Lesson Plans

CompTIA’s Network+
(Exam N10-002)

Table of Contents
CompTIA’s Network+ ......................................................................................................1 Table of Contents...............................................................................................................1 Course Overview................................................................................................................2 Course Preparation............................................................................................................4 Section 1-1: Networking Theory.......................................................................................5 Section 1-2: Standards Organizations..............................................................................8 Section 1-3: A Typical Computer Network...................................................................10 Section 1-4: Varieties of Computer Networks...............................................................13 Section 2-1: The OSI Application Layer........................................................................16 Section 2-2: The OSI Presentation Layer......................................................................18 Section 2-3: The OSI Session Layer...............................................................................21 Section 2-4: The OSI Transport Layer..........................................................................23 Section 2-5: The OSI Network Layer.............................................................................25 Section 2-6: The OSI Data Link Layer..........................................................................28 Section 2-7: The OSI Physical Layer.............................................................................31 Section 2-8: Multi-Layer Concepts.................................................................................34 Section 3-1: Cables and Connectors...............................................................................36 Section 3-2: Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)................................................................................39 Section 3-3: Other LAN Standards................................................................................43 Section 3-4: WAN Links..................................................................................................46 Section 4-1: Common Protocol Suites............................................................................50 Section 4-2: TCP/IP.........................................................................................................56 Section 5-1: Security........................................................................................................65 Section 5-2: Fault Tolerance...........................................................................................70 Section 5-3: Performance................................................................................................73 Section 6-1: Installation...................................................................................................75 Section 6-2: Maintenance................................................................................................78 Section 6-3: Troubleshooting..........................................................................................80 Appendix A: Network+ Exam Objectives.....................................................................84

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)

1

Course Overview
This course prepares students for the Microsoft certification Exam N10-002, CompTIA's Network+ Certification. Before beginning the Network+ course, students should have a basic knowledge of computer hardware and software. CompTIA's A+ certification is excellent preparation. Recommend that students consider completing the following courses: o TestOut for CompTIA's A+ Core Hardware o TestOut for CompTIA's A+ Operating System Technologies

Module 1
Module 1 introduces the concept of a network.

Module 2
Module 2 explains details of the OSI model.

Module 3
Module 3 introduces Physical and Data Link standards used to build a network's foundation.

Module 4
Module 4 introduces common protocols that correspond to the upper layers of the OSI model. The focus is the TCP/IP protocol suite.

Module 5
Module 5 explains principles for managing access to the network and its resources.

Module 6
Module 6 explains and summarizes several network administration tips.

Module 7
Module 7 reviews details for the Network+ exam. It is meant to be used as a final review and study guide.

Network+ Exam Focus
This section of each lesson plan summarizes the most important topics for the Network+ exam. If your course focuses on exam preparation, be sure to emphasize these topics.

Lab/Activities
This section of each lesson plan contains two different types of activities that can be adapted to your classroom environment. Lecture activities can be presented on the board or with handouts. They do not require student computers, so they work well in a ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 2

and clients. Present this question at the end of class. You want them to preview the next section for a basic answer. Consider the focus question for Section 1-3. It will also help you assess student understanding of the topic. If you don’t teach in a computer lab. have students record/document the steps required to complete certain procedures.traditional classroom. • Connectivity devices like routers and hubs. Homework Suggestions Require each student to maintain a lab notebook. but make sure they understand that you don’t need a complete answer. Computer lab activities require a lab where students are able to configure their own computers. It also provides an assessment tool for the instructor. Start each class with the focus question presented in the previous class. and gives the student a place to look for directions when they want to repeat a task. Recording procedures reinforces steps and concepts. the computer lab activities can be used as homework. servers. This can help stimulate a better quality discussion and questions during the lecture. Encourage students to be prepared to answer the question. This could be a simple spiral notebook or a three-ring binder. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 3 . What are the major components of a computer network? Students should be able to provide simple responses such as: • Resources. The Homework Suggestions section also lists the focus question for the next section. As part of their homework and during lab activities. but don’t remember the exact procedure.

This allows you to teach multiple classes in a single lab. consider investing in disk duplication software. The suggested computer labs were written for Windows 2000 Professional computers. You may want to require students to bring their own headphones or provide them. there are a few places where a server is helpful. Students check out the drives for their classes. Student computer setup Computers need to be able to run the TestOut material. This material assumes you are running Windows 2000. your classroom hub or switch will be accessible so you can unplug the classroom network from the rest of the network. while preventing one class from damaging or destroying the installations used by another class. when students practice assigning IP addresses. Instructor computer setup Install Windows 2000 Server on the instructor computer. You may want to arrange a tour of your building’s infrastructure. However. computer should have sound cards. Ideally. unplug the classroom so you don’t have to worry about duplicate IP addresses.Course Preparation In Advance Setup TestOut courseware and create student accounts. For example. but most labs can be adapted to other Windows operating systems. simply unplug the classroom until the practice is over. One way to create this a practice lab is to use removable hard drives in the student computers. When running something that is potentially disruptive. You may want to set up the computer to dual boot between Windows 2000 server and Professional. in Section 2-5. To facilitate the frequent computer operating system rebuilds required by this type of lab. You could also create unattended installation files to automate the baseline Windows 2000 installations needed for the lab computers. It’s a great way to enforce networking concepts. if you are running Windows 2000 Server you can use your computer to demonstrate routing concepts. but you could also use Windows NT 4. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 4 . For example. Most of the concepts can be adequately demonstrated on Windows 2000 Professional computer. This allows you to practice items that are potentially disruptive. Because the TestOut material contains audio.0.

client. Hand out and explain syllabus. Before class. 5 ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . lab policies. network layer.A device that connects multiple computers together in a local area network. service. OSI model. as a normal hub does. session layer. explain why they are taking the course. it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets.Section 1-1: Networking Theory Preparation This section introduces basic networking concepts. make sure the courseware is installed and student accounts have been created. and routes data between each segment. and associate devices with the correct layer.A hub that directs a network packet only to the destination host's port instead of all ports. Doing so increases network performance. transport layer. physical layer Focus Question: What is a computer network? Time About 2 hours Network+ Exam Focus Network Components • Router .6 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery. • Hub . OSI Model • Be able to recite the OSI layers in order. • Repeater . 3.A device that baseband networking systems use to regenerate digital signals when they attenuate.Any device that translates between protocols. Vocabulary: network. Exam Objectives 2. and what they hope to get out of it.5 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance. identify the main purpose of each layer. 3. Lecture Tips • • • Introduce Instructor. When a packet arrives at one port. Have each student introduce themselves. presentation layer. A gateway can be hardware or software based. • Gateway . data link layer.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions. resource. • Switch . application layer. and any other required introductory material.A device that connects two or more segments of a network with different IDs.

• • • • • • • • • • Explain the lab notebook to students and make sure they understand that they must have a notebook for the next class session. Briefly introduce the OSI model. Counsel students who don’t meet the prerequisite requirements. CompTIA's A+ certification is excellent preparation. o Application layer. • Try activities to help students put the OSI layers in the correct order. • The following idea would make a nice pop quiz for the next class period. Explain the function of each OSI layer. Introduce managing network access. Demonstrate login to network. o Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away. o Physical layer. o Computers connected to exchange information. services. and clients. Introduce OSI mnemonics. o Network layer. o Installation. o Session layer. o Give a student a function and ask him or her to identify the layer. o Have students write the OSI layers in order three times. o Troubleshooting. Introduce common network administration tasks. students should have a basic knowledge of computer hardware and software. Introduce the concept of a computer network. Demonstrate how to access the courseware. o Give a student a layer and ask him or her to identify the function. o Transport layer. Define network resources. o Write the OSI layers in order and define the main purpose of each layer. Before beginning the Network+ course. o Data link layer. Computer Lab Activity ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 6 . o Define network security. and identify function of each layer. o Bring labeled blocks and ask students to stack them. o Maintenance. o Define network performance. o Presentation layer. o All People Should Transport Network Data Physically. Have students line up in the correct order. o Define network fault tolerance. o Label cards with OSI layers and hand them out to the class. Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • Have the class recite the OSI mnemonics aloud a few times.

Assessment Use the introduction to basic networking terms to check prerequisite background. Students who have trouble finding the Start Menu or using the mouse probably belong in a basic skills course.• Log on to the network and start the courseware. o How are networking standards set? ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 7 . As students log on and start the courseware. Research the focus question for the next section. check for basic interface skills. Homework Suggestions • • Read Section 1-1 and take the section test.

Tips • • Start with the focus question. Assessment Check lab notebooks. IEEE. ITU. ISOC. RFC Focus Question: How are networking standards set? Time About 30 minutes Network+ Exam Focus This section does not directly address any exam objectives. o InterNIC o ICANN o IEC o ANSI o ITU o EIA/TIA Lab/Activity Computer Lab Activity • Go to http://www. .2 standard. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Briefly discuss the role of each of the standards organizations.icann. exam requirements include knowledge of the IEEE 802. Vocabulary: ISO. EIA/TIA. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 8 . InterNIC. some of these organizations are mentioned later in the course when students are introduced to standards. o ISO o IEEE o ISOC • Discuss RFCs.org/ and find out how to register for an Internet domain name.Section 1-2: Standards Organizations Preparation This section introduces several organizations that are involved in setting networking standards. ANSI. ICANN. IEC. However. For example.

ieee.Homework Suggestions • • • • Read Section 1-2 and take the section test. (Don’t expect students to read or understand the RFC at this point. o What are the major components of a typical network? Use the Internet to find an RFC describing private IP addressing. o Search for Ethernet.org/. What number(s) is/are associated with the Token Ring standard? ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 9 . Research the focus question for the next section. What number(s) is/are associated with the Ethernet standard? o Search for Token Ring.) Where did you find it? Go to http://standards.

Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Introduce typical computer network components. connectivity devices. gateway Focus Question: What are the major components of a typical network? Time About 1 hour Network+ Exam Focus Network Components • Network Interface Card (NIC) . router. 2. client software. o Service software. • NAS – another name for a file server. Exam Objectives 1. Network Implementation • Network Attached Storage (NAS) . thin client. o Network card and driver. application. network card. • Internal server devices. servers. Lecture Tips • • • Start with the focus question. Vocabulary: client. bridge.Section 1-3: A Typical Computer Network Preparation This section introduces components used to build a typical computer network. repeater. hub.A device inserted into a slot in a computer that allows it to connect to the network. Offers storage space to clients. protocol. clients. o Resources.4 Identify the OSI layers at which network components operate. 3. Discuss network resources and servers. cable. NAS differs from a storage area network (SAN) in that a SAN offers high-speed data storage and retrieval to servers only. workstation.Another name for a file server. server.6 Identify the purpose. o Protocol software. • External server devices including resources. o Explain the difference between: • External server devices. resource. switch. service software. driver. 10 • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . patch panel. and functions of network components. Discuss client computers.4 Identify the main characteristics of network attached storage. features.

o Physical layer . o Give students a list of devices and have them identify the layers at which the devices work Computer Lab Activity • If you can. over the physical connection. • Use a diagram of the OSI layers on two computers. • The following idea would make a nice pop quiz for the next class period. • Router o Various layers. • Gateway Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • Write layers and devices on slips of paper and put them in a box. Discuss connectivity devices. take a tour of a wiring closet and point out cables. • Cable • Repeater • Hub (passive and active) • Patch panel o Data link layer. o Explain how the network communication takes place with respect to the OSI model. • Stress the fact that a connectivity device operates at specific layer(s) of the OSI model. o Network card and driver. Assessment Check lab notebooks. patch panels. Have each student retrieve a card and identify the layer associated with the device or one device associated with the layer. Discuss network communication between two devices. hubs. Students need to be able to associate devices with layers for the certification exam. and up the OSI layers on the second computer. o Client software.• • o Applications. Show how data passes down the OSI layers on the first computer. routers. o Protocol software. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 11 . etc. o Explain how the network communication can be passed through connectivity devices. • Bridge • Switch o Network layer.

http://www. (You may want to skim these and reread after completing Module 2. Research the focus question for the next section. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 12 .com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/lanswtch.cisco.) o White Paper: Layer 3 Switching Demystified. http://www.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/ is a great source for introductions to many networking topics.htm o LAN Switching and VLANS.cisco. http://www.Homework Suggestions • • • Read Section 1-3 and take the section test.cisco. o How are networks classified.com/warp/public/cc/so/neso/lnso/cpso/l3c85_wp. and what types of services do they typically provide? Read a few resources from Cisco.htm# xtocid1 o Internetworking Technology Handbook.

application server. protocol suite. and what types of services do they typically provide? Time About 1 hour Network+ Exam Focus Remote Access Protocols • ICA . print server. 2. user level security. Exam Objectives 1. features. fax server. password protected shares. so at this point simply mention that they exist. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Networks can be classified by size and scope. mail server. How does your network fit into these categories? o LAN o MAN o WAN Briefly mention LAN and WAN standards.A protocol developed by Citrix. WAN. • Ethernet. 13 • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . directory server. share level security. FDDI. file server.6 Identify the purpose. The application remains on the server and the interface is presented to the user. Wi-Fi. • What does your network use? o WAN technologies. peer-to-peer.11 Identify the basic characteristics of WAN technologies. such as network size and network standards. network operating system Focus Question: How are networks classified. These are covered in detail later in the course. remote access server. server-based.Section 1-4: Varieties of Computer Networks Preparation This section introduces some of the major factors that influence network type. o LAN technologies. and functions of network components. web server. Vocabulary: LAN. authentication. which allows a user to remotely control an application (such as a word processor) on a server. database server. Explain each concept. Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. MAN. Token Ring.12 Define the function of remote access protocols and services. 2.

o Server-base networks (client/server networks). SNA. Use your own network as an example. Artisoft LANtastic. DSL. 14 • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . IPX/SPX. • Authentication. so at this point simply mention that they exist. o Define protocol suite/stack. use examples from your own network environment. 98. Discuss security models. DNA. o Share level security. o Peer-to-peer with share-level security. • What does your network use? • What do students use to connect to the Internet from home? Briefly mention protocol suites. • The application remains on the server and the interface is presented to the user. NetBIOS/NetBEUI. o TCP/IP. IBM OS/2 Warp Client. T1/E1 or T3/E3. o What type of security does your network use? How do students access resources? o Discuss vendors and network operating systems. SONet. VINES. or ME). o User level security. These are covered in detail later in the course. • Microsoft Windows 9x (95. o What does your network use? Networks provide services and resources. Apple Macintosh OS. o Peer-to-peer networks. SDH. Discuss client/service roles.11 for Workgroups.• • • • PSTN. ISDN. Do students use any of these services at school? What types of servers are providing these resources? o File o Web o Print o Mail o Fax o Application o Database o Directory o Remote access o ICA • Developed by Citrix. Frame Relay. Whenever possible. o Define network operating system. • Password protected shares. AppleTalk. XNS. ATM. • Allows a user to remotely control an application (such as a word processor) on a server. Microsoft Windows 3. DOCSIS. Discuss common services.

Research the focus question for the next section. XP Professional. IBM OS/2 Warp Server. Banyan VINES. UNIX. Log on again. Microsoft LAN Manager. o Identify servers and discuss the services provided by each server. o Server-based with user-level security. right-click My Computer. Apple Macintosh OS Server. UNIX. Then logon again with a different user name. • Microsoft Windows NT Server. AppleShare IP. Lab/Activity Computer Lab Activity • Log on to the network as a group.o Peer-to-peer with user-level security. logon with a user name. but this time cancel the logon dialog box so that no user name is entered. Are these actual user accounts? Do they control your ability to use the computer? What are they for? ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 15 . Novell NetWare. o Identify client computers.NET Server. What type of security are you using? How do you know? Do the interfaces and operating system give you any indication of the type of security? • Use My Network Places (Network Neighborhood) to browse your computer network. share level security. or . 2000 Professional. o What are the functions of the application layer of the OSI model? On a Windows 2000 Professional computer. 2000 Server. IBM LAN Server. XP Home. Are any of them participating in a peer-to-peer network? Assessment Check lab notebooks. Browse to System Tools > Local Users and Groups > Users. Homework Suggestions • • • • Read Section 1-4 and take the section test. then click Manage. • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation. Discuss the logon screen and user vs. What user accounts exist? Does this computer use share or user level security? On a Windows 9x/Me computer.

remote access. Discuss service protocols. this is a common misunderstanding.Section 2-1: The OSI Application Layer Preparation The Application layer of the OSI model (Layer 7) describes how network clients learn about and use network services. Briefly discuss service advertisement. passive client advertisement. o Active service advertisement. application. active client advertisement. o Example: You are running Word and try to open a file stored on a file server and the request for the file is transferred to the network by the application layer. directory. passive service advertisement.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions. mail. active service advertisement. o Passive client advertisement. service protocols Focus Question: What are the functions of the application layer of the OSI model? Time About 1 hour Network+ Exam Focus OSI Model • The Application layer provides an interface to the software that allows programs to use network services. o Active client advertisement. database. Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. o Passive service advertisement. fax. Vocabulary: service advertisement. Exam Objectives 2. The term application does not refer to a specific program. such as a word processor. web. such as a word processor. This section discusses concepts related to the Application layer. o Remind students of major services: file. print. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? The Application layer provides an interface to the software that allows programs to use network services. 16 • • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . o The term application does not refer to a specific program.

They tell the browser which service protocol you are using.microsoft. What type of advertisement technique does it use? ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 17 . Point out the http and ftp protocols.o There are protocols to support each of these services. (Check sites to make sure they are available before class. Research the focus question for the next section.) o Use a browser to open http://www. o What are the functions of the presentation layer of the OSI model? Research the following question. A few examples that students may recognize: • HTTP supports transfer of web files between web servers and web clients. and SMTP server configuration parameters. Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol suite contains the Service Advertisement Protocol (SAP). • What protocol does your network use for its directory service? Lab/Activity Computer Lab Activity • Explore a few service protocols. IMAP. o Open a mail client such as Outlook Express. • SMTP allows a client to send mail. Homework Suggestions • • • Read Section 2-1 and take the section test. POP3 allows a client to receive mail. Open the properties for a mail account and point out the POP.com and an ftp site. Assessment Check lab notebooks.

It manages encryption and decryption. • How do you exchange the key safely? o Asymmetric encryption. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? The Presentation layer acts as a translator between the application and the network. It formats data in a fashion that the network can use. • The details of data encryption are not required for the Network+ exam. However. private key. It manages encryption and decryption. data compression. digital signature. cover it. public key. It formats data in a fashion that the network can use. secret key encryption. asymmetric encryption. Vocabulary: data encryption.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions. digital envelope. • One key is used to encrypt and decrypt. session key. signing. Exam Objectives 2.Section 2-2: The OSI Presentation Layer Preparation The Presentation layer of the OSI model (Layer 6) describes how information is translated into an appropriate format to be transmitted over a network. Presentation layer protocols also code and decode graphic and file format information. Discuss data encryption. so if you have time in your schedule. prepare the lecture activity. sealing Focus Question: What are the functions of the presentation layer of the OSI model? Time About 1 hour Network+ Exam Focus OSI Model • The Presentation layer acts as a translator between the application and the network. Presentation layer protocols also code and decode graphic and file format information. 18 • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. symmetric encryption. Before class. this topic comes up frequently in networking and computer security. This section discusses concepts related to the Presentation layer. o Symmetric encryption (secret key encryption).

o Communicate using less data.  Who can read the message?  What is the security issue with this technique? (How do you keep the key secret – you need to get a copy of it to the person who is supposed to be able to read the message. Label one private and the other public.) ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 19 . you must have sent the message. o Why do you want data compression when you make a 56K dial-up connection to your ISP? o Why do we compress pictures posted on the web? What is a jpeg? Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • Make two identical keys.) • Asymmetric encryption activity. but don’t let them see your private key. Make a point of using your private key to open the envelope. • Digital envelope use to seal a message – keep the message secret. Explain that you are using your key to encrypt your message. (Have student put the message in the envelope and lock it with the key. o Use the lecture activity to help students understand this topic Discuss data compression. (It’s private!)  Who can read the message?  What happens if your private key is compromised? o Now demonstrate signing. If students can decrypt your signature. • Symmetric encryption activity. o Give a symmetric key to one student. o Give the message paper to a student. Write your name on the message and use your private key to encrypt the signature. Make two different keys. and put your private key in your pocket or desk. • Digital signature used to sign a message – proof of identity . Then pass the message around the class.  Who can decrypt the signature? (Stress that they all have access to the public key.• • Public key available to anyone.) o Pass the message around the class until it gets to you. Ask him or her to encrypt the message with your public key. Label them both symmetric. o Put your public key on display in front of the class.)  What is the point of signing the message? (You are the only one with your public key.)  Why can the student encrypt the message? (Stress the point that your public key really is public and anyone can use it to encrypt something. You also need a piece of paper to represent a message and an envelope. • Private key kept secret.

o What are the functions of the session layer of the OSI model? Use the Internet to investigate PGP – Pretty Good Privacy. Research the focus question for the next section. or use Windows Explorer to determine the size of each file.gif format. Open file properties. Homework Suggestions • • • • Read Section 2-2 and take the section test.What happens if your private key is compromised? (Someone else can pretend to be you!) Computer Lab Activity • Open or create a . o Many countries restrict access to or export of encryption technologies. Use the Internet to investigate encryption restrictions. Save the file using the . o Why? What types of restrictions can you find? Does the US have any restrictions? ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 20 . How much was the file compressed when you saved it as a gif?  Assessment Check lab notebooks.bmp with Paint.

or terminate the connection. maintain. maintain. It describes how network clients and services establish. connectionless communication. Exam Objectives 2. 21 • • • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. maintain. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? The Session layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing and maintaining a connection between two nodes on the network. o Establish. Vocabulary: connection-oriented communication. o Does not establish. o Does not verify existence of the other device. maintain. session initialization. o Creates overhead. o Creates a session. and terminate communication sessions with each other. maintain. It describes how network clients and services establish. Get a couple small. Discuss connectionless communication. session termination Focus Question: What are the functions of the session layer of the OSI model? Time About 1 hour Network+ Exam Focus OSI Model • The Session layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing and maintaining a connection between two nodes on the network. o The term “traffic cop” is often used to describe this layer Do the lecture activity.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions. session maintenance. o Reliable.Section 2-3: The OSI Session Layer Preparation The Session layer of the OSI model (Layer 5) describes how network clients and services establish. and terminate communication sessions with each other. and terminate communication sessions with each other. This section discusses concepts related to the Session layer. Discuss connection-oriented. soft balls for the lecture activity. terminate the connection.

How does TCP perform handshaking? ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 22 . o What are the functions of the transport layer of the OSI model? Research TCP. Then tell another student that you are going to toss a ball his or her way. o Session maintenance (data transmission phase).• o Less reliable. Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • You want to introduce the idea of making a connection before starting to communicate. Simply toss a ball to someone in the class. and throw the ball. Homework Suggestions • • • Read Section 2-3 and take the section test. Discuss connection-oriented communication phases. Research the focus question for the next section. o Session initialization (handshaking). which approach is more reliable? o If all you are worried about is throwing the ball. o If you want someone to catch the ball. o Session termination (connection release). Don’t give the students any warning. o Less overhead. which approach is faster? o Which approach takes more effort on your part? Assessment Check lab notebooks. which is a connection oriented protocol.

without errors. and in the correct sequence. stop-and-go flow control. unacknowledged communication.Section 2-4: The OSI Transport Layer Preparation The Transport layer of the OSI model (Layer 4) describes how messages are accurately delivered between network clients and services. the speed at which the recipient can accept data. and in the correct sequence.464 to 17. If a message is too large for type of network. accurate communication. without errors. flow control.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions. the Transport layer breaks the message into smaller pieces. windowed flow control Focus Question: What are the functions of the transport layer of the OSI model? Time About 1 hour Network+ Exam Focus OSI Model • The Transport layer makes sure that messages are transferred from node A to node B reliably. Use the lecture activity to introduce acknowledged and unacknowledged communication. guaranteed rate flow control. o It manages flow control. Token Ring packets may be much larger (4. error control. If a packet is too large when it passes from the Token Ring network to the Ethernet network. This section discusses concepts related to the Transport layer. stop-andwait flow control. it has to be broken into smaller pieces. receive buffer.914 bytes). 23 • • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . the Transport layer breaks the message into smaller pieces. o If a message is too large for type of network. Exam Objectives 2. o More overhead. the speed at which the recipient can accept data. source-quench flow control. • Example: Most Ethernet networks cannot use packets greater than 1500 bytes. Vocabulary: acknowledged communication. Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. It manages flow control. Define acknowledged communication. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? The Transport layer makes sure that messages are transferred from node A to node B reliably.

“yes I got that data. • Stop-and-wait flow control. o What are the functions of the network layer of the OSI model? Research TCP windowed flow control. o Explain receive buffers. The second student takes the cards. Define flow control. Define error control. even if he drops a card. one student passes a card to another. o Briefly mention different approaches to flow control. What happens to the messages when the buffer is full? Assessment Did students participate? Homework Suggestions • • • Read Section 2-4 and take the section test. Draw a picture of a device with three buffers. but doesn’t say anything. o With two students.• • • • o Example: TCP sends back messages in effect saying. • Windowed flow control. The first student simply hands the cards over as fast as he can. • Guaranteed rate flow control. o Quick. one student passes a card to another.) o Which technique is faster? Which is more accurate? Which generates more overhead? • Introduce the need for flow control. without overwhelming the receiver. • Source-quench flow control. Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • Introduce acknowledged and unacknowledged communication. How does it work? ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 24 . o The sender should send data as rapidly as possible.” Define unacknowledged communication. Use the lecture activity to introduce the need for flow control. The second student must say “I have card 1” before the first student can pass the next card. Research the focus question for the next section. • Stop-and-go flow control. o The sender should resend segments that are not received. o With two students. but less accurate. (Encourage the second student to drop a card. Have another device rapidly send messages. You need a few note cards to represent message segments.

and select Disable Routing and Remote Access. packet switched. Run the RRAS wizard and configure the computer as a router. after class. It also resolves the logical computer address (at the network layer) with the physical address of the network adapter (at the data link layer). 2.Section 2-5: The OSI Network Layer Preparation The Network layer of the OSI model (Layer 3) describes how data is routed to its destination. cut-through data transfer. This section discusses basic concepts related to the Network layer. Select the router option and follow the steps in the wizard.A device that connects two or more segments of a network with different IDs. right click the server. use Add/Remove Hardware to install a second. circuit switched. features. dynamic routing table. storeand-forward data transfer. Open Routing and Remote Access. Network Components • Router . packet intelligent. If you only have one NIC in the computer. multicast. route table. configure your computer as a router. and functions of the following network components: 2. multi-point addressing. permanent circuits. Before class. right click the server. non-routable. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 25 .4 Identify the OSI layers at which the following network components operate: Vocabulary: routable. and select Enable Routing and Remote Access. router intelligent. This sets up a routing table that you can demonstrate for the class. Configure the IP settings for the NIC. unicast. Exam Objectives 1. point-to-point addressing.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions. static routing table. and routes data between each segment. on-demand circuits. fake NIC. source intelligent. Then use Device Manager to uninstall the fake NIC. If your computer is not normally configured as a router.6 Identify the purpose. broadcast Focus Question: What are the functions of the network layer of the OSI model? Time About 1½ hours Network+ Exam Focus OSI Model • The Network layer determines how data is routed from one part of the network to another. network address. open Routing and Remote Access.

o The network layer is responsible for routing data between subnetworks. o What is the function of a router? (Stress this topic. o Discuss routable addressing. • A routable address has segment IDs.) o Point-to-point – send a message from one computer to another computer • Unicast. so computers on different segments can communicate. All data moves along that route. • Circuit switching . It needs some type of addressing to identify computers. • Router intelligent. Define network addressing.A technology that allows packets from the same transmission to take different routes to reach their destination. o Very briefly discuss routing methods (This is not needed for the exam. It also resolves the logical computer address (at the network layer) with the physical address of the network adapter (at the data link layer). • Packet intelligent. so it can decide where to send the messages.) • Circuit switched. (Stress this topic.A technology that creates a dedicated route or circuit between two hosts on a WAN. • On-demand circuits. • A non-routable address does not have segment IDs.) o Discuss non-routable addressing.WAN Technologies • Packet switching . 26 • • • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . so computers on different segments cannot communicate. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? The Network layer determines how data is routed from one part of the network to another. Explain how non-routable and routable addressing works in this environment. • Source intelligent. o Point-to-multicast – send a message from one computer to many • Broadcast. (Stress this topic. • Packet switched. Explain the difference between point-to-point and multipoint addressing. Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. • Multicast. o Draw a picture of a network with a router connecting a few segments. Define routing. • Permanent circuits.) • It looks at the network address on a message and determines where to send the message.

• Dynamic route tables. • Routing protocols allow routers to communicate and build the tables dynamically. Research the focus question for the next section. Discuss route tables. • A lot of work in large environments. Lab/Activity Computer Lab Activity • Use the route command to display the routing table on student computers. • Use the route command on your computer to show your routing table. o Type route /? for help. o What are the functions of the data link layer of the OSI model? Use the Internet to investigate routers. • Administrator enters information manually. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 27 . Homework Suggestions • • • Read Section 2-5 and take the section test. o Explain the difference between: • Static route tables. • Cut-through data transfer.• • Store-and-forward data transfer. Point out that you have two NICs in your computer. Assessment Check lab notebooks. o This is how the router determines where to send the message. Compare features and price of two different routers.

Exam Objectives 1.Section 2-6: The OSI Data Link Layer Preparation The Data Link layer of the OSI model (Layer 2) describes how one node prepares data to be sent to another node. Every NIC is hard-coded with a MAC address. media access control. Some addresses should be legitimate. Vocabulary: framing. VLAN. some not. This section discusses concepts related to the Data Link layer.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions. CSMA/CA. Before class create a handout listing about 5 to 10 different MAC addresses. time division.6 Identify the purpose. If divides data from the Network layer into frames that can be transmitted on the Physical layer.A network of computers that behave as if they are connected in a single segment even though they are physically located on different segments of a LAN. token passing. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 28 . switch.3 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs. Network Implementation • Virtual LAN (VLAN) . It is comprised of six pairs of hexadecimal numbers. CSMA/CD. 2. features. and functions of the following network components: 2.4 Identify the OSI layers at which the following network components operate: 3.1 Given an example. polling. physical address. MAC Address • A MAC address is a hardware address that uniquely identifies each host on a network. identify a MAC address. MAC address. sequencing. hardware address. 2. An example of a MAC address is: 00-A9-23-B355-FF. and how multiple nodes coordinate the use of a single physical communication medium. bridge. broadcast domain Focus Question: What are the functions of the data link layer of the OSI model? Time About 1 hour Network+ Exam Focus OSI Model • The Data Link layer controls communication between the Network and Physical layers.

o Indicating the beginning and end of data transmission. o Synchronizing sender and receiver. • • Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • Pass out the handout and ask students to identify the legitimate MAC addresses. o Sequencing. • Physical address. • Use ipconfig /all to show students the MAC address on the instructor computer. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 29 . hardware address. o Define broadcast domain o What happens when many computers share the same broadcast domain? How does lots of broadcast traffic affect your network? o Explain how bridges work. o Polling Discuss bridging. o Explain how switches work. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? The Data Link layer controls communication between the Network and Physical layers. If divides data from the Network layer into frames that can be transmitted on the Physical layer. Record results in lab notebooks. Introduce framing. • CSMA/CA. o Explain how VLANs work. • Time division. • Token passing. and VLANs.Lecture Tips • • • Start with the focus question. Discuss media access control methods. o CSMA. MAC address.) • Which of the following are legitimate MAC addresses? o A9-11-0C-B3-97-G1 o JB-A9-45-AC-75-71 o 12-56-63-88-4H-FF o 5D-92-E9-AA-52-FF o EF-C4-D4-7C-23-5A Computer Lab Activity • Use ipconfig /all (or winipcfg) to determine the MAC addresses of the lab computers. (You may want to use this as pop quiz during your next class period. o Stress physical addressing. • CSMA/CD. switching.

Homework Suggestions • • • Read Section 2-6 and take the section test. Compare features and price of two different switches. o What are the functions of the physical layer of the OSI model? Use the Internet to investigate switches.Assessment Check lab notebooks. Check MAC address quiz. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 30 . Research the focus question for the next section.

logical topology.4 Identify the OSI layers at which the following network components operate: 4. bus. mesh. coaxial cable.12 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a wiring/infrastructure problem. Exam Objectives 1.Each host is connected to its neighbor until all hosts in the network form a ring. digital. point-to-point connection. signaling.Hosts are connected along a single trunk cable.10 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology and including a network diagram.Hosts are connected to hubs or switches ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 31 . cellular.Section 2-7: The OSI Physical Layer Preparation The Physical layer describes how nodes generate physical signals and how the signals are physically transmitted to other nodes. Prepare diagrams to help explain the different network topologies. Create a handout containing pictures of different physical topologies.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions. electromagnetic spectrum. Before class. ring. and functions of the following network components: 2. 2. broadband. collect examples of cables for demonstration. network topology. 4. Network Topologies • Bus . analog. This section discusses concepts related to the Physical layer. tree. hybrid topology.6 Identify the purpose. baseband Focus Question: What are the functions of the physical layer of the OSI model? Time About 1½ hours Network+ Exam Focus OSI Model • Physical layer controls the way data is actually sent over the physical medium. fiber-optic cable. backbone. star. twisted pair cable.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a schematic diagram or description: 1. features. • Star . identify the cause of the problem. • Ring . Vocabulary: communication media. multipoint connection. identify the network area affected and the cause of the problem. physical topology.

• Mesh - Hosts have more than one connection to the network Network Components • Transceiver - the device that converts signals from the computer to signals sent over the wire, and vice versa. Today, most transceivers are built into NICs.

Lecture Tips
• • Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Physical layer controls the way data is actually sent over the physical medium. It addresses data coding and the physical components. o Data coding specifies items such as which signal actually represents a 0 and which represents a 1. Discuss communication media. o Electromagnetic spectrum. • Radio, microwave, infrared. • Wireless communication. • Do students use any wireless devices? Do they know which technology is used? • Remote control, handheld computer. o Common types of cable. • Coaxial cable. • Twisted pair cable. • STP, UTP. • Fiber-optic cable. • Multimode, single-mode. • What type of wire is used for cable TV? A phone line? • Do any students have home networks? What communication media do they use? • What does the school use? Define network topology. o Explain the difference between point-to-point connections and multipoint connections.. o Present diagrams to help explain each of the different topologies • Bus. • Ring. • Dual, counter-rotating rings. • Star. • Stress the difference between physical topology and logical topology. • Physical star, logical bus. • Physical star, logical ring. • Tree. • Mesh. • Partial mesh, full mesh. 32

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• Cellular. • Hybrid topology. • Backbone. Discuss signaling. o Network cards contain transceivers. They transmit and receiver signals over the communication medium. • For example, the NIC prepares the signal to be sent over the wire and picks up signals from the wire. o Compare analog and digital signals. Draw pictures of signals. • Analog – continuous. • Digital – discrete. o Compare broadband and baseband signals.

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity • Pass out example cables as you discuss different types of communication media. • Pass out the topology handout and ask students to identify each topology. (You may want to use this as a pop quiz during your next class period.) Computer Lab Activity • Diagram the physical cable layout of the lab.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks. Check topology handouts.

Homework Suggestions
• • • Read Section 2-7 and take the section test. Research the focus question for the next section. o How do you use the OSI model in a real network? Draw a diagram of your home’s wiring infrastructure. This is most likely to be a few cable TV lines, but it could also be a home network.

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Section 2-8: Multi-Layer Concepts
Preparation
This section discusses concepts related to multiple layers of the OSI model. Before class, prepare to demonstrate bindings on the instructor computer. Install an additional protocol if there is only one installed. Vocabulary: encapsulation, binding, multiplexing, addressing, resolution Focus Question: How do you use the OSI model in a real network?

Time
About 1 hour

Network+ Exam Focus
This section does not directly address any exam objectives in detail. However, it does introduce a few concepts that are important to exam topics later in the course.

Lecture Tips
• • Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Define logical communication channels. o Stress the concept of encapsulation. o Example: A remote client uses a modem to connect an ISP and then connects to his business network over the Internet. Messages sent to the business network are encapsulated so they can be sent over the Internet. Messages are unpackaged when they arrive at the business so they can be used on the business network. Define multiplexing, binding, and addressing. o Stress the concept of binding. You can bind multiple protocols to a single network card. o Show students how to view bindings on your computer. o Addressing occurs at multiple levels of the OSI model. Use an example: • www.school.edu corresponds to IP address 165.13.5.233. • 165.13.5.233 corresponds to MAC address 00-06-47-3F-57-DA. Discuss using the OSI model. o The OSI model is a theoretical model, not the real world. Actual network protocol implementations do not correspond directly to the OSI model. Stress this fact, as it tends to cause confusion! o Example: TCP/IP was developed independently of the OSI model. Protocols loosely correspond to levels of the OSI model, but they don’t match it exactly. 34

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Lab/Activity
Computer Lab Activity • What protocol or protocols are bound to the NIC on your lab computer? o On Windows 2000/XP computers, open Network and Dial-up connections. On the Advanced menu, select Advanced settings.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• • • • Read Section 2-8 and take the section test. Research the focus question for the next section. o What types of cables and connectors are commonly used in networks? Use the Internet to investigate the OSI model. Can you find a protocol suite that actually implements the OSI model (uses the model as it’s primary design guide)? Suppose you use your computer to connect to the web site www.microsoft.com. Draw a diagram and explain the connection process between the your client computer and the web server. Explain the connection in terms of the OSI model.

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Section 3-1: Cables and Connectors
Preparation
This section introduces some common cable and connector standards used on computer networks. Collect cables, connectors and tools to demonstrate. Collect RJ-45 connectors, UTP, and crimpers for the cable-making lab. Exam Objectives 1.4 Recognize the following media connectors and/or describe their uses: 1.5 Choose the appropriate media type and connectors to add a client to an existing network. 3.7 Given a remote connectivity scenario, configure the connection. 4.5 Given a wiring task, select the appropriate tool. Vocabulary: American Wire Gauge Wires, RG coaxial cables, IBM Cables, EIA/TIA 568 UTP cables, EIA/TIA 568 STP cables, EIA/TIA 568 fiber-optic cables, D-shell connectors, RJ connectors, BNC connectors, fiber optic connectors, ST connector, SC connector, insulation displacement connectors (IDCs), IBM data connectors (IDCs), 568A wiring scheme, 568B wiring scheme, cutter, stripper, punch down tool, crimper, polisher, tester, time domain reflectometer, tone generator and locator, hardware loopback plug Focus Question: What types of cables and connectors are commonly used in networks?

Time
About 1½ hours

Network+ Exam Focus
Connectors • RJ-11 (modem). • RJ-45 (10BaseT, 100BaseTX). • AUI(10Base5, 100BaseTX). • BNC. • SC (FDDI, 100BaseFX). • ST (FDDI, 100BaseFX). Wiring Tools • Crimper - A tool used to fasten connectors to wires. • Media Tester - A tool that tests network cable to ensure conductivity through the cable. It can also identify crossed wires and improper termination. • Punch Down Tool - A tool that allows you to attach network and phone wire to a punch down block. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 36

at a punch down block. type 3. o American Wire Gauge (AWG) Wires. CAT5e.Also known as a fox and hound. o Stripper. Demonstrate cabling tools. o Insulation displacement connectors (punchdown blocks) o IBM data connectors. CAT4. o D-shell connectors. CAT3. o EIA/TIA 568 UTP cables. Pass out examples. Discuss Connectors. A set of tools designed to help locate a single wire amidst many. o Fiber optic connectors. o Polisher. o 568B wiring scheme – present a diagram.• • Tone Generator/Tone Locator . for example. 37 • • • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . Collect as many tools as you can and demonstrate their use. o RJ connectors. o BNC connectors. o EIA/TIA 568 fiber-optic cables. o Crimper. SC connector.A tool used to test fiber optic cable for continuity and signal attenuation. o Time domain reflectometer (TDR). o Radio Guide (RG) coaxial cables. • CAT1. o Hardware loopback plug. o Tester. type 5. Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. type 2. • Low density DB 15 –AUI. Optical Tester . Pass out examples. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Discuss cable standards. • Show students how to create a network cable. type 9. The tone generator creates a signal and the tone locator detects the signal at the other end of the wire. o Tone generator and locator. • ST connector. o 568A wiring scheme – present a diagram. CAT5. RJ-45. o EIA/TIA 568 STP cables. • Type 1. type 5J. • RJ-11. o IBM cables. type 6. Demonstrate common wiring schemes. o Cutter. o Punch down tool. CAT2.

o After completing the lab. Assessment Were students able to identify the connectors? Check cables and lab notebooks. discuss the merits of purchasing pre-made cables.Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • Place a number of connectors in a box. although you can’t tell why one fails. (Use the Internet to find a wiring diagram for crossover cables. Where are you going to buy them? How much do they cost? ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 38 . o How does an Ethernet network function? Make a crossover cable. Where are you going to buy it? How much does it cost? You need to purchase patch cables for a new network. test the cable by connecting a lab computer to the wall jack or hub. A good electrical supply store (the kind used by electricians) will sell patch cables in many lengths. You can tell if a cable works. Computer Lab Activity • Use the 568A wiring scheme to make RJ-45 network cables. If you have a cable tester. Research the focus question for the next section. If you need a lot of cables. use it to test student cables. If you don’t have enough hardware examples. use pictures. it may be cheaper to buy them than to make them yourself. Homework Suggestions • • • • • Read Section 3-1 and take the section test.) You need to purchase CAT5 cable for a new network. Have each student retrieve a connector and identify it. (Don’t forget that your salary counts toward cost!) o If you don’t have a cable tester. Document the procedure in lab notebooks.

10Base-T.11b. 802.3. 100BaseTX) • AUI (10Base5. 1.3 Focus Question: How does an Ethernet network function? Time About 1½ hours Network+ Exam Focus IEEE Standards • 802. This section covers the Ethernet standards. 802.5 Choose the appropriate media type and connectors to add a client to an existing network. 1000BaseLX.3) Preparation Most local area networks are based on Ethernet standards defined by IEEE's 802. 802.Ethernet Ethernet Standard (802.2 Specify the main features of 802. 100BaseFX) • ST (FDDI. 10Base5.) of 802. topology. 10Base2.6 Identify the purpose.Section 3-2: Ethernet (IEEE 802. 1. 1.3 committee. and FDDI networking technologies. 1000BaseT. 802. 100BaseFX) ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 39 .3) • You can identify important details of Ethernet networks based on their names. Exam Objectives 1. Name Speed Length Topology Cable 10Base2 10 Mbps 185 meters Bus Thinnet 10Base5 10 Mbps 500 meters Bus Thicknet 10BaseT 10 Mbps 100 meters Star CAT3 UTP 100BaseTX 100 Mbps 100 meters Star CAT5 UTP 1000BaseT 1000Mbps 100 meters Star CAT5 UTP Connectors • RJ-11 (modem) • RJ-45 (10BaseT. 1000BaseCX. and Gigabit Ethernet 1. 1000BaseSX.3 . 100Base-TX.4 Recognize media connectors and/or describe their uses.5. 100Base-FX.3 (Ethernet) standards. 10Base-2. Ethernet is a broad name for a family of specific standards.2. cable type. 10Base-5. 100BaseTX) • BNC • SC (FDDI. 100BaseFX. Vocabulary: Ethernet. 10BaseT. features. and functions of network components.3 Specify the characteristics (speed. etc. 100BaseTX. length.

o Trunk cable: RG-58 A/U or RG-58 C/U coaxial. 10Base2. 2. o Bus topology. o Maximum distance between any two end nodes: 2. and 6). o Cables: Category 3 or greater UTP. o Topology: Classic bus. o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment. 10BaseT. o Topology: Classic bus. • Diameter limited by the Ethernet 5-4-3 rule.5 meters. o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus. o Minimum distance between transceivers: 2. o Maximum cable segment lengths of 150 meters are possible with category 5 cable.460 meters. o Drop cables: Four-pair (eight-wire) STP. o Maximum nodes per cable segment: 100. 3. o Maximum trunk cable length before needing a repeater: 500 meters. • Uses two wire pairs (four wires--positions 1. o Maximum distance between two end nodes: 500 meters over a maximum of four active hubs. • Physical bus or logical star.5 meters/ o Maximum trunk cable length before needing a repeater: 185 meters/ o Maximum distance between any two end nodes: 925 meters/ • Diameter limited by the Ethernet 5-4-3 rule. o CSMA/CD media access method. 40 • • • • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . o Connectors: RJ-45. 10Base5. o Maximum cable segment length: 100 meters. o Maximum nodes per cable segment: 30. o Maximum nodes per network: 90. 100BaseTX. o Maximum 1024 nodes per network. o Maximum nodes per network: 300. o Connectors: AUI (DB-15). o Connectors: BNC/ o Minimum distance between transceivers: 0. which includes all cables between a computer and hub. o Maximum drop cable length: 50 meters. physical bus. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Ethernet. o Trunk cable: RG-11 coaxial.Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question.

Single-mode fiber-optic. 100BaseFX. DB-9 for STP cable. 2. 550 meters (multimode full-duplex). 1000BaseT. or 5000 (single mode full-duplex). o Maximum cable segment length: 100 meters. • Uses two fiber-optic strands (one receives data. o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus. o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment. o Cables: Category 5E or greater UTP and type 1A STP. o Connectors: SC connectors recommended. o Maximum cable segment length: 412 meters when operating in halfduplex mode and 2000 meters when operating in full-duplex mode. • Uses two fiber-optic strands (one receives data. o Maximum cable segment length: 316 meters (half-duplex). the other sends data). 41 ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . o Cables: Category 5 or greater UTP or type 1A STP. o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment. o Wavelength: 1300 nanometers. o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment. 1000BaseSX. 1000BaseLX. o Cables: Multimode 62. o Maximum cable segment length: 100 meters.5/125 fiber-optic. 5. • Uses all four wire pairs (eight wires). DB-9 for STP cable. which includes all cables between a computer and hub. or STP pins 1. • Uses two wire pairs (four wires--UTP positions 1. o Maximum distance between two end nodes: 205 meters over a maximum of two active hubs. the other sends data). and 6. o Connectors: SC connectors recommended (other types of fiber-optic connectors such as ST connectors are also permitted).5/125 fiber-optic . 6.• • • • o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus. o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment. o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus. which includes all cables between a computer and hub. o Cables: Multimode 62. o Connectors: RJ-45 for UTP cable. o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus. o Maximum 1024 nodes per network. and 9). o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus. 3. o Connectors: RJ-45 for UTP cable. o Maximum distance between two end nodes: 200 meters over a maximum of one active hub. Multimode 50/125 fiber-optic.

diagram a portion of the network. and 8-pin Fibre Channel Type 2 connectors. Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • Ask questions and have students respond verbally or record answers in lab notebooks. o Maximum cable segment length: 25 meters. o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus. You are installing a 10BaseT network. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 42 . Identify hubs. the other sends data). o Connectors: Miniature DB-9 connectors. Price hubs. • Uses two fiber-optic strands (one receives data. and NICS. • Which standard(s) use fiber? Coaxial cable? Twisted pair? • Which standard(s) use BNC connectors? RJ-45 connectors? SC connectors? • What is the maximum cable length for 10Base2? 10Base5? 10BaseT? 100BaseT? Assessment Check lab notebooks or verbal responses. and cable lengths. Price hubs. o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment. switches. switches. switches. Research the focus question for the next section. o Ethernet is the most popular LAN standard. o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment. Are they any other LAN standards? If the school uses Ethernet. Use the lecture activity to review standards. Using 50/125 fiber-optic cables increases the cable segment length further. switches. Homework Suggestions • • • • • • Read Section 3-2 and take the section test. and NICS. o Wavelength: 850 nanometers.• • o Cables: Multimode 62.5/125 fiber-optic. o Distances: Maximum cable segment length: 275 meters (half-duplex). You are installing a 1000BaseT network. 1000BaseCX. Multimode 50/125 fiber-optic o Connectors: SC connectors recommended. and NICS. You are installing a 100BaseTX network. 550 meters (full-duplex). Price hubs. o Cables: Twinaxial cable. node lactations.

802. 1. • Token Ring . features. Most Token Ring networks run at 4 or 16 Mbps. It uses a ring topology. but other LAN standards also exist. 1.2. FDDI. Exam Objectives 1. Are they any other LAN standards? Time About 1½ hours Network+ Exam Focus IEEE Standards • 802.5.2 .A fiber optic networking standard that uses a dual ring topology for high fault tolerance. Token Bus. LocalTalk Focus Question: Ethernet is the most popular LAN standard.2 Specify the main features of 802. 802. IEEE 802.11b. 100VGAnyLAN. • 802.Section 3-3: Other LAN Standards Preparation Most local area networks (LANs) are based on Ethernet (IEEE 802. • BNC. and functions of network components. • SC (FDDI. • 802.11b – Wireless. • ST (FDDI.5 . 100BaseTX).11b. 2.Logical Link Control (LLC). This section explains the basic characteristics of some other LAN standards. 100BaseTX).11 Identify the basic characteristics of WAN technologies.5. IEEE 802.3. 802.4 Recognize media connectors and/or describe their uses.5 Choose the appropriate media type and connectors to add a client to an existing network.3).12. 100BaseFX). and FDDI networking technologies.Token Ring . ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 43 . Connectors • RJ-11 (modem). ARCNet. • FDDI . 100BaseFX). • RJ-45 (10BaseT. 1. It usually operates at 100 Mbps. Vocabulary: Wi-Fi.6 Identify the purpose. Token Ring IEEE 802. • AUI(10Base5.A less-common networking standard.

o Framing: Variable length frames up to 4500 bytes in length. o Connectors: • DB-9 connectors to connect network cards to STP cables. stress the 802. • SC or ST connectors for most fiber-optic cables. o Cables: 62.• Network Components • Multi-station Access Unit (MAU) . • Media filters to convert other connectors. FDDI – Fiber Distributed Data Interface.11b number and wireless networking terms. single mode fiber. Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. 100 megabits per second. • RJ-45 for most UTP cables. o Signaling: Direct sequence spread spectrum signaling.5 – Token Ring. • Dual attachment devices connect to dual counter rotating rings. UTP. o For the exam. o Cables: IBM STP. o Media Access Control: Token passing . 44 • • • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . o Signaling: Baseband signaling. o 100VG-AnyLAN – IEEE 802.Another name for a hub. Briefly mention other standards.5/125 multimode fiber recommended. o Topology: Ring (hybrid of a ring and a physical star/logical ring). Data rate can reach 11 megabits per second. o Connectors: SC or ST recommended. and fiber-optic cable.11b – wireless networking (WiFi). • Single attachment devices connect only to the primary ring.12 . • Wireless Access Point . o Topology: Ring . commonly at 4 or 16 megabits per second (updated 100 and 1000 megabit versions also exist). • IBM Data Connectors to connect STP cables to hubs or wall outlets. 802. o Signaling: Baseband signaling. o Framing: Variable length frames up to 18. o Media Access: CSMA/CA. o Topology: Cellular. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? 802. The name usually denotes the type of hubs used on Token Ring Networks. not the term WiFi. 1300 nanometer light waves. o Framing: Variable length frames. • All nodes must be configured to operate at the same speed.A device that functions like a hub in a wireless network. o Media Access Control: Token passing.000 bytes in length.

3.2. 802.4. Investigate the cost. Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • Quiz students on IEEE standards. o Network layer and Data Link layer communicate via 802. Price hubs. Investigate the cost.) o 802. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 45 . You are installing a FDDI network. o LocalTalk.  Call out a name and ask students for the standard number. o Data Link sublayer – standardizes how Network layer protocols communicate with Data Link protocols. Research the focus question for the next section.5. Ethernet. o Token Bus – IEEE 802. Token Ring. Summarize with the lecture activity.1. o How do you connect to a WAN? You are installing a Token Ring network. cabling. Assessment Check verbal responses to lab activity or quiz. You are installing a wireless network. Price wireless transceivers and access points.• • o ARCNet – ANSI 878.2 – Logical Link Control (LLC). Wireless  Call out a standard number and ask students to tell you the name. 802.11b. and NICs. Price NICS and MAUs. o Network layer and Data Link layer do not need to know how to communicate directly.2 protocol rather than communicating with each other directly. 802. Investigate the cost. Homework Suggestions • • • • • Read Section 3-3 and take the section test. 802. LLC. (This could also be a pop quiz for your next class period.  Call out a standard number and ask students to describe it.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 46 .Section 3-4: WAN Links Preparation This section introduces some technologies used to create WAN links. CSU/DSU Focus Question: How do you connect to a WAN? Time About 1½ hours Network+ Exam Focus Network Components • Modem . 3.2 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a small office/home office network failure.A technology that creates a dedicated route or circuit between two hosts on a WAN. DSL. • Circuit switching . frame relay. ISDN supports transfer speeds of 64 Kbps along a single communication channel (also known as a B channel). E1. • ISDN .3 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a remote connectivity problem. Vocabulary: WAN media. 4. T1. satellite. 4. A CSU performs protective and diagnostic functions for a telecommunications line. SONET/SDH. identify the cause of the failure.5 Choose the appropriate media type and connectors to add a client to an existing network.11 Identify the basic characteristics of the following WAN technologies. The DSU connects a terminal to a digital line. configure the connection. identify the cause of the problem.A communication standard for sending digital data over regular telephone wires. ATM.6 Identify the purpose. wireless. and functions of the following network components: 2.A technology that allows packets from the same transmission to take different routes to reach their destination. 1.7 Given a remote connectivity scenario.A device that allows a computer to transmit data over telephone lines. PSTN.4 Recognize the following media connectors and/or describe their uses: 1. Exam Objectives 1. make sure you understand your school’s WAN connections. Before class. All data moves along that route. features. cable modems.Two devices that are packaged as a single unit. or two for data for a maximum throughput of 128 Kbps. WAN Technologies • Packet switching . Most telephone companies offer two telephone lines: One for voice and one for data. • CSU/DSU . ISDN.

A circuit-switching WAN technology that transfers data cells in a small. T1 . It is the standard for the backbone of the Internet.A technology that allows packets from the same transmission to take different routes to reach their destination o Circuit switching .544 Mbps.A standard for specifying the speed of fiber optic networks conforming to the SONET standard. o Point-to-point connections between modems (over the circuit switched network) o Due to FCC regulations regarding power levels sent over communication lines. The international equivalent of T1 is E1.64 Kbps channels. The international equivalent of T3 is E3. The international equivalent of this standard is SDH. Sonet . you typically lease it from someone else. Frame Relay .90 data rates do not exceed about 53 kbps.6 kbps. Mostly telephone companies use it. Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. upstream speeds (from the client) remain 33.A fault-tolerant fiber optic networking standard (mentioned previously) FDDI networks are typically used as backbones for WANs.90 modems. ATM . which has a transmission speed of 2 Mbps.• • • • • • • FDDI . Instead. o With V.A communication standard with a data rate of 44. o What does your school do? o Power cable. television cables. phone cables. radio. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? WAN media. which has a transmission speed of 34. It is comprised of 24 . fixed size. T3 . All data moves along that route.64 Kbps channels. actual V. OC-x .4 Mbps. • • • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 47 . o Packet switching .A very high speed standard for connecting fiber optic systems.A packet-switching protocol used for connecting hosts on a WAN.A communication standard with a data rate of 1. o A WAN is often a network over a network o Transceivers must be appropriate for the medium o WAN media might need to carry other signals o WAN media might support one direction only Review circuit and packet switching. It is comprised of 672 . o Your business is not likely to own the infrastructure for the WAN links. microwave Discuss WAN communication issues. PSTN – the public switched telephone network.7 Mbps.A technology that creates a dedicated route or circuit between two hosts on a WAN.

o Downstream Upstream 1. o For sending digital data over regular telephone wires. o Usually dedicates more channels to receiving downstream data. o Most telephone companies offer two telephone lines: One for voice and one for data.4 Mbps. ISDN supports transfer speeds of 64 Kbps along a single communication channel (also known as a B channel).64 Kbps channels. ISDN.7 Mbps.2 mbps to 55. which has a transmission speed of 2 Mbps. It is comprised of 24 . o Wireless WAN links Frame relay. o A packet-switching protocol used for connecting hosts on a WAN. which has a transmission speed of 34. o Data rate of 44. so the actual data rate per node can be much slower than the preceding rates o Upstream communication is not always supported.448 mbps 16 to 640 kbps Cable modems. o A very high speed standard for connecting fiber optic systems. o OC-x is a standard for specifying the speed of fiber optic networks conforming to the SONET standard. The international equivalent of this standard is SDH. It is the standard for the backbone of the Internet.• • • • • • • T1 and E1 PDH. You may use a telephone connection to send upstream data to an Internet service provider. o Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs)--Virtual circuit between two frame relay endpoints is established when needed and disconnected when no longer needed. while others are dedicated to sending upstream data. SONET/SDH. o Downstream Upstream 31. 48 ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . Wireless and satellite. It is comprised of 672 . DSL. Mostly telephone companies use it.544 Mbps. o Establish a WAN link over TV cables.64 Kbps channels.2 mbps 5 mbps to 10 mbps o Multiple nodes usually share channels. or two for data for a maximum throughput of 128 Kbps. o Some channels are dedicated to receiving downstream data. o Data rate of 1. o Use a Channel Service Unit (CSU) and Data Service Unit (DSU) to connect a computer to one of these lines. The international equivalent of T3 is E3. The international equivalent of T1 is E1.544 to 8.

o Fault-tolerant fiber optic networking standard (mentioned previously) FDDI networks are typically used as backbones for WANs. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 49 . You are shopping around for WAN connection options. fixed size. Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • As a group. cable modem. Assessment Check lab notebooks. o Supports switched virtual circuits and permanent virtual circuits. ATM o A circuit-switching WAN technology that transfers data cells in a small. and ISDN price and availability in your area.• • o Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs)--Virtual circuit between two frame relay endpoints is established for permanent use. FDDI. Record diagram in lab notebooks. o Packet switching 53-byte (fixed length) cells at SONET/SDH speeds. o What are the common network protocol suites? If you have a computer at home and connect to the Internet. DSL. discuss and diagram your school’s WAN connectivity. Homework Suggestions • • • • Read Section 3-4 and take the section test. Research the focus question for the next section. diagram your home’s WAN connectivity. Check on T1.

NLMs. HTTPS. 3. Identify well-known ports. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 50 . 2. UNC. addressing schemes. 4. FTP. NNTP. NetBEUI. subnet mask. 2. ADSP.4 Given specific parameters. function. o Routable protocol. 2. DNS. VINES Focus Question: What are the common network protocol suites? Time About 2 hours Network+ Exam Focus Network Protocols • TCP/IP. identify the cause of the problem. interoperability.3 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a remote connectivity problem. 3. and/or use of protocols within TCP/IP. fully qualified domain name. 2. configure the connection.8 Identify IP addresses and their default subnet masks. IMAP4. SMTP. identify the cause of the problem.5 Define the purpose. 3. NBF. telnet. URL. NTP. o Uses classes and 32-bit IP addresses to identify hosts on the network. LPD/LPR. Macintosh (AppleTalk) protocol suite. POP3. • IPX/SPX. 3. IP address. NetBIOS name. AFP. configure a client to connect to the following servers: 4. IPX. IP. AppleTalk type.6 Define the function of TCP/UDP ports. default gateway. 4. SMB. AppleTalk name. TFPT. o Protocol used on the Internet. AppleTalk zone. ASP. NetBIOS. ATP. SPX. Windows/IBM (NetBIOS/NetBEUI) protocol suite. SNA. Vocabulary: TCP/IP protocol suite. UDP.2 Identify the basic capabilities of client workstations. NetWare (IPX/SPX) protocol suite. XNS. DDP.7 Given a remote connectivity scenario.11 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a client connectivity problem. Exam Objectives 2.1 Identify the basic capabilities of server operating systems. TCP.3 Differentiate between network protocols in terms of routing. select the appropriate NIC and network configuration settings. NCP. DNA.Section 4-1: Common Protocol Suites Preparation This section introduces several protocol suites.9 Identify the purpose of subnetting and default gateways. and naming conventions. HTTP.11 Given a network configuration. SSL.

o o o o Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. • TCP. • NTP. good for small Windows-only networks. • Default gateway – the router on your subnet. • TFPT. o Introduce common protocols and explain their functions. o Used primarily on older Macintosh computers (New Macintosh computers use TCP/IP as their standard protocol). Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Introduce the Internet (TCP/IP) protocol suite. IP addressing is covered in more detail in the next section. o Non-routable protocol. Different versions of IPX/SPX use different frame types. • IP addresses are routable. • The subnet mask separates the host and network ID. Hosts using IPX/SPX must use the same frame type to communicate. 51 ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . decimal value between 0 and 255. • SSL. o Routable protocol. • FTP. • UDP. Routable protocol. Uses MAC addresses to identify hosts on a network. • HTTP. They have a network ID and a host ID. o Introduce the concept of an IP address. 4 octets. • POP3. • NNTP. • Telnet. • HTTPS. • SMTP. • LPD/LPR. NetBEUI. o Uses dynamically assigned ID numbers to identify hosts on a network. o Fast. o IP addresses are routable. o Uses computer names to identify hosts on a network. • IP. • 32 bits. • IMAP4. AppleTalk.• • Novell NetWare protocol. o Supports a maximum of 254 hosts.

• Draw a diagram to show the hierarchical nature of DNS names. • Where does your school’s DNS name fit in the tree? • Define FQDN – fully qualified domain name.0. • Add a couple computer names to your diagram and determine their FQDNs.com • http://192.html Introduce the NetWare (IPX/SPX) protocol suite. o Discuss URLs • Protocol://hostname or IPaddress:port/directory/filename ? parameters. • Trace the FQDN for a computer at your school. Windows NT 4.company. • Non-proprietary and widely used. • Default protocol for UNIX. • NetBIOS names are 15 characters plus an additional byte to identify services. • Present example URLs and discuss the syntax of each: • http://www. • SMB • NetBIOS • NBF • NetBEUI o Introduce addressing. It is proprietary. • Host ID address is the device’s MAC address.com • ftp://ftpserver. 2000. o Discuss TCP/IP interoperability • It is the protocol suite of the Internet.0. 52 • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . and XP. o Briefly introduce common protocols and discuss their functions.168. o Introduce DNS naming standards.• • Run ipconfig on your computer and discuss your configuration parameters. Introduce the Windows/IBM (NetBIOS/NetBEUI) protocol suite. • NCP • NLMs • SPX • IPX o Introduce IPX addressing. o IPX addresses are routable. o NetWare servers use SAP to broadcast their names and the fact that they are NetWare servers.microsoft. • 4-byte network address.1.15/data/sales/invoice. o Briefly introduce common protocols and discuss their functions. o IPX/SPX is used primarily in NetWare environments. and NetWare 5.

• Phase 1 – Up to 254 nodes per segment. or assign it as homework. o NetBIOS/NetBEUI addresses are not routable. • Present examples and discuss syntax. o TCP/IP is more widely used on Macs. hand out the diagram and use it as a quiz. o Briefly introduce common protocols and discuss their functions. Briefly mention other protocol suites. • NetBIOS names are not hierarchical like DNS names. o Discuss UNCs. • \\server1\data. o NetBIOS over TCP/IP provides a NetBIOS interface. but implements the networking using TCP/IP. • Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • Close notebooks. o AppleTalk is routable. Ask the students to determine which computers can communicate with each other. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 53 . • \\Servername\shared resource. • AFP • ASP • ATP • ADSP • DDP o Introduce addressing. o Computers need to be running the same protocols. o Gateways can translate between protocols.doc. the NetBIOS name is simply the computer name. Give each student the name of a protocol and ask him or her to explain the protocol function. o Load client software to allow the client to talk to the server. • \\server1. • Present the diagram with the router. o AppleTalk names have a name. • Phase 2 – 16 bits for network ID. type. Introduce the Macintosh (AppleTalk) protocol suite. You could do this as a group. o SNA o DNA o XNS o VINES Discuss configuring interoperability. and zone. • \\server1\data\sales\meeting10-25-01. network IDs between 1 and 1024.• • • On a Windows 9x computer. • \\server1\data\sales. 8 bits for the node ID.

Go to the Run command and type the following UNC paths. explain the problem.69.0.171 • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 54 .10. o \\mail1\templates\expenses.166. Give the students a handout listing UNC paths and ask them to identify legitimate syntax. Computer Lab Activity • Use ipconfig to determine the IP address. What do you see? Explain how the UNC command syntax determines the results. o \\mail1\templates\expenses.301.8. Research the focus question for the next section. o 221. and default gateway of your computer.15.16.0. o \\fileserver2:80. Record procedure and results in lab notebooks.222 o 192.25. Homework Suggestions • • • • Read Section 4-1 and take the section test. o \\fileserver2.235 o 12. Substitute server and path names appropriate to your environment.5 o 257. • Assessment Were students able to identify protocols? Were they able to determine which computers could communicate with each other? Check lab notebooks. o How does IP addressing work? Hand out a DNS diagram with computer names at the bottom level.You may want to use this as a pop quiz for the next class period. Ask students to identify the FQDN for each computer.255 o 15.xls.25.xls?december.txt Identify the legitimate IP addresses in this list. subnet mask. o \\server o \\server\sharename o \\server\sharename\folder o \\server\sharename\folder\file. If an IP address is not correct.35 o 199.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 55 .

NetBIOS Name Servers (WINS Servers). 4. like FTP and Telnet. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Focus Question: How does IP addressing work? Time About 5 hours Network+ Exam Focus OSI Model • Remember that Application-layer protocols that require guaranteed delivery.8 Identify IP addresses and their default subnet masks. DNS name servers. Class B. nbtstat. arp. private IP networks. name server. subnetting. select the appropriate TCP/IP utility from among the following: 4. IP Version 6 (IPv6). Vocabulary: IP Version 4 (IPv4).10 Identify the differences between public vs. or removing network services on network resources and users.11 Given a network configuration. Class D. Class E. predict the impact of modifying. tracert. 2. Class C. DHCP. nslookup. use TCP as their Transport protocol. IPv4 classes. Lmhosts File.7 Identify the purpose of network services. The TCP/IP Protocol • The following are common protocols used within the TCP/IP protocol stack: • IP . host name resolution. and/or use of protocols within TCP/IP. ifconfig. 2. default subnet mask. cache. ping. and characteristics of using a proxy. local file. NetBIOS names resolution. adding. 3.5 Define the purpose. Classless IP addressing. Winipcfg. Exam Objectives 2. Identify well-known ports. 3. 2. function. 4. 2. broadcast. Class A. proxy server. netstat.Responsible for addressing and formatting packets.7 Given output from a diagnostic utility.9 Identify the purpose. 2.6 Define the function of TCP/UDP ports. Application-layer protocols that do not require guaranteed delivery.Section 4-2: TCP/IP Preparation This section explains the TCP/IP protocol suite in greater detail. ipconfig. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 56 .9 Identify the purpose of subnetting and default gateways.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. NAT router. identify the utility and interpret the output.8 Given a scenario. like TFTP use UDP. select the appropriate NIC and network configuration settings. Hosts file. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). benefits. private networks.

When you type in a URL. • POP3 .A protocol used for sending control. Common TCP/UDP Port Numbers to Know • When a TCP/IP packet is sent to a computer.A protocol for sending email messages between email servers.An Internet protocol used for transferring files. It is used in conjunction with SSL. • Telnet . • IMAP4 . • NAT . • WINS . you are typing an HTTP command. A port number indicates the destination application of a packet. A Microsoft version of name resolution implemented before DNS became the accepted standard.The underlying Application-layer protocol of the Internet. • TFTP . A simple version of NAT that allows multiple users to access the Internet via a single connection and a single IP address.Guarantees the delivery of data and that packets are delivered in the same order in which they are sent. • ICMP . It is used primarily for streaming data and video. but does not offer authentication or guaranteed packet delivery. • FTP . • SNMP . • ARP .Network address translation.• TCP .A terminal emulation protocol that allows you to remotely connect to a server.A protocol used to retrieve email from a server. • UDP . like email text search and selective downloading.Delivers packets directly over a network without error correction. Allows a client to contact another host on a network using a name.The protocol used on secure web pages.Internet connection sharing. • HTTP .Resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses. which is easier to remember than an IP address. • HTTPS . • 15 Netstat 68 DHCP 123 NTP 1701 L2TP • 21 FTP 69 TFTP 139 NetBIOS 1723 PPTP • 23 Telnet 80 HTTP 143 IMAP • 42 WINS 110 POP3 161 SNMP • 53 DNS 119 NNTP 443 SSL Network Services • DHCP .A set of protocols used for managing and monitoring large networks. Allows a LAN to use one set of IP addresses for internal traffic and a different set of addresses for external or Internet traffic.A protocol used for finding a hosts MAC address by using its IP address • NTP . but also a port number. • SMTP . it needs not only a destination IP address.Resolves host names to IP addresses. The ping command uses ICMP to check connection statuses.A protocol used for synchronizing time clocks of all hosts on a network. You can then enter commands and have them executed as if you were at the server.Automatically assigns IP addresses to clients on a network.An email retrieval protocol like POP3. IP Addresses and Subnet Masks ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 57 . information or error messages. but with additional functionality.Also a protocol for transferring files. an encryption protocol. • ICS . • DNS .

255. 255.192. • IP addresses are separated into classes.0. If it is not. To identify the network segment (or subnet) on which the host is located. • Class C 192. Network Implementation • Firewall .A utility that traces a packet from a local host to a remote host.1 .31. TCP/IP uses a 32-bit number called a subnet mask.255.0 • Class B 128 to 191 255.0). you need to recognize the output of these utilities.0.0. There is one range for each class.• To identify hosts on a network. It intercepts all requests from the network to the Internet to see if it can fulfill the requests itself.0.0 Default Gateway • If a host resides on a network with multiple subnets.A server that sits between a client and the Internet. as shown in the table below: • Class Private IP Address Range. If not. 172.254.0 • Class C 192 to 223 255.0). • Proxy server .1 . TCP/IP Utilities • For the exam. which filters packets based on port number. Each class has an associated default subnet mask as well. • Tracert .254. it forwards the request to the Internet. It addresses the current system's shortage of IP addresses. TCP/IP uses a 32-bit number called an IP address. the host must be configured with the IP address a default gateway.255. A default gateway is the IP address of a router. IPv6 • Ipv6 is an updated. The output shows the routers through which a packet passes. the host sends the packet to the default gateway. Private networks that do not connect to the Internet or that use NAT to access the Internet use private IP addresses. The most common type of firewall is the packet filter firewall.255. It is displayed in decimal format (for example.168.255.125.0.1 .255.18.168. • Class B 172.10.172. • Class A 10. • Class First Octet Default Subnet Mask • Class A 1 to 126 255.255. as well as how long it ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 58 .255.0. or the router.A system implemented to prevent unauthorized communication in or out of a private network. Private IP addresses are reserved ranges of IP addresses that cannot be used on the Internet. When a host needs to send a packet to another host on the network. An example of an IPv6 address is 2A50:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A. Classes can be determined by the first number (also known as an octet) in the IP address.255. IP addresses used on the Internet are public IP addresses. It is also displayed in decimal format (for example.0. Public and Private IP Addresses • The Internet is a public network. emerging version of the IP protocol.16. The router then forwards the packet to the appropriate destination. it first checks the destination IP address to see if the host is located on the local subnet.254.

384 network IDs.A utility that helps you determine whether another host is reachable from your computer.214 hosts • B: 128-191 (First octet start with 10) • 16. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? IP Version 4 (IPv4). • Subnet mask separates network and host ID. Use tracert to locate a faulty router or where delays are occurring. o Explain how to tell if an IP address is Class A. You can also use the utility to remove or correct preloaded name cache entries.777. D or E. o TCP/IP addressing. Use this utility when you are unable to reach a host and you want to find the scope of the problem. up to 65.A utility that helps you detect invalid arp cache entries.The Windows 95/98 version of the Ipconfig utility. Arp .097. up to 16.534 hosts • C: 192-233 (First octet start with 110) • 2. Nslookup . B.• • • • • • • • takes to pass trough each router. Ifconfig . Use this utility to verify that the settings are correct and (in some cases) ensure that your computer is able to contact a DHCP server and receive IP addressing information. Ping . Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. The arp cache maps IP addresses to MAC addresses.152 network IDs.A utility that helps you troubleshoot NetBIOS naming problems. Address Mask Subnet Host 11000000 11111111 11000000 -------10101000 11111111 10101000 -------01000001 11111111 01000001 -------00010001 00000000 -------00010001 o IPv4 classes.A command-prompt utility that allows you to send test queries to DNS servers. Nbtstat . • 32 bits.A utility that shows the current status of TCP/IP connections. Ipconfig . C.The Linux version of the Ipconfig utility Winipcfg . If a computer on the local subnet has recently changed IP addresses. up to 254 hosts ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 59 . 4 octets. and for verifying that DNS records are correct. decimal numbers between 0 and 255. These queries are useful for diagnosing and solving DNS name resolution problems. The first octet is: • A: 1-127 (First octet start with 0) • 126 network IDs. • Use a binary example to explain how the mask is used to determine the network ID. an incorrect arp cache entry will prevent you from contacting it. Netstat .A utility that displays current TCP/IP settings for your computer. Winipcfg uses the standard Windows interface instead of a command-line interface.

Class is determined by looking at the value in the first octet.0. • When you create subnets.0. • Subnetting is the process of breaking down a large network into smaller networks.16. You don’t have any additional subnets! If you want to create subnets on your network.o o o o D: 224-231 (First octet start with 1110) • 268. • Why do you need subnets? • Example: Suppose you are using a private Class B network ID. you have one network segment.0.255. • Network ID all 0s: specific host on the local network .0.255. the mask does not determine the class.255. however.0. Special addresses. • Example: Suppose you are using a private Class B network ID.16.0. • The default mask is 255.000 hosts on the same network segment? • Critical Concept. 172. • All 0s: default route in a routing table. Each class does have a default subnet mask.0. • A: 255.455 multicast group ID • E: 240-254 (First octet start with 1111) • Experimental use Class A. 172. This is a common point of confusion.435. • /24 and 255.255.0 IPv4 subnetting.0 • C: 255.0. B. you need to create a custom subnet mask.0. • Show students how to convert between the CIDR notation and dotted decimal notation for masks.000 hosts. and have 20.255. • Ignores address classes to allocate IP addresses more efficiently.1: loopback address. • 127.0. you simply use more bits than the default mask for your network.000 hosts. • Host ID all 1s: broadcast address for the local network. Classless IP addressing. and have 20. you only need to know the IP address. • What would the network be like if you didn’t break it into smaller pieces? Is it even possible to put 20. • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 60 . and C networks have a default subnet mask.0. If you use the default subnet mask.255. • Host ID’s all 0s: network ID.0 • B: 255.0 • Critical concept: To determine the class of an IP address. All hosts are on the same network.

o Lmhosts File. expressed as hexadecimal numbers between 0 and FFFF.0/8 – 10. o Private IPv6 Addresses. Discuss NetBIOS names resolution.0.31.255.0.0.16. and have a few public IP addresses for connecting to the Internet.254. Introduce name and address resolution methods.255.0. o Autoconfiguration. o Local file.0 to 172. • Configure manually.0. • Configure with DHCP (BootP).0 to 169.16.0. o Broadcast.0 to 10.0.255 • 172.255. • FEC0::/48 – binary beginning 1111 1110 11.0. default gateway.0 to 192. • IP address.255 • 192.0/24 – 192.255 • Reserved for APIPA – the host automatically picks its own IP address.0/16 – 169. subnet mask. Discuss host name resolution .0.254. o 128 bits.254. • Loopback address 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1.0. o Security features.255. o DNS name servers. o TCP/IP computer name/DNS name. Discuss Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).168.255. o Some IP addresses are reserved for private networks and not routed on the Internet.168.255. o A network may use private IP addressing internally. • 10.0. 8 groups of 16 bits. Now you have 255 subnets. o IPv4 host configuration.255 • 169. o Better quality of service. o Hosts file. o NetBIOS Name Servers (WINS Servers).168. o Private IPv4 Addresses.255.• • • • • • Use the mask 255. 61 • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . each of which can have up to 254 hosts. IP Version 6 (IPv6). o Cache. • FEC0:98FE:8856:AAB1:1234:0098:FF72:AC32. o Source intelligent routing.0/12 – 172. • FEC0::/64 – binary beginning 1111 1110 10. Introduce private IP Networks.255. o Name server.

and have a few public IP addresses for connecting to the Internet. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 62 . o A network may use private IP addressing internally. o NAT translates private addresses to public addresses so the network can communicate on the Internet.• Discuss network address translation (NAT) routers.

The network needs access to the Internet.201.17. o 169.1 o 293. o The client connects through a proxy server. Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • Identify legitimate IP addresses.68 o 235.000 hosts.67.15 • Given a scenario.198 o 128. o DHCP/BootP. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 63 . o You need to support 500 hosts. DNS. o The proxy server can cache requests.250. SNMP.16. You need to support connections for 150 Web servers that your company will be hosting.253 o 131.6.• • • Discuss proxy servers. o ipconfig o Winipcfg o ifconfig o netstat o nbtstat o ping o tracert o nslookup o arp Discuss Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). o Proxy servers can also control Internet access.8 o 219. Ask the student to identify the service. Demonstrate TCP/IP commands. what class address should you use? Will you use public or private IP addresses? Support your decision. Computer Lab Activity • Practice each of the following commands: • Ipconfig.254.2. NAT. ICS.33 • Practice identifying the class of an IP address.203 o 121.89 o 145.34. The network needs access to the Internet.123. WINS. Winipcfg. Explain the syntax and use of each command.6.6.56.189.78.45. o You need to support 80. or ifconfig.256. • Give a student a quick overview of what a service does. by limiting which clients can connect to the internet through the proxy server. o 45.7. o Your company is an ISP.

255.microsoft.36.101.0 o 10.11.64. Run arp -a again. Then connect to a web site.com.78.91. • • • • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 64 . o 159. Research the focus question for the next section. Did anything change? Why? Run nbtstat –n.2 o 78. Run netstat on your computer.234 o 161. Why or why not? o 23.com.261 o 64. Analyze the results. Homework Suggestions • • • Read Section 4-2 and take the section test. Analyze the results.• • • o Record your IP configuration.16.56 Which if the following are valid host IP addresses. Are they any entries in your arp cache? Ping a few computers in the lab and a computer on the Internet.14 o 67.206 o 10. Then ping an Internet site such as www.0. Run netstat again. Are they any new entries in your arp cache? Assessment Check lab notebooks. o What do the results of each ping tell you about your connectivity? Run tracert to your default gateway.234.90.78.255.microsoft. Then run tracert to an Internet site such as www.0.126.45.com.129.13.microsoft. o What do the results tell you? Run arp-a.64. Ping your local IP address and the IP address of the default gateway.66 o 127. o What can I do to secure my network? Practice identifying the class of an IP address.255 o 154.23.16 Run nslookup www.

The client also needs RAS client software. 4. PPP.2 Identify the basic capabilities of client workstations.10 Given a scenario.A protocol used for connecting a computer to the Internet. benefits. PPTP. L2TP. identify the cause of the problem. Security Protocols • IPSec . 2. firewall. 3. SSL.6 Define the function of TCP/UDP ports. Exam Objectives 2.A protocol built in to Windows NT and 2000 that allows a remote user to log on to a LAN. • PPP .3 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a remote connectivity problem identify the cause of the problem. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 65 . configure the connection. UDP port Focus Question: What can I do to secure my network? Time About 2 hours Network+ Exam Focus Remote Access Protocols • RAS . Kerberos.11 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a client connectivity problem. access rights. TCP port.1 Identify the basic capabilities of the following server operating systems: 3. which allow a remote client to create a secure tunnel through an unsecure network (for example. 3. 4. which is built into most versions of Windows.8 Identify the purpose.Section 5-1: Security Preparation This section introduces important concepts related to security.7 Given a remote connectivity scenario. Used with Virtual Private Networks. Encapsulates TCP/IP packets and sends them to a server. which is a newer and more secure version of PPTP. Identify well-known ports. predict the impact of a particular security implementation on network functionality. which in turn puts them on the Internet. and characteristics of using a firewall. 3. password policy.A set of protocols that supports secure exchange of TCP/IP packets. Vocabulary: physical security. 2.12 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services. IPSec. PPPoE.13 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: 3. The security for IPSec is provided by either PPTP or L2TP. user account. Supersedes the SLIP protocol. the Internet) to a private network.

A protocol used in conjunction with HTTPS for enabling secure communication over the Internet. Access Control. but don’t train users about the need for strong security? Why do you want a password policy? • Do not allow blank passwords. • Use mnemonics to create passwords. o Macintosh. • Read. but if you have access to additional systems. Write. o Physical access to equipment. • Use both uppercase and lowercase letters.An authentication protocol that allows two hosts to verify each other over a public network like the Internet. Other. demonstrate those also. o Introduce password policies. They allow administrators to control what users can do to files on the network servers. Read Only. • Discussion: What is your password policy? What happens if you require really long passwords. See Files. for Owner. Read & Execute. Introduce user accounts and access rights. Write. • Require passwords to fit complexity rules. Full Control. Lecture Tips • • • Start with the focus question. • Use non-alphabetic characters (such as numbers and symbols). • Require periodic password changes • Do not allow reused passwords. You are most likely to demonstrate this with Windows. Present an overview of access rights for the most common operating systems. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Discuss low-level security. o Communication medium and topology. • Read. o Windows NT/2000/XP. Modify. o NetWare. • Require passwords to be a minimum length. Execute. o Stress the nature of these access rights. 66 ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . Write. Kerberos . • Lock out accounts after a certain number of failed attempts. • See Folders. • Only allow logon during certain hours. Modify. Group. Read/Write. Erase. • Don't use words in the dictionary. Supervisor. • Don't use dates (such as birthdays or anniversaries).• • SSL . o UNIX. Write Only. • Read. Create. o Use your computer to demonstrate access rights to a folder. File Scan. Make Changes.

The certificate contains the server’s public key. The server and clients all know how to use SSL and HTTPS. • Secure exchange of TCP/IP packets – encrypts TCP/IP packets • Note: One way to encrypt data is to use an application that uses encryption. The session key is used to keep the entire transaction secure. Use these demonstrations to discuss basic 67 ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . • Not all applications know how to use encryption. • The security for IPSec is provided by either PPTP or L2TP. The client also needs RAS client software.• • Discuss security protocols. • Demonstrate creating of different dial-up networking connections on instructor computer. • Describe the process: Web client gets a certificate from a web server. IPSec encrypts at the Network layer. • Used with HTTPS to enable secure communication over the Internet. • Connecting to an ISP. Discuss remote access protocols. • Connecting to a private RAS server. which is a newer and more secure version of PPTP. • Connecting to a private RAS server over a VPN.Secure sockets layer. o Two main areas to protect: data on hard drives and data as it passes over the network. • Widely used when buying online – you want to keep your credit card number secure! o Kerberos. • Authentication protocol – allows two hosts to verify each other • Windows 2000 Active Directory domains use Kerberos to authenticate clients. • Windows NT and 2000 provide RAS services that allow a remote user to log on to a LAN. o IPSec. o What is remote access? Discuss examples. The web client uses the public key to encrypt a session key and sends it to the server. which is built into most versions of Windows. • Used with Virtual Private Networks. so data is encrypted no matter what applications you are using. which allow a remote client to create a secure tunnel through an unsecure network (for example. • Discussion: You are looking into security. the Internet) to a private network. Web browsers and servers using HTTPS are a good example of this approach. What threats can you think of to data on hard drives? How could someone threaten data as it passes over the network? o SSL .

• 88 Kerberos.• Remote access protocol used to dial-up to the Internet. • May be used with IPSec for VPNs. • Create a dial-up connection to a RAS server. • Supersedes the SLIP protocol.15. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . • 53 Domain Name Service (DNS). • Sends PPP packets over an Ethernet network. o Discuss TCP and UDP ports. When a client makes a request for a web page. o PPPoE. • 123 Network Time Protocol (NTP). • 69 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). • 143 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). What do you need to configure on the client for different types of connections? • Create a dial-up connection to an ISP. Version 3 (POP3). • For VPNs – remote client creates a tunnel to private network over a public network (Internet).23. which in turn puts them on the Internet.15. • 23 Telnet.23:80 identifies the web (HTTP) service on computer 192. it sends the request to port 80 on the web server.168. • 21 File Transfer Protocol (FTP). o L2TP. • Example: 192. • 119 Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP). • 137 Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS). • 80 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). rather than a dial-up connection. • 161 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). • Encapsulates PPP packets to send over public network. • 110 Post Office Protocol. o PPTP. • Port numbers identify a service. 68 o PPP. Encapsulates TCP/IP packets and sends them to a server. • 15 Netstat.168. • Create a VPN connection that uses the dial-up ISP connection. • • remote access concepts. • 68 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) client. • 139 NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT). Discuss firewalls. • Remote access server decrypts the packet and treats it like a PPP packet. • 25 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).

Steps are similar for other Windows platforms. • 515 Line Printer (LPR). open WINNT\system32\drivers\etc\services.• 443 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). o If student computers don’t have modems. Research the focus question for the next section. Homework Suggestions • • • • • Read Section 5-1 and take the section test. • 1701 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP). I want to select the hardware from a list > Modems > Don’t detect my modem. I will select it from a list > (Standard Modem Types). Create a password policy for the place you work. install a fake modem at the beginning of this lab. Defend your choices. Do you recognize some of the ports? • Use the Make New Connection wizard to create a dial-up connection to the Internet. Use the Make New Connection wizard to create a VPN connection. select a model > Select a port. o How can I protect my network from disasters? Use the Make New Connection wizard to create a dial-up connection to a private network. Assessment Check lab notebooks. o Run Add/Remove Hardware wizard > Add/Troubleshoot a device > Add a new device > No. • 1723 Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). o Firewalls can be configured to allow messages through based on IP address and/or ports. Lab/Activity Computer Lab Activity • If you are running Windows 200/XP. The following steps are for a Windows 2000 Professional computer. How often will the user be forced to change passwords? How many can they reuse? What is the minimum password length? Why are these choices appropriate for the environment you work in? ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 69 .

disk duplexing.5 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance. o RAID 0. o Topology. backup markers. • Disk striping. o Duplicate servers. • Increases performance.The ability to restore data and communication after a network failure. RAID 1. normal backup. disk mirroring. RAID 5. Low-level redundancy. daily-copy backup Focus Question: How can I protect my network from disasters? Time About 1½ hours Network+ Exam Focus Network Implementation • Fault Tolerance . RAID. o Fault-tolerance – you can stress the network without it failing. disk striping with parity. differential backup. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Discuss the difference between fault-tolerance and disaster recover.The ability of a network component to still function in the event of hardware or software failure.Section 5-2: Fault Tolerance Preparation This section explains some basic concepts related to fault tolerance and disaster recovery. disk striping. 3. The primary strategy for disaster recovery is backing up data and storing a copy off-site. copy backup. Exam Objectives 3. Vocabulary: UPS. o Disaster recover – you can recover the network after it fails. backup power supplies and redundant network paths. 70 • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) . • Blocks of data striped across two or more disks. incremental backup. Primary fault tolerance strategies include redundant hard disks. • Disaster Recovery . o UPS devices.6 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery. • Reduces fault-tolerance. Lecture Tips • • • Start with the focus question. RAID 0.

The rest of the week you perform a differential backup at 11:00 PM. if any. • Stores data on two disks. • Disk striping with parity.) Record procedure in lab notebooks. • Disk mirroring. (Have students select a folder that is not too large. Which backup method(s) backs up files only if they have been changed since the last full backup but does not mark them as being backed up? • You perform a full backup of your file server every Sunday night. Lab/Activity Lecture Activity • You need to create a backup plan for your network. o Normal backup. disk duplexing. Show file attributes and point out the Archive attribute. The file server fails at 1:00 PM on Thursday. o Normal combined with differential. Assessment Check lab notebooks. o Backup markers. o Normal combined with differential and copy. will you loose? • You perform a full backup of your file server every Sunday night. The rest of the week you perform an incremental backup at 11:00 PM. if any. How do you restore the server? How much data. Discuss backup methods. How do you restore the server? How much data. o Differential backups. Which backup method(s) backs up and marks files only if they have been changed since the last time they were backed up? • You need to create a backup plan for your network. The file server fails at 9:00 AM on Wednesday. Demonstrate Windows backup to provide a concrete example of backup concepts. • Blocks of data striped across three or more disks. o RAID 5. • Parity data can be used to reconstruct data if one disk fails. will you loose? Computer Lab Activity • Use Windows Backup to back up a folder on your lab computer.• • o RAID 1. o Copy backups. o Normal combined with incremental. o Incremental backups. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 71 . o Daily-copy backups.

Next. What is your backup device? Do you plan to spend any money? How much will you back up? How often? Justify your decisions. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 72 . Check the archive attribute. change the contents of the file.Homework Suggestions • • • • • Read Section 5-2 and take the section test. o What can you do to increase a network’s performance? Backup a file on your computer. Create a backup plan for your home computer. Back up My Documents and then restore the folder to a different location. Research the focus question for the next section. Check the archive attribute again.

demonstrate Performance Monitor. Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. o SNMP. o Demonstrate one of your network monitoring tools. o Windows Network Monitor. o Windows Performance Monitor. o How to create a baseline. baseline. it does introduce tools that are widely used by network administrators. bottleneck Focus Question: What can you do to increase a network’s performance? Time About 1½ hours Network+ Exam Focus Although this section does not directly cover exam objectives. Vocabulary: performance. o Use it to detect abnormal performance.NLM. • • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 73 . abnormal performance. o Use your current network as an example.) Explain why you should create a baseline. but if students are running Windows 2000 or XP. o Network architecture. o NetWare MONITOR. o Use it to detect a trend. What are the peak logon times? What are the peak web-surfing times? Are any of the servers hit really hard? Do they need to be upgraded? How can you tell? o Discussion statement: A baseline is a good political tool. o NetWare LANalyzer Agent and ManageWise Management Console. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Discuss low-level performance issues. o Use examples from your own network to discuss baseline performance. Briefly discuss each tool. (This will depend on your infrastructure. trend. o Computer hardware.Section 5-3: Performance Preparation This section explains some principles for optimizing your network's performance. Are you running 10BaseT or 100BaseT? Do you use hubs or switches? What speed are they? Introduce network performance monitoring.

Homework Suggestions • • • Read Section 5-3 and take the section test. etc.• How do you convince the money people that the server really needs to be upgraded and that you are not just looking for cool new technology? Discuss bottlenecks. o Increate the rate at which the component operates. o Define bottlenecks: a limiting component. o Generate activity. open a few large programs. • Add a CPU to a server. You are thinking about replacing the hubs with 100 MB switches. Play a game. o Decrease the component’s workload. open some files. There are 30 clients on each network segment (subnet). • Upgrade a 10 meg hub to a 100 meg switch.  Memory.  Physical Disk. Research the focus question for the next section. • Remove unused services from a server. o What kinds of tasks are required when you install a network? You manage an Ethernet network that uses 100MB hubs. o Add counters. Available Bytes. What type of performance gains do you expect to see? How much will it cost? ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 74 . • Lab/Activity Computer Lab Activity • Use Performance (System Monitor) to look at the performance of your computer. • Split an overloaded Ethernet segment into two segments (or replace a hub with a switch). a component that can’t accommodate the current load placed on it.  Processor. o What happens to the counters as you generate activity? Assessment Check lab notebooks. % Disk Time. % Processor Time.

Exam Objectives 3. Before class. o Find out about the existing network. and standards. • What OS do you use now? Do you plan to upgrade soon? What OS? Why? o Choose client operating systems. • What OS do you use now? Do you plan to upgrade soon? What OS? Why? o Create network administration standards. • Do you have any defined standards? Who keeps track of them? How are they decided? o Announce the installation schedule. • What are you using now? o Choose a network architecture. • What do you use now? Is there anything you would like to add? o Choose a network operating system. • If you could upgrade would you change your architecture.Section 6-1: Installation Preparation Network installation involves four fundamental steps. or just the speed? o Decide which services the network will provide. plans. Vocabulary: network architecture. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 75 . configure the connection. network service. client operating system Focus Question: What kinds of tasks are required when you install a network? Time About 1 hour Network+ Exam Focus This section does not directly address exam objectives. network operating system. Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. which are explained in this section. Use your own network as an example. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Discuss planning a network installation.7 Given a remote connectivity scenario. make a list of a few areas where your network could use improvement.

• • • Have you ever been involved in an upgrade or installation? Did you keep to the schedule? Discuss installing cables and connectivity devices. o Install the network operating system. You just installed a DNS server on this same network. 100BaseT network. • Where should you put the server? What kind of NIC should you install? What type of cable and connectors will you use? What is the network OS? Will you need to install a driver for the NIC? Is the driver likely to be plug-and-play? What protocol needs to be installed? What service are you installing? Discuss installing workstations. o Install and configure network protocol software. o Choose an appropriate physical environment. o Install and configure the driver for the network interface card. o Connect the network cable. o Install and configure additional network service software. o Physically install the network card. o Install and configure network protocol software. o Install and configure network client software. This standard is important because it is the most common standard in use today. o Stress that the 100-meter cable limit includes all cables between the computer and the hub. o Spend some time on the 100BaseT installation. Students often miss this concept. Cable from the patch panel to hub and from the computer to the wall jack counts toward the limit. o Connect the network cable. 100BaseT network. Discuss installing servers. • What kind of NIC should you install? What type of cable and connectors will you use? What is the client OS? Will you need to install a driver for the NIC? Is the driver likely to be plug-andplay? What protocol needs to be installed? What client software needs to be installed to connect to a Windows 2000 network? Does this computer need to be configured to use the new DNS server? How do you configure it as a DNS client? • Lab/Activity Lecture Activity ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 76 . o Install and configure the driver for the network interface card. o Physically install the network card. o Install the client operating system. o Example: You are installing a DNS server in a Windows 2000. o Example: You are installing a Windows 2000 Professional computer in a Windows 2000 Active Directory domain.

Homework Suggestions • • • Read Section 6-1 and take the section test.• Present the list of desired network improvements. Assessment Check lab notebooks. Have students divide into small groups and plan for network improvements. discuss group plans as a class. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 77 . When students are ready. Research the focus question for the next section. o What types of tasks are required to maintain a network? Plan a home network.

o Train users. Discuss viruses. upgrade. Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Briefly mention monitoring. o Example: Demonstrate the Windows Update website. • Run the antivirus software on lab computers. Lecture Tips • • • Start with the focus question. o Install antivirus software on servers and workstations. so monitor what you need to. • • Lab/Activity Computer Lab Activity • Go to http://windowsupdate.Section 6-2: Maintenance Preparation This section introduces tasks you should regularly perform as maintenance tasks after a network is set up.microsoft. You reviewed a few tools in Section 5-3. o Manufacturer’s web site. Discuss the need for good documentation. What do you run on lab computers? How often do you update antivirus software? Are you running antivirus software on your mail server? Do you scan for problem attachments? Discuss software patches and upgrades. available on the start menu or at http://windowsupdate.com/ and check to see if your computer needs any updates. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 78 . Assessment Check lab notebooks. Scan your hard drives for viruses. o Use your environment as an example.microsoft. o Monitoring adds load. but be careful not to monitor so much that performance degrades. patch. documentation Focus Question: What types of tasks are required to maintain a network? Time About 1 hour Network+ Exam Focus This section does not directly address exam objectives.com/. o Update software regularly. virus. Vocabulary: monitoring.

Homework Suggestions • • • • Read Section 6-2 and take the section test. Investigate three antivirus packages. o How do I begin to solve network problems? Check Windows Update for your home computer. Research the focus question for the next section. Which one do you like best? Why? ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 79 .

select an appropriate course of action based on a general troubleshooting strategy. prepare troubleshooting examples based on your own network and experience. interpret visual indicators to determine the nature of the problem. Before class. 4. 4.If you are having trouble connecting to a LAN from a remote location. 4.6 Given a network scenario.11 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a client connectivity problem. identify the cause of the failure. 4. When a link light is not lit. activity light. 4.9 Given a network problem scenario. identify the network area affected and the cause of the problem.Use link lights to verify connectivity. error message. Exam Objectives 4.3 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a remote connectivity problem. identify the cause of the problem. This strategy includes the steps of the general troubleshooting model. identify the cause of the problem. Vocabulary: power light.2 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a small office/home office network failure. error log. that the correct protocols are installed and that you have the proper permissions to access resources. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 80 . performance monitor Focus Question: How do I begin to solve network problems? Time About 1½ hours Network+ Exam Focus Troubleshooting Hints • Remote Access . • Link Lights . make sure that your cables are properly connected.12 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a wiring/infrastructure problem. either the cable is bad or one of the devices on either side of the cable is not functioning properly.Section 6-3: Troubleshooting Preparation This section introduces techniques and tools that can help you troubleshoot.10 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology and including a network diagram. 4. identify the cause of the problem. link light.

Also. o Step 4: Select the Most Probable Cause. depending on the topology used. Use the model as a guide for solving the problems.All secure network operating systems require a username and password to log on. Also. For example. Router port IP addresses are 192.x/24 and two on subnet 192. make sure that the user has access rights to that resource. o Step 6: Test the Result.1 and 192.Network faults differ. If a collision light is on frequently on a hub. you either have too much traffic for the available bandwidth or you may have a malfunctioning NIC in one of the computers connected to the hub. However.1.168. If a user is having difficulty accessing a certain resource on the network. o Step 2: Identify the Affected Area. If you are having difficulty logging on.1. if you have tried to log on unsuccessfully many times.• • • • Collision Lights .168. the entire segment will stop working. • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 81 . Do students have any questions about the material they have studied? Discuss the general troubleshooting model. your account may have been locked out. o Step 7: Recognize the Potential Effects of the Solution.x/24. two on subnet 192. Present troubleshooting examples. o Step 8: Document the Solution. o Step 5: Implement a Solution. Logging on to a Network . subnet mask. Make sure that Caps Lock is not on.2. User Rights and Permissions . Lecture Tips • • Start with the focus question. the network will not necessarily cease to function.1. Network Wiring . and default gateway for each client. Label the IP address. o Example 1: Draw a diagram with four computers.A collision occurs when two hosts on an Ethernet network send packets at exactly the same time. high data error rates will occur and some hosts may not be able to connect. o Step 1: Establish the Symptoms. Label the default gateway of one of the clients on subnet 1 incorrectly. The subnets are connected by a router. if a user disconnects his computer from a bus network. if cables are extended beyond their recommended maximum distances or the wrong cable grade is used.2.168. The result is an unreadable packet.Rights and permissions are implemented on a network to ensure the safety of sensitive information but also easy access to resources required by many users. remember that passwords are case-sensitive.168. Similar problems can happen with ring networks. o Step 3: Establish What has Changed.

Walk through the problem. If there is a switch or hub in the room. If a collision light is on frequently on a hub. You don’t have that permission. The message indicates you don’t have permission to log on. you discover the IP configuration for the problem client has been set manually. • Make sure you have the proper permissions to access resources. The other client on this subnet can communicate with clients on subnet 2. take a look at it too. take a look at it too. • Look at the activity lights on the classroom computers. Gina calls to say that she can’t connect to the file server. o Example 4: You are having trouble connecting to a Windows 2000 remote access server. • Make sure that your cables are properly connected. • Clients are supposed to be configured with DHCP. • Look at the link lights on the classroom computers. The result is an unreadable packet. Mark is on subnet 2. o Example 2: You run a 100BaseT. The router is down. o Link lights. Windows 2000 domains require that the user account be given permission to dial-up to the remote access server. What do you do first? • In this case. but upon inspection. Discuss troubleshooting indicators and tools. Mark calls to say that he can’t connect to the file server. so no one on subnet 2 can connect to the server. • You are having trouble connecting to a LAN from a remote location.A collision occurs when two hosts on an Ethernet network send packets at exactly the same time. Walk through the problem. Windows 2000 network. you either have too much traffic for the available bandwidth or you may have a malfunctioning NIC in one of the computers connected to the hub. Clients run Windows 2000 Professional or Windows XP. What do you do first? • In this case. Demonstrate anything you can. o Example 3: You run a 100BaseT. • Make sure correct protocols are installed. (In this example. there is a router connecting two subnets. • Use link lights to verify connectivity. • Collision Lights . o Activity lights. If there is a switch or hub in the room. either the cable is bad or one of the devices on either side of the cable is not functioning properly. Windows 2000 network. Clients run Windows 2000 Professional or Windows XP. The server is on subnet 1.• One of the clients on subnet 1 can’t communicate with clients on subnet 2. the file server is down.) o Present your own examples. o Power lights. When a link light is not lit. 82 • ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) .

All secure network operating systems require a username and password to log on. if you have tried to log on unsuccessfully many times. If possible. • Try to log on with the wrong password. Research the cause of the error and the solution to the problem. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 83 . http://support. What is the error message? • User Rights and Permissions . o Performance monitors. If you are having difficulty logging on.microsoft. controlled access. Assessment Check lab notebooks. Research the focus question for the next section. make sure that the user has access rights to that resource. Lab/Activity Lecture Activity Computer Lab Activity • Unplug the network cable for your lab computer. Take a look at the link lights on the NIC. remember that passwords are case-sensitive. heat. • Remind students of the Performance tool in Windows 2000. look at the lights on the classroom hub or switch. If a user is having difficulty accessing a certain resource on the network. o Environmental factors. • Dust. Make sure that Caps Lock is not on.Rights and permissions are implemented on a network to ensure the safety of sensitive information but also easy access to resources required by many users. o Error logs. • Logging on to a Network .o Error messages. dirt. your account may have been locked out. • Open Event Viewer on a Windows NT/2000/XP computer at take a look at the error log. Also. Find a STOP message in Event View on a Windows 2000 computer.com is a good place to look for more information on STOP messages. Homework Suggestions • • • Read Section 6-3 and take the section test.

speed.0. 802.g. Media and Topologies Objectives TestOut for Network+ 1. topology. and FDDI networking technologies.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a 2-7 schematic diagram or description: • • • • • 1. CompTIA's Network+ Certification 1.Appendix A: Network+ Exam Objectives To find instruction for a particular exam objective.11b (wireless). Exam N10-002.2 Star/hierarchical Bus Mesh Ring Wireless 3-2.5 (Token Ring). locate the objective below.3 (Ethernet).3 Specify the characteristics (e.3 (Ethernet) standards 10Base-T 100Base-TX 10Base-2 10Base-5 100Base-FX Gigabit Ethernet 3-2 ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 84 . cable type. length. 802.) of the following: • • • • • • • 802. Then note the section(s) in the course you need to study.. etc.2 (LLC). 802. including: • • • • Speed Access method Topology Media 1. References to the course use the format [module #]-[section #]. 3-3 Specify the main features of 802.

5 1. 1-4. Identify the purpose. Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing.4 Recognize the following media connectors and/or describe their uses: • • • • • • RJ-11 RJ-45 AUI BNC ST SC 3-1 to 3-4 1.1.4 Identify the OSI layers at which the following network components operate: • • • Hubs Switches Bridges 1-3.6 Choose the appropriate media type and connectors to add a client to an existing network. and functions of the following network components: • • • • • • • • 3-1 to 3-4 1-3. Protocols and Standards Objectives 2.0. interoperability. identify a MAC address. and naming conventions: • • • • TCP/IP IPX/SPX NetBEUI AppleTalk 2. 3-2 to 3-4 Hubs Switches Bridges Routers Gateways CSU/DSU Network interface cards/ISDN adapters/System Area Network cards Wireless access points 2. 2. addressing schemes. features.1 Given an example. 2-5 to 2-7 ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 85 . 2-1 to 2-7 4-1 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions.3 TestOut for Network+ 2-6 1-1.2 2. 2-5 to 2-7.

10 2. 4-2 4-2 1-4. 5-1 4-2 2.5 Routers Network Interface Cards 4-1.. Identify the basic characteristics (e. media) of the following WAN technologies. circuit switching ISDN FDDI ATM 4-1.• • 2.g.6 2.9 2. 4-2. Identify the differences between public vs.8 2.7 Define the function of TCP/UDP ports. and/or use of the following protocols within TCP/IP: • • • • • • • • • • • • • IP TCP UDP FTP TFTP SMTP HTTP HTTPS POP3/IMAP4 Telnet ICMP ARP NTP 2. 4-2 4-1. 3-4 ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 86 . Identify the purpose of the following network services: • • • • • DHCP/BootP DNS NAT/ICS WINS SNMP 4-1. private networks. capacity. • • • • Packet switching vs. Identify the purpose of subnetting and default gateways. 4-2 Define the purpose. function. speed. Identify well-known ports.11 Identify IP addresses (IPv4. IPv6) and their default subnet masks. 3-3.

• • • • RAS PPP PPTP ICA 2..4 3. file and print services. 5-2 3-1.. application support.7 UNIX/Linux NetWare Windows Macintosh 4-1. dial-up.e.• • • • • 2. 4-1.1 Identify the basic capabilities (i. 87 Identify the basic capabilities of client workstations (i.6 3. Network Implementation Objectives TestOut for Network+ 3. and authentication). client support. local security mechanisms. 3-4.5 3. IP. 5-1 2-6 1-3 1-1. and security) of the following server operating systems: • • • • 3.0.. Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance. 5-2 1-1.13 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • • • • IPsec L2TP SSL Kerberos 5-1 3. IPX. Given a remote connectivity scenario (e. interoperability.e. Identify the main characteristics of network attached storage. client connectivity.2 3.3 3.g. Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery. 5-1 authentication. 4-1. 5-1 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services. Identify the main characteristics of VLANs. ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) .12 Frame Relay SONET/SDH T1/E1 T3/E3 OC-x 1-4.

etc. authentication failure. blocking port numbers.).4 ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 88 . xDSL.g. Given specific parameters.3 3-4.. configure the connection. 5-1. WINS.PPPoE.8 3. configure a client to connect to the following servers: • • • • UNIX/Linux NetWare Windows Macintosh 4. home satellite. select the appropriate TCP/IP utility 4-2 from among the following: • • • • • • • • 4.. 4-2 4.11 Identify the purpose. 4-1.2 tracert ping arp netstat nbtstat ipconfig/ifconfig winipcfg nslookup 3-4. DNS.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a remote connectivity problem (e. predict the impact of a particular security implementation on network functionality (e. benefits. and characteristics of using a firewall. identify the cause of the failure. Identify the purpose. encryption. physical connectivity) identify the cause of the problem. authentication.0.. 4-1. select the appropriate NIC and network configuration settings (DHCP. etc. 6-3 4-1 4.g. protocols.). wireless. POTS). and characteristics of using a proxy.). 6-1 5-1 4-2 5-1 Given a scenario. Given a network configuration. 6-3 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a small office/home office network failure (e. 3. physical connectivity.9 3. protocol configuration. etc.10 3. Network Support Objectives TestOut for Network+ 4. benefits. cable.g. 5-1. NetBIOS/host name.

6-3 physical topology (i. 5-1..g. Given output from a diagnostic utility (e.4.5 4.11 4. punch down tool. Given a scenario. identify the network area affected and the cause of the problem. bad media. etc.).g.) to determine the nature of the problem.e.. or removing network services (e. Identify the affected area 3.. Recognize the potential effects of the solution 8. star/hierarchical. Establish what has changed 4. link lights.. select the appropriate tool (e. or insufficient rights/permissions). ipconfig. optical tester. select an appropriate course of action based on a general troubleshooting strategy. Implement a solution 6.10 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular 2-7. identify the cause of the problem (e. Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a client 4-1.9 6-3 4. DHCP. etc. ping.12 ©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) CompTIA Network+ (N10-002) 89 . media tester/certifier. This strategy includes the following steps: 1. bus. predict the impact of modifying.8 Given a wiring task.. ring. 6-3 connectivity problem (e. 2-7. Select the most probable cause 5. WINS. Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a wiring/infrastructure problem. etc. mesh.g.g. Establish the symptoms 2. identify the utility and interpret the output. etc. tracert. collision lights.. Document the solution 3-1 6-3 4-2 4-2 4. Test the result 7. DNS.g.. adding.) on network resources and users. network hardware). 6-3 4.6 4. Given a network problem scenario. identify the cause of the problem. and wireless) and including a network diagram. Given a network scenario interpret visual indicators (e.). wire crimper. incorrect protocol/client software/authentication configuration.7 4.g. interference. tone generator.

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