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for contacts. We have included the Normally Open and Normally Closed status for each contact. Normally

Normally Open Conta ct (N/O) Change Over or 2 way Conta ct Made position Limit Switch (N/O)

(N/C)

Close d Conta ct

Fused Switch Open Cont act (N/O) Limit Switch (N/C)

Flow Switch (N/O)

Flow Switch (N/C)

Time Delay (N/O) Delay on Closing Thermal

Time Delay Flow Switch (N/O) Delay on reopening Thermal Switc h -Over load (N/C) Temperature Switc h (N/O) Pressure (N/C)

(N/O)

Switc h -Over load

Temperature Switc h (N/O) Pressure (N/O)

Switc h

Switc h

Electrical Symbols - Push-buttons and Lamps The following table provides the commonly used electrical wiring schematic symbols for pushbuttons and lamps which comply with the IEC and BS Electrical Symbols. We have included the Normally Open and Normally Closed status for each contact.

Coils and Relays .Normally Open PB (N/O) Emergency Stop PB (N/O) Indication Contact Pull Switch (N/O) Normally Closed PB (N/C) Emergency Stop PB (N/C) Pull Switch (N/C) Turn/Rotary Switch (N/O) Turn/Rotary Switch (N/C) Lamp (Standard) Lamp Standard Lamp (Flashing) Filament Lamp Light Emitting Diode (LED) Bell (Audible) Siren (Audible) Buzzer (Audible) Electrical Symbols .

These connectors include plug and socket. terminal and earth connectors. Contactor Coil General Relay (DC Supply) Relay with AC Supply Slow Operating Relay .The following table provides the commonly used electrical wiring schematic symbols for coils and relays which comply with the IEC and BS Electrical Symbols. Plug Male Coax Plug Male Socket (plug female) Slow Operating Relay .Delay On Slow Release Relay Delay Off Mechanically Latched Relay Electrical Symbols . coaxial.Delay On Wire Connections (Two Wires) Wire Connections (crossed) Wires Crossing (Not Connected) Terminal Connector .Connectors The following table provides the commonly used electrical wiring schematic symbols for connectors which comply with the IEC and BS Electrical Symbols.

Diode Diode Reverse Blocking Diode Reverse Conducting Zener Diode Light Emitting Diode (LED) Capacitor Transistor (PNP) Transistor (NPN) .Semi Conductors The following table provides the commonly used electrical wiring schematic symbols for Semi Conductors including diodes.Terminal Block Earth Connection Noiseless Earth Protective Earth Chassis Earth Equipotentiality Electrical Symbols . capacitors and transistors.

Bi-directional Triode Thyristor (Triac) Diac FORMULAS. EQUATIONS & LAWS Symbolic: E =VOLTS ~or~ (V = VOLTS) P =WATTS ~or~ (W = WATTS) R = OHMS ~or~ (R = RESISTANCE) I =AMPERES ~or~ (A = AMPERES) HP = HORSEPOWER PF = POWER FACTOR .

kW = KILOWATTS kWh = KILOWATT HOUR VA = VOLT-AMPERES kVA = KILOVOLT-AMPERES C = CAPACITANCE EFF = EFFICIENCY (expressed as a decimal) DIRECT CURRENT AMPS= WATTS= VOLTS= EFFICIENCY= AMPS= WATTS= VOLTS= VOLT-AMPS= HORSEPOWER= EFFICIENCY= AMPS= WATTS= VOLTS= VOLT-AMPS= HORSEPOWER= EFFICIENCY= WATTS÷VOLTS VOLTS x AMPS WATTS ÷ AMPS (746 x HP)÷(V x A) AC SINGLE PHASE ~ 1ø WATTS÷(VOLTS x PF) I=P÷(E x PF) A=W÷(V x PF) VOLTS x AMPS x PF WATTS÷AMPS VOLTS x AMPS (V x A x EFF x PF)÷746 (746 x HP)÷(V x A x PF) AC THREE PHASE ~ 3ø WATTS÷(1.732 x VOLTS x AMPS x PF WATTS÷AMPS 1.732 x VOLTS x AMPS (1.732 x V x A x PF) P = 1.732 x E x I x PF E=P÷I VA=1.732 x E x I P=E x I x PF W=V x A x PF E=P÷I VA=E x I V=W÷A VA=V x A I=P÷E A=W÷V P=ExI W=VxA E=P÷I V=W÷A HORSEPOWER= (V x A x EFF)÷746 POWERFACTOR= INPUT WATTS÷(V x A) POWERFACTOR= INPUT WATTS÷(1.732 x V x A x EFF x PF)÷746 (746 x HP)÷(1.732 x VOLTS x PF) I = P÷(1.732 x E x PF) 1.732 x V x A) .

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