 Fixed roof design Internal floating roof tank g Internal Floating Roof (IFR) g ( ) An internal floating roof tank has both a permanent fixed roof and a floating desk inside. The term "deck" or "floating roof" is used in reference to the structure floating on the liquid stored within the tank. .STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3.9 3.
For over 31 years. As steel begins to rust costs in maintenance continue to rise. Eventually Steel or Aluminum IFR will need to be replaced at a cost. Aluminum thought to be better was introduced. . Some have even been dug out and re-buried with a re-certified 2nd term 30-year warranty. but for some applications these also suffered corrosion. FRP was used to produce f l storage tanks since 1958 and continues to b h i d bl d d fuel k i d i be commonly seen in use for underground storage tanks amongst many other successful applications. In search of better materials to solve the corrosion and rust problems. Internal Floating roof was first constructed out of steel. Many tanks have existed underground beyond their 30-year manufacturer's warranty term.Historical Application of FRP In 1971 Dynaglass introduced FRP to the industry to help solve the many corrosion problems suffered from the use of metals. FRP equipment intalled by dynaglass in various applications have proven to have met every expectations.
Vapor Loss .
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