nanoparticles | Nanoparticle | Zinc Oxide

EFFECT

OF

NANOPARTICLES

ON

MICROORGANISMS INTRODUCTION
Nanoparticles are defined as particulate dispersions or solid particles with a size in the range of 10-1000nm. The drug is dissolved, entrapped, encapsulated or attached to a nanoparticle matrix. Depending upon the method of preparation, nanoparticles, nanospheres or nanocapsules can be obtained. Over the past few decades, inorganic nanoparticles, whose structures exhibit significantly novel and improved physical, chemical, and biological properties, phenomena, and functionality due to their nanoscale size, have elicited much interest. Nanophasic and nanostructured materials are attracting a great deal of attention because of their potential for achieving specific processes and selectivity, especially in biological and pharmaceutical applications. Discoveries in the past decade have demonstrated that the electromagnetic, optical, and catalytic properties of noble-metal nano-crystals are strongly influenced by shape and size. This has motivated an upsurge in research on the synthesis routes that allow better control of shape and size, with projected applications in nano-electronics and spectroscopy.

silver ion.Recent formulated antibacterial materials.. However. 1996) to fight infections and control spoilage. studies metal activity. The epidemiological history of silver has established its nontoxicity in normal use. as they do against conventional and narrow-target antibiotics. Phung LT. and silver compounds have been thoroughly investigated. Microbes are unlikely to develop resistance against silver. because the metal attacks a broad range of targets in the organisms. silver has been employed most extensively since ancient times (Silver S. have oxide and demonstrated nanoparticles antimicrobial that specially good have formulations comprising nanoparticles could be effective bactericidal Antibacterial effect of AgO nanoparticle: Among inorganic antibacterial agents. Thus. which means that they would have to develop a host of mutations simultaneously to protect themselves. silver ions have been used as an antibacterial component in dental resin composites. silver is nontoxic to human cells. in minute concentrations. Catalytic oxidation by metallic silver and reaction with dissolved monovalent silver ion probably contribute to its bactericidal effect . . and in coatings of medical devices. The antibacterial and antiviral actions of silver. in synthetic zeolites .

investigated the shape dependence of the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against Escherichia coli. Silver nanoparticles exhibit antibacterial properties via bacterial inactivation and growth inhibition. Bacteriological tests were performed in LuriaBertani (LB) medium on solid agar plates and in liquid systems supplemented with different concentrations of nanosized silver particles. This work was aimed at . For these reason. However. coli were studied. coli was investigated as a model for Gram-negative bacteria. little is known about how the biological activity of silver nanoparticles changes as the shape of the particles changes. and their interactions with E. The mechanism is not yet completely understood. preferably via binding to gp120 glycoprotein knobs. These particles were shown to be an effective bactericide. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles against E. Energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) was used as a complementary technique to examine the treated cells. Silver nanoparticles of different shapes were synthesized by solution phase routes. The size-dependent interaction of silver nanoparticles with gram-negative bacteria has also been reported by the same group.Elechiguerra and coworkers found that silver nanoparticles undergo a size-dependent interaction with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

for their concentration dependent antimicrobial effects. by studying particle-particle interactions in aqueous suspensions. A number of . Stable. Log reduction of 5log(10) and complete inactivation ability. coli cells to examine their effect on inactivation of the bacteria. molecularly capped. coli survival was dependent on particle number. Gold nanoparticles with the same surfactant were used as a control.100 & 125 µg/ml were tested on gram negative Enterobacter sp. Antibacterial effect of ZnO nanoparticle: The antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Enterobacter aerogenes was examined. 75. positively or negatively charged silver nanoparticles were mixed at 1 to 60microgmL(-1) with suspended E. coli was associated with the ratio between the number of nanoparticles and the initial bacterial cell count. were obtained of with the silver capped nanoparticles while the gold nanoparticles did not show any inactivation The effect molecularly nanoparticles on E. Electrostatic attraction or repulsion mechanisms in silver nanoparticle .E. A set of different concentrations of nanoparticles at 50. coli cell interactions did not contribute to the inactivation process.elucidating the effect of silver nanoparticles on inactivation of Escherichia coli. being of similar size but made up of a presumably inert metal. Log reduction of E.

has been found to occur due to an interaction of the nanoparticle surface with water. Metal oxide nanoparticles have marked antibacterial activity. of zinc antimicrobial nanoparticles activity was further confirmed by disc diffusion method. subtilus were also evaluated against zinc oxide nanoparticles suspension to check the bacterial growth. 75.other bacteria including E. The toxic effect of these nanoparticles. The antimicrobial activity was examined by drawing growth curves using spectrophotometer assisted absorption observations. growth was significantly reduced while the zinc oxide powder showed lower levels of antimicrobial activity when compared at same dose levels of 50. coli & B. In presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. we tested the ability of ZnO nanoparticles to affect . 100 & 125 µg/ml. Enterobacter sp. In the present study. The concentrations effectively checked the bacteria growth and increased the diameter of inhibition zone in the experiment. The zinc oxide nanoparticles adsorption on bacterium surface was visualized by The oxide scanning and transmission increased electron microscopies. such as those comprised of ZnO. Further studies on a mixture of lower levels of antimicrobial drugs and zinc oxide nanoparticle formulation are in progress with a view to effectively curtail the comparatively large dose regimen of the anti-microbial drugs. and to increase with a decrease in particle size.

1 mg ml − 1 ZnO. The minimal fungicidal concentration of ZnO was found to be 0. albicans. Candida albicans (C. The effects of histidine suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species. the effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles prepared by mechano-chemical method on the antibacterial activity of different antibiotics was evaluated using disk diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Exciting the ZnO by visible light increased the yeast cell death. albicans was observed. in cell death. ZnO nanoparticles also inhibited the growth of C.the viability of the pathogenic yeast. this concentration caused an inhibition of over 95% in the growth of C. albicans). albicans when it was added at the logarithmic phase of growth. Addition of histidine (a quencher of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen) caused reduction in the effect of ZnO on C. albicans depending on its concentration. including hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen. In this work. . An almost complete elimination of the antimycotic effect was achieved following addition of 5 mM of histidine. A concentration-dependent effect of ZnO on the viability of C. In light of the above results it appears that metal oxide nanoparticles may provide a novel family of fungicidal compounds Nanoparticle metal oxides offer a wide variety of potential applications in medicine due to the unprecedented advances in nanobiotechnology research.

respectively. and 2000 microg/disk) against various clinical isolates of S. and Fe2O3.The average size of ZnO nanoparticles was between 20 nm and 45 nm. Antibacterial effect of MgO nanoparticles Nanocrystals of common metal oxides such as MgO. The most enhancing activities were observed in the contents of the 2000 microg/disk. aureus. and acidic gases. aureus and E.ZnO. coli The enhancing effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin was concentration-dependent against all test strains. destructive adsorption takes place on the surface of the nanocrystals. the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin in increased zone in the presence was of ZnO for nanoparticles in both test strains. TiO2. coli. Al2O3. penicillin G. so that the adsorbate is chemically dismantled and thereby made . have been shown to be highly efficient and active adsorbents for many toxic chemicals including air pollutants. Although ZnO nanoparticles (500 microg/disk) decreased the antibacterial activity of amoxicillin. and nitrofurantoin in S. A total of 27% and 22% increase inhibition areas observed ciprofloxacin in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles in S. The enhancing effect of this nanomaterial on the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin was further investigated at three different contents (500. aureus and E. 1000. chemical warfare agents. CaO. In most cases.

it was hypothesized that if the metal oxide particles could be coated with a porous carbon. In particular. . Although the target pollutants are usually subjected to conversion reactions in the presence of water as well. relatively large amounts of water can reduce the amount of adsorption of the target adsorbate decreasing the efficiency of the destructive adsorbent. and thereby be partially deactivated toward adsorption of the target pollutants. Activated carbon is made up of mainly graphitic structures. The use of these nanocrystalline metal oxides is limited under conditions where liquid water or water vapor is present due to their tendency to adsorb water. which exhibit a less polar surface. perhaps.nontoxic. the water problem might be minimized. high surface area ( 500 m2/g) and high reactivity. by stepwise adsorption on carbon followed by migration to the nanocrystalline oxide surface. and the tendency to adsorb water is lower compared with nanocrystalline metal oxide surfaces. Therefore. aerogel-prepared nanocrystalline MgO has been shown to have a small average particle size (4 nm). while still allowing destructive sorption of target pollutants.

An efficient way to estmate nanotoxicity is to monitor the response of bacteria exposed to nickel oxide. cobalt oxide zinc oxide. On the other hand. iron oxide against model organism . copper oxide. The toxicity of these metal oxide nanoparticles was tested usin two methods: culturing in liquid media containing nanoparticles and electrospraying the nanoparticles directly onto the bacterial surface.REVIEW OF LITRETURE In the world of emerging nanotechnology. Escherichia coli.clarke college.one of the primary concerns is the potential environmental impact of nanoparticles.biochemistry . Aqueous exposure mimics the natural interaction between microbial species as nanoparticles diffuse in the environment. the electrospray technique allows direct interaction between the nanoparticles and cells. This exposure method grants insight into how “nano” associated properties from metal nanoparticles affect the environment(Angela k. iron oxide.2009) Drinking water purification . titanium oxide. Horst.

Baker.N. the commonly practiced measure for purity was the taste of the water. Denver.With the evolution of human civilization. 1981) A number of chemical and biological contaminants have endangered the quality of drinking water. Realizing the contamination significant progress has been made to utilize the chemistry of nanomaterials for water purification. Our understanding of pure drinking water was changed(M. An overview of important events molecular nature of during last 200 years in in drinking water the area of drinking water purification.g the tiny material particles to the microorganisms. Taras.Three major type of contaminants available in water are halogenated organics . our understanding of pure drinking water underwent dramatic changes. it was not designated as a carrier of diseases. Water was recognized as a symbol for the origin of life and for its medicinal value.M. America Water Works Association. In the 17th century Anton van Leeuwenhoek’s discovery of the microscope started to change the perception of purity: we were empowered to see beyond the suspended particles e. In early civilizations. J. Following the discoveries of Louis Pasteur(study of microorganism based diseases) and John Snow(linking of cholera spread in London with the quality of water).

tin and zinc was attempted to study the degradation halocarbons(T.K. • reaction product was foun to be metalchloride and partially organic product then nanoparticles for enhanced degradation of pesticides In the similar way the use of other reactive metals such as magnesium.degree of corrosion differs with metals as protective layers are formed on some metal surfaces and reactivity is dependent on the Yosui and reduction 1988).J.Kogyo dehalogenated became popular. carbon tetrachloride induces corrosion in the metals. Anshup.Y. The concept of corrosion was held true .including pesticides.2009).Technol 1995) of 29 • It was to be remembered that in the case of extremely reactive metals.metal surface is oxidized to metal chloride.two competing process happen: metals will catalyze the dehalogenation of organic compounds .in a way similar to air and water. after The iron potential(T.Sci.Senzaki. Removal nanoparticles of pesticides with noble The discovery of Zero valent iron catalyzes the degradation of halogenated aliphatics. Pradeep. heavy metals and microorganisms(T.Klabunde.Kumgai.Boronina.

Nanosci chlorpyrifos(A. T.Pradeep.J.Nanosci). R.2003). interaction nanoparticles of pesticides .carbon dioxide dominant product. .J.Pradeep.T Tom. sprays. J. in case of tin . It was found that is the • second process dominates.S Nair.Nair.S.S Nair. R.malathion(A.Environ.Nair. Nowack 2008) .will react to form the corresponding metal in case of magnesiumzinc.T. Park JH.in case of dominant product. plastics and paints (Mueller NC. Effect of nanoparticles against environmental soil microbes Nanotechnology has attracted global attention because nanoparticles (NP) have properties unique from their bulk equivalents.Pradeep. T. The reaction of noble nanoparticles was studied with widely used pesticides such as endosulfan(A. CH4 is the hydroxide.T.Pradeep. Hoon Byeon J. NP of Ag.and metal being thermodynamically unstablr in water.Environ.J. CuO and ZnO are being used industrially for several purposes including amendments to textiles. A common feature of these three NP is their antimicrobial activity ( Yoon KY.S.2003). cosmetics.showed with gold and different 2007) the silver spectroscopic behavior(A.T Tom.

Hanley C. Ghosh SS. . Che CM 2006). Aureus (Kim JS. Ivask A. He QY. Blinova I. Coli (Yoon KY. Kim SH. Cho MH 2007) . Park YH. Kahru A 2008). Blinova I. Paul A. NP of Ag. Park YK. Dubourguier HC. Yu KN. CuO and ZnO are reported to attack bacterial membranes. coli cell walls were observed after nano-Ag treatment(Gogoi SK. Hoon Byeon J. Chattopadhyay A 2006) and promoted release of green fluorescent protein from transformed E. Hwang CY. Pits in E. The antimicrobial activity of NP largely has been studied with human pathogenic bacteria. Ghosh SS. coli to nano-ZnO also causes loss in membrane integrity (Reddy KM. Manna AC 2008). Ramesh A. Kim YK. Hwang J 2007) and S. Sun H. Dubourguier HC. Exposure of E. Short exposure of E. Jones N. Ivask A. Yu WY. mainly Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. coli cells (Gogoi SK. Bell J. Ramesh A. Kahru A. Kim JH. Park SJ. Ranjit KT. Chen R. Punnoose A 2007) Likewise. Chiu JF. Ray B. Kuk E. Wingett DG. Chattopadhyay A 2006). Ho CM. Paul A. Feris K.Hwang J 2007). These microbes also are sensitive to nano-CuO and nano-ZnO (Heinlaan M. Lee YS. toxicity of NP of CuO and ZnO are connected with cell membrane damage (Heinlaan M. Lee HJ. Gopinath P. Gopinath P. collapses the plasma membrane potential and decreases ATP( Lok CN. coli cells to nanoAg destabilizes the outer membrane. Jeong DH. Park JH. Nano-Ag is inhibitory to E. Tam PK.

the mechanism may involve oxidative stress (Cioffi N. Westley E. Ag ions inactivate proteins with SH groups and prevent the ability of DNA to replicate (Feng QL. Kim TN. For Cu ions. levels of Zn above the essential threshold CE level inhibit bacterial enzymes including dehydrogenase (Nweke CO. Okolo JC. Schmidt B. Alisi CS. Tantillo G. D'Alessio M. Cui FZ. Zambonin PG. Bagchi D 1995).NP action may be due in part to their release of free ions. Traversa E 2005). Bleve-Zacheo T. Phan TN. Nwanyanwu 2007) and certain protective enzymes. Robert EM 2006). Bard AJ 2005) propose that NADH dehydrogenase in the electron transport chain of E coli is inhibited by Ag ions. Kim JO 2000) . Ghibelli L. Chen GQ. Poole RK 1995) Additionally. Torsi L. Hiser C. such as thiolperoxidase. The redox cycling of Cu ions results in depletion of glutathione and affects the sulfhydryl groups of proteins causing DNA damage and lipid oxidation (Stohs SJ. Ferguson-Miller S 2002). . Holt and Bard (Holt KB. and glutathione reductase (Nguyen TMP. Hughes MN. Like Cu. Heavy metal ions have diverse effects on bacterial cell function. Wu J. Zn inhibition of NADH oxidase is proposed to impede the respiratory chain of E. Coli (Beard SJ. Zn also is an essential element for cells. Ditaranto N. loss of membrane potential is associated with inhibition by Zn ions at cytochrome c oxidase in Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Mills DA. Sabbatini L.

Westerhoff P 2008). Espinosa-Urgel M.Extensive use and increasing demand for NP will lead to their accumulation in the environment. However. Aureus (Jones N. sulfur. commercially available nano-Ag-treated socks were found to release Ag upon washing the socks (Benn TM. while others degrade pollutants and promote plant growth (Molina MA. Vibrio fisheri has been used because of its natural light emitting property in assessment of toxicity and Bacillus subtilis has been examined as an example of a . Ray B. Concern for nontarget effects of environmental accumulation of Ag has been raised (Ramos-González MI. The toxicity of NP against environmental microbes has been little studied. Ramos JL. especially in landfills and their water effluents. (carbon. Many microbes have essential roles in element cycling. Van Wees SC. Campos MJ. Manna AC 2008). Ent S.). Pieterse CM 2008). Ranjit KT. Nowack and Bucheli (2007) found little published information about the release of NP in the environment in their efforts to model the risk of Ag NP. etc. Control of pathogenic microbes by antimicrobial NP is a promising approach to defeat the multiresistant pathogens such as methicillinresistant S. nontarget effects on the populations of microbes that play beneficial roles in the environment could have negative consequences. Novel and unprecedented sources are likely: recently. nitrogen. Ramos JL 2005).

Britt D. Dubourguier HC. Tanaka K 2005). Hoon Byeon J. Park JH. This pseudomonad is beneficial in the environment because of its bioremediation potential and it is a strong root colonizer (Ramos-González MI. . Alvarez PJ. Ivask A. Silver S. nano-CuO and nano-ZnO using a biosensor constructed in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. expression from this promoter permits light output dependent on the energy status of the cells (Koga K. Miller CD. Harada T. Campos MJ. Annu Rev Microbiol 1996. Shimizu H. Phung LT. Anderson AJ 2007 The biosensor was constructed to emit light from luxAB genes under the control of a promoter containing a single heavy metal binding domain (MTCGHC). Blinova I. REFERENCES 1. Bacterial heavy metal resistance: new surprises. Liang Y. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of nano-Ag. Because the luciferase encoded by luxAB requires FMNH2 as a substrate.89. Heinlaan M. Kahru A 2008). Sims RC.spore-forming bacterium (Adams LK. Lyon DY.50:753. Hwang J. Ramos JL. Chatterton J. Harrison P. Yoon KY. Child R. Narasimham G.

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