Secondary Report
A) Introduction to onion production in India, and onion varieties grown in India.

Onion Production System in India:India is one of the largest producers of onion in the world second only to China, accounting for 16 percent of world area and 10 percent of production. India produces around 40 lakh metric tons (mts.) of onion annually. It is one of the most important vegetable crops of our country and forms a part of daily diet in almost all households. Most of the onion produced in India comes from the state of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Bihar. VARIETIES A number of onion varieties have been developed in India by SAUs and ICAR Institutes for cultivation in different regions. About 35 improved varieties have been classified into 2 groups - common onions and mulplier onion The common onions have been grouped into 3 sub-groups based on colour of skin, i.e. red, yellow and white. The descriptions of varieties are given here under:

1.Big Onion

Red Coloured Bulbs Agrifound Dark Red Agrifound Light Red NHRDF Red Pusa Red Pusa Ratnar Pusa Madhavi Arka Niketan Arka Kalyan Arka Pragati Punjab Selection Punjab Red Round N 2-4-1 N 53 Kalyanpur Red Round Hissar 2 Baswant 780 Udaipur 101

Excalibur Linda Vista and Colina (yellow type). Arad-H. Of them. Mercedes. .CROP IMPROVEMENT Developed six improved varieties. Agrifound Light Red. Agrifound Rose (small onion) and Agrifound Red (multiplier onion). Agrifound White. Couger. Juni and Matahari (red type) and Kristal (white type) have been identified as suitable varieties of onion for the export to European countries. Varieties identified for export TanaFl. HA-60. NHRDF Red (Line 28). Agrifound Light Red. Agrifound Dark Red. Agrifound Dark Red and NHRDF Red have been notified by the Government of India. viz.

Satara and Solapur . Pune. Rajkot. Junagadh and Jamnagar. outer scale transplanting tight Flatish round. medium to 120 days big. bulblet 66-67 of 2-2. Districts of Nasik. Ahmednagar.5 cm size sowing days days Scarlet red Brick red Yellow from 16-18 from 15-17 after 9-10 190-200 180-200 500—800 Good storer Good storer Poor storer Big-sized global round bulbs 90-100 days of 6-8 cm diameter transplanting A) Production .5 cm 95-110 diameter sowing 5-6 bulblets/ clump.: Important characters of onion varieties Variety Agrifound Dark Red Agrifound Light Red Agrifound Rose Agrifound Rose Arad (H) Colour Dark red Light red Shape Maturity TSS (%) from 12-13 from 13-14 Productivity ( q / ha ) 300-400 300-325 Remarks Medium storer Good storer Global round.State-wise distribution of Onion Production including Tables and Charts. State Product Dehydrated Onion Onion Gujarat Maharashtra District/Area Districts of Bhavnagar.5-3. Surendranagar. 2. compact . medium to big 90-100 days transplanting Global round. Amreli.

Ratlam. Indore. Dhar. Maharashtra State contributes about 80-85% in the total onion export. Sholapur and Dhulia. Out of the total onion production in the State.Onion Rose Onion Madhya Pradesh Karnataka Malwa. Bangalore (Rural). Dewas. Ujjain. Ahmednagar. The other major onion producing districts of Maharashtra are Pune. Kolar Onion Production in Maharashtra:Maharashtra is the leading producer accounting for 20% of the area and 30% of the production. In Maharashtra. Satara. Neemuch and Mandsaur Bangalore (Urban). Nashik district (Lasal gaon. Onion varieties grown in Maharashtra No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Variety N-53 Baswant-780 N2-4-1 N-257-9-1 PhuleSafed PhuleSuvarna AFDR AFLR Season Kharif Kharif Rabi Rabi All year Late Kharif /Rabi Late Kharif /Rabi Rabi Colour Red Red Brick-Red White White Yellow Red Dark Red Light Red Remarks Poor Storage Poor Storage Good Storage Good Storage Good for Dehydration Good for export to Europe Fairly Good for Storage Good Storage . 30-40% production is in Late Kharif and 50-60% production is in Rabi/Summer season. 10-15% onion production is in Kharif season. Shajapur. Chandwad) contributes 35 to 40 % of the state’s production.

From Karnataka Onions are exported through National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd. contributing 17% to the national output.. The onion produced in North Karnataka is distributed throughout the country. Rajkot and Kheda are the major districts producing onion in the state. Bhavnagar. Onion Production In Gujarat :• Gujarat ranks second in Onion production. . (KSCMF). lack of market outlet and other infrastructure in the marketing system. Amreli. (NAFED) . Onion Production in Karnataka :• Karnataka state accounted for 20 per cent area and 13 per cent total output of onion in the country. Bulk of the onion exported from India also originates from North Karnataka.Onion production Seasons (in Maharashtra) No 1 2 3 Season Kharif /Rainy Late Kharif (Rangda) Rabi /Winter (Pol /Unhali) Growing Months June-August September-November December-February Harvest months August-September November-December February-March Storage Quality Poor (1 month) Poor (1 month) Good (4-6 month) Remarks 10 % 30-40 % 50-60 % Onion produced in summer (Rabi season) is suitable for export. The Karnataka State Co-operative Marketing Federation Ltd. About 50% to 60 % of onion produced in the State is of export quality. Bangalore. (NCCF). formers often incur losses due to low prices. Though there is great potential for the state of Karnataka in the cultivation of onion crop. In the state of Karnataka. north Karnataka accounts for the bulk of the total onion production and Hubli and Belgaum are biggest onion markets. The North Karnataka Onion Growers Co-operative Society (NKOGCS) and Karnataka State Produce Processing and Export Corporation (KAPPEC). Junagadh. The National Co-operative Consumers Federation of India Ltd. Jamnagar.

ONION PRODUCTION: State-wise (year 2009-2010) No.50 554.88 750. 4.00 395.00 7729.75 30. 1.00 28.51 11.55 111.50 16.64 15.13 Productivity ( tons/ ha) 9.18 522. 8.00 517. 10.00 39.00 45.38 11.75 329.47 570.50 778.50 69.10 10. 5.00 329.37 . 9.21 20.58 8.08 21. 6. 11.15 Production(' 000 tons MT) 244.00 563.50 53. 12.13 7.56 12.75 35. State Andhra Pradesh Bihar Gujarath Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan Tamilnadu Uttar Pradesh Haryana Other Total Area (' 000 ha) 26.45 13. 2.35 2409.47 21. 3.00 320.45 37.65 60. 7.

-December Oct. Rabi Rajasthan/Haryana/Punjab/UP and Bihar C.-Sept.-Sept. No. Kharif 2.-Dec. 1. Early kharif 2.-January  Nov.-December January-March April-May A.-January Time of Harvesting Sept.-Nov. Kharif 2.-Dec. October-Nov. Rabi 2.-Oct.Onion Production Seasons:- Sr. 1.  March-April May-June Sept. Seasons Maharashtra and some parts of Gujarat Time of Onion seasons –In India Sowing May-June August-Sept.-December May-June D. June-July Aug. Late kharif Hills   E. Kharif 2. May-June Oct. Dec. Time of Transplanting July-August Sept. February-March   Nov. Sept. Summer (long day type) June-July August-Oct. Rabi Tamilnadu / Karnataka and AP B. Kharif 3.-November April-May July-August Nov.-October Nov.-Oct. Oct. Rabi West Bengal & Orissa  July-August Dec. Early Rabi or late Kharif 3. February-March 1.-November March-April 1.-December  July-August Ovt.   Aug. . 1.

00 8.47 9.61 20.20 58.86 27.70 1.00 318.540.50 2.40 750.00 14.00 10.00 33.40 57.30 20.00 300.70 25.40 54.00 17.00 468. STATEWISE AREA AND PRODUCTION DATA FOR ONION State 2010-2011 Andhra Pradesh Bihar Chhattisgarh Delhi Gujarat Haryana Jharkhand Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharastra Orissa Others Punjab Rajasthan Area ('000 ha) 40.00 Yield (Ton/ha) 15.50 Production (in '000 MT) 628.10 1.10 15.00 22.800.00 175.248.46 .04 17.56 20.00 1.50 305.53 16.78 16.02 21.00 179.60 1.70 140.080.39 15.10 2.022.00 21.• Statement for the year of 2009-10 and 2010-11 for onion Production in top onion producing states of India.79 17.30 170.20 48.

022.00 2.47 2010-2011 Maharastra 170. New Delhi 449.60 15.30 Total : 58.00 Total : 170.90 45.53 2010-2011 Madhya Pradesh 58.00 13. KrishiBhawan.Tamil Nadu 35.72 10. New Delhi MAHARASHTRA PRODUCTION DATA FOR ONION State Area ('000 ha) Production (in '000 MT) 2.20 West Bengal 21. KrishiBhawan.60 Data Source: DIRECTORATE OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS.70 Uttar Pradesh 23.00 Data Source: DIRECTORATE OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS.10 Yield (Ton/ha) 17.30 Data Source: DIRECTORATE OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS.60 Uttaranchal 4.022.800.71 14.005.00 298.06 M.P. PRODUCTION DATA FOR ONION State Area ('000 ha) Production (in '000 MT) 1.10 1. KrishiBhawan.70 370. New Delhi .20 Total : 757.00 Yield (Ton/ha) 16.10 12.800.

KrishiBhawan.90 370.90 Yield (Ton/ha) 15.60 Data Source: DIRECTORATE OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS.72 2010-2011 Uttar Pradesh 23.20 Production (in '000 MT) 45.71 .00 45. New Delhi UTTARANCHAL PRODUCTION DATA FOR ONION State 2010-2011 Uttaranchal Total : Area ('000 ha) 4.UTTAR PRADESH PRODUCTION DATA FOR ONION State Area ('000 ha) Production (in '000 MT) 370.20 4.00 Yield (Ton/ha) 10.60 Total : 23.

70 Total : 35.04 .Data Source: DIRECTORATE OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS.70 Data Source: DIRECTORATE OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS.70 449. New Delhi STATEWISE AREA AND PRODUCTION DATA FOR ONION State Area ('000 ha) Production (in '000 MT) 449.20 Production (in '000 MT) 2.248.60 Yield (Ton/ha) 16.70 Yield (Ton/ha) 12.60 2010-2011 Tamil Nadu 35. New Delhi KARNATAKA PRODUCTION DATA FOR ONION State 2010-2011 Karnataka Area ('000 ha) 140. KrishiBhawan. KrishiBhawan.

00 Total : 57. KrishiBhawan.540.248. New Delhi . KrishiBhawan.00 Data Source: DIRECTORATE OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS.20 Data Source: DIRECTORATE OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS.Total : 140.00 1.02 2010-2011 Gujarat 57.00 Yield (Ton/ha) 27.60 GUJARAT PRODUCTION DATA FOR ONION State Area ('000 ha) Production (in '000 MT) 1.540. New Delhi 2.

.Prices of Onion in different Markets - MARKET ARRIVALS AND PRICES FOR ONION ON 27/2/2010 Market AHMEDABAD(GUJ) BHOPAL (M.) NDORE(MP) NASIK(MS) VADODARA(GUJ) Arrival Price Minimum Price Maximum Modal Price (q) (Rs/q) (Rs/q) (Rs/q) 3860 640 5633 1451 748 500 600 250 375 350 900 700 875 800 900 800 650 625 650 625 Market HYDERABAD BANGALORE CHANDVAD(MS) Arrival Price Minimum (q) (Rs/q) 2530 16656 7430 900 200 100 Price Maximum (Rs/q) 1100 800 690 Modal Price (Rs/q) 1000 600 600 Export Market of Onion in India.P.

283.15 11. Sri Lanka and Bangladesh because of strong pungency.860. Middle East. Kuwait.158.00 NAFED NAFED NAFED NAFED NAFED NAFED NAFED NAFED Qty (MT) value (Rs lakhs) PUV (Rs/Ton) Source TOTAL EXPORT OF ONION Year 2010-2011 Total Qty (MT) 1. and multiplier onions to Singapore. Malaysia.00 116.167.71 15.60 PUV (Rs/Ton) 13.196.624.Sri Lanka etc.00 1. and sometimes due to ban imposed on export to safeguard the interest of consumers in the country.416.370.00 16. light red to dark red coloured bulbs are grown in most of the parts. Tuticorin.15 Source NAFED .00 Value (Rs lakhs) 152. Pondicherry and Andhra Pradesh. Maharashtra has maximum share in onion export.60 152.263.73 17.907.20 14.115. Gujrat.337.158.356.47 9. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are exported from Mumbai.698.00 15.99 19. Kandla and Kolkata ports to Dubai .698.128.128.15 13.370.845.698.158.60 13. Multiplier onion.194. Malaysia. Malaysia.713.475. and Krishnapuram onions are grown in Kolar district in Karnataka and Cudappah district in Andhra Pradesh.39 19.99 9.00 1.00 9.698.60 152.00 98.00 158.14 18.00 179.234.03 23.73 31.99 10.115.158. Chennai .698. Saudi Arabia. known as Podisu and Shallots.540. Small onions.221.179.00 133. Big onions having.11 152. MONTHWISE EXPORT OF ONION Month Year 2010-2011 April May June July August September October November Total Grand Total 173.00 1. are grown in Tamil Nadu.There are many ups and downs recorded in export quantity and value which is due to fluctuation in production and prices. Seychelles and Bangladesh.00 154. Singapore. Big onions produced in Maharastra.00 20.567. Small onions produced in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are exported from Chennai port to Singapore and Malaysia. Onions grown in India are very much in demand in Gulf Countries and Singapore.554.115. known as rose onion.683.

There are certain problems which arise during conventional storage of onion viz. To overcome these losses onion must be stored in scientific manner and its prices. and also gain more profit over a period of storage. 2. grading. time of harvest. To maintain steady supply for domestic as well as export market they need to be stored. It is predominantly a Rabi season crop but is also grown under a wide range of agro climatic conditions in other seasons. Onion is grown almost round the year in one or other parts of the country. . 4. however they are harvested once or twice in a year. Construction of structure on a raised platform to prevent moisture and dampness due to direct contact of bulbs with the soil. sprouting and rotting of bulb.Onion storage system:Need of storagge Onion is required every day in the kitchen. storage conditions (optimum storage range of relative humidity 65% to 70% with the temperature ranging between 250 C to 300 C). cultivation practices. specific varieties are developed for different seasons. 3. removal of tops. Increased centre height and more slope for better air circulation and preventing humid micro climate inside go down. Onion storage structures are designed mainly to store the Rabi varieties. Salient Features of Improved Storage Structures are: 1. 20%). Onion Storage Structure Requirements For effective long storage of onion the parameters essential to be looked after are the bulb size.e. field curing. drying. According to agro climatic conditions. Kharif varieties can be grown under relatively short photo period (10-11 hr) and cloudy atmosphere but have poor keeping quality while Rabi varieties require long photo period (12-14 hr) with clear sunny days and some of them have excellent keeping quality of four to six months. from June to October. Rabi harvest in April-May is in high quantity and available country wide. Late Kharif (Feb-March 20%) and Rabi (April-May 60%) seasons. There are three main crops of onion grown according to climatic conditions and they are called Kharif. Use of Mangalore tile type roof or other suitable materials to prevent built up of high inside temperature. 5. Kharif and Late Kharif harvest is consumed within one or two months as there is heavy demand during those months and therefore does not require storage. Providing bottom and side ventilations for free and faster air circulation and to avoid formation of hot and humid pockets between the onion layers. Rates are low during this period. loss in weight. choice of cultivars. Generally onion produced in Kharif and Late Kharif season is not suitable for storage while onion produced in summer season can be stored upto 5-6 months and it can be brought in the market during rainy season i. These bulbs need storage to ensure availability till next Oct-Nov. Rangada and Rabi or summer. packing. Onion is harvested during Kharif (Oct-Nov.

For onion storage. The minimum overhang of 1.5 m X 7. 8. length facing the East-West direction. rotting and sprouting. the opening below the platform should be closed to direct the air upward for better ventilation. Avoid direct sunlight or rain water falling on onion bulbs to reduce sun scald. During storm there should be a provision to close the windward side. Side walls can also be of chain link (GI wire) type. In case of Mangalore tiles. MS angles may be used for the truss and pillars.5 m on all other sides should be provided to protect the produce from sunlight and rain. . this is normally not adopted in India due to poor economics and lack of cold chain facilities required to maintain the quality in the high ambient temperature prevalent in our country. The overall dimensions of a 25 MT structure may be 6. At leeward side. The storage of onion will be on raised perforated platform of 0. proper fixation should be done at the ends to prevent damage by air. adequate care is to be taken for economizing the structures. Where storms/ cyclones are expected. For a 25 MT storage. The dimensions can be adjusted depending upon the capacity and site conditions.5m X 6.6. Emphasis should be laid for better area utilization efficiency. It has been observed that such structures can be constructed with an investment cost between Rs. If cheaper materials are available which can prevent heat built up at the top of the structure. The ground clearance may be 60 cm with side opening of upto 80%. 7. technology may be either with natural ventilation or with forced ventilation.e. Periodical disinfection of structures and premises to check rottage. The roof of the structures may be either Mangalore tile type or ACC sheets for a single tire arrangement or RCC for two tier systems.0 m.60 m height with bottom and side ventilations. leeward side should not be closed when the windward side is open. 1500 to Rs. The onion storage structure should be oriented in the North . Maintenance of stacking height to avoid pressure bruising. fading of colour and quality deterioration. they can also be used.0m. The width of storage may be reduced depending upon the availability of local construction material and ambient condition. Cost effectiveness of structures is based on utilization of locally available material for the construction.5 m on the windward side and 0. Therefore. Onion storage in ventilation condition is quite satisfactory when the temperature is maintained between 25oC to 30oC with a relative humidity range of 65% to 70%.. Half split bamboo sticks supported by MS angle frames may be used for storage of onion. the size of onion storage area will be 4. 2000 per MT. The foundations should only support the pillars to bear the load of the structure and wind. This environment reduces the storage losses. 9. Continuous half brick thick wall may be provided on the leeward side below the storage platform to serve as a wind barrier.South direction i. Height of storage under ventilation storage should be in the range of 90 cm to 150 cm. Although cold storage systems are used in certain countries for onion. The length of storage structure may be increased to suit the requirements of the individual farmers. which are in the form of physiological loss in weight.

when high temperature coupled with high humidity result the losses. proper curing of onion bulbs and subsequent storage at desired temperature and humidity conditions.e. Comparatively. Noticeable sprouting losses are observed because of storage of poor quality bulbs having less rest and dormant period and also having thick neck. Generally. rotting due to fungal diseases is 10-15% and sprouting of bulbs is to the tune of 10-15%. But this is not a practice in India. . Application of post harvest fungicidal sprays can also reduce the rotting. However. Major losses are again due to water loss and fungal rots. more sprouting losses are recorded in dark red and white onion cultivars than the light red onion cultivars. particularly in June and July. However. moisture loss and shrinkage (30-40%). Physiological weight loss is major (25-30%). proper grading and selection of quality bulbs and good ventilation conditions can reduce the rotting losses. Extent of Storage Losses The onion bulbs are generally stored from May to November for a period of four to six months. rotting (20-30%) and sprouting (20-40%).Nature of losses Storage losses of Rabi harvest of onion range from 30% to 60% due various factors. 50-90 per cent storage losses are recorded depending upon genotype and storage conditions. the rotting losses are at peak in initial months of storage. Sprouting losses are usually recorded at the end of storage period or when exposed to high temperature of humid air. The total storage losses are comprised of physiological loss in weight (PLW) i. The PLW can be minimized by harvesting at right time. In case of garlic storage losses are to the tune of 15-20% only.

for natural air circulation. Its breadth should be a 5'. Circumstance for natural ventilation should be avoided or minimise. Skeleton of structure should be rest on these pillars and it should be made up of iron angles/wooden material. Site selected for onion storage structure should be well drained and should be easily accusable to good road. Tall civil work should be 1. Height of roof of onion storage structure should be 2' above onion stored. Pillar height should be 1. 5. 5. Material of roof should be heat resistant.5' to 2'. Bamboo battens/iron angles should be so arranged that onions should not come out of it and also proper air circulation should be made which should be at 5' height. Windward side of storage should have closing system during storm and heavy rain and opening facility when necessary.6. 3. To avoid droplets rain water and sunlight.ONION STORAGE SYSTEM DESIGNED BY MAHARASTHRA STATE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING BOARD CONSTRUCTION OF ONION STORAGE STRUCTURE: Modern onion storage structures have been so planned to aerate the onions from all sides. Ill drained and deep site should be avoided. Following points to be followed during its construction. 1. Do not use galvanised iron sheets for roof. 8. Do's and Don'ts able for onion storage structure: 1. Onion storage structure should be naturally ventilated from lower and other sides. Its height should be 5'.00' for that the foundation should be laid out according to soil type. 2. 3.5' to 2. There should not be tall civil work close to structure. In high humid area width of storage structure should be less otherwise there should be provision of mechanism for air circulation. 4. The length of onion storage structure should be right angle to the direction of wind (EastWest). according structural design roof should have sufficient slope. The sides should not be short. The width of onion storage structure should be 610 cm. While constructing onion storage structure the length of structure should not be in the direction of wind. sides of roof should be sufficiently projected outside and also same from direction of rain (south-west). Also. The width of onion storage structure should not be more. 2. Lower base can be made up of iron angles wooden battens. Side wall should be made up to bamboo battens/iron angle with the support and help of iron angles. 7. It is necessary that lower base of onion storage structure should be raised from the ground level by 1. There should be heat resistant material at the upper side of roof of onion storage structure. The sides of the roof should be sufficiently forwarded to avoid rainwater and to resist heat.5 times height of onion storage structure away from onion storage structure. . 4. For roof iron/cement/Manglore tiles should be used. During storm and heavy rain windward side of storage should not be open.

Cold storage of 0˚c temperature and 65-70% humidity. 3. 2. Bottom and side ventilated single row low cost storage structure of 5 to 10 tons capacity.Storage Structure: NRCOG designed various types of storage structures and studied their efficacy in lowering down storage losses and recommended following types of storage structures. . 1. Bottom and side ventilated two rows structure of 25 to 50 tons capacity. In natural ventilated structures losses can be lowed down up to 20-25% against 50% and in cold storage up to 0%.

Capacity: Onion storage structure of 50 M.Capacity: .Onion storage structure of 25 M.T.T.

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