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Introduction Technical Director WoodWorks Southeast Technical Manager – iLevel Staff Engineer – American Wood Council
scott@woodworks.org Phone: 615 439 0624

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10/14/10

Overview Wind Calculating Windspeeds Uplift Wall Design Diaphragms Shearwalls

Designing Wood Frame Structures For High Winds
Presenter: Scott Lockyear, PE
scott@woodworks.org Phone: 615 439 0624

MAKING OUR BUILDINGS SAFE

Preventing Failure

GARAGE DOORS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO TORNADO FORCES MURFREESBORO, TN TORNADO DAMAGE Reference: APA Report – Midwest Tornados 2003

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00256KzKztKdV2 Kz – Table 30. 0.6D + W (ASCE 7-05) 7.6-1 (7-05 Table 6-4) Actual Wind Loads 7.10/14/10 F-2 Tornadoes of SW Missouri 2003 Calculating Windspeeds Determine the Windspeed ASCE 7-05 6: Contained All Provisions ASCE 7-05 90 mph per fig.5-1B for RK III & IV 105 mph per figure 26. 0.4-1 (7-05 Figure 6-11A) GCpi: Table 26.6D + 0.11-1 (7-05 Figure 6-5) 3 .100 115*115*0.6 = 7.5-1C for RK I 115 mph Running the numbers qz = 0.8-1 (7-05 Figure 6-4) Kd – Table 26. 6-1 ASCE 7-10 26: General Requirements 27: MWFRS – Directional 28: MWFRS – Enveloped 29: Other Structures 30: Components & Cladding Appendices ASCE 7-10 (figures replace importance factor) 115 mph per figure 26.935 Final load on building is similar p = qh[(GCp) – (GCpi)] = p (psf) GCp: Figure 30.3-1 (7-05 Table 6-3) Kzt – Figure 26.6W (ASCE 7-10) 90*90 = 8.5-1A for RK II 120 mph per figure 26.

0.3 •Load coming from more than one surface. Wall – Stud Design 3. Shearwalls Example Calculation 20’ SPAN 2’ OVERHANG 115mph Exposure B Beam Source of Wind Load for Design Loads External Pressure Coefficient MWFRS •700ft2 per ASCE 7-10 30.2.4-2A Internal Pressure H2/3 = 222/3 = 161ft2 -1. 30.18 . MWFRS COMPONENT & CLADDING External Pressure Coefficient – Fig.55 – Partially Enclosed 4 .10/14/10 Lets Talk About Wood 1.Enclosed +/.1 FOR INTERIOR +/. Uplift – Roof to Wall Connection 2.4 FOR OVERHANG -1.0. Diaphragms 4.

18) = 25.8 psf ps = pw = 20.8psf)(2ft) = 51.6-1 V: 115 mph Roof Overhang per section 30.1 (Figure 30.10 For Overhangs Figure 30.10/14/10 Running the numbers – Zone 2 GCp: -1.Table 26.8 plf 107.1psf qh = 20.00256KzKztKdV2 Kh : 0.00 .6(12ft*10psf*2ft) = 144 lbs Net Uplift = 453lbs -144lbs = 309lbs Wall Design Considerations Panels Hinges L/d Ratio Unbraced Length Wall Veneer Wind only loading C&C Design Properties DESIGNING WOOD WALLS 5 .70 .8-1 Kd : 0.4) = 31.9psf)(2ft) = 107.6plf 309 309 309 309 Beam Uplift = 0.18 (Table 26.8plf 51.10-1 is utilized poh = 20.8 psf ps pW Determining the Uplift Load p = (25.1(1.85 .8plf(2ft.) + 51.1) = 22.Table 30.6plf poh = (53.1psf(1.Figure 26.6plf*20ft/2) = 453lbs Dead Load = 0.3-1 Kzt : 1.1+0.1psf(1.6(107.1 psf p = 20.4-2A) GCpi: -0.11-1) qh = 0.

10/14/10 LOADS INTO WSP STUDS 16” O. interior wind zone based on 2001 WFCM. 3 second gust 90 windspeed (115) Req’d Panel Thickness 3/8 (in. to framing.C. INTERMEDIATE FASTENER SPACING Hurricane Katrina Which wall is going to withstand high winds? TOP PLATE L/D < 50 2x6: 22’-11” 2x4: 14’-7” Hinges Gable End Wall Hinge • Diaphragm to SW Connection Wood Frame Construction Manual pdf’s available for free download at www.) 12 150 15/32 12 For panels parallel or perp.awc.) Max.org! 6 . Fastener Spacing (in.

Note HRA for 1 hr walls Calculating Deflection  For D of brittle finishes use l/240  For C&C pressures a 30% load reduction is allowed for D only.1. c. TABLE 1604. h. 7 .7 times the “component and cladding” loads for the purpose of determining deflection limits herein. lu ? Strong & weak axis Does Gypsum Provide Weak Axis Buckling Weak Axis Buckling Blocking Can Mid Height Be Utilized During Construction Solid Sawn – End Jointed 2303. b.Approved end-jointed lumber is permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade.3 DEFLECTION LIMITSa.10/14/10 Full Height Studs at Gable End Wall Determining Unbraced Length What is the unbraced length.g CONSTRUCTION L Roof members:e Supporting plaster ceiling l /360 l /360 l /240 Supporting nonplaster ceiling l /240 l /240 l /180 Not supporting ceiling l /180 l /180 l /120 Floor members l /360 — l /240 Exterior walls and interior partitions: With brittle finishes — l /240 — With flexible finishes — l /120 — Farm buildings — — l /180 Greenhouses — — l /120 f. The wind load is permitted to be taken as 0. i S or W f D + Ld.1 Sawn lumber .

 Assume Douglas FirLarch #2  Repetitive Member adjustment = 1.Figure 26.4’  0.c.4h = 0.11-1) qh = 0.00 .4’ for zone 5.6 From NDS 1.2.18 Running the numbers – Zone 4 GCpf: 0.5 2 x6 1.54psf 0.89 (Figure 30.52psf Lumber Design Properties Lumber Design Properties DESIGN PROPERTIES Fb (psi) CD CR CF E (psi) Sx (in3) I (in4)  Design Properties from NDS Supplement.00256KzKztKdV2 Kh : 0.6 Calculated TABLE 2306.89  GCpi = -0.74psf p = 25.25 2 x 10 1.6(27.25  Size Factor = 1.04h=0.  EWA = h^2/3 = 161  GCpf = -0.2 2 x 12 1.6W = 0.2  Duration of Load = 1.Table 26.Walls  Assume wall studs are are 22’ long.1 = 6.8-1 Kd : 0.89+0.18 (Table 26.35 2x8 1.10/14/10 Large Diamond Retailer 22’ tall wood framed walls. External Pressure Coefficients . Assume studs 16” o.64’ or 3’ Figure 30.18) = 27. 130mph Exposure B External Pressure Coefficients .25 From 2006 IBC 1.6 900 From NDS 1.Table 30.1 Calculated 47.2 From NDS 1600000 From NDS 13.85 .1 WALL STUD BENDING STRESS INCREASE FACTORS STUD SIZE SYSTEM FACTOR 2x4 1.4-1  Use 6.6-1 V: 130 mph qh = 25.4-1) GCpi: 0.3-1 Kzt : 1.4*22 = 8.Wall Zones 4 & 5  Lesser of:  10% least horizontal dimension 64’*0.15 8 .  But not less than:  0.74psf(0.70 .8’.54) = 16.

) Dact=5(0.37psf 0.22psf What about corner zones 12” Stud Spacing  Since stud depth cannot be increased consider reducing stud spacing 1470 1308 1470 2365 2365 1308 < 2365 1.6W = 0.04 < 1.98 1.10/14/10 So is our stud going to work?  Two of the most critical design parameters are bending and deflection.04 < 1.6(30.Figure 26.) 4 1226 1102 1308 1102 < 2365 2365 1308 < 2365 0.70 .17 1. RESISTANCE 2 Mapplied=wL /8 (ft-lbs.4-1) GCpi: 0.  Load combinations for.) 1.3-1 Kzt : 1.Table 26.10 Dallowed (in.00 1.18 (Table 26.) 4 LOAD VS.org 9 .04 1.1 Dallowed (in.) Dact=5(0.) Mresistance=Fb'*Sx (ft-lbs.85 .10 1.8-1 Kd : 0.00 (Figure 30.04 < 1.04 LOAD VS.17 > 1.10 1.) Dact=5(0.awc.7w)L /384EI (in. RESISTANCE 2 Mapplied=wL /8 (ft-lbs.0+0.37) = 18.10 1.07 1.7w)L /384EI (in.00256KzKztKdV2 Kh : 0.11-1) qh = 0.  Main Wind Force Loads may be utilized.18) = 30.) 4 Zone 5 pressures GCp: 1. RESISTANCE 2 Mapplied=wL /8 (ft-lbs. L Wall Design Considerations  For other design issues see the article:  Considerations in Wind Design of Wood Structures  Free download available at www.  wind + dead  or dead + live + roof live W D.1 Dallowed (in.1 1.Table 30.00 .74psf(1.6-1 V: 130 mph 1333 1252 1308 1333 < 2365 2365 1308 < 2365 1.74psf p = 25.04 0.7w)L /384EI (in. LOAD VS.) Mresistance=Fb'*Sx (ft-lbs.88 < 1.) qh = 25.) Mresistance=Fb'*Sx (ft-lbs.10 1.) Wall Design Considerations  For tall walls while it is less likely for combined bending and axial to control.07 < 1.88 0.10 1.

org Diaphragm Design WIND LOAD PATH .awc.wwpa.10/14/10 www. TENSILE RESISTANCE Unblocked Diaphragm Blocked Diaphragm 10 . • Sheathing carries shear forces.LATERAL • Diaphragm CHORD FORCES SPLICE IN RIM BOARD acts like a deep beam.org  For other design issues see the article:  Considerations in Wind Design of Wood Structures  Free download available at www. • Chords have T & C forces • Rim board DIAPHRAGM transfers shear TENSILE FORCE LAP IN TOP PLATE PROVIDES CONT.

 Diaphragm Design  Capacity Retail Restaurant – Diaphragm Design  Critical Shearwall at front of building  Check Diaphragm for wind loads on 78’ wall. 24’ 5’ 78’ 23’ 6’ 8’ 10’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 34’ 6’ 6’ 3’ 3’ 11 . 27 Directional Windward Wall (0.8) Leeward Walls (-0. Retail Restaurant  Assume 115mph Exposure B.85) = 0.4)  Leeward Wall (-0. 28 Enveloped WIND LOAD  35% difference in loading not accounting for end zones. 24’ 5’ 78’ 23’ 6’ 8’ 10’ 6’ 4’ 6’ 6’ 34’ 6’ 6’ 3’ 3’ 4’ Retail Restaurant – Diaphragm Design  Critical Shearwall at front of building  Check Diaphragm for wind loads on 78’ wall. 24’ 5’ 78’ 23’ 6’ 8’ 10’ 6’ 4’ 6’ 6’ 34’ 6’ 6’ 3’ 3’  Shearwall Design  Conventional  Force Transfer Around Opening  Perforated Shearwall Retail Restaurant – Diaphragm Design  Critical Shearwall at front of building  Check Diaphragm for wind loads on 78’ wall.10/14/10 STUD TO DIAPHRAGM DIAPHRAGM SHEATHING     Comparison of methods to calculate MWFRS (GC pf)  Ch.935  Windward Wall (0.69  Ch.85 For MWFRS GCpf = (1.3) Determine Gust Effect (G) = 0.29)  For MWFRS GCpf = 0.1)(0.

Retail Restaurant – Diaphragm Design ndiaphragm = 7.14psf GCpf = 0.6=12.5: 20.Capacity COMMON NAIL SIZE OR STAPLEf LENGTH AND GAGE MINIMUM FASTENER PENETRATION IN FRAMING (inches)/ MINIMUM PANEL THIICKNESS 1 3/8” 7/16” MINIMUM NOMINAL WIDTH OF FRAMING MEMBERS AT ADJOINING PANEL EDGES AND BOUNDARIESg (inches) 2 3 Case 1 (No unblocked edges or continuous joints parallel to load) All other configurations (Cases 2.18-0.Figure 27.6*18.00256*0. single floor and other grades covered in DOC PS 1 and PS 2 8d (2½ “ x 0.6*W = 0.WIDTH RATIO Wood structural panel. For Spruce Pine Fir multiply by 0.12psf Leeward Parapet GCpf is1.83psf 0.70*1.131”) 240 265 180 200 Values may be increased 40% for wind and they may be reduced for species with Specific Gravity < 0. Double 4:1 3:1 3:1 4:1 Wind pressure will be calculated using  p = qh[(GCpf)-(GCpi)]      qh = 0. 4.85*[0.935 GCpi = 0. Parapet Design . N-S 4x8 sheathing Roof Trusses 12 .12+12.14*1.4.0*0.059#/34’ ndiaphragm = 208plf 78’ 23’ 24’ 5’ 6’ 8’ 10’ 6’ 4’ 4’ 6’ 6’ 34’ 6’ 6’ 3’ 3’ Based on Section 27.14psf(0.85*1152*1 = 20.059# Diaphragm Types PANEL GRADE Diaphragms .MAXIMUM LENGTH .935) = 18.6=18.3 TYPE .3 < 3.5. blocking omitted at intermediate joints Diagonal Sheathing.83 = 11.2.14*1.8 – (-0.0: 20.3psf For a 78 x 34 diaphragm the aspect ratio is 2.10/14/10 Diaphragm Aspect Ratios Calculating Wind Loads TABLE 2305. see NDS. Single Diagonal Sheathing.08psf 10’ (11.5 Windward Parapet GCpf is 1.3)] = 0. Diaphragm aspect ratio is OK.3psf*(5’+3’)+(18.08)*3’)*(78’/2) = 7.6-2  At parapets windward and leeward pressures occur on each parapet.5*0. 3. 5 and 6) CASE 1 DIAPHRAGM •Higher Shear Values •Panels perpendicular to floor framing for improved performance CASES 2-6 May be preferred for low shear demand where changing framing direction helps •HVAC runs •Fire Blocking/Draft Stopping Sheathing.18 = 0 p = 20.0*0.92. nailed all edges Wood structural panel.

92 Capacity is: 240plf*1. 4.Capacity PANEL GRADE COMMON NAIL SIZE OR STAPLEf LENGTH AND GAGE MINIMUM FASTENER PENETRATION IN FRAMING (inches)/ MINIMUM PANEL THIICKNESS 1 3/8” 7/16” MINIMUM NOMINAL WIDTH OF FRAMING MEMBERS AT ADJOINING PANEL EDGES AND BOUNDARIESg (inches) 2 3 Case 1 (No unblocked edges or continuous joints parallel to load) All other configurations (Cases 2. 3.10/14/10 Diaphragms .4*0.5. F METAL CLIPS FOR ADD’L STRENGTH TOP PLATE 13 .131”) 240 265 180 200 Values may be increased 40% for wind and they may be reduced for species with Specific Gravity < 0. E.92 = 309plf 309plf > 208plf diaphragm load TRANSFERRING DIAPHRAGM SHEAR FORCES BLOCK TO TRANSFER FORCES PARAPET TRANSFERRING DIAPHRAGM SHEAR FORCES SHEAR FORCE FROM DIAPHRAGM SHEAR WALL BELOW DIAPHRAGM TO SHEARWALL FASTENER SHEARWALLS RIM BOARD RIM BOARD WOOD STUDS WSP SHEATHING HOLD-DOWN ANCHOR BOLTS TOENAIL 150plf LIMIT IN SDC D. For Spruce Pine Fir multiply by 0. 5 and 6) TRANSFERRING DIAPHRAGM SHEAR FORCES BLOCK TO TRANSFER FORCES PARAPET Sheathing. see NDS. single floor and other grades covered in DOC PS 1 and PS 2 8d (2½ “ x 0.

Height-to-width ratio is permitted to be 2:1 where the wall is installed as blocked construction in accordance with Section 2306.2. gypsum lath. Ratio shown is for unblocked construction.1.4.4. For design to resist seismic forces. shear wall height-width ratios greater than 2:1.1 are multiplied by 2w/h. nailed For other than all edges seismic: 3½:1 For seismic: 2:1a Diagonal sheathing. 14 .4 MAXIMUM SHEAR WALL DIMENSION RATIOS Wood structural panel or particleboard. single Fiberboard Gypsum board. cement plaster a.10/14/10 SHEARWALLS RACKED SHEARWALL WSP SHEATHING EDGE NAILING PROVIDES RACKING RESISTANCE SHEARWALLS Hold-Down Anchor PREVENT SLIDING! ANCHOR BOLTS • MAX SPACING 72” • WITHIN 12” SW END HOLD-DOWNS RESIST END UPLIFT Shearwall Aspect Ratio TABLE 2305.3. 2:1 1-1/2:1 1-1/2:1b H HOLD-DOWNS L AR = H/L b. are permitted provided the allowable shear values in Table 2306.5. but not exceeding 3½:1.

880# Hold down capacity = 7. use 3 inch nominal framing. 34’ Hold-Down Anchor 10’ 2’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 2’ 15 . 2’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 2’ Conventional Shearwall Overturning nshearwall = 588plf Hold downs required at shearwalls T = nh T = 588plf*10’ = 5. Studs Space fasteners 12 inches on center on intermediate supports.67 nshearwall = 7. If nail spacing is 2” o.045# Hold down deflection = 0. Shear values for 7/16” may be increased to values shown for 15/32-inch sheathing.4*0. acceptable 34’ 3’ 3’ 10’ 10’ Design Table Details – 16” o.c.c.67 34’ 3’ 3’ 10’ 10’ Shearwall Aspect Ratios •Check Aspect Ratios •10’/2’ = 5 •10’/6’ = 1.92 = 631plf 8d nails at 3” o. If 10d nails are utilized along with 3 inch o.c.c.10/14/10 Shearwall Aspect Ratios •Check Aspect Ratios •10’/2’ = 5 •10’/6’ = 1. edge nailing use nominal 3x framing.059# / 12’ = 588plf 34’ 3’ 3’ 10’ 10’ 2’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 2’ 2’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 2’ Conventional Shearwall Capacities nshearwall = 588plf Tabulated Capacity = 490plf Wind Capacity = 490*1.269 in.

nsw (L1) ] Fu = (207plf(2+6) – 584plf*(2) = 930# 2’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 2’ 6’ 14’ 6’ Hold-Down Placement Traditional Hold-Down Placement Perforated 16 .10/14/10 Force Transfer Around Opening Drag Strut.67 nshearwall = 7.059#/16’ = 441plf 34’ 3’ 3’ 6’ 10’ 10’ 2’ Force Transfer Around Opening •See Breyer text •Volume II Structural/Seismic Design Manual at www. Cantilevered Beam.67 WSP SHEATHING 34’  Openings accounted for by strapping or framing  “based on a rational analysis”  H/w ratio defined by wall pier  Reduced number of hold downs.org •Articles by Zeno Martin at APA – contact APA or myself ntop = 207plf nsw = 584plf L1 L2 Fu = [ntop(L1+W) . HOLD DOWNS AT END OF WALL 3’ 3’ 6’ 10’ 10’ 2’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 6’ 2’ Force Transfer Around Opening •Check Aspect Ratios •10’/2’ = 5 Not Adequate •Using the pier height 6’/2’ = 3 which is < 3-1/2:1 •10’/6’ = 1. Force Transfer Around Opening •Check Aspect Ratios •10’/2’ = 5 Not Adequate •Using the pier height 6’/2’ = 3 which is < 3-1/2:1 •10’/6’ = 1.iccsafe. and Coupled Beam Analogies.

00 0.2. H 8' Percentage of fullheight sheathingb 10 20 30 40 50 H/3 2'-8" H/2 4'-0" 2H/3 5'-4" 5H/6 6'-8" H 8'-0" Shear resistance adjustment factor 1.36 1.10/14/10 Perforated Shear Wall Method Fewer hold downs required.74 0.77 0.00 0.3.43 0.2 SHEAR RESISTANCE ADJUSTMENT FACTOR.67 0. Reduced capacity is 631plf*0.00 0.3.59 0.45 1.80 0.50 Rigid Diaphragms (IBC 2305.53 0.2. 12.53 for opening 5H/6.8. 12.57 0.8.00 0. shear capacity is reduced Perforated Shear Wall For a wall with 40% sheathing multiply capacity by 0. Co WSP SHEATHING HOLD DOWNS AT END OF WALL WALL HEIGHT.00 0.71 0.38 1.3.45 0.8.4 – Torsional force distribution OPEN FRONT & PRE FAB WALLS Open Front Bldg (2305.63 0.2 – Irregular and regular classifications  ASCE 7-05 Sec.2 TABLE 2305.53 0.56 0.69 0.5)  Open front  Cantilevered diaphragms  These must conform to  ASCE 7-05 Sec.5) CUREE: UC Berkeley Shake Table Testing F2 F1 17 .42 1.49 0.53 = 334plf < 588plf Excerpt from IBC Table 2305.

1)  Increased forces (12.4.3.2.2  Possible consequences  Prohibited depending on extreme (12.3)  L ≤ 25-ft  Wood Structural Panel diaphragm  L/W ratio < 1 for one-story  L/W ratio < 0.5) Using Pre-fab panels  Exception  When calculations show that diaphragm deflections can be tolerated.3)  3-d modeling (12.059# 3.2.3.5) Open Front Bldg (2305.5  IBC has provisions for deflection  Engineered Narrow Wall Section  Proprietary  Large Hold-down forces  Deflections Shearwall Aspect Ratios •Aspect Ratio Violated •10’/2’ = 5 •V = 7059# 34’ 3’ 3’ 10’ 10’ Using Pre-fab panels LOAD IS = 7.67 for structures over one story Open Front Bldg (2305.10/14/10 Open Front Bldg (2305. L can be increased to a L/W ratio ≤ 1.2.3. 12.4)  Amplified torsional moment (12.5)  Most likely will be classified as irregular per ASCE 7-05 Sec.660# * 2panels = 7.7.3.320#  Engineered Narrow Wall Section  Proprietary  Large Hold-down forces  Deflections 2’ 30’ 2’ 18 .3.8.

TN Narrow Wall Sections Desired  Holes and Notches Multiple Bump Outs  Narrow wall sections desired  Multiple Bump Outs Example Applications Pre-fabricated Panels  Use and Occupancy  12th & Paris  Jared’s Galleria Add image of wall Add image of wall 19 .10/14/10 Using Pre-fab panels 12th & Paris Nashville.

Allowable Tables 2009 IBC table Shearwalls 20 .org Phone: 615 439 0624 Nominal vs. Shearwalls Questions Scott Lockyear WoodWorks scott@woodworks.10/14/10 Pre-fabricated Panels Recap Wind Determining Windspeeds Uplift Wall Stud Design Diaphragms Shearwalls Open-Ness Add image of wall Special Design Provisions for Wind & Seismic IBC trend is for wood design provisions to be in separate standard.