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STORAGE TANKS Part 1
STORAGE TANKS - Basic Training
What we ll be covering we'll
> > > > > The design of the tank. Which tank , which product. The structure & assembly of the tank tank. Tank inspection Measurement
Goals for Today & Tomorrow
> > > > To identify tank type & tank equipments To know the limitation of tank Calculation of tank volume Safe tank operation
STORAGE TANKS - Basic Training
1. 2. Background Tank Design - Types of vertical tanks - Selection of vertical tanks Tank Structure & Assembly of Tank Tank Fittings - Operational fitting - Fittings common to all vertical tanks - Additional fitting for floating roof tanks - Special fittings and accessories for floating Tank Inspection
Day One 3. 3 4.
Tank Farm Safety
7. 8. 9. Measurement Internal & external incident learning p Field trip
STORAGE TANKS- Basic Training
1.0 Background Tanks have been around since the beginning of hydrocarbon g g y production. Tanks vary considerably, in the type and size based on the type of products to be stored and the volume involved. The fail re of a tank can ha e se eral undesirable effects s ch as failure have several ndesirable such endangering personnel, affecting the environment and interrupting the Operator’s business. Companies therefore, require a consistent approach for assessing tank integrity and maintaining compliance with industry and regulatory standards, (that is community requirements). Such an approach must;
• • • •
Ensure tanks are not leaking and will not leak before next inspection Reduce the potential for releases Maintain tanks in safe operating conditions, and Make repairs and determine when replacement is necessary.
blending (Unit 73) g( ) While in the storage tanks. .PETROLEUM STORAGE TANK TANKS Basic Training The primary function of a storage tank is to store liquid substance. a) b) c) Water Emulsions Dirt etc. Products may also be mixed. This undesirable substances can then be removed through draw-off devices. using the large capacity available in these tanks. these products may settle out undesirable substances such as. This liquid substance may be: a) b) c) Feedstock (Unit 71) Finished products prior to shipping out to customers (U it 75) (Unit and Unfinished petroleum components awaiting for further .processing (intermediate – Unit 72) . blended and treated in storage tanks effectively.
iC5 are th types of products requiring pressurized storage vessels (Mounded the t f d t ii i d t l (M d d Bullets). Note: STORAGE TANK TRAINING for MG 3 Operators. This type of tank is used to hold liquid which will not vaporize at ambient temperature. butane. from vaporizing. the storage tanks can be divided into two basic types: Atmospheric storage Atmospheric storage is a term applied to tanks operating at or near atmospheric pressure. will basically focus on aboveground vertical storage tanks of various types. . Tanks used in this category are primarily the open top. ) d floating f Pressurized storage Pressurized storage applies to those vessels (mounded bullets) which are P i d t li t th l d d b ll t hi h designed to withstand pressure sufficient to keep the liquid stored.TANK (cont) Broadly. High vapor pressure hydrocarbons such as propane. fixed fi d roof ( f (cone & d dome) and fl ti roof.
designing d i h k Cone Roof Tank T k Dome Roof Tank Internal Floating Roof Tank Floating roof tank . pour point. flash point and others before we start d i i and constructing the tank. we have to consider the product properties such as volatility (RVP.TANK For safe storage of petroleum products.
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2. .0 The design of the tank Standard vertical tanks are available in several types. 2. 2. fire water and cooling water (All water tanks in PPMSB are with roofs) roofs). which differ in yp vapor-saving efficiency and in cost.1 2.1.1 Vertical tanks Open top tanks This type of tank has no roof and shall be used for storing city water.1.2 Fixed roof tanks These types of tanks can be divided into: Cone roof Dome roof Each type can be further subdivided into non-pressure and lowpressure fixed roof tanks tanks.
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training Cone roof tank Dome roof tank .
low .o f s u m p w i t h t h e n o n r e Fixed roof tanks t Fixed roof tanks u Fixed roof tanks are well known type of storage tanks. use of valves. floating suction. These recommendations will include the type of tank. etc. forg p g p v America. n d e . internal floating roofs. either cone over 100 years roofs. low . For large diameter fixed roof tanks column supported roof . l in IP IP code. Fixed a store hydrocarbons as per product classification pressure tanks may be used to roof tanks are designed as atmospheric . or high pressure tanks and example in North America. For Fixed roof tanks are well supporting roof structures constructed or dome type ago n and diameter fixed with self supporting roof structures are used. etc. or highas given for example in and may be used to store hydrocarbons as per product classification as given for example the the code. regarding to emission reduction. v These recommendations will include the type of tank. floating suction. cost effective maintenance. constructed over 100 years ago and r provided mostly with selfknown type of storage tanks. cost effective maintenance. or example in North largeprovided mostly roof tanks column supported roof either conefor dome type roofs. use of P/VP/V valves. measures to obtain t e the ese eco e dat o s c ude t e easu es obta the performance performanceawith regarding to emission reduction. measures to obtainbest best ypo ta . internal floating roofs. . Fixed roof tanks are designed as atmosphericare used.
LPG & Butane will be store in a vessel that will withstand product pressure and prevent any product vaporization. Solvents…… 2. 2.4 Floating roof tank This type of tanks are designed to work at atmospheric pressure The pressure.3 Fixed roof tanks with floating covers (internal floating roof tanks) In a fixed roof tank a floating cover can be installed to g g give a further reduction of vapor losses. diameter of a floating roof tanks shall at least be equal to its height to enable the use of a normal rolling ladder for access to the roof.1.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2. . Typical feedstock/ products stored are: DPK (Kerosene Jet A1) (Kerosene.1. G Crude il Gasoline and G li d Gasoline li components.1. Due to high volatility & high vapor pressure the vessels are Mounded underground to prevent thermal radiation in case of any fire nearby. Typical Products t d T i l P d t stored are: C d oil. These tanks are fitted with breather vents either at the top course of the shell plate or on the roof edge.5 Bullets The very volatility & high vapor pressure product such as Isopentane.
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training Internal Floating Roof Tank .
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training Floating Roof Tank .
which product General The types and ranges of tanks recommended for storage of different classes of petroleum products.1 221 Selection of Vertical Tanks – which tank. .2.2 2.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.
3 Stability For calculations of tank stability in strong winds. considered Unstable tanks shall be provided with anchor bolts and concrete foundation rings. if no local regulations exist.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.2 2. A stability calculation shall be made to determine the number of anchor required. velocities given in the local regulations should be used. 2.1 221 Selection of Vertical Tanks – which tank. the y g . in conjunction with wind load.2. local experience should be considered. which product General The types and ranges of tanks recommended for storage of different classes of petroleum products. Uplifting is caused by the g p g y internal vapor pressure acting against the underside of the roof. .
Unstable tanks shall be provided with anchor bolts and concrete foundation rings.3 23 Stability For calculations of tank stability in strong winds the following need to be done: a) b) the velocities given in the local regulations should be used. . in conjunction with wind load.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2. local experience should be considered. A stability calculation shall be made to determine the number of anchors required. Uplifting is caused by the internal vapor pressure acting against the underside of the roof. d if no local regulations exist.
Some of the many conditions th t require special engineering S f th diti that i i l i i consideration are as follows: > site on hillsides – undisturbed/ land filled > sites at swampy or filled ground > sites underlain by soils. subsurface and climatic conditions vary from place to place.4 Tank Foundation 2. such as organic clays that will settle over long period and can cause lateral ground stability problem g p g yp > site adjacent to water courses or deep excavation > site exposed to flood water > site in regions of high seismicity .1 Checking of foundation Surface.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2. The allowable soil loading and exact type of subsurface construction to be used must be decided f each individual case after careful for f f consideration. so it is not practical to establish design data to cover all situations.4.
Design for ti f t D i f satisfactory long-term performance are: l t f > For small tanks.4. foundations can consist of compacted crushed stone. .2 Typical Foundation Types 2. satisfactory foundations may be constructed from earth material. clean sand.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.1 Earth foundation without a ringwall When subsurface conditions shows adequate bearing capacity and that settlements will be acceptable. screenings.4. fi gravel.2.4 Tank Foundation 2. or similar material t i fine l l d i il t i l placed directly on virgin soil.
Advantages of concrete ringwall are: > It provides better distribution of the concentrated load of the shell to produce a more uniform soil loading under the tank p g > It provides a level.2.2 Typical Foundation Types 2.4 Tank Foundation 2. ringwall foundation should be used.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2. tall shell and/or self-supported roofs impose a substantial load on the foundation under the shell. When there is some doubt whether a foundation will be able to carry the load directly a concrete directly.4. solid starting plane for concentration of the shell > It is capable of preserving its contour during construction > It retains the fill under the tank bottom and prevents loss of material as a result of erosion > It minimizes moisture under the tank .4.2 2 4 2 2 Earth foundations with a concrete ringwall large tanks with heavy or tanks.
and it is capable of preserving its contour during construction > It retains the fill under the tank bottom and prevents loss of material as a result of erosion > it can more smoothly accommodate differential settlement because of its flexibility .4.2.4 Tank Foundation 2. Advantages are: > It provides better distribution of the concentrated load of the shell p to produce a more uniform soil loading under the tank > It provides a means of leveling the tank grade.4.2 Typical Foundation Types 2.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.3 Earth foundations with a crushed stone and gravel ringwall A crushed stone or gavel ringwall will provide adequate support for high load imposed by the shell.2 2 4 2 2 Earth foundations with a concrete ringwall Other design requirements are: > The ringwall shall not be less than 300 mm (12 in) thick > Depth of ringwall depends on the local conditions 2.4.2.
and all other . barriers or combination of barriers placed in the bottom of or under an aboveground storage tank. synthetic materials. which have the following functions: > > preventing the escape of contaminated material and containing or channeling released material for leak detection . clay liners.3 Tank foundations for leak detection API supports a general position of installing a Release Prevention barrier (RPB) under new tanks during initial construction. y .4.4 Tank Foundation 2.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2. y . An RPB includes steel bottoms.
3 Tank foundations for leak detection .4.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.4 Tank Foundation 2.
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.3 Tank foundations and leak detection .4.4 Tank Foundation 2.
4.3 Tank foundations for leak detection .STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.4 Tank Foundation 2.
4.3 Tank foundations for leak detection .4 Tank Foundation 2.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.
4 Tank Foundation 2.4.3 Tank foundations for leak detection .STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.
3 Tank foundations for leak detection .4.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.4 Tank Foundation 2.
3 Tank foundations for leak detection .4.4 Tank Foundation 2.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.4.3 Tank foundations for leak detection .4 Tank Foundation 2.
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 2.4 Tank Foundation 2.4.3 Tank foundations for leak detection .
3 to 4 collector pits are installed. permit complete drawdraw off. Water in the tank is accumulated in the pit (lowest point of the bottom plate/ floor). . this type of design is used for floating-roof tanks. minimize product contact and to ulitilize maximum tank capacity and prevention of corrosion of bottom plate.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. ff li 3. bottom down is design for cone roof tanks.0 3. > Cone up bottom (bottom up) Generally. only one is connected to the closed water draw system in PPMSB. close to the shell plate.1. Two types of tank flooring are: > Cone down bottom (Bottom down) Generally.1 Tank Structure Bottom/ Floor design – Designed to. Centre of the flooring is installed with drain pit. Each f the it is E h of th pit i provided with a water d id d ith t draw-off line.1 However.
Annular plates shall be at least 8 mm thick. Bottom shell plate shall have a minimum nominal width of 1800 mm > > At least a 25 mm Min.2 32 Tank Structure Bottom plates > All bottom plates shall have a minimum nominal thickness of 6 mm exclusive of any corrosion allowance specified by the owner for the bottom plates. 600 mm 6 mm ANNULAR .0 3.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3.
0 3. .3 33 Tank Structure Attachment to shell The connection between the bottom edge of the lowest course of the shell plates and the bottom annular plates shall be continuous fillet weld on both side of the shell plates.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. The minimum lap shall be five times the thickness of the plate. 3.4 Joints in tank bottom plates All joint in bottom plates shall be lapped. There shall be a minimum lap of 65 mm between the bottom plates and the bottom annular plates.
The nominal thickness of the shell plates shall not exceed 40 mm.6 36 Shell Design Sh ll D i The bottom course shall have a minimum height of 1800 mm and a minimum thickness of 8 mm mm. 3.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. > 10 mm for tanks over 60 m in diameter. The minimum shell thickness shall be: > 6 mm for tanks of less than 33 m in diameter > 8 mm for tanks of 33 m up to and including 60 m in diameter. they shall have their corners rounded (radius at least 5 times the plate thickness) and continuously welded. . Pad plates should be of circular shape.0 3.5 35 Tank Structure Pad Plates Pad plates fixed to the tank bottom shall be used at all supports. if square or rectangular plates are used.
25 mm Calculated/ Ordered plate thickness l t thi k Delivered plate thickness thi k . The shell plates for which a minimum thickness has been calculated and ordered shall not under run (furnished by mill) the computed thickness by more than 0.25 mm at any place.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3.6 Internal Loading No course shall have a thickness less than that of the course above. Delta thickness must not be more than 0. regardless of the material of construction.
course shall be provided with a top curb angle.7. The wind girder shall be in the form of a ring located on the outside of the tank shell.7.7 3. .STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3.1.1 371 External Loading Primary wind girders 3.1 Open top and floating roof tanks Open top and floating roof tanks shall be provided with a primary wind girder to maintain roundness when the tank is subjected to wind loads. approximately 1 m below the top of the uppermost shell course The top of the uppermost shell course.
STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. .1 External Loading Primary wind girders 3.2 Construction of primary wind girders Wind girders may be constructed from formed plate sections.7. Drain holes to be provided for trapped rain water water.7. Continuous welds shall be used for all joints in wind girders. Support shall be provided for all wind girders when the width of the horizontal leg or web exceeds 16 times the thickness of the leg or web. The outer periphery of the wind girder may be circular or polygonal.7 3. by welding.1.
2 Design f 3 7 2 2 D i of secondary wind girders d i d id There are basically.2 Secondary wind girders 3.1 General Tank may require secondary rings to maintain roundness over y q y g the full height of the tank shell under wind and/or vacuum conditions (BS 2654).7. Continuous welding (full penetration butt welds) shall be used for all connections of the secondary wind girders.2. 3.7.7.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. .2. additional stiffening rings.7 External Loading 3.
7 External Loading 3. p plate ribs or build-up members.7.3 Isolated radial loads Isolated radial loads (heavy platforms or elevated walkways) shall be distributed along the shell by rolled structural section.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. p p preferably in a horizontal y position. .
if required.8.3 Clean-out doors If required for tanks made of carbon steel.1 381 Shell openings Reinforcement of shell openings All openings larger than 80 mm in diameter shall be reinforce. use of bellows and balanced supports should be considered.8 3. 3. 3. For bigger lines. . clean out doors shall be designed and fabricated This is more for sludge removal and fabricated.8. to allow entry of a conveyor belt.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3.8.2 382 Pipe connections Pipes connected to the nozzles of tanks shells designed in such a way that no significant bending moments or loads act on the y g g nozzle.
9.9. more corrosive product require thicker plate. > The roof thickness also determined by the type of product stored.3 General > Minimum thickness of roof plate – 5mm (3/16 in) > Thicker roof plates may be required for self-supporting roofs. i d t i thi k l t .2 Design of supporting structure A supported cone roof is roof formed to approximately the t d fi ff dt i t l th surface of a right cone that is supported principally either by rafters on girders and columns or by rafters on trusses with or without column.9.Cone roof . 3.9 3.Dome roof 3.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3.1 391 Fixed roof design Type of roof As mentioned earlier: .
The roof-to-shell joint may be considered frangible and in the event of excessive internal pressure may fail before failure occurs in the tank shell joints or the shell-to-bottom joint.10.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. > Roof plate shall be attached to the top angle of the tank with a continuous fillet weld on the top side only. 3.3 393 Fixed roof design General (cont) > roof plates of supported cone roofs shall not be attached to the support members.10 3 10 Internal floating roof tank An internal floating roof and its accessories shall be designed and constructed to allow the roof to operate throughout its normal travel with manual attention . 3.1 The IFR shall be designed and built to float and rest in a uniform horizontal plane (no drainage slope required) .9.9 3.
The term "deck" or "floating roof" is used in reference to the structure floating on the liquid stored within the tank.STORAGE TANKS – Basic Training 3. . The deck of an internal floating roof roof tank rises and falls with the liquid level whilst in full contact on the underside thus achieving no vapor zone.9 3.10 Fixed roof design Internal floating roof tank g Internal Floating Roof (IFR) g ( ) An internal floating roof tank has both a permanent fixed roof and a floating desk inside.
Many tanks have existed underground beyond their 30-year manufacturer's warranty term. In search of better materials to solve the corrosion and rust problems. FRP equipment intalled by dynaglass in various applications have proven to have met every expectations.Historical Application of FRP In 1971 Dynaglass introduced FRP to the industry to help solve the many corrosion problems suffered from the use of metals. As steel begins to rust costs in maintenance continue to rise. but for some applications these also suffered corrosion. FRP was used to produce f l storage tanks since 1958 and continues to b h i d bl d d fuel k i d i be commonly seen in use for underground storage tanks amongst many other successful applications. For over 31 years. . Eventually Steel or Aluminum IFR will need to be replaced at a cost. Internal Floating roof was first constructed out of steel. Some have even been dug out and re-buried with a re-certified 2nd term 30-year warranty. Aluminum thought to be better was introduced.
Vapor Loss .
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