M.W.

BARVE LECTURE NOTES

FLEXIBLE CLOSED CELL PIPE COVERING

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

FIELD AND FACTORY-APPLIED NON-METAL JACKETING

1 2 3 4 5

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION VAPOUR BARRIER ADHESIVE (NOT REQUIRED WITH SELF-SEAL LAP) STAPLES COATES WITH VAPOUR BARRIER COATING (NOT REQUIRED WITH SELF-SEAL LAP) INSULATION FASTENING (NOT REQUIRED WITH FACTORY APPLIED JACKET) BUTT STRIP SECURED WITH VAPOUR BARRIER ADHESIVE OR SELF SEAL

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

FIELD-APPLIED METAL JACKET

1 2 3 4 5

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION INSULATION FASTENING JACKET OVERLAPPED (POSITION TO SHED WATER) JACKET FASTENING OR JACKET FASTENING

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

STANDARD SPLIT RING HANGERS

1 2 3 4 5

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION INSULATION FACTORY JACKET BUTT STRIP INSULATION NEATLY UT TO ACCOMMODATE HANGER INSULATION ON HANGER ROD

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/INSULATION%20&%20CLADDING%20-figers.pdf

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

CLEVIS HANGER HIGH DENSITY INSERTS

1 2 3 4 5

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION HINGH DENSITY INSULATION (EXTEND 50mm BEYOND ENDS OF SHIELD) FACTORY APPLIED VAPOUR BARRIER FINISH JACKET (METAL SHOWN) METAL SHIELD (SUPPLIED BY OTHERS)

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/INSULATION%20&%20CLADDING%20-figers.pdf

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

PIPE SHOE ON ROLLER SUPPORT

1 2 3 4 5

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION INSULATION FASTENING IF NOT FACTORY JACKET FINISH JACKET (METAL SHOWN) PIPE SHOE SUPPLIED AND INSTALLED BY OTHERS INSULATION IN PIPE SHOE CAVITY

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/INSULATION%20&%20CLADDING%20-figers.pdf

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

TRACED PIPING

1. 2. 3. 4.

TUBING TRACER (BY OTHERS) PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION (FACTORY JACKET) HEAT TRANSFER COMPOUND (OPTIONAL) HEAT TRANSFER COMPOUND CHANNEL (OPTIONAL) 5. BANDING SECURING CHANNEL TO PIPE 6. MULTIPLE TUBING TRACER (BY OTHERS) 7. ELECTRIC CABLE OR TAPE TRACER (BY OTHERS)

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/INSULATION%20&%20CLADDING%20-figers.pdf

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

INSULATION SUPPORT RINGS / EXPANSION – CONTRACTION JOINTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION - SINGLE LAYER FACTORY JACKET SLEEVE OR FACTORY JACKET MATERIAL BANDING TO SECURE SLEEVE COLLAR OF FLEXIBLE INSULATION PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION DOUBLE LAYER INSULATION SUPPORT RING (BY OTHERS) COLLAR OF FLEXIBLE INSULATION BELOW SUPPORT RINGS

file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/INSULATION%20&%20CLADDING%20-figers.pdf

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

PRE-FORMED ELBOW INSULATION

1. PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION (SHOWN WITH METAL JACKET) 2. PRE-FORMED FITTING COVER 3. BANDING OR SCRES TO SECURE FITTING COVER

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

MITRED INSULATION ELBOW OVERSIZE APPLICATION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

PRE-FORMED INSULATION MITRED SEGMENTS OF PIPE INSULATION FINISH JACKET WIRE OR BANDING FITTING COVER (METAL CORE TYPE SHOWN) 6. FASTENING (SCREWS OR POP REVETS)

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

PVC / GLASS FIBRE ELBOW INSULATION SYSTEM

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION WITH FACTORY JACKET COLLAR OF OVER-SIZED PIPE INSULATION FLEXIBLE INSULATION INSERT PVC FITTING COVER SECURED WITH SERRATED FASTENERS VAPOUR BARRIER END CAP PVC FITTING COVER VAPOUR BARRIER TAPE OR ADHESIVE

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

FIELD OR FACTORY FABRICATED VALVE INSULATION

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION WITH METAL JACKET COLLAR OF PIPE INSULATION SIZED TO CLEAR FLANGES COLLAR OF PIPE INSULATION SIZED TO CLEAR VALVE BODY COLLAR OF PIPE INSULATION SIZED TO COVER BONNET (OPTIONAL) COVER OF RIGID INSULATION OF BONNET INSULATED INSULATION ADHESIVE AT JOINTS FLEXIBLE INSULATION FILL (OPTIONAL) CAULKING ON OUTDOOR INSTALLATIONS METAL JACKET MATERIAL COVER

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

PVC / GLASS FIBRE VALVE INSULATION

1 2 3 4 5 6

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION OVER-SIZED PIPE INSULATION COLLAR FLEXIBLE INSULATION INSERT PVC COVER (SEAM SECURED WITH SERRATED TACKS, ADHESIVE OR TAPE) END COVER CAULKING TO SEAL

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

IN-LINE FLANGE INSULATION BUILT-UP AND BEVELLED

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION WITH FACTORY JACKET PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION WITH METAL JACKET COLLAR OF OVER-SIZED PIPE INSULATION SLEEVE OF OVER-SIZED PIPE INSULATION FLEXIBLE INSULATION (OPTIONAL) FABRICATED COVER CAULKING PIPE INSULATION (BEVELLED) BARRIER COATING INDOORS / WEATHER COATING OUTDOORS

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

PVC/GLASS FIBRE COUPLING OR IN-LINE FLANGE INSULATION SYSTEM

1 2 3 4

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION VAPOUR BARRIER TAPE ON JOINTS FLEXIBLE INSULATION PVC FITTING COVER

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

FLEXIBLE DUCT INSULATION ON RECTANGULAR DUCTS INDOORS

1 2 3 4

FLEXIBLE DUCT INSULATION WITH VAPOUR BARRIER JOINTS LAPPED AND STAPLED; SEAL WITH VAPOUR BARRIER ADHESIVE OR VAPOUR BARRIERE TAPE MECHANICAL FASTENERS VAPOUR BARRIER TAPE ON BREAKS & PENETRATIONS OF VAPOUR BARRIER

2* & 4* VAPOUR BARRIER TAPE OR SEAL NOT REQUIRED ON HOT DUCTS

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

RIGID DUCT INSULATION ON RECTANGULAR EXPOSED DUCTS INDOORS

1 2 3 4 5

RIGID DUCT INSULATION MECHANICAL FASTENERS VAPOUR BARRIER TAPE ON JOINTS, BREAKS AND PENETRATIONS CANVAS FINISH JACKET APPLIED WITH LAGGING ADHESIVE METAL CORNER BEAD

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

HIGH TEMPERATURE BLOCK OR BOARD INSULATION

BREECHINGS, FLUES AND KITCHEN EXHAUST DUCTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 RIGID BLOCK INSULATION (JOINTS STAGGERED) METAL MESH OVER STIFFENERS (BY OTHERS) STIFFENER OR FLANGED CONNECTION MECHANICAL FASTENERS OR BANDING TO SECURE INSULATION METAL JACKET FINISH RIGID BOARD INSULATION METAL CORNER BEAD REINFORCEDMESH EMBEDDED IN INSULATION CEMENT AND CANVAS FINISH JACKET APPLIED WITH LAGGING ADHESIVE

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD, LEG, SKIRT INSULATION AND SECUREMENT

1 2 3 4 5 6

VESSEL, INSULATION AND JACKET FIREPROOFING (BY OTHERS, IF REQUIRED) MECHANICAL FASTENERS TIE WIRES REINFORCING WIRE MESH & INSULATING CEMENT INSULATION SUPPORT RING (BY OTHERS)

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

PIPE AND TUVE EXCHANGERS – ENCASED

1 2 3 4 5 6

PIPE INSULATION SECURED WITH BANDING BLOCK INSULATION SECURED WITH BANDING FINISH JACKET (METAL SHOWN SECURED WITH BANDING) SHEET METAL SCREWS BEVEL INSULATION AND FINISH WITH COATING BLOCK INSULATION AND FINISH WITH COATING

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

LARGE DIAMETER VERTICAL VESSELS BLOCK AND BLANKET INSULATION

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

SUPPORT RING FOR HEAD INSULATION BLOCK OR BLANKET INSULATION MECHANICAL FASTENERS OR BANDING TO SCURE INSULATION SUPPORT RING (BY OTHERS) METAL JACKET SHEET METAL SCREWS BANDING BLOCK INSULATION MITRED TO FIT FABRICATED HEAD COVER METAL FLASHING BOTTOM HEAD INSULATION VESSEL SKIRT

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

LARGE DIAMETER HORIZONTAL VESSELS INSULATION SUPPORT AND SECUREMENT

1 2 3 4 5

RIGID INSULATION BANDING SUPPORT BARS BANDING FINISH JACKET SECURED WITH BANDING OR SCREWS HEAD COVER

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

FLEXIBLE CLOSEDCELL SHEETS

1 2 3 4 5

INSULATION ADHESIVE (CONTACT TYPE) FLEXIBLE CLOSED CELL INSULATION (CUT TO FIT TIGHTLY) JOINTS SEALED WITH CONTACT TYPE ADHESIVE LEGS & PROTRUSIONS INSULATED (OPTIONAL) PROTECTIVE COATING WHERE REQUIRED

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

EXTREME TEMPERATURE VESSELS BLOCK INSULATION

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

FLEXIBLE INSULATION INSULATION – JOINTS STAGGERED FINISH JACKET (METAL SHOWN) BANDING INSULATION ATTACHMENT FOR HEAD FABRICATED HEAD COVER CLOSED CELL INSULATION FOR FIRST 300mm

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

SMALL DIAMETER VESSELS / EXHAUST PIPE COVERING

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

INSULATION SUPPORT RING (BY OTHERS) PIPE INSULATION SECURED WITH BANDS OR WIRE RIGID INSULATION CUT TO FIT FLEXIBLE INSULATION FILLER FINISH JACKET (METAL SHOWN) SHEET METAL SCRES OR POP RIVETS BANDING AS REQUIRED BEVEL INSULATION FOR BOLT REMOVAL AND FINISH WITH COATING

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

FIELD APPLIED LINING

1 2 3 4 5

HOUSING OR SHAFT RIGID DUCT LINER ADHESIVE WHERE NECESSARY MECHANICAL FASTENERS JOINTS SEALED WITH INSULATION COATING EMBEDDED IN REINFORCING MEMBRANE

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

CURVED SURFACES RIGIDBOARD INSULATION

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

INSULATION SCORED OR BEVELLED TO FIT CURVATURE MECHANICAL FASTENERS BANDING CELLULAR GLASS INSULATION ON BOTTOM 300mm METAL JACKET HEAD FLASHING CAULKING

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

NOZZLES AND INSULATED MANWAYS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

VESSEL INSULATION METAL OR REINFORCING MEMBRANE BANDED TO NOZZLE WEATHER BARRIER COATING OR CAULKING METAL COVER LINED WITH RIGID INSULATION METAL SEAM OR END CAP MECHANICAL FASTENER AS REQUIRED FLASHING

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

BLOCKS AND PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION AROUND BREECHINGS AND EXHAUST DUCTS

1 2 3 4

AIR SPACE MATERIAL (BY OTHERS) RIGID BLOCK INSULATION WIRE OR BANDING METAL JACKET FINISH

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

HEAD INSULATION SECUREMENT AND COVER FABRICATION

1 2 3 4 5

HEAD INSULATION FLOATING RING BANDING SHELL INSULATION HEAD INSULATION SUPPORT RING

6 7 8 9

METAL FINISH JACKET FLEXIBLE INSULATION SHEET METAL SCREWS HIGHT COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH RIGID INSULATION 10 REINFORCED MASTING 11 CAULKING / FLASHING

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

PIPING (0”C THROUGH -40”C)

1 2 3 4 5

INSULATION INNER LAYER INSULATION OUTER LAYER WITH JOINTS STAGGERED LONGITUDINAL LAP ON VAPOUR BARRIER SEALED BUTT JOINT VAPOUR BARRIER SEALED BANDING, WIRE OR TAPE AS REQUIRED

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

FITTINGS (0”C THROUGH -40”C)

1 2 3 4 5 6

MULTI-LAYER INSULATION; VAPOUR BARRIER ON OUTER LAYER PREFORMED INSULATION COVER BANDING, WIRE OR TAPE VAPOUR BARRIER TAPE LONGITUDINAL LAP ON VAPOUR BARRIER SEALED PREFORMED FITTING COVER

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

FLEXIBLE INSULATION BLANKETS

1 2 3

SHAPED INSULATION BLANKET QUILTER WASHER LACING HOOKS AND WIRE

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

REMOVABLE AND REUSABLE INSULATION

1 2 3

SEAMS STITCHED QUILTING WASHERS LACING HOOKS AND WIRE

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

REMOVABLE INSULATED METAL EQUIPMENT COVERS

1 2 3 4 5 6

METAL CASING LINED WITH INSULATION SECTIONS OF THE FABRICATED COVER SLIP JOINT OR LAP SEAM WITH SHEET METAL SCREWS, POP RIVETS OR STANDING SEAM CUT-OUTS FOR PIPES OR SHAFTS CAULKING WHERE REQUIRED SHEET METAL SCREWS OR POP RIVETS

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

REMOVABLE AND REUSABLE INSULATION

1 2 3 4

FLEXIBLE CLOSED CELL INSULATION METAL FRAME REMOVABLE TOP – FORM FITTED ADHESIVE

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

ELASTOMERIC REMOVABLE COVERS

1 2 3 4

PERMANENT INSULATION COVERS FROM FLEXIBLE CLOSED CELL INSULATION ADHESIVE THICKNESS OF INSULATION FILLER EQUAL TO BOLT HEAD SIZE

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

TYPICAL FIRE STOP COMPONENTS FOR FLOOR EXPANSION JOINT

1 2 3

COMPRESSION SEAL ULC APPROVED FIRE STOP SEALANT COMPRESSABLE FIRE STOP (MINERAL WOOL)

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

TYPICAL FIRE STOP COMPONENTS FOR FLOORS EXPANSION JOINT

1 2 3

ULC APPROVED FIRE STOP SEALANT COMPRESSABLE FIRE STOP (MINERAL WOOL) JOINT COVER (GALVANIZED STEEL)

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

TYPICAL FIRE STOP FOR WALL PENETRATIONS

1 2 3

STEEL SLEEVE (OPTIONAL) ULC APPROVED FIRE STOP SEALANT COMPRESSIBLE FIRE STOP (MINERAL WOOL)

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

TYPICAL FIRE STOP FOR WALL PENETRATIONS

1 2 3 4

STEEL SLEEVE (OPTIONAL) ULC APPROVED FIRE STOP SEALANT COMPRESSIBLE FIRE STOP (MINERAL WOOL) PIPE INSULATION (INSTALLED AFTER FIRE STOP)

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

TYPICAL FIRE STOP FOR WALL PENETRATIONS

1 2 3

STEEL SLEEVE ULC APPROVED FIRE STOP SEALANT COMPRESSIBLE FIRE STOP (MINERAL WOOL)

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

TYPICAL FIRE STOP FOR WALL PENETRATIONS

1 2 3 4

STEEL SLEEVE ULC APPROVED FIRE STOP SEALANT COMPRESSIBLE FIRE STOP (MINERAL WOOL) PIPE INSULATION (INSTALLED AFTER FIRE STOP)

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

TYPICAL FIRE STOP FOR WALL PENETRATIONS

1 2 3 4

STEEL SLEEVE (OPTIONAL) ULC APPROVED FIRE STOP SEALANT COMPRESSIBLE FIRE STOP (MINERAL WOOL) PIPE INSULATION (INSTALLED AFTER FIRE STOP)

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

TYPICAL FIRE STOP FOR DEFLECTION OF METAL STUD WALLS

1 2 3 4 5

ULC APPROVED FIRE STOP SEALANT COMPRESSIBLE FIRE STOP (MINERAL WOOL) METAL CHANNEL SIZED TO SUIT ALLOWANCE FOR DEFLECTION & SIZE OF STUDS GYPSYM BOARD FIXED TO STUD AND FREE TO SLIDE TAPE BREAKER

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

TYPICAL FIRE STOP COMPONENTS FOR THE TOP OF THE MASONRY WALL

1 2 3

ULC APPROVED FIRE STOP SEALANT COMPRESSIBLE FIRE STOP (MINERAL WOOL) AIR SPACE

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION MULTIPLE LAYER CONSTRUCTION

1 2 3 4 5

PRE-FORMED PIPE INSULATION (AS SPECIFIED) INSULATION WITH STAGGERED JOINTS INSULATION FASTENING FINISH JACKET JACKET FASTENING

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

RECEIVING
When receiving the pipe and/or fittings shipment at the job site, the contractor or purchaser should exercise established precautions. Each shipment should be inventoried and inspected with care upon arrival. The pipe and fittings are inspected and loaded with due care at the factory using methods acceptable to the carrier. It is the carrier's responsibility to deliver the shipment in good condition, and it is the receiver's responsibility to ensure that there has been no loss or damage. The following procedures are recommended for acceptance of delivery: 1. Conduct overall examination of the load. If the load is intact, ordinary inspection while unloading should be sufficient to ensure that the pipe has arrived in good condition. 2. If the load has shifted, has broken bundles, or shows rough treatment, carefully inspect each piece for damage. 3. Check total quantities and details of each item against shipping documents. 4. Note any damaged or missing items on the delivery receipt. 5. Notify the carrier immediately and make a claim according to his instructions. 6. Do not dispose of any damaged material. The carrier will notify you of the procedure to follow. 7. Replacements for shortages and damaged materials are not reshipped without request. If replacement materials are needed, reorder from your ROYAL distributor or representative.

UNLOADING
The means by which pipe and fittings are unloaded in the field is the decision and the responsibility of the receiver. The following recommendations should be followed: 1. Remove restraints from the bundles. These may be straps, ropes, or chains with padding. 2. Remove any boards on the top or sides of the load that are not part of the pipe/fittings packaging. 3. When unloading fittings use industry-accepted means. Use extreme caution when unloading fittings with any type of machinery, as fittings may be fiberglass wrapped for added strength. Damage to wrapping could reduce strength of fabricated fitting. Do not drop or throw fittings into trench. ROYAL is not responsible for damage to mishandled fittings. 4. Using a forklift (or a front-end loader equipped with forks), remove the top bundles of pipe, one at a time from the truck. 5. If a forklift is not available, use a spreader bar with fabric straps capable of carrying the load. Space straps approximately 2.4 metres (8 ft) apart. Loop straps under the load. 6. During the removal and handling, ensure that the bundles do not impact anything (especially in cold weather). 7. Place pipe bundles on level ground. 8. Do not handle bundles with individual chains or single cables, even if padded. 9. Do not attach lifting cables to bundles or bands. 10. Do not stack bundles more than 2.4 metres (8 ft) high. 11. Protect bundles with packing materials the same way they were protected while on the truck. 12. To unload lower bundles, repeat the unloading process described above. 13. Do not unload pipe bundles by hand. 14. If unloading equipment is not available, pipe may be unloaded by removing individual pieces. Care should be taken to ensure that pipe is not dropped or damaged.

2

3

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

STORAGE
The following procedures are recommended to prevent damage to the pipe: 1. Store the pipe at the site in bundles. 2. Avoid compression, deformation or damage to bell ends of the pipe. 3. When bundles are stacked, ensure that the weight of upper bundles does not cause deformation to pipe in lower bundles. 4. Support pipe bundles at 2.4 metre (8 ft) intervals (1.2 metres (4 ft) from each end) on wood blocking to prevent damage to the bottom surfaces during storage. 5. Store lubricant in tightly sealed containers under cover. 6. Do not store pipe/fittings where gaskets may be exposed to ozone, UV radiation, or contamination (ie. grease, oil etc). 7. Protect the interior and sealing surfaces of pipe and fittings from dirt and foreign material. 8. When the bundles are stacked, ensure that the stack remains stable. 9. When pipe/fittings are being stored for a prolonged period, the bundles should be covered with a translucent cover, to protect against exposure to direct sunlight.

HANDLING
The following procedures are recommended: 1. When using mechanical equipment, exercise care to prevent damage to the pipe/fittings. 2. Lower pipe/fittings carefully from trucks and into trenches. Do not drop pipe/fittings. Dropped pipe/fittings can be damaged and should not be used. 3. In sub-zero (freezing) temperatures, use caution to prevent impact damage. Handling methods considered acceptable for warm weather are unacceptable during very cold weather. 4. When distributing the pipe along a trench (stringing), place pipe on the opposite side of the trench from the excavated earth. Place pipe with bell ends in the direction of the work progress.

4

5

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

PIPE INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS
Alignment and Grade All pipe should be laid to, and maintained at required lines and grades established by the pipe system Design Engineer. Fittings, valves, air vents and hydrants should be installed at the required locations with valve and hydrant stems plumb. Trench Width Trench width at the ground surface may vary with and depend upon the depth, type of soils, and the position of the surface structures. The minimum clear width of the trench, measured at the spring line of the pipe should be 300mm (1ft) greater than the outside diameter of the pipe. The maximum clear width of the trench at the top of the pipe should not exceed a width equal to the pipe diameter plus 600mm (2 ft). If the above defined trench widths must be exceeded, or if the pipe is installed in a compacted embankment, the pipe embedment should be compacted to a point of at least 2.5 pipe diameters from the pipe on both sides of the pipe or to the trench wall, whichever is less. Preparation of Trench Bottom • The trench bottom should be constructed to provide a firm, stable and uniform support for the full length of the pipe. • Bell holes should be provided at each joint to permit proper joint assembly and pipe support. Any part of the trench bottom excavated below grade should be backfilled to grade and should be compacted as required to provide firm pipe support. • When an unstable sub-grade condition which will provide inadequate pipe support is encountered, additional trench depth should be excavated and refilled with a suitable foundation material as recommended by the project's Geotechnical Engineer. Ledge rock, boulders and large stones should be removed to provide 100mm (4") of soil cushion on all sides of the pipe and accessories.

Laying of Pipe Proper implements, tools and equipment should be used for placement of the pipe in the trench to prevent damage. Under no circumstances should the pipe or accessories be dropped into the trench. All foreign matter or dirt should be removed from the pipe interior. Pipe joints should be assembled with care. When pipe laying is not in progress, open ends of the installed pipe should be closed to prevent entrance of trench water, dirt and foreign matter into the line.

6

7

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

Thrust Blocking Concrete reaction or thrust blocking should be provided at each hydrant, valve, bend, tee and at reducers or fittings where changes occur in pipe diameter or direction. Concrete thrust blocks shall be cast in place, poured against undisturbed soil. Pre-cast blocks are not permitted.

Mechanical Joint Restraint ROYAL will recognize the use of any restraint device that carries third party certification to ASTM F1674 (American Society for Testing and Materials), FM (Factory Mutual) and UL (Underwriters Laboratories). It is the responsibility of the restrainer manufacturer to supply the necessary support data to prove that their product complies with these requirements and is compatible with the pipe/fittings. It is important to note that ROYAL does not assume any liability arising from the use of any restrainers on pipe or fittings manufactured by ROYAL.

1

2

1 3

2

4 3 5 6

4

5 6

7

8

7

8

9 9
1. Through line connection (tee) 2. Through line connection (cross used as tee) 3. Direction change (elbow) 4. Change line size (reducer) 5. Direction change (tee used as elbow)

10
6. Direction change (cross used as elbow) 7. Hydrant Tee 8. Hydrant Boot 9. Valve Anchor 10. Vertical direction change (bend anchor)

1. Through line connection 2. Through line connection (cross used as tee) 3. Direction change (tee used as elbow) 4. Direction change (elbow) 5. Direction change (cross used as elbow)

6. Vertical direction change (elbow) 7. Direction change 8. Through line connection (wye) 9. Hydrant runout

8

9

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

Pipe Embedment PVC pipe should be installed with proper bedding providing uniform longitudinal support under the pipe. Backfill material should be worked under the sides of the pipe to provide satisfactory haunching. Initial backfill material should be placed to a minimum depth of 300mm (1ft) over the top of the pipe. All pipe embedment material should be selected and placed carefully. Stones, frozen lumps and debris are not considered suitable for use in the embedment area of the pipe. Proper compaction procedures should be exercised to provide soil densities as specified by the Design Engineer. Final Backfill After placement and compaction of pipe embedment materials, the balance of backfill material may be machine placed. The final backfill should contain no large stones or large rocks, frozen material or debris. Proper compaction procedures should be exercised to provide required soil densities.

Assembly of Gasket Joints The patented "Double-Seal" gaskets are "Locked-In" to the bell at the factory. 1. Clean the gasket, bell interior, and spigot area with a clean rag, brush or paper towel to ensure all debris is removed from bell and spigot ends of the pipe. Check the gasket position. Inspect the gasket, pipe spigot bevel and sealing surfaces for damage or deformation. Be sure that the gasket is installed properly. Do not remove gasket as it is locked in during manufacturing. Once the gasket is removed, it cannot be reinstalled.

2. Use only ROYAL recommended lubricant supplied with the pipe. Liberally apply lubricant to the spigot up to the reference mark and to the face of the gasket. Use of non-approved lubricants may promote bacterial growth and cause damage to the gaskets or pipe, as well as void the manufacturer's warranty.

3. After lubrication, the pipe is ready to be joined. Good alignment of the pipe is essential for ease of assembly. Align the spigot and the bell, and insert the spigot into the bell until it contacts the gasket uniformly. Do not suspend the pipe and "stab" it onto the bell. The spigot end of the pipe will be marked by ROYAL to indicate the proper depth of insertion. The insertion line should be exposed in front of the face of the bell. Do not over insert the joint.

NOTE: Dual-Durometer gaskets are available upon request for 100 - 300mm (4 -12 in) diameter DR18 and DR25 pipe.

10

11

M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

Field-Cut Pipe to Pipe To join field-cut pipe, it is necessary to first prepare the pipe end. A square cut is essential for proper assembly. The pipe can be easily cut with a hacksaw, handsaw or a power saw with a steel blade or abrasive disc. It is recommended that the pipe be marked around its entire circumference prior to cutting to ensure a square cut. The insertion line should be marked on the cut piece of pipe. The location of the insertion line is determined by using the pipe bell as a guide. Measure the insertion depth of the bell. This is the distance from the end of the bell to the start of the bell taper. Subtract 13mm (½in) from the insertion depth distance. The result is the distance from the end of the spigot to the insertion line.
INSERTION LINE 15° BEVEL

Longitudinal Bending of Pipe and Pipe Joint Deflection There are three common methods used to achieve change in direction for Royal PVC pressure pipe: (A) Longitudinal Bending of Pipe (ROYAL C900 DR 18 pipe only) ROYAL C900 DR18 Pressure Pipe can be bent to obtain a maximum angle of deflection as shown in the following table: Max. Angle of Deflection 150mm (6”) 4.0° 200mm (8”) 3.0° 250mm (10”) 2.5° 300mm (12”) 2.1° To obtain this result, please follow the guidelines given in the Uni-Bell Handbook of PVC Pipe. Pipe Diameter NOTE: Do not install service taps of any kind into bent pipe because it is under stress. (B) Pipe Joint Deflection (ROYAL C900 DR 18 pipe only) ROYAL C900 DR18 Pressure Pipe can be deflected at the joint by a maximum angle of deflection as shown in the following table: Max. Angle of Pipe Diameter Deflection 150mm (6”) 3.0° 200mm (8”) 3.0° 250mm (10”) 3.0° 300mm (12”) 2.5° The close tolerances of ROYAL joints limit the amount of unstressed deflection. The procedure is as follows: · Make a concentric assembly, but push the spigot into the bell only to a point about 13mm (1/2 in) short of the insertion line. This incomplete assembly permits more movement of the end of the pipe at the bottom of the bell. Do not exceed the recommended maximum offset and use only manual effort. NOTE: Do not combine Methods A and B. ROYAL does not recommend longitudinal bending of pipe or deflection of joint to achieve change in direction for pipe diameters larger than 12". (C) Use of Fittings (All pressure pipe) Angle fittings or bends are available to obtain change in direction as required.

PIPE DIAMETER

Use a factory-finished beveled end as a guide for proper bevel angle and depth of bevel plus the distance to the insertion reference mark. The end may be beveled using a pipe beveling tool or a wood rasp which will cut the correct taper. A portable sander or abrasive disc may also be used to bevel the pipe end. Round off any sharp edges on the leading edge of the bevel with a pocket knife or file.

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M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

FITTING INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS
1. Make sure both the bell and spigot are clean. 2. Cut the pipe square to the required length and bevel the pipe to match that of a factory bevel. Use a piece of pipe with a factory made bevel as a guide when making field bevels. Remove any burrs or other sharp pieces that may harm the gasket when the pipe is inserted into the bell. 3. Measure the insertion depth of the bell and mark the spigot with this dimension. Mark the spigot with a line 360° around the pipe. The insertion depth is from the lip of the bell to the beginning of the taper inside the bell. Over insertion of PVC pipe is one of the primary causes of failure for both PVC pipe and fittings. Over insertion of the spigot is characterized by a crushing of the spigot in the bell, which causes the bell to crack at the taper of the fitting. The crack will then move in both directions until it splits the bell, releasing the stress on the bell and causing a failure of the fitting. 4. Lubricate both the bell and the spigot with the lubricant supplied by the manufacturer. The lubricant shall be applied in a 1 mm thickness to the bell lip and gasket area and to 76mm (3in) from the end of the spigot. This distance on the spigot includes the chamfer of the pipe. 5. Check again that the bell and spigot are still free of debris, and then place the spigot at the bell lip positioning the spigot such that the chamfer is resting against the edge of the gasket. Then, push the spigot into the bell until the assembly line on the spigot is even with the lip of the bell. See notes below. NOTES · For small diameters the assembly effort should be able to be delivered by hand using a block and bar. Never push directly against the pipe. · Always keep a piece of wood between the face of the pipe bell and the bar used for pushing. This protects the pipe as well as ensures even distribution of the force pushing the pipe into the bell. · For larger diameters, mechanical assembly methods may be required such as a come-along, jacks, pulleys and even the backhoe bucket. Of all the methods the backhoe bucket is the least preferred. A backhoe bucket cannot feel the resistance to the spigot entering the bell and therefore cannot tell if the joint is going together correctly. Over insertion by the backhoe will damage the fitting joint and may also damage other joints previously installed.

Field-Cut Pipe To Fittings Field cutting pipe to fittings should follow the procedure on page 12. Along with those instructions, the following procedure should be used. Cut pipe to required length. Measure the insertion length on the fitting as described in the "Field-Cut Pipe to Pipe" section and transfer that measurement to the pipe end, after the pipe end is beveled. Mark the measured length on the pipe with a marker, ensuring the mark is easily visible. Once the pipe is beveled and the insertion line is marked, insert the pipe into the fitting as suggested in previous sections. NOTE: Do not insert the pipe past the measured insertion line. Over insertion of the pipe into the fitting can cause failure of the fitting. Cast iron fittings have shallower bells than PVC fittings. For M-J cast iron fittings, the edge of the PVC pipe should be square cut. For push-fit cast iron fittings, a small chamfer is required. For more detailed information about assembly to cast iron fittings, please contact the fitting manufacturer. Deflecting the Joint at Fittings PVC pressure fitting joints by nature of their gasket design and insertion depth cannot accommodate large deflection angles. The maximum deflection should be 1° for all sizes of PVC pressure fittings. This is equivalent to 100mm (4in) of deflection over a 6.1 metres (20 ft) length of pipe. If the deflection exceeds 1°, failure is characterized by a crack in the lip of the bell of the fitting which propagates back towards the gasket causing a failure of the fitting. When deflecting the pipe/fitting joint, use the following procedure. 1. When assembling the pipe/fitting joint, push the spigot into the bell until the assembly line on the spigot is 13mm (1/2in) short of the lip of the bell. The 13mm gap allows for more movement at the end of the pipe being inserted. 2. Shift the end of the pipe being inserted by 100mm (4in) for a 6.1 metre (20 ft) length. This is equal to 1° of deflection. 3. If a large resistance force to the insertion of the spigot is felt by the installer, it could mean that the gasket has become dislodged. In this case, disassemble the joint and re-assemble as per the instructions above. ROYAL has the production capacity to make any degree bend required (from 5 to 89 degrees) in addition to our standard 11.25°, 22.5°, 45° and 90° bends. Please contact your ROYAL representative for more details.

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INSPECTION AND TESTING
Good practice dictates pressure testing portions of lines as they are completed in advance of the entire system. Before testing, the pipeline must be backfilled and braced sufficiently to prevent movement under pressure. The following three points should be considered when testing: 1. The pipe to be tested must be sufficiently backfilled to prevent movement while under test pressure. 2. Thrust restraint at fittings should be permanent and constructed to withstand test pressure. If concrete thrust blocks are used, sufficient time must be allowed before testing to permit the concrete to cure. 3. Test ends should be capped and braced to withstand the thrusts that are developed under test pressure. Pressure and Leakage Test A combined pressure and leakage test is recommended. The test pressure and duration shall be as specified by the Design Engineer. The test pressure should never exceed the pressure rating of the pipe being tested. Relieving Air From Pipe Line The pipeline should be filled as slowly as possible (not more than 1 ft/sec) to avoid any unnecessary surges. Venting air from the line is of utmost importance. Pressure pipe is seldom laid to grade, so there are high and low sections along the line. If the high section elevation is considerably above the low part of the line, a larger amount of air will be trapped. Corporation stops or automatic air relief valves should be installed at these points. Air can be blown from hydrants in pipe sizes up to 200mm (8in). In larger diameter pipes, air will not enter the hydrant branch, therefore it will be necessary to install air release valves at high points. The line should then be filled with water to static pressure, and all air vents opened to allow air to escape. It is recommended practice to let the line remain under static pressure for at least 15 minutes. All air vents should then be opened again to allow any remaining air to be released from the line, after which the line may be brought up to full test pressure. The leakage shall not exceed that specified by the Design Engineer. Test pressure should never exceed the pressure rating on the pipe being tested. Air pressure testing of installed PVC pressure pipe is expressly prohibited for safety reasons.

SERVICE CONNECTIONS AND TAPPING
Service lines can be connected to ROYAL PVC Pressure Pipe by the following methods: Direct Tapping · Up to 25mm (1in) corporation stops can be used. · Only 150 - 300mm (6 - 12in) diameter AWWA C900 Pressure Class 150 (DR 18) and Pressure Class 200 (DR 14) pipe. Do not direct tap Pressure Class 100 (DR 25) pipe. · "Wet" (under-pressure) or "dry" (no-pressure) taps are permitted. Approved Service Saddles for PVC Pressure Pipe · Can be used with any size or class of pipe. · Maximum outlet permitted is 50mm (2in). · Saddles must be sized to provide even support around the full circumference of the pipe. · The strapping must provide a minimum of bearing width of 50mm (2in) along the axis of the pipe. · The design of the saddle should not have lugs that will indent the pipe when the saddle is tightened. · Can be used with wet or dry taps.

Tapping Sleeves and Valves · Should be used for services requiring larger than 50mm (2in) taps. · Should be supported independently of the pipe. · Thrust restraints are required. · Can be used with wet or dry taps.

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M.W.BARVE LECTURE NOTES

General Tapping Recommendations 1. AWWA C800 (Mueller) threads are required. 2. Shell cutters (with or without slots) are necessary to retain and remove the coupon. The throat depth should be sufficient to handle heavier DR 14 pipe. Do not use single slot cutters. Do not use twist drill bits for tapping PVC. It is required that a sharp tapping tool and tapping lubricant be used in the tapping process.

9. When making more than one tap on a length of pipe the tap locations should be staggered at least 600mm (2ft) apart, longitudinally. 10. Taps should not be made in areas of the pipe that have become discoloured. 11. NEVER DIRECT TAP IN AN AREA OF THE PIPE THAT HAS BEEN BENT. 12. Do not tap closer than 600mm (2 ft) from the ends of the pipe. Basic Safety Precautions When drilling or tapping any pressurized water pipe, basic safety precautions are advised to assure personal safety of the workmen in the event of a sudden and unexpected pipe failure. Although such failures are extremely infrequent, the following safety practices are recommended. · A second workman or supervisor should always be present in the immediate vicinity when making "wet" taps. · Normal protective clothing: including hard hat, safety shoes, goggles or face mask, should be worn. · A heavy protective blanket, 1.2 metres x 1.8 metres (4ft x 6ft) should be used to cover the exposed pipe in the area of the tap. The blanket should have a hole in the center permitting access and operation of the drilling and tapping machine.

3. The tapping machine shall have an independent boring bar feed mechanism. Manufacturers instructions for operating the tapping machine should be followed.

This is a sample of a proper tapping coupon. 4. The tapered thread of the corporation stop shall be spirally wound with 2-3 layers of Teflon® tape. This procedure is also required when installing corporation stops in tap couplings. 5. A torque wrench should be used to tighten the corporation stop using 36.6N•m (27ft•lb), 2-3 threads should be showing after removal of the tapping machine. If leakage is apparent after final torque tightening of 47.5N•m (35ft•lb), the corporation stop will have to be reinstalled. The line pressure should be relieved; the corporation stop removed; new Teflon® tape wrapped on the threads and the corporation stop reinstalled to a torque of 36.6N•m (27ft•lb). 6. Taps should be made at 10 o'clock or 2 o'clock on the pipe. 7. Horizontal goose-necks of the service line are suggested to allow the expansion and contraction of the service line. This is a sample of a proper tapping coupon. 8. Pipe temperature should be between 0 - 40°C (32 - 104°F) when direct tapping under pressure. Be extremely cautious when tapping in very cold weather.

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